You are on page 1of 15

SECTION - XIV PROTECTION SYSTEMS 14.1.

General This section covers the minimum design requirements of the protection system. The Contractor shall be responsible to coordinate the parameters of each device, circuit or system within the contract, and to arrive at a totally compatible overall system. The work shall include manufacture, inspection and testing the Manufacturer's works, parking for export, shipment, insurance, delivery to site, installation, electrical connections, testing, commissioning and setting to work the equipment in this section. Test boxes and plugs shall be installed in the relay panels for all distance and differential relays in order to test these equipment in operation condition. The Contractor shall also be responsible in taking into consideration of the feeders and their system which are to be connected at the remote end of the feeders under consideration. (If necessary) 14.2. 380 kV System Protective Relaying For all relaying schemes, the manufacturer shall state the overall operating time of instantaneous or first zone tripping from the time of the inception of a most inconveniently placed fault to the energisation of the last tripping coil necessary to clear this fault. Total operating time shall not exceed 3.5 cycles for the protection schemes by assuming signal transmission time of 1 cycle. The individual relay operating times shall be as fast as possible and consistent with overall reliability. 14.3. 380 kV Transmission Lines 14.3.1. General Requirements This section describes the general protection philosophy of 380 kV transmission lines. The distance relays shall be able to operate for uncompensated, series compensated and adjacent lines 380 kV lines shall be provided with two fully independent distance protection schemes with different types. Main 1 distance relay shall be numeric type and directional comparison blocking scheme for all lines. Main 2 protection shall be permissive transfer tripping scheme; over-reaching for all lines. Main 2 distance relay shall be numeric, digital or static type. As back-up protection, directional overcurrent ground relays shall be used with time delayed and instantaneous and using voltage polarized directionalization for all lines. 380 kV substations shall be equipped with two independent DC batteries. Circuit breakers include two tripping coils so that two protection schemes Main 1 and 2 shall act on fully independent DC batteries. Each main protection scheme shall be supplied via separate CT cores and VT circuits. The system shall be provided with breaker failure and busbar protection. Each line terminal shall be equipped with two independent multi-channel PLC transmitters and receivers sets such as to comply with the following conditions: PLC set I : 1st channel : Blocking (FSK) 2nd channel : Transfer trip (FSK, channel no.1) PLC set II : 1st channel : Permissive Transfer Trip (FSK) 2nd channel : Transfer Trip (FSK, channel no.2) The auto-reclosure shall be equipped with single shot self reset, high speed and time delayed (deadline or synchronism check). Each line end (line length longer than 100 km) shall be equipped with over voltage protection relay.

14.3.2. Main Line Protection Two main line protection systems based on distance protective relay schemes shall be provided as to be operated independently and in parallel. Main 1 line protection shall be numeric type with fault locator and fault recorder facilities and operated directional comparison blocking scheme with power line carrier.

Page 1 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Transmission of blocking signal shall be initiated by a reverse zone element or function. For the faults located on 80% of the line, the relay shall trip independently from the blocking signal (independent first zone). For the remote line end faults, the relay shall trip after expiry of it if no blocking signal is received. Zone 2 and 3 relays shall be used for time delayed back-up tripping. The relay shall be fitted with and adjustable time delay element to enable the relay to be delayed for PLC channel. The time delay element shall be adjustable between 0-50 ms in maximum steps of 10 msec. Main 2 line protection shall be numeric, digital or static type with permissive overreaching transfer tripping scheme. Permissive overreaching transfer tripping scheme shall be selected for all lines. For the faults located on 80% of the line the relay shall trip independently from the permissive signal. Zone 1 relays of the directional distance relay shall be set to 120 percent of the protected line and shall initiate the permissive signal and function as permissive device at local terminals. Zone 2 and zone 3 relays shall be used for time delayed back-up protection.

Following requirements shall also be carried out also; For single lines, unblocking feature initiated by PLC failure shall be provided. This feature shall have adjustable time delay. The necessary precautions(echo circuit) shall be taken to ensure immediate tripping is afforded in the event of energisation of the prefaulted line or a short circuit when remote end of the line remains open. On parallel lines, unwanted tripping on healthy parallel line shall be prevented in case of power reversal in conjunction with non-simultaneous tripping at both ends of the faulty line. Starting and interruption of blocking signal in the scheme shall be arranged so that the scheme shall operate correctly also under adverse effects of series compensation (either with sparkgap or metaloxide resistor protected series capacitors). As in some cases, the series capacitor banks are located at the line terminals then reactances seen by the distance relays may become negative for single and 3 phase faults located in considerable portions of the lines and the fault current is not high enough to cause the by-passing of series capacitors by sparking over the protective gaps. For this reason special measures shall be taken to provide the correct operation of relays under this condition referred as "voltage reversal". In such cases, the manufacturer shall coordinate his proposed equipment or scheme with the remaining terminal equipment and provide all necessary interfacing. The manufacturer shall clearly explain and indicate to a time scale how the proposed schemes operate for fault conditions resulting in capacitive and inductive system reactances and protective gaps of the capacitors flashingover or not. The manufacturer are requested to submit, if they have any documentation as a guaranty to the schemes, of any field test that the proposed schemes have successfully passed and the commercial operating experience gained so far on systems with similar characteristics. Employer requires model system tests of proposed protection scheme to check the performance of the relays in the critical fault conditions associated with the operation of series compensated lines.

14.3.2.1. Requirements for Distance Relay for Main Line Protection Main 1 distance relay shall be numeric type and contain fault locator and fault recorder facilities described in Section 16.4. The distance relay shall be suitable for the protection of uncompensated, series compensated (either with spark-gap or metal oxide resistor protected series capacitors) and adjacent lines. The bidder shall offer two different types of distance relays for Main 1 and Main 2 line protection. The tenders not complying with this condition shall be rejected. The distance relay shall be of non-switched type, with proven service recorders. The relay shall operate for both phase to ground and polyphase faults isolated or not from ground. The relay shall be used in an effectively earthed system. The protection scheme shall include at least 4 high speed minimum impedance starting functions and at least four direction measuring elements which are permanently connected to power system quantities. Minimum impedance starting function shall monitor the loops between phases or between phases and earth also providing phase selection commands. Relays shall possess three directional measuring zones. A fourth zone may be available through the starting function. Reach switching shall be acceptable.

Page 2 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Reverse zone function of the relay shall measure positive sequence impedance and have the same impedance measuring characteristics as the forward zone element for both single and multi-phase faults. Other blocking schemes shall also be accepted. For phase to ground faults, the distance measurement shall not be effected by fault resistance and load current. Relay design shall ensure high-speed operation for in-zone faults and stability for all out of zone faults. Adequate directional function is required on complete collapse of the measuring voltage on all types of faults, including 3 phase short circuits. For three phase close in faults the polarisation shall be obtained from a memory voltage which shall be present for at least 0.5 seconds. For single phase and double phase to ground faults the polarisation shall be obtained from the ground to phase voltage. Equivalent relays without dead zone shall also be acceptable. Distance measuring units shall have an operating characteristics enabling high fault resistance coverage also for every short lines. Tripping characteristics of the distance relay shall be such that the resistance reach is fully retained up to the limit setting of the line reactance without causing an overreach or underreach. Resistive and reactive reaches of the relay shall be adjustable independent of each other. Impedance measuring characteristics and tripping logic of the distance relay shall be designed to provide selective starting and tripping commands for single and three pole autoreclosing schemes. In the event of all single phase earth faults in independent zone and zone 1 the relay shall give a single phase trip output suitable for use with single phase high speed autoreclosing. In all multiphase faults in independent zone and zone 1, trip output shall be 3 phase, suitable for use with 3 phase high-speed and delayed autoreclosing. The trip outputs for zone 2 and faults shall always be three phase and definite. When the circuit breaker is closed onto a fault the protection shall trip due to operation of starting elements only. The measuring voltage shall be supplied from a capacitive voltage transformer, and it is therefore required that protection has good directional and reach characteristics to operate in conjunction with this type of measuring transformer. In any case, instrument transformer requirements shall be stated in the tender document, by the bidder. These requirements shall be as minimal as possible. The manufacturer shall provide suitable protection device to prevent damage to these relays in case of surges or induces potential into the associated circuitry, if necessary. Manufacturer shall also specify the recommended type of control cable shielding and any limitations on the grounding, spacing etc. so as to minimise the possibility of surges into the associated circuitry. Every precaution shall be taken in the relay design to prevent spurious trippings attributable to high frequency disturbances, the relay shall be immune to high harmonics. The auxiliary supply to the elements of the protection shall be made through a DC/DC converter ensuring complete galvanic isolation; the converter stage shall be withdrawable; a luminous indication shall indicate the presence of DC supply. The distance protection shall be suitable for use in the application of following schemes: Step acceleration, permissive overreach, permissive underreach for Main2, line protection. Blocking for Main 1 line protection. Suitable contacts shall be provided for use in a permissive transfer trip scheme. For use in permissive transfer trip schemes the receipt of the appropriate protection signal shall operate through the respective protective system logic and phase selection facilities to provide fast earth fault protection and to initiate single pole reclosing on the correct (faulted) phase. Bidders shall be required to prove the correct operation of the distance relays for series compensated and adjacent line protections. For this purpose the system should be represented on TNA with the output connected via amplifiers directly to the relay under test. It is to be noted that the capacitors may be at the terminals or at some distance on the line and the overvoltage protection of the banks may be either spark-gap or MOR type. The tests should cover all possible fault and system conditions including these resulting in voltage and current reversals. Undesired trip signal of the distance relay shall be prevented when subjected to power swings. The distance relay shall include power swing blocking feature to detect such power swings, block distance relay tripping under recoverable power swing conditions and permit tripping when no recovery is possible. Power swing blocking feature shall be obtained from a separate minimum impedance relay, characteristic of which is external to those of the starting relays in the impedance plane. An additional feature shall be included to enable all measuring parts and all trip outputs of the relay to be released in case of a fault occurrence during a power swing condition.

Page 3 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

A high speed detector shall block the operation of the relay in case of 1,2 or 3 phase voltage transformer fuse failure. The detector shall also initiate alarming. A blocking receiving relay shall also be built into the protection to make use external blocking signals. The correct operation of the distance relay shall not depend on the flashover of protective gaps of the capacitor for faults resulting in inductive system reactance, but in negative equivalent reactance to be measured by the relays, due to so called reversal of the terminal voltage. For easier maintenance modular relays shall be preferred. The individual modules shall be withdrawable. The relay shall be provided with built in resettable visual signalling for indication of phase(s), zones, loss of auxiliary source, voltage transformer supervision (can be provided separately) starting, etc. The indicators shall be resettable by a push button. The signals shall be retained even when the relay does not trip. In addition to the visual tripping indications, corresponding potential free contacts shall be available for event recorder. These contacts shall close when the starting and measuring circuits of the relay operate. Time delayed protection zones have to be equipped with potential free starting contacts of such a design that the running time can be indicated in the event recorder. The distance relay shall be capable of being tested individually, even during normal operation, with adequate safety of the test personnel and without the risk of spurious tripping. The design shall be such that special testing equipment can be connected to the protection at a permanently mounted connector. All quantities necessary for measuring the functional values of the protection as well as the tripping function shall be connected to this. The design shall be such that, after testing, the protection will safely revert to its operational condition, satisfying the demand for personal safety and spurious tripping. The distance relay shall be equipped with self testing facility.

14.3.3. Back-Up Line Protection Directional Instantaneous and definite time delayed earth fault protection relays shall be supplied for detection of high resistive ground faults as back-up protection. The directionalisation of these relays shall be attained by polarisation (voltage). Time delayed directional overcurrent ground relays shall be used for time delayed back-up tripping. Directional earth fault relay shall be seperate from the distance protection relay. Interlock between distance relays and earth fault protection shall prevent the earth fault protection from picking-up when distance relay "sees" the fault. Manufacturer shall declare the operating characteristics of the relays by graphical means in accordance to IEC Pub.255-12. In addition to the polar characteristic, operating characteristic with varying values of polarising voltage shall be included. Operate and non-operate regions or the relays shall be indicated on the graphics. Effective ranges, error limits of reference and non-reference input energising quantity and characteristic angle shall be indicated where relevant.

14.3.4. Line Protection Signalling Equipment Each line terminal shall be equipped with two frequency shift keying (FSK) multi-channel power line carrier (PLC) transmitters and receivers sets such as to comply with the following conditions: PLC set 1 : 1st channel : Blocking (FSK) 2nd channel : Transfer Trip (channel no 1, FSK) PLC set II : 1st channel : Permissive Transfer Trip (FSK) 2nd channel : Transfer trip (channel no 2, FSK) Main 2 line protection, distance relays using permissive transfer tripping scheme and directional instantaneous overcurrent ground relays used in permissive overreaching schemes shall initiate transmitter to trip and permit automatic reclosing of remote terminal breaker. Two channel transfer trip transmitters shall be initiated by : a) Breaker failure and busbar protection b) Overvoltage protection (if any) c) Line shunt reactor protections on the lines where reactors are connected to the line solidly. Both transfer trip channels shall be energised and send transfer trip signals to trip all the 3 phases and block reclosing of the remote terminal breaker. One receiver contact of each transfer trip channel shall be connected in series to energise hand reset lock-out relay and block reclosing of the associated breaker.

Page 4 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

One receiver contact of each transfer trip channel shall be connected in parallel to initiate a timer with receipt of continuous transfer trip signal, timer shall energise same hand reset lock-out relay to trip and block reclosing of the associated breaker. A contact on the carrier failure relay shall block high speed and delayed reclosing if the transfer tripping function is out of service.

14.3.5. Automatic reclosing Each breaker associated with the lines shall be equipped with single-shot, self reset, high speed and time delayed automatic reclosing relays. Automatic reclosing relays shall only be initiated by Zone 1 relays of main 1 and main 2 protection and by directional instantaneous overcurrent ground relays used in permissive overreaching scheme. The relays shall contain all necessary logic and time setting facilities. The high speed reclosing relays shall be able to perform the following types of operation; a) Single-phase reclosing Single-phase tripping and reclosing for single-phase faults, three phase final tripping for all other faults. b) Single-phase and three phase reclosing Single-phase tripping and reclosing for single-phase faults, three phase tripping and reclosing for all other faults. c) Three-phase reclosing Three-phase tripping and reclosing for all kinds of faults. d) No reclosing Three-phase final tripping for all kinds of faults The relay shall be equipped with a selector switch permitting to select any one of the four operation modes described above. The relay shall be initiated by the signals from the protective relays for the faulty phases only, but shall operate according to the selected operation mode of the selector switch. The final tripping after unsuccessful autoreclosing shall always to three phase. In case the circuit breaker is closed on a prefaulted line or any fault occurs on the line during reclaim time setting after closure, reclosing relay shall ensure three phase final tripping. In the event of evolving fault, the tripping shall be three phase and reclosure be blocked. The reclosing relay shall permit locking out reclosing in all positions of selector switch by an external signal to be received. The set shall be equipped with two counters to indicate the number of single-phase and three phase reclosings effected respectively. Time delayed reclosing shall be made by dead line check relaying at one terminal and synchronism check relaying at the other terminal. Dead line check relays shall measure the voltage magnitude on line side of a circuit breaker and shall permit closing after a preset time delay of 1-10 sec. only when the line is dead. Synchronism check relays shall be able to release a switching command when both voltages are present at the point of interconnection and are in prescribed limits of phase angle, voltage difference and frequency. A selector switch shall be provided to select high speed and time delayed auto-reclosing modes. Automatic reclosing shall be prevented in the case of; . Busbar protection operation, . Local circuit breaker failure operation, . Pole discrepancy or other failure on breaker, . Manual operation of circuit breaker, . The line is fed via transfer circuit breaker, . Any delayed tripping of the line protection, . Transfer tripping signal is received, . Transfer tripping function failure or out of service.

14.3.6. Line Overvoltage Protection According to system conditions some of the lines shall be equipped with overvoltage protection. Overvoltage protection shall consist of a definite time overvoltage relay with a voltage setting range of 100% to 170% of nominal voltage and an adjustable time setting range of 0.1 to 10 seconds.

Page 5 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Overvoltage relay shall have a reset to pick-up ratio of not less than 0.95. Overvoltage protection shall function as follows: 1. For line terminals without reactor or with reactor solidly connected. Overvoltage relay shall trip and block reclosing of line terminal breaker and initiate transfer tripping function to trip and block reclosing of the remote line terminal breaker in case of persisting overvoltages. 2. For line terminals equipped with shunt reactors connected via circuit breakers. Overvoltage relay shall close the reactor breaker and initiate a second timer with a time setting range 0.1-10 sec in case of persisting overvoltages. The second overvoltage relay shall trip block reclosing of local line terminal breakers and initiate transfer tripping function to trip and block the reclosing of the remote terminal breaker with hand reset auxiliary tripping relay. 14.3.7. 380 kV Line Shunt Reactor Protection The following protection shall be provided for the 380kV line shunt reactors. The main protection shall be high speed, three phase, two windings differential relay having variable percentage characteristics. Special inrush restraint feature shall not be necessary. Differential relay shall detect fault conditions within the reactor and initiate hand reset primary auxiliary tripping relay. The back-up protection of the 380kV line shunt reactor shall be; - Instantaneous and time delayed overcurrent phase and ground relays with inverse time characteristics. - Buchholz relay, winding temperature indicator, oil temperature indicator supplied within the reactor shall be incorporated into the protection scheme by the manufacturer. - All the back-up relays shall detect fault conditions within the reactor and initiate the hand reset back-up auxiliary tripping relay. - 380kV line shunt reactor shall be connected to the line either via a circuit breaker or solidly. - Where shunt rector is connected to the line via a breaker, primary and back-up auxiliary tripping relays shall energise primary and back-up tripping coils of the shunt reactor breaker respectively. Closing of shunt reactor breaker shall be blocked. - Where shunt reactor is solidly connected to the line, primary and back-up auxiliary tripping relays shall energise primary and back-up tripping coils of the line terminal local breaker respectively and block reclosing of the same breaker initiate transfer tripping function to trip and to block reclosing of the remote line terminal breaker. Protection relays of shunt reactor feeder shall be installed in to the relay panel of related line feeder. The circuit breaker of shunt reactor shall be tripped in case the related line breaker trips due to line fault. 14.4. Autotransformer Protective Relay 14.4.1. General Autotransformer protective relaying shall consist of the main and back-up protective relaying for all types of faults and shall include breaker failure protection for 380kV and 154kV transformer breakers. These relays shall not initiate incorrect tripping by transients associated with the energisation of transformer bank or with unequal breaker pole closing based on maximum difference of 10 ms in closing span.

14.4.2. Main Protection Differential Protection The differential relay shall be numeric type Main protection shall be high-speed, three phase, three winding differential relay with adjustable bias and harmonic restraint characteristics. Differential relay shall detect fault conditions within the transformer bank and initiate the hand reset primary auxiliary tripping relay to trip both of the tripping coils of 380kV and 154kV transformer breakers. Closing of these breakers shall be blocked and breaker failure protection of 380kV and 154kV side shall be initiated. Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Page 6 of 15

The relays shall be sensitive to faults within the protected region (internal faults) including short circuits between phases, two or three phase to ground faults or inter-turn short circuits. The relays shall be used in an effectively earthed system. The relay shall be insensitive to external faults and magnetising inrush current at no-load. It shall be equipped with 2nd harmonic restraint facility. The detection of 2nd harmonic differential current shall be made on each phase but blocking function shall be common to all 3 phases. The relay shall be provided with 5th harmonic restraint common to all 3 phases to prevent relay operation during transformer overexcitation. The relay shall be galvanically isolated from main CT's. It shall be preferred that the relay compensating the current phase angle and CT ratio difference itself but the ones to be used with interposing transformers may also be considered. In the latter case all necessary interposing transformers shall be provided. The relay shall have adjustable basic sensitivity and bias characteristic with a slope or about 50%. In the case of heavy internal fault, the relay shall operate very fast and shall not be affected by 2nd harmonic and DC components appearing due to asymmetrical saturation of CT's. The relay shall be provided with an adjustable high current element operating only at 50 Hz component of the differential current.

14.4.3. Back-Up Protection Buchholz relay, winding and oil temperature indicators and etc.(being furnished within the transformer bank and shall be incorporated into the scheme by the manufacturer.) Instantaneous and time delayed overcurrent phase relays with definite time characteristic for 380kV windings. Overload protection in 380kV winding circuit. This shall be a single pole relay with a continuous current setting range of 50 - 200% of the rated current and shall have a definite time delay relay with an adjustable time setting range of 1 to 100 seconds. Directionally controlled voltage polarized instantaneous and time delayed overcurrent ground relays with definite time characteristics for 380kV windings and 154kV terminals. Time delayed overcurrent ground relay with definite time characteristics connected to neutral CT to provide protection for faults near the neutral end of the transformer. Time delayed overcurrent phase relays with inverse time characteristics for the 15,8kV terminals where auxiliary service transformers are connected. The back-up relays (except the overload protection) shall detect fault conditions and initiate the hand reset back-up auxiliary tripping relay to trip the back-up tripping coils of the 380kV and 154kV transformer breakers, closing of the breakers shall be blocked and breaker failure protection of both sides shall be initiated. Overload protection relay shall trip 154kV breakers only. According to design of Power Transformer manufacturer, tertiary windings shall be protected by shunt surge capacitors. The bidder shall supply 2 sets of three phase and earth instantaneous and definite time delayed overcurrent relays (signalling and tripping) for the protection of tertiary surge capacitors. The manufacturer may offer alternative design for the transformer back-up protection (i.e. distance protection), if in his judgement, he proposes a more developed one, provided that it conforms with the Employer's protection system. Overcurrent relays for back-up protection could be offered single phase unit or combined set.

14.5. Busbar and Breaker Failure Protection Busbar and Breaker Failure protection shall be segregated type. The system shall be provided with busbar and breaker failure protection scheme. Busbar protection scheme shall detect all interphase and phase to ground faults in the busbar zone. It shall have an operating time less than two cycles. Full selectivity shall be achieved for every busbar zone, hence every feeder isolator, bus isolator, coupling circuit breaker or busbar sectionaliser shall be incorporated. To be used in substations with different busbar configurations, a logic circuit for the replica of switchyard, which is controlled from auxiliary contacts of the disconnecting switches shall be provided. Busbar replica circuit will monitor the position of busbar disconnecting switches, automatically follow any changes in the busbar configuration to afford the highest possible degree of availability and direct the tripping commands only to those breakers connected to the associated bus. The current transformer circuits shall not be switched via auxiliary contacts of the busbar isolators directly. Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Page 7 of 15

A second criterion in addition to differential current is required to enhance security to detect an in-zone fault and to initiate a trip signal only if both criteria are satisfied. The second criterion shall not be dependent on the voltage only. The sensitivity of the scheme should be able to be set at levels greater than 120% of full load current or less than minimum system fault, whichever is the smaller. Provision shall be made such that busbar trip signal results in a trip command which is not self resetting until a reset initiation is activated locally or remotely. There shall be continuous monitoring of current transformer circuits, busbar isolator auxiliary circuits and bus coupler auxiliary contacts. If an error is detected the protection shall be blocked and an alarm given. Fault indicator must be provided which clearly shows which zones and phases have been faulted. The busbar protection shall be provided with a device enabling the protection to be blocked, which must interrupt the tripping circuits of all feeders. However, the busbar protection should remain in service for measuring purposes. The closing of circuit breakers in this case shall not be blocked. The protection trip command for each feeder shall be given directly to the circuit breaker trip coil system and the trip contactor shall block the closing circuit of all circuit breakers concerned. Busbar protection shall initiate the transfer tripping function to trip and block reclosing of associated remote terminal breaker. The breaker failure protection scheme as a sensitive local back-up protection shall be provided for all 380kV circuit breakers (except line reactor breakers) and 154kV autotransformer breakers to clear a fault when primary circuit- breaker fails to operate. To achieve fast back-up tripping and to make the breaker failure protection independent of the reset time of the main protection unit, breaker failure protection shall be equipped with very rapidly resetting overcurrent relays (10ms) to monitor the current in the circuit breaker. Circuit breaker auxiliary contacts shall not be used for this purpose. High speed resetting overcurrent relays shall be used to energise the breaker failure protection twostep timer. When breaker cannot be tripped by the main and back-up protections at the setting time of first step timer, both tripping coil of associated breaker shall be energised by tripping relay. If the fault does not clear, tripping relay shall be energised after expiry of second step timer to trip and block reclosing of the local breakers adjacent to the faulted breaker and shall initiate transfer tripping function to trip and block reclosing of associated remote terminal breaker(s). The breaker failure protection forms an integral part of the busbar protection. This form may be realised by introducing necessary additional elements to busbar protection. Current relays, logic circuit tripping and intertripping circuit of the busbar protection may also be used by breaker failure protection. Extension of the protection system shall easily be possible. Busbar and breaker failure protection system shall be ready for connection of at least 6 feeders for 380 kV Atalan Substation and 14 feeders for 154 kV Atalan Substation nearby it. Final stage of the substations (including future and spare feeders) shall be taken into account for the supply and design of the busbar and breaker failure protection. The system shall be provided with busbar and breaker failure protection scheme. Breaker Failure protection equipment shall not be allowed to install in the relay panels.

14.6. 154 kV Line Protection For the normal line feeders which are equipped with their own circuit breakers, two protection systems shall be provided one as the primary protection and the other as the back-up protection system. 14.6.1. Primary Line Protection System Primary line protection shall be distance protection based on multizone, multielement phase and earth fault numeric distance relays together with single and three phase auto re-close systems. Distance relays shall have the fault locator, fault recorder and self testing facilities. In addition, the primary distance protection system shall have the following features: Distance relays shall be of such a design that they can be incorporated with all types of main distance protection schemes, i.e. permissive overreach, permissive underreach, acceleration, blocking schemes

Page 8 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Separate trip outputs for each phase for Zone 1 of accelerated single phase to earth faults, and suitable for use with single phase autoreclosing One three phase trip output for all multiphase faults. One Zone 2 or 3 fault clearance output Suitable for use single and three phase auto-reclosing Three forward Zones and one reverse zone Suitable to be used with the auxiliary supply of 110 v d.c. from the station battery system. Complete reset of the high speed trip measuring circuits, after the arc extinction has occurred on the faulted phase following single-phase tripping and providing high speed tripping should the fault develop to multi-phase. Blocking of relay tripping in case of loss of V.T. supplies on one or more phases to the relays. Facility of power swing blocking. In case of closing on a faulty line tripping shall be obtained by the operation of starting elements only. Additional features indicating the type of fault three indications as one for each phase one indications for three phase one indication for Zone 2 or Zone 3 one indication for earth faults one indication for dead-line faults.

Indications shall be sealed once the relevant event has occurred with a resetting feature both local and remote. Minimum three sets of output trip contacts for each phase, one set of which as seal-in contacts to ensure that complete breaker operation occurs but suitable to release when C.B. opened to allow autoreclose to proceed. Auto-reclose relays shall be of a type suitable to set it for any of the following by means of a selector switch. . single phase trip and autoreclosing for single-phase faults . single phase trip and autoreclosing for single phase faults, three phase trip and autoreclosing for all other faults . three phase trip and autoreclosing for all kinds of faults . off (no autoreclosing) position: Three-phase final trip for all types of faults. Provide a high speed single-pole auto-reclosing scheme having no current or voltage check, other than a cancel signal provided from the associated protection circuit, which will reset any reclose that is in the process of timing out, a time setting range for single pole autoreclosing from 0.2 to 2.0 seconds shall be provided. It shall be provided a second separate setting with a range from 0.2 to 2.0 seconds for three pole autoreclosing. Single or three pole autoreclosing shall be prevented on circuit breakers that were open prior to fault. Single-pole autoreclosing shall be prevented in the event of a multi-phase trip. If more than one pole trip output occurs this shall initiate a three-pole trip and inhibit single-pole autoreclosing. Multi-phase trips initiated at any stage during any reclose operation cause immediate trip of any closed phases and achieve three-phase final trip. Reclosing onto a fault shall lock out further autoreclosing. In addition autoreclosing shall lock out if there is a Zone 2 or 3 trip Any Zone 2 or 3 trip shall be achieved as a final three phase trip. Autoreclosing shall also lock out in the event of a trip from back-up (overcurrent) protection or polediscrepancy at the circuit breaker and at both cases all trips (single or multi- phase) shall be converted to a three-phase final trip. Provide facilities, where the reclose time required is less than the Zone 2 clearance time from one end when signal channel is faulty, to enable the autoreclosing to convert any single-pole trip to a three pole final trip in such case. Operation counter to record separately the number of operations for single-pole and three-pole trips.

14.6.2. Overcurrent Back-Up Protection

Page 9 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Back-up protection shall be achieved by the three phase overcurrent relays of the inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) characteristics with instantaneous elements and definite time overcurrent ground relay with instantaneous element. This protection shall trip all three poles of the associated circuit breakers and prevent all autoreclosing equipment on those circuit breakers from operating. (Single phase units or combined set will be accepted) Three-phase overcurrent relays are to be over-loading protection having a setting range of 1 to 2 times of nominal current of the line to be protected. Each relay shall have an instantaneous element output of which is brought out separately to disconnect it if desired. 14.6.3. Pole Discrepancy A pole discrepancy protection shall be provided such that if the individual poles of any circuit breaker stay out of phase all the poles of the circuit breaker shall trip and in such case single or three phase auto reclosing shall be provided. Pole discrepancy relays shall have a setting range from 0.5 to 5 second. 14.6.4. Line Protection Signalling Equipment HF signalling equipment shall be provided with all ancillary equipment for the line protection which are to be suitable with the distance relays and the schemes to be used in the system. 14.7. 154 kV Transformer Feeder Protection 14.7.1. General Protection on the transformer feeders shall be maintained against three phase, phase to phase, phase to ground and over-loads. It shall also include protection against the transformer's inter-turn faults, loss of oil, over-heating, tap changer faults. Relays, used for this purpose shall not initiate incorrect tripping by transients associated with the energising of the transformer. 14.7.2. Primary Protection Primary protection for the transformers of 25 MVA and higher ratings shall be maintained by three phase numerical type differential relays with adjustable percentage and harmonic restraint characteristics. For the transformers with ratings lower then 25 MVA tank protection relays shall be used instead of differential relays. Tank relays shall be connected on the secondary of a current transformer the primary of which is connected between the isolated tank of the transformer and earth. 14.7.3. Transformers Own Protection Besides the differential or tank protection transformer feeders shall have the following protection facilities as well: - Buchholz protection which shall work when any interturn fault causing the localised heating and breakdown of the oil, resulting release of gases. - Thermal protection shall work when the temperature of the transformer oil and/or windings increase due to any internal fault or overload etc. - Oil level protection shall work when the level of the oil goes under a certain level which may be harmful for the protected transformer. - The same protections (i.e.Buchholz, thermal and oil level protections) shall be provided for the on-load tap-changer. - Protection shall also be provided for the tap-changer defects if it is not working properly during tapchanging process.

Page 10 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

In other words, transformers shall be designed having the above protection facilities and tripping shall be provided with the use of suitable auxiliary relays. All the above protections shall be maintained at the first stages visual and sound warmings shall be obtained. 14.7.4. Overcurrent Protection A back-up protection shall be provided by the three phase inverse definite minimum time (IDMT) overcurrent relays with instantaneous elements and definite time overcurrent ground relay with instantaneous element. The three-phase overcurrent relays shall be suitable for over-loads with a setting range of 1 to 2 times of nominal current of the feeder to be protected. Output of instantaneous elements shall be brought out separately as disconnectable if desired. 14.7.5. Logic of Tripping and Locking All tripping relays shall trip both circuit breakers on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer while locking out the closing circuits. These tripping relays shall be equipped with hand reset facility. Releasing of the closing circuits shall be possible by using a mechanical switch which shall be placed on the back of the control panel. 14.8. Neutral Resistor Protection Definite time overcurrent ground relay with instantaneous element. Overvoltage relay which will be connected to the open delta windings of the busbar potential transformer with a time relay.

14.9. 15.8 kV Auxiliary Service Transformer Instantaneous and time delayed overcurrent phase relays with inverse time characteristics. Buchholz, relay, (within the transformer tank) Oil level and oil temperature. Auxiliary service transformer protection relays shall trip their associated breaker.

14.10. Protection on 36 kV and Lower Voltage Feeder 14.10.1. Neutral Earthed System For such systems protection on 36kV and lower voltage feeders shall be achieved with three inverse definite minimum time (IDM) overcurrent relays and one definite time overcurrent earth-fault relay both types with instantaneous elements output of which brought out separately as disconnectable if desired. This protection scheme shall be the same for the distribution feeders and for the transformer secondary feeders either single transformer feeder or double. 14.10.2. Insulated Neutral System For the insulated neutral systems with single or double transformer feeders the phase to phase fault protection shall be based on with inverse definite time (IDMT) three overcurrent relays for both the transformer and outgoing feeders. In addition an overvoltage earth-fault relay shall be provided for the phase to earth faults which is to be connected to the open delta windings of the bus-bar potential transformer. Output of this relay shall trip the circuit breaker(s) on the transformer feeder secondary. 14.10.3. Auto-Reclosing (AR) On the feeders auto-reclose relays which are suitable for fast and slow auto-reclosing shall be provided. With a selector switch on the AR relays it shall be possible to select the mode of AR as fast, slow, fast+slow or no AR (off position). Reclosing onto a fault according to the selected mode shall lock out further reclose. Reclosing shall also lock out on the breakers that were open prior to fault. Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Page 11 of 15

Autoreclosing relays can be inside the overcurrent relay. 14.11. Interlocking and Locking Arrangements 14.11.1. Interlocking 14.11.1.1. General All disconnecting switches and earthing devices shall be provided with interlocking features of the mechanical sequential locking type electrical, and the scheme of interlocking shall be subject to approval by the Employer and shall cover the hand operation of apparatus which is normally electrically operated. All mechanical interlocks shall be applied at the point at which hand power is used, so that stress cannot be applied to parts remote from that point. Where key interlocking is employed, tripping of the circuit breaker shall not occur if any attempt is made to remove the trapped key from the mechanism. Any local emergency tripping device shall be kept separate and distinct from the key interlocking. All electrical interlocks shall so function as to interrupt the operating supply. Failure of supply or connections to any electrical interlock shall not produce or permit faulty operation. Earthing switches are to be interlocked with the appropriate disconnecting switches such that the earthing switch cannot be closed unless the disconnecting switch is open. 14.11.1.2. Scope of Work Contractor shall be responsible for the design, supply and commissioning of all interlocking schemes to the satisfaction of The Employer. Designs are to cover all feeders in a substation, tertiary loads, ac station services, dc station services and any other equipment that the contractor supplies that the Employer deems necessary. 14.11.1.3. Substation Feeders Depending upon the busbar arrangement in the substation, the contractor shall design the most appropriate interlocking scheme basing on the subsequent requirements forwarded for a substation with double main busbar+transfer busbar or double main busbar arrangement. a) Any busbar disconnecting switch can only be opened or closed under the following conditions: (This applies to line feeders, transformer feeders and transfer feeder.) - (i) Associated busbar earthing switch is open (ii) Other busbar disconnecting switch and associated breaker are open, - (i) Associated busbar earthing switch is open, (ii) Buscoupler is in service, other busbar disconnecting switch is closed. b) Line disconnecting switch can only be opened/or closed when the associated breaker and line earthing switch are open. c) Line transfer disconnecting switch can only be opened/or closed when all remaining line transfer disconnecting switches, transfer bus earthing switch and transfer circuit breaker are open. d) Line earthing switch can only be closed if associated line transfer disconnecting switch and breaker are open. e) Busbar earthing switch can only be closed when all associated busbar disconnecting switches are open. f) Transfer feeder, transfer disconnecting switch can only be opened, or closed when transfer feeder circuit breaker and transfer busbar earthing switch are open. g) Transfer busbar earthing switch can only be closed when all line transfer disconnecting switches and transfer feeder circuit breaker are open. h) Busbar disconnecting switch in Buscoupler can only be opened/or closed when the associated busbar earthing switch and buscoupler circuit breaker are open.

Page 12 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

i)

For line feeders, transformer feeders and bus coupler interlocks must not permit closing of the circuit breaker when a phase discrepancy occurs at the contacts of associated disconnecting switches. For transfer feeder, circuit breaker must not be permitted to close when phase discrepancy occurs for the associated disconnecting switches and transfer disconnecting switches of remaining feeders. j) All local manual operation which can cause fault at the point of operation should be totally avoided for the safety of the operator by interlocks. k) Operation of the circuit breakers shall be locked unless all the motor operated disconnecting switches completed their operations. 14.11.1.4. Tertiary Loads Individual interlocks shall be provided for maintenance requirements on each item of equipment connected to the tertiary system. The parallel operation of several tertiary winding autotransformers shall be prevented by suitable interlocks. Interlocking sequence for auto-transformer tertiary interconnecting busbars In any case, it shall not be possible to operate two or more auto-transformer tertiary windings in parallel on the same reactor or/and station auxiliary service transformer. Each auto-transformer winding shall feed its own reactor or/and station auxiliary service transformer set in normal operation. However, an exceptional operation sequence shall permit any auto-transformer winding to supply the other reactor or/and station transformer set when its own reactor or/and station transformer set is tripped for disturbance or maintenance period. The tenderers shall design a complete safety sequence in accordance with these above requirements. 14.11.1.5. Station Auxiliary Services The contractor shall provide suitable interlocks to ensure that the station auxiliary service transformers are not connected in parallel during normal operation. (See automatic transfer panel) at station where an "Offsite" supply is available, interlocks are to be provided to prevent possible parallel operation unless agreed otherwise with the Employer. 14.11.1.6. DC Station Service Provide suitable interlocks for substations provided with two separate DC service systems, to ensure that faults on one battery system do not endanger the other system. The interlock system shall at all times prevent paralleling of the battery systems. 14.11.1.7. Miscellaneous Interlocks In substations with 36 kV feeders, cubicles shall be provided with doors having mechanical locking devices to prevent any opening of the front door unless the relevant disconnecting switches are opened and the operation of disconnecting switches shall only be possible when the associated breaker is in the open position. The contractor shall bring to the Employer's attention any other circuitry, plant or equipment that he is designing or supplying, that may endanger the operator, maintenance staff or the system itself and provide the necessary interlocks to prevent such dangers to the satisfaction of the Employer. 14.11.2. Locking Arrangements Locking arrangements shall be provided for: a) Locking each circuit breaker local manual operating handle in the "neutral" position. b) Locking each equipment cover, door, guard or screen in the "closed" position, as specified. c) Locking each disconnecting switch and earthing device handle in the "open" or "closed" position. Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Page 13 of 15

14.12. Tests The equipment specified in this Section are subject to three types of tests, each category having its own purpose: - Type tests to check the design, - Routine tests and verifications to check the manufacture and the erection of the sub-assemblies, - Tests and verifications after erection at the Site. Even not mentioned below, any other test(s) necessary to verify the operation and performance of the equipment shall also be carried out. The tests to be carried on the relays are as follows: 14.12.1. Type Tests The type tests shall be done on the first unit of each type to be manufactured for this order: - impulse withstand test, - HF disturbance test, - RF disturbance test, - enclosure protection - Contact Performance, - Mechanical durability, - Accuracy relating to time, - Maximum allowable temperature, - Limiting dynamic value, - Limiting short time thermal withstand value, - Rated burdens, The following type tests shall also be performed for the digital and numeric relays: 1 mHz burst disturbance test (IEC 255-22-1 class III) at 2.5 kV Electrostatic discharge test (IEC 255-22-2 class III) at 8 kV Fast transient disturbance test (IEC 255-22-2 class III) at 4 kV Radiated electromagnetic field disturbance test (IEC 255-22-3) at 10 V/m 25-1000 mHz.

Auxiliary Relays - impulse voltage, - Contact-Circuit resistance, - Timing - Thermal endurance - Mechanical endurance, - temperature rise, - enclosure 14.12.2. Routine Tests The following routine tests shall be done for each type of Protective Relays in accordance with the relevant sections of IEC Publication 255, supplemented by approved National Standards where necessary. - visual inspection - accuracy relating to characteristic quantity - dielectric strength Auxiliary Relays - visual inspection and check of dimensions - dielectric strength - functional tests The routine tests which shall be carried out on each completed panel are given in Section-17 "Control and Metering System" Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.

Page 14 of 15

14.12.3. Site Tests On completion of installation at site, the tests which are shall be carried out on control and protection equipment by the Contractor under witness of the Employer's representatives are given in Section-16 "Control and Metering System.

Page 15 of 15

Sec 14 : PROTECTION SYS.