CICT 01 COMPUTERS AND SCIENTIFIC THINKING EJROA INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Understanding Computers 1. What is a Computer?

o a computer is a device that receives, stores, and processes information o different types of computers have different characteristics  supercomputers: powerful but expensive; used for complex computations (e.g., weather forecasting, engineering design and modeling)  desktop computers: less powerful but affordable; used for a variety of user applications (e.g., email, Web browsing, document processing)  laptop computers: similar functionality to desktops, but mobile  palmtop computers: portable, but limited applications and screen size 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) o The CPU is the "brain" of the computer, responsible for controlling its inner workings  made of circuitry – electronic components wired together to control the flow of electrical signals  the circuitry is embedded in a small silicon chip, 1-2 inches square  despite its small size, the CPU is the most complex part of a computer  (CPU circuitry can have 100's of millions of individual components)  commercial examples: Intel Core 2 Duo, Quad Core, AMD Athlon, Motorola PowerPC G4 series 3. CPU (cont.) o the CPU works by repeatedly fetching a program instruction from memory and executing that instruction  individual instructions are very simple (e.g., add two numbers, or copy this data)  complex behavior results from incredible speed  a 2.53 GHz Celeron D processor can execute 2.53 billion instructions per second  a 2.93 GHz Core 2 Duo processor can execute 2.93 billion instructions per second 4. Memory o memory is the part of the computer that stores data and programs o modern computers are digital devices, meaning they store and process information as binary digits (bits)  bits are commonly represented as either 0 or 1  bits are the building block of digital memory by grouping bits together, large ranges of values can be represented 5. Memory (cont.) o modern computers use a combination of memory types, each with its own performance and cost characteristics o main memory (or primary memory) is fast and expensive  data is stored as electric signals in circuitry, used to store active data  memory is volatile – data is lost when the computer is turned off  examples: Random Access Memory (RAM), cache o secondary memory is slower but cheaper  use different technologies (magnetic signals on hard disk, reflective spots on CD)  memory is permanent – useful for storing long-term data  examples: hard disk, floppy disk, compact disk (CD), flash drive 1 | R E V I E W E R ©AKAN

6. Memory (cont.) o memory capacity is usually specified in bytes 8  a byte is a collection of 8 bits – so can represent a range of 2 = 256 values  large collections of bytes can be specified using prefixes  since a byte is sufficient to represent a single character, can think of memory in terms of text  a kilobyte can store a few paragraphs (roughly 1 thousand characters)  a megabyte can store a book (roughly 1 million characters)  a gigabyte can store a small library (roughly 1 billion characters)  a terabyte can store a book repository (roughly 1 trillion characters) 7. Memory (cont.) o higher-end computers tend to have  more main memory to allow for quick access to more data and programs  more secondary memory to allow for storing more long-term data 8. Desktop Specifications  purchasing a computer can be confusing  sales materials contain highly technical information and computer jargon  the following specs describe two computer systems for sale in January, 2007  Desktop 1 is a low-end system, inexpensive but with limited features  Desktop 2 is a high-end system, uses the latest technology so expensive 9. Hardware vs. Software o The term hardware refers to the physical components of a computer system  e.g., monitor, keyboard, mouse, hard drive o The term software refers to the programs that execute on the computer  e.g., word processing program, Web browser  hardware components  software components 10. Common Desktop Hardware 11. von Neumann Architecture o although specific components may vary, virtually all modern computers have the same underlying structure  known as the von Neumann architecture  named after computer pioneer, John von Neumann, who popularized the design in the early 1950's o the von Neumann architecture identifies 3 essential components  Input/Output Devices (I/O) allow the user to interact with the computer  Memory stores information to be processed as well as programs (instructions specifying the steps necessary to complete specific tasks)  Central Processing Unit (CPU) carries out the instructions to process information 12. Input/Output (I/O) o input devices allow the computer to receive data and instructions from external sources  examples: keyboard, mouse, track pad, microphone, scanner o output devices allow the computer to display or broadcast its results  examples: monitor, speaker, printer 13. Software o recall: hardware refers to the physical components of computers o software refers to the programs that execute on the hardware

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a software program is a sequence of instructions for the computer (more specifically, for the CPU) to carry out in order to complete some task  e.g., word processing (Microsoft Word, Corel WordPerfect)  e.g., image processing (Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Flash)  e.g., Web browsing (Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox) 14. Operating Systems o the Operating System (OS) is a collection of programs that controls how the CPU, memory, and I/O devices work together  it controls how data and instructions are loaded and executed by the CPU  it organizes and manages files and directories  it coordinates the CPU, memory, and I/O devices  most modern OS's utilize a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to make interacting with the computer easy  GUI's utilize windows, icons, menus, and pointers 15. Quick Net & Web Overview o The Internet is a vast, international network of computers  the physical connections between computers vary, but the overall effect is that computers around the world can communicate and share resources  the Internet traces its roots back to 1969, when the U.S. government sponsored the first long-distance computer network  starting with only 4 computers, the network would eventually evolve into today's Internet  The World Wide Web is a collection of software that spans the Internet and enables the interlinking of documents and resources  the basic idea for the Web was proposed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 his system interlinked documents (including multimedia elements such as images and sound clips) over the Internet through the use of well-defined rules, or protocols, that define how they are formatted, documents could be shared across networks on various types of computers 16. Internet ≠ World Wide Web o The Internet could exist without the Web  and did, in fact, for many years (applications included email and news groups) o The Web couldn't exist without the Internet  the Internet is the hardware that stores and executes the Web software 17. Viewing a Web Page o a Web page is a text document that contains additional formatting information in a language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) o a Web browser is a program that accesses a Web page, interprets its content, and displays the page 18. Web Addresses o a Web server is an Internet-enabled computer that stores Web pages and executes software for providing access to the pages  when you request a Web page, the browser sends a request over the Internet to the appropriate server  the server locates the specified page and sends it back to your computer o Web pages require uniform names to locate and identify them uniquely  each page is assigned a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)  URL's are commonly referred to as Web addresses  the different parts of the Web address provide information for locating the page 3 | R E V I E W E R ©AKAN

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19. Viewing Local Web Pages o a Web browser can be used to view pages stored on the same computer  can go through the File menu to select the local page, or  can enter the File location in the address box (without the http prefix) o this feature is handy when developing Web pages  can create a Web page and view it in the browser before uploading to a server 20. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) is developing processors with 12 cores which are targeted for release in the first half of 2010. This new plan has deviated from the original product vision of 8-core chips. The 12core processor is code-named Magny-Cours. The chip will include 12MB of L3 cache and support DDR3 RAM. o During the second half of 2009 AMD is set to release a 6-core chip code-named Istanbul and then jump immediately to a 12-core chip the following year, an AMD spokesman said. “Twelvecore chips will handle larger workloads better than 8-core chips and are easier to manufacture” said Randy Allen, vice president and general manager at AMD. o AMD is also planning to release a 6-core chip in 2010 to complement the 12-core chip to meet requirement of systems that do not need 12 cores. Code-named Sao Paulo, the chip will include 6MB of L3 cache and support for DDR3 RAM. The new chips will be manufactured using 45nanometer process (already used in Intel’s current generation processors), which should increase power efficiency. o Dean McCarron, an analyst with Mercury Research, explains that AMD, which is struggling financially, is making financial and technical considerations in jumping from 6-core to 12-core chips. He also added that jumping to twice the chips size will allow the company to dump more cores on each chip while delivering better product margins and lowering manufacturing costs. AMD's 12-core chip will contain two 6-core processors on individual chips in a single processor package, McCarron said. That is a more reasonable goal than including 12 cores on a single chip, which can be expensive to manufacture. o The addition also enables AMD to evade competition with Intel in 8-core chips, McCarron said. In the second half this year, Intel is shipping a 6-core Xeon server processor tagged Dunnington; only later would it plan to shift to 8-core processors. Even with AMD's modified plans, Intel will continue to be competition. Intel shipped 78.5 percent of chips in the first quarter of 2008, while AMD held a 20.6 percent market share, a slight gain from the 18.7 percent market share it held in the first quarter of 2007. o The new product direction is a strategy for AMD to recover from recent chip and supply issues. AMD’s latest server chips, the quad-core OPteron processors code-named Barcelona began shipping in late June after numerous delays and obstructions. “Obviously, AMD had some trouble over the past year, but they have a staple of OEMs and routes to markets with their processors. What you're seeing is much more public focus on what's going to happen in the next 18 to 24 months rather than longer term,” said Gordon Haff, principal IT advisor at Illuminata. The company last month reported its sixth consecutive quarterly loss and plans to lay off 1,650 jobs by the third quarter.  Historical records will tell us that man has invented 3 types of devices to assist him in calculating and processing data,  Manual-mechanical  Electromechanical  Electronic  Manual Mechanical Device  A device with simple mechanism powered by hand. 21. ABACUS 4 | R E V I E W E R ©AKAN

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NAPIER’S BONE OUGTRED’S SLIDE RULE PASCALINE LEIBNIZ CALCULATOR BABBAGE’S ANALYTICAL ENGINE  B. Electromechanical Device  Usually powered by an electric motor and uses switches and relays. HOLLERITH’S PUNCHED-CARD MACHINE JACQUARD’S LOOM MARK I  C. Electronic Device  - such as modern digital computer, has its principal components circuit boards, transistors or silicon and chips. ATANASOFF-BERRY COMPUTER ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR AND CALCULATOR (ENIAC) ELECTRONIC DISCRETE VARIABLE AUTOMATIC COMPUTER (EDVAC) ELECTRONIC DELAYED STORAGE AUTOMATIC CALCULATOR (EDSAC) UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC COMPUTER (UNIVAC) Computer History: ABACUS 4th Century B.C. The abacus, a simple counting aid, may have been invented in Babylonia (now Iraq) in the fourth century B.C. This device allows users to make computations using a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack.

37. BLAISE PASCAL’S PASCALINE (1623 - 1662)  In 1642, the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal invented a calculating device that would come to be called the "Adding Machine".  Originally called a "numerical wheel calculator" or the "Pascaline", Pascal's invention utilized a train of 8 moveable dials or cogs to add sums of up to 8 figures long. As one dial turned 10 notches - or a complete revolution - it mechanically turned the next dial.  Pascal's mechanical Adding Machine automated the process of calculation. Although slow by modern standards, this machine did provide a fair degree of accuracy and speed. 38. CHARLES BABBAGE ANALYTICAL ENGINE (1791 - 1871)  Born in 1791, Charles Babbage was an English mathematician and professor.  In 1822, he persuaded the British government to finance his design to build a machine that would calculate tables for logarithms.  With Charles Babbage's creation of the "Analytical Engine", (1833) computers took the form of a general purpose machine. 39. HOWARD AIKEN ‘MARK I’(1900 - 1973)  Aiken thought he could create a modern and functioning model of Babbage's Analytical Engine.  He succeeded in securing a grant of 1 million dollars for his proposed Automatic Sequence Calculator; the Mark I for short. From IBM.  In 1944, the Mark I was "switched" on. Aiken's colossal machine spanned 51 feet in length and 8 feet in height. 500 meters of wiring were required to connect each component.

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 The Mark I did transform Babbage's dream into reality and did succeed in putting IBM's name on the forefront of the burgeoning computer industry. From 1944 on, modern computers would forever be associated with digital intelligence. 40. ELECTRONIC NUMERICAL INTEGRATOR AND CALCULATOR (ENIAC) (1946)  Under the leadership of J. Presper Eckert (1919 - 1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907 - 1980) the team produced a machine that computed at speeds 1,000 times faster than the Mark I was capable of only 2 years earlier.  Using 18,00-19,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints this massive instrument required the output of a small power station to operate it.  It could do nuclear physics calculations (in two hours) which it would have taken 100 engineers a year to do by hand.  The system's program could be changed by rewiring a panel. 41. TRANSISTOR (1948)  In the laboratories of Bell Telephone, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley discovered the "transfer resistor"; later labelled the transistor.  Advantages:  increased reliability  1/13 size of vacuum tubes  consumed 1/20 of the electricity of vacuum tubes  were a fraction of the cost This tiny device had a huge impact on and extensive implications for modern computers. In 1956, the transistor won its creators the Noble Peace Prize for their invention. 42. ALTAIR (1975)  The invention of the transistor made computers smaller, cheaper and more reliable. Therefore, the stage was set for the entrance of the computer into the domestic realm. In 1975, the age of personal computers commenced.  Under the leadership of Ed Roberts the Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry System Company (MITS) wanted to design a computer 'kit' for the home hobbyist.  Based on the Intel 8080 processor, capable of controlling 64 kilobyes of memory, the MITS Altair - as the invention was later called - was debuted on the cover of the January edition of Popular Electronics magazine.  Presenting the Altair as an unassembled kit kept costs to a minimum. Therefore, the company was able to offer this model for only $395. Supply could not keep up with demand.  ALTAIR FACTS:  No Keyboard  No Video Display  No Storage Device 43. IBM PC (1981)  On August 12, 1981 IBM announced its own personal computer.  Using the 16 bit Intel 8088 microprocessor, allowed for increased speed and huge amounts of memory.  Unlike the Altair that was sold as unassembled computer kits, IBM sold its "ready-made" machine through retailers and by qualified salespeople.  To satisfy consumer appetites and to increase usability, IBM gave prototype IBM PCs to a number of major software companies.  For the first time, small companies and individuals who never would have imagined owning a "personal" computer were now opened to the computer world. 6 | R E V I E W E R ©AKAN

44. MACINTOSH (1984)  IBM's major competitor was a company lead by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs; the Apple Computer Inc.  The "Lisa" was the result of their competitive thrust.  This system differed from its predecessors in its use of a "mouse" - then a quite foreign computer instrument - in lieu of manually typing commands.  However, the outrageous price of the Lisa kept it out of reach for many computer buyers.  Apple's brainchild was the Macintosh. Like the Lisa, the Macintosh too would make use of a graphical user interface.  Introduced in January 1984 it was an immediate success.  The GUI (Graphical User Interface) made the system easy to use.  The Apple Macintosh debuts in 1984. It features a simple, graphical interface, uses the 8-MHz, 32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, and has a built-in 9-inch B/W screen. 45. COMPUTER GENERATIONS: 46. VACUUM TUBE (1945-1956) First generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions were made-toorder for the specific task for which the computer was to be used. Each computer had a different binarycoded program called a machine language that told it how to operate. This made the computer difficult to program and limited its versatility and speed. Other distinctive features of first generation computers were the use of vacuum tubes (responsible for their breathtaking size) and magnetic drums for data storage. 47. TRANSISTORS (1956-1963)  Throughout the early 1960's, there were a number of commercially successful second generation computers used in business, universities, and government from companies such as Burroughs, Control Data, Honeywell, IBM, Sperry-Rand, and others. These second generation computers were also of solid state design, and contained transistors in place of vacuum tubes. They also contained all the components we associate with the modern day computer: printers, tape storage, disk storage, memory, operating systems, and stored programs. One important example was the IBM 1401, which was universally accepted throughout industry, and is considered by many to be the Model T of the computer industry. By 1965, most large business routinely processed financial information using second generation computers. 48. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (1965-1971)  Though transistors were clearly an improvement over the vacuum tube, they still generated a great deal of heat, which damaged the computer's sensitive internal parts. The quartz rock eliminated this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer with Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC) in 1958. The IC combined three electronic components onto a small silicon disc, which was made from quartz. Scientists later managed to fit even more components on a single chip, called a semiconductor. As a result, computers became ever smaller as more components were squeezed onto the chip. Another third-generation development included the use of an operating system that allowed machines to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory. 49. MICROPROCESSORS (1971-PRESENT)  In 1981, IBM introduced its personal computer (PC) for use in the home, office and schools. The 1980's saw an expansion in computer use in all three arenas as clones of the IBM PC made the personal computer even more affordable. The number of personal computers in use more than doubled from 2 million in 1981 to 5.5 million in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs were being used. Computers continued their trend toward a smaller size, working their way down from desktop to laptop computers 7 | R E V I E W E R ©AKAN

(which could fit inside a briefcase) to palmtop (able to fit inside a breast pocket). In direct competition with IBM's PC was Apple's Macintosh line, introduced in 1984. Notable for its user-friendly design, the Macintosh offered an operating system that allowed users to move screen icons instead of typing instructions. 50. ARIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (FUTURE)  Many advances in the science of computer design and technology are coming together to enable the creation of fifth-generation computers. Two such engineering advances are parallel processing, which replaces von Neumann's single central processing unit design with a system harnessing the power of many CPUs to work as one. Another advance is superconductor technology, which allows the flow of electricity with little or no resistance, greatly improving the speed of information flow. Computers today have some attributes of fifth generation computers. For example, expert systems assist doctors in making diagnoses by applying the problem-solving steps a doctor might use in assessing a patient's needs. It will take several more years of development before expert systems are in widespread use. 51. SOFTWARE:    Software – also called programs Computer software provides instruction that tell the computer how to operate. Programs are usually created using other software called programming languages.

52. TYPES OF SOFTWARE - System Software and Application Software 53. SYSTEM SOFTWARE - consist of programs designed to facilitate the use of the computer software. 54. KIND OF SYSTEM SOFWARE Operating System – a set of program designed to efficiently manage the resources of the computer system. Language Translator – is a system program that converts the English-like instructions used by the computer programmers into machine readable code used the hardware. Utility program – perform such standard tasks as organizing and maintaining data files, translating programs written in various languages to a language acceptable to the computer. 55. APPLICATION SOFTWARE - Is a type of program that solves specific user-oriented processing problems. 56. KINDS OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE Word processing – program accepts words typed into a computer and processes them to produce edited text. Desktop-Publishing System – system allows you to specify various margins and justifications, and embed illustrations and graphs directly into the text. Spreadsheets – Are computer programs that let people electronically manipulate spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are used for mathematical calculations such as accounts, budgets, and statistics and so on. Database Management – is a complex set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. Electronic Games – interactive hardware or software played for entertainment, challenge, or educational purposes. Graphics packages – are computer programs that enable users to create highly stylized images for slide presentations and reports. 57. KINDS OF SOFTWARE 8 | R E V I E W E R ©AKAN

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Public Domain Software - Has no copyright – no one owns the right to control who can make copies of the software. -Free to use or make copies of. -Can be copied, used in other programs, or changed by anyone. o Freeware - Has a copyright – someone owns the right to determine who can make copies of the software. -Free to use and make copies of. -Can only give away exact copies of software. -Can not be changed or used in another program without the copyright holder’s permission. o Shareware - Has a copyright. -Can only give away exact copies of software. -Can not be changed or used in another program without the copyright holder’s permission. o Commercial Software - Has the most resistive copyright. -Have to buy the software before you can use it. -Can usually make one copy of the software as a backup copy. -Cannot copy, look at the program’s code, change, or use the software in another program without the copyright holder’s permission. OPERATING SYSTEM - Reform basic task, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. Operating System Classified as: Multi-user: Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Multi-processing: Supports running a program on more than one CPU. Multi-tasking: Allows more than one program to run on CPU. Multi-threading: Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently. Examples of Operating System -DOS(Disk Operating System) -Microsoft Windows -Mac OS -Hewlett-Packard/HP -Linux/Unix -Ubuntu -Google Chrome Microsoft Windows MS-DOS (developed jointly with IBM, versions 1.0–6.22) Windows 1.0 (Windows 1 - Based on Visi-On) April 30, 1985 Windows 2.0 (Windows 2) May 25, 1988 Windows 3.0 (Windows 3 - Is the first version of Windows to make substantial commercial impact) August 29, 1990 Windows 3.1x (Windows 3.1) March 18, 1992 Windows for Workgroups 3.11 January 21, 1993 Windows 95 (Windows 4) August 24, 1995 Windows 98 (Windows 4.1) June 25, 1998 Windows Millennium Edition (Windows Me - Windows 4.9) September 14, 2000 Windows NT 3.5 (Windows 3.5) December 29, 1994 Windows NT 3.51 (Windows 3.51) February 8, 1995 Windows 95 64-Bit Edition March 20, 1997 Windows NT 4.0 (Windows 4) February 21, 1996 Windows 2000 (Windows NT 5.0 - Windows 5) February 29, 2000

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Windows XP October 22, 2001 Windows Server 2003 October 28, 2003 Windows Vista January 26, 2006 Windows 7 October 26, 2009 MAC OS Mac OS X Mac OS X v10.0 (aka "Cheetah") Mac OS X v10.1 (aka "Puma") Mac OS X v10.2 (aka "Jaguar") Mac OS X v10.3 (aka "Panther") Mac OS X v10.4 (aka "Tiger") Mac OS X v10.5 (aka "Leopard") Mac OS X v10.6 (aka "Snow Leopard") Mac OS X Server Hewlett-Packard/HP HP Real-Time Environment; ran on HP1000 series computers. HP Multi-Programming Executive; (MPE, MPE/XL, and MPE/iX) runs on HP 3000 and HP e3000 minicomputers. HP-UX; runs on HP9000 and Itanium servers - from small to mainframe-class computers. Ubuntu Kubuntu, a desktop distribution using the KDE SC Edubuntu, a GNOME-based subproject and add-on for Ubuntu, designed for school environments and home users. Ubuntu Server Edition. Ubuntu JeOS, "Just enough Operating Systems" for virtual appliances. Ubuntu Studio, a distribution made for professional video and audio editing, comes with higher-end free editing software and is a DVD .iso image unlike the live CD the other Ubuntu distributions use. Xubuntu, a "lightweight" distribution based on the Xfce desktop environment instead of GNOME, designed to run more efficiently on low-specification computers. Lubuntu, which uses the LXDE desktop environment, targeted at "normal computers" with 128 MB (128 × 10242 bytes) of RAM as the bottom line configuration Ubuntu MID Edition, an Ubuntu edition that targets Mobile Internet Devices. Ubuntu Netbook Edition, (formerly Ubuntu Netbook Remix) designed for netbooks and other ultraportables. Ubuntu Light, a simplified version designed to dual boot with MS Windows as a quick way to get onto the web.

65. Google Chrome - Google Chrome OS is an upcoming open source operating system designed to work exclusively with web applications. Announced on July 7, 2009, Chrome OS is set to have a publicly available stable release during the second half of 2010.

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