De Stijl

Neoplasticism

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Contents
Articles
Overview
De Stijl 1 1 6 6 11 12 16 17 27 30 33 34 36 36 38 39 40 42 42 44 47 48

Artists directly associated with De Stijl
Theo van Doesburg Bart van der Leck Robert van 't Hoff Vilmos Huszár Piet Mondrian J. J. P. Oud Gerrit Rietveld Georges Vantongerloo Jan Wils

Artists strongly influenced by De Stijl
Ilya Bolotowsky Burgoyne Diller César Domela Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart

Works
Red and Blue Chair Rietveld Schröder House Broadway Boogie-Woogie Victory Boogie-Woogie

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 49 51

Article Licenses
License 53

1

Overview
De Stijl
De Stijl (Dutch pronunciation: [də ˈstɛɪl], (Dutch pronunciation: [dɛ ˈstiːl], English: /də ˈstaɪl/), Dutch for "The Style", also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917. In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands.[1] [2] De Stijl is also the name of a journal that was published by the Dutch painter, designer, writer, and critic Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931), propagating the group's theories. Next to van Doesburg, the group's principal members were the painters Piet Mondrian (1872–1944), Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), and Bart van der Leck (1876–1958), and the architects Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), Robert van 't Hoff (1887–1979), and J.J.P. Oud (1890–1963). The artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group's work is known as neoplasticism — the new plastic art (or Nieuwe Beelding in Dutch). Proponents of De Stijl sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order. They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; Red and Blue Chair designed by Gerrit Rietveld in they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal 1917 directions, and used only primary colors along with black and white. Indeed, according to the Tate Gallery's online article on neoplasticism, Mondrian himself sets forth these delimitations in his essay 'Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art'. He writes, "... this new plastic idea will ignore the particulars of appearance, that is to say, natural form and colour. On the contrary, it should find its expression in the abstraction of form and colour, that is to say, in the straight line and the clearly defined primary colour." The Tate article further summarizes that this art allows "only primary colours and non-colours, only squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal or vertical line."[3] The Guggenheim Museum's online article on De Stijl summarizes these traits in similar terms: "It [De Stijl] was posited on the fundamental principle of the geometry of the straight line, the square, and the rectangle, combined with a strong asymmetricality; the predominant use of pure primary colors with black and white; and the relationship between positive and negative elements in an arrangement of non-objective forms and lines."[4]

Principles and influences
The name De Stijl is supposedly derived from Gottfried Semper's Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik (1861–3), which Curl[2] suggests was mistakenly believed to advocate materialism and functionalism. In general, De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue, and the three primary values, black, white, and grey. The works avoided symmetry and attained aesthetic balance by the use of opposition. This element of the

De Stijl movement embodies the second meaning of stijl: “a post, jamb or support”; this is best exemplified by the construction of crossing joints, most commonly seen in carpentry. In many of the group's three-dimensional works, vertical and horizontal lines are positioned in layers or planes that do not intersect, thereby allowing each element to exist independently and unobstructed by other elements. This feature can be found in the Rietveld Schröder House and the Red and Blue Chair. De Stijl was influenced by Cubist painting as well as by the mysticism and the ideas about "ideal" geometric forms (such as the "perfect straight line") in the neoplatonic philosophy of mathematician M.H.J. Schoenmaekers. The works of De Stijl would influence the Bauhaus style and the international style of architecture as well as clothing and interior design. However, it did not follow the general guidelines of an “ism” (Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism), nor did it adhere to the principles of art schools like the Bauhaus; it was a collective project, a joint enterprise. In music, De Stijl was an influence only on the work of composer Jakob van Domselaer, a close friend of Mondrian. Between 1913 and 1916, he composed his Proeven van Stijlkunst (Experiments in Artistic Style), inspired mainly by Mondrian's paintings. This minimalistic—and, at the time, revolutionary—music defined "horizontal" and "vertical" musical elements and aimed at balancing those two principles. Van Domselaer was relatively unknown in his lifetime, and did not play a significant role within the De Stijl group.

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History
Early history
From the flurry of new art movements that followed the Impressionists' revolutionary new perception of painting, Cubism arose in the early twentieth century as an important and influential new direction. In the Netherlands, too, there was interest in this "new art." However, because the Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, Dutch artists were not able to leave the country after 1914 and were thus effectively isolated from the international art world—and in particular, from Paris, which was its centre at that time. During that period, painter Theo van Doesburg started looking for Page from De Stijl magazine. other artists to set up a journal and start an art movement. Van Doesburg was also a writer, poet, and critic, who had been more successful writing about art than working as an independent artist. Quite adept at making new contacts due to his flamboyant personality and outgoing nature, he had many useful connections in the art world.

Founding of De Stijl
Around 1915, Van Doesburg started meeting the artists who would eventually become the founders of the journal. He first met Piet Mondrian at an exhibition in the Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum. Mondrian, who had moved to Paris in 1912 (and there, changed his name from "Mondriaan"), had been visiting the Netherlands when war broke out. He could not return to Paris, and was staying in the artists' community of Laren, where he met Bart van der Leck and regularly saw M.H.J. Schoenmaekers. In 1915, Schoenmaekers published Het nieuwe wereldbeeld (The New Image of the World), followed in 1916 by Beginselen der beeldende wiskunde (Principles of Plastic Mathematics). These two publications would greatly influence Mondrian and other members of De Stijl. Van Doesburg also knew J.J.P. Oud and the Hungarian artist Vilmos Huszàr. In 1917, the cooperation of these artists, together with the poet Anthony Kok, resulted in the founding of De Stijl. The young architect Gerrit Rietveld joined the group in 1918.

De Stijl During those first few years, the group was still relatively homogeneous, although Van der Leck left in 1918 due to artistic differences of opinion. Manifestos were being published, signed by all members. The social and economic circumstances of the time formed an important source of inspiration for their theories, and their ideas about architecture were heavily influenced by Berlage and Frank Lloyd Wright. The name Nieuwe Beelding was a term first coined in 1917 by Mondrian, who wrote a series of twelve articles called De Nieuwe Beelding in de schilderkunst (Neo-Plasticism in Painting) that were published in the journal De Stijl. In 1920, he published a book titled Le Neo-Plasticisme.

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After 1920
Around 1921, the group's character started to change. From the time of van Doesburg's association with Bauhaus, other influences started playing a role. These influences were mainly Malevich and Russian Constructivism, to which not all members agreed. In 1924, Mondrian broke with the group after van Doesburg proposed the theory of elementarism, proposing that the diagonal line was more vital than the horizontal and the vertical. In addition, the De Stijl group acquired many new "members." Dadaist influences, such as I.K. Bonset's poetry and Aldo Camini's "antiphilosophy," generated controversy as well. Only after van Doesburg's death was it revealed that Bonset and Camini were two of his pseudonyms.

After van Doesburg's death
Theo van Doesburg died in Davos in 1931. His wife, Nelly, administered his estate.

Theo van Doesburg, Arithmetische Compositie (1924).

Because of van Doesburg's pivotal role within De Stijl, the group did not survive. Individual members remained in contact, but De Stijl could not exist without a strong central character. Thus, it may be wrong to think of De Stijl as a close-knit group of artists. The members knew each other, but most communication took place by letter. For example, Mondrian and Rietveld never met in person. Many, though not all, artists did stay true to the movement's basic ideas, even after 1931. Rietveld, for instance, continued designing furniture according to De Stijl principles, while Mondrian continued working in the style he had initiated around 1920. Van der Leck, on the other hand, went back to figurative compositions after his departure from the group.

De Stijl

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Influence on architecture
The De Stijl influence on architecture remained considerable long after 1931; Mies van der Rohe was among the most important proponents of its ideas. Between 1923 and 1924, Rietveld designed the Rietveld Schröder House, the only building to have been created completely according to De Stijl principles. Examples of Stijl-influenced works by J.J.P. Oud can be found in Rotterdam (Café De Unie) and Hoek van Holland.

Present day

Works by De Stijl members are scattered all over the world, but De Stijl-themed exhibitions are organised regularly. Museums with large De Stijl collections include the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague (which owns the world's most extensive, although not exclusively De Stijl-related, Mondrian collection) and the Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum, where many works by Rietveld and Van Doesburg are on display. The Centraal Museum of Utrecht has the largest Rietveld collection worldwide; it also owns the Rietveld Schröder House, Rietveld's adjacent "show house," and the Rietveld Schröder Archives.

The Rietveld Schröder House—the only building realised completely according to the principles of De Stijl

List of neoplasticists
This list is not exhaustive. Because of the loose associations many artists had with De Stijl, it is difficult to get a complete overview of contributors. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ilya Bolotowsky (1907–1981), painter and sculptor. Burgoyne Diller (1906–1965), painter. Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931), painter, designer, and writer; published De Stijl, 1917–1931. Cornelis van Eesteren (1897–1981), architect. Jean Gorin (1899–1981), painter. Robert van 't Hoff (1887–1979), architect. Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), painter. Anthony Kok (1882–1969), poet. Bart van der Leck (1876–1958), painter. Piet Mondrian (1872–1944), painter. Marlow Moss (1890–1958), painter and sculptor. J.J.P. Oud (1890–1963), architect. Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), architect and designer. Georges Vantongerloo (1886–1965), sculptor. Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart,[1] painter. Jan Wils (1891–1972), architect.

De Stijl

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References
Notes
[1] "De Stijl" (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ collections/ glossary/ definition. jsp?entryId=82). Tate Glossary. The Tate. . Retrieved 2006-07-31. [2] Curl, James Stevens (2006) (Paperback). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Second Edition ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860678-8. [3] Tate Glossary: Neo-Plasticism (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ collections/ glossary/ definition. jsp?entryId=191) [4] Guggenheim Glossary: De Stijl (http:/ / www. guggenheimcollection. org/ site/ glossary_De_Stijl. html)

Bibliography
• "De Stijl Architecture" (http://www.artandculture.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/ACLive.woa/wa/ movement?id=112). Design Arts. Art and Culture. Retrieved 2006-07-31. • van Doesburg, Theo (1924). "Towards a plastic architecture" (http://caad.arch.ethz.ch/teaching/nds/ws97/ script/text/doesburg.html). Translation of original published in De Stijl, XII, 6/7. Architecture & CAAD. Retrieved 2006-07-31.

Further reading
• Blotkamp, Carel (ed.) (1982). De beginjaren van De Stijl 1917–1922. Utrecht: Reflex. • Blotkamp, Carel (ed.) (1996). De vervolgjaren van De Stijl 1922–1932. Amsterdam: Veen. • Jaffé, H. L. C. (1956). De Stijl, 1917–1931, The Dutch Contribution to Modern Art (1st edition ed.). Amsterdam: J.M. Meulenhoff. • Overy, Paul (1969). De Stijl (1st edition ed.). London: Studio Vista. • White, Michael (2003). De Stijl and Dutch Modernism. Manchester [etc]: Manchester University Press.

External links
• De Stijl (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/De_Stijl/index.htm) • Jakob van Domselaer's Proeven van Stijlkunst (http://www.dofoundation.com/dr001.html), rare recording. • Essay about Mondrian and mysticism (http://www.newcriterion.com/archive/14/sept95/hilton.htm) Scans of the complete first volume of the journal.

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Artists directly associated with De Stijl
Theo van Doesburg
Theo van Doesburg

Theo van Doesburg as Sergeant Küpper. c 1915. Birth name Christian Emil Marie Küpper Born 30 August 1883 Utrecht, Netherlands 7 April 1931 (aged 47) Davos, Switzerland

Died

Nationality Dutch Field Movement painting, architecture, poetry Neo-Plasticism, Elementarism, Concrete art, Dadaism

Theo van Doesburg (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈteɪɔ vɑn ˈdusbʏrx], 30 August 1883 – 7 March 1931) was a Dutch artist, practicing in painting, writing, poetry and architecture. He is best known as the founder and leader of De Stijl.[1] [2]

Theo van Doesburg

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Biography
Early life
Theo van Doesburg was born as Christian Emil Marie Küpper on 30 August 1883 in Utrecht as the son of the photographer Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catherina Margadant. After a short training in acting and singing he decided to become a painter. He always regarded his stepfather, Theodorus Doesburg, to be his natural father, so that his first works are signed with Theo Doesburg, to which he later added the insertion "van". His first exhibition was in 1908. From 1912 onwards, he supported his works by writing for magazines. Although he considered himself to be a modern painter at that time, his early work is in line with the Amsterdam Impressionists and is influenced by Vincent van Gogh, both in style and subject matter. This suddenly changed in 1913 after reading Wassily Kandinsky's Rückblicke, in which he looks back at his life as a painter from 1903–1913. It made him realize there was a higher, more spiritual level in painting that Self-portrait with hat. 1906. originates from the mind rather than from everyday life, and that abstraction is the only logical outcome of this. It was already in 1912 that Van Doesburg was criticizing Futurism in an art article in 'Eenheid' no. 127, 9 November 1912, because "The mimetic expression of velocity (whatever its form may be: the aeroplane, the automobile, and so on) is diametrically opposed to the character of painting, the supreme origin of which is to be found in inner life." 6 November 1915 he wrote in the same journal: " Mondrian realizes the importance of line. The line has almost become a work of art in itself; one can not play with it when the representation of objects perceived was all-important. The white canvas is almost solemn. Each superfluous line, each wrongly placed line, any color placed without veneration or care, can spoil everything – that is, the spiritual." [3]

Principal contributors to De Stijl 1917-1927.

Theo van Doesburg

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The De Stijl movement
It was while reviewing an exposition for one of these magazines he wrote for, in 1915 (halfway through his two-year service in the army), that he came in contact with the works of Piet Mondrian, who was eight years older than he was, and had by then already gained some attention with his paintings. Van Doesburg saw in these paintings his ideal in painting: a complete abstraction of reality. Soon after the exposition Van Doesburg got in contact with Mondrian, and together with related artists Bart van der Leck, Anthony Kok, Vilmos Huszar and J.J.P. Oud they founded the magazine De Stijl in 1917.[4]

Promoting De Stijl
Although 'De Stijl' was made up of many members, Van Doesburg was the 'ambassador' of the movement, promoting it across Europe. He moved to Weimar in 1922, deciding to make an impression on the Bauhaus principal, Walter Gropius, in order to spread the influence of the movement. While Gropius accepted many of the precepts of contemporary art movements he did not feel that Doesburg should become a Bauhaus master. Doesburg then installed himself near to the Bauhaus buildings and started to attract school students interested in the new ideas of Constructivism. Dadaism, and De Stijl.[5]

Neo-Plasticism: Composition VII (the three graces). 1917.

Elementarism: Counter-Composition XVI in dissonances. 1925.

The split with Mondrian
The friendship between Van Doesburg and Mondrian remained strong in these years, although their primary way of communication was by letter. In 1923 Van Doesburg moved to Paris together with his later wife Nelly van Moorsel. Because the two men got to see each other on a much more regular basis the differences in character became apparent: Mondrian was an introvert, while van Doesburg was more flamboyant and extravagant. During 1924 the two men had A reconstruction of the dance hall/cinema disagreements, which eventually led to a (temporary) split in the same designed by Theo van Doesburg: “Cinébal” at the year. The exact reason for this split has been a point of contention Aubette in Strasbourg. among art historians; usually the divergent ideas about the directions of the lines in the paintings have been named as the primary reason: Mondrian never accepted diagonals, whereas Doesburg insisted on the diagonal's dynamic aspects, and indeed featured it in his art. Mondrian accepted some concepts of diagonals, such as in his "Lozenge" paintings, where the canvas was rotated 45 degrees, while still maintaining horizontal lines. In recent years, however, this theory gained critique from art historians such as Carel Blotkamp, who cites their different concepts about space and time as the main reason for the

Theo van Doesburg

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split. After the split, Van Doesburg launched a new concept for his art, Elementarism, which was characterized by the diagonal lines and rivaled with Mondrian's Neo-Plasticism. In 1929 the two men reconciled when they accidentally met in a café in Paris.[6]

Congress of the Union of International Progressive Artists held at Düsseldorf, May 1922.

Architecture, design, and typography
Van Doesburg had other activities apart from painting and promoting De Stijl: he made efforts in architecture, designing houses for artists, together with Georges Vantongerloo and he designed the decoration for the Café Aubette in Strasbourg. Together with El Lissitzky and Kurt Schwitters, Van Doesburg pioneered the efforts to an International of Arts in two congresses held in Düsseldorf and Weimar, in 1922. A geometrically constructed alphabet Van Doesburg designed in 1919 has been revived in digital form as Architype Van Doesburg. This typeface anticipates similar later experimentation by Kurt Schwitters in his typeface Architype Schwitters. Van Doesburg also kept a link with DADA, publishing the magazine Mécano under the heteronym of I.K. Bonset (possibly an anagram of "Ik ben zot", Dutch for "I am foolish"). He also published Dada poetry under the same name in De Stijl. Under a second pseudonym, Aldo Camini, he published anti-philosophical prose, inspired by the Italian representative of Metaphysical art, Carlo Carrà. In these works of literature, he heavily opposed individualism (and thus against the Van Doesburg's partner Nelly van Moorsel as movement of the Tachtigers, realism, and psychological thinking). He I.K. Bonset. sought for a collective experience of reality. His conception of intensity had much in common with Paul van Ostaijen's conception of "dynamiek". He wanted to strip words of their former meaning, and give them a new meaning and power of expression. By doing this, he tried to evoke a new reality, instead of describing it.

Last years
Van Doesburg stayed active in art groups such as Cercle et Carré, Art Concret and Abstraction-Création, which he founded in 1931.[7] At the end of February 1931 he was forced to move to Davos in Switzerland because of his declining health. Van Doesburg did not recuperate: on 7 March 1931 he died of a heart attack. After his death Nelly van Doesburg released the last issue of De Stijl as a memorial issue with contributions by old and new members from De Stijl.

Theo van Doesburg

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References
[1] "De Stijl" (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ collections/ glossary/ definition. jsp?entryId=82). Tate Glossary. The Tate. . Retrieved 2006-07-31. [2] Curl, James Stevens (2006). A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Second Edition ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860678-8.

Concrete art: Arithmetic Composition. 1929-1930.

[3] Doig, Allan (2009). "Theo van Doesburg (Christian Emil Marie Küpper)" (http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ artist. php?artist_id=6076). MoMA - The Collection. Museum of Modern Art. . Retrieved 2011-02-04. [4] "De Stijl" (http:/ / www. guggenheimcollection. org/ site/ glossary_De_Stijl. html). Guggenheim Glossary. Guggenheim Museum. . Retrieved 2011-02-04. [5] Magdalena Droste; Bauhaus-Archive (1 Nov 2002). The Bauhaus, 1919-1933. Taschen. p.  58 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZXB8rX5AsgUC& pg=PA58& lpg=PA58& dq=Theo+ van+ Doesburg+ and+ Gropius#v=onepage& q=Theo van Doesburg and Gropius& f=false). ISBN 3822821055. [6] Mawer, Simon (January 23, 2010). "Theo van Doesburg: Forgotten artist of the avant garde" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ artanddesign/ 2010/ jan/ 23/ theo-van-doesburg-avant-garde-tate). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2011-02-04. [7] "Gruppe Abstraction-Création" (http:/ / www. kettererkunst. com/ dict/ gruppe-abstraction-creation. shtml). Dictionary. Ketterer Kunst. . Retrieved 2011-02-04.

Bibliography
• Baljeu, Joos. Theo van Doesburg. Studio Vista: 1974, ISBN 0-289-70358-1. • Hoek, Els, Marleen Blokhuis, Ingrid Goovaerts, Natalie Kamphuys, et al. Theo Van Doesburg: Oeuvre Catalogus. Centraal Museum: 2000. ISBN 90-6868-255-5. • Overy, Paul. De Stijl. Studio Vista: 1969. ISBN 0-289-79622-9. • White, Michael: De Stijl and Dutch modernism. Manchester University Press: 2003. ISBN 0-7190-6162-8.

External links
• Scans of the De Stijl issue with Van Doesburg's Letterklankbeelden (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/De_Stijl/ 011/index.htm)

Bart van der Leck

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Bart van der Leck
Bart van der Leck (26 November 1876, Utrecht - 13 November 1958, Blaricum) was a Dutch painter, designer, and ceramacist. With Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian he founded the De Stijl art movement. Son of a house painter, he started his career learning how to make stained glass in a shop in Utrecht. An example of his later stained glass work is in the Kröller-Müller Museum in Hoge Veluwe, Netherlands. After having met Mondrian and van Doesburg and having founded the Stijl movement with them, his style became completely abstract, as did Mondrian's. But after disagreements with Mondrian his abstract style became based on representational images. His painting Tryptich is an example, in which he transformed sketches of a mine in Spain into seemingly abstract shapes. In 1919-1920 he created the interior design for St Hubertus Hunting Lodge, in the Hoge Veluwe estate. The hunting lodge was designed by Hendrik Petrus Berlage. In 1930, he was commissioned by Jo de Leeuw, owner of the prestigious Dutch department store Metz & Co. to design interiors, window packaging, branding and advertising. For these print materials van der Leck developed a rectilinear, geometrically constructed alphabet. In 1941, he designed a typeface based on this alphabet for the avant garde magazine Flax. Architype van der Leck, a digital revival of that face by David Quary and Freda Sack of The Foundry, was released in 1994. Bart Van der Leck claimed to be the father of the avant-garde movement. In his own words he said: "Mondrian came to my place one day with Doesburg, whom I had never seen before. When Doesburg noticed an abstract painting right on the easel, he exlaimed: 'If that is to be the painting of the future, may I be hanged right now!' Well, a few months later, he was painting in precisely that manner. That's the sort of person Doesburg was. No ideas of his own. And a cheat in bargain..." [1]

References
• Haley, Allen. Type: Hot Designers Make Cool Fonts. Rockport Publishers Inc, Gloucester; 1998. ISBN 1-56496-317-9 • Hoek, Els, Marleen Blokhuis, Ingrid Goovaerts, Natalie Kamphuys, et al. Theo Van Doesburg: Oeuvre Catalogus. Centraal Museum: 2000. ISBN 90-6868-255-5. • Toos van Kooten (ed.). Bart van der Leck. Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo, 1994 (in Dutch). • Ceuphor, Michel. Piet Mondrian. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams Inc.; 1971.

External links
• Short biography at Codart [2] • (Dutch) Longer biography at Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis [3] • Works in the Kroller-Muller Museum, Otterlo. [4]
[1] [2] [3] [4] Ceuphor, Michael (1971). Piet Mondrian. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams Inc.. pp. 138. http:/ / www. codart. nl/ exhibitions/ details/ 749/ http:/ / www. inghist. nl/ Onderzoek/ Projecten/ BWN/ lemmata/ bwn5/ leck http:/ / www. kmm. nl/ collection-search. php?reload=1& characteristic_type=Schilderkunst& artist=Bart+ van+ der+ Leck+ %281876+ -+ 1958%29& van=0& tot=0& submit. x=25& submit. y=10

Robert van 't Hoff

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Robert van 't Hoff
Robert van 't Hoff

Villa Henny, Huis ter Heide, Utrecht. 1915–1919. Born November 5, 1887 Rotterdam, Netherlands April 25, 1979 (aged 91) New Milton, Hampshire, England Dutch Work Buildings Villa Henny

Died

Nationality

Robert van 't Hoff (November 5, 1887 – April 25, 1979), born Robbert van 't Hoff, was a Dutch architect and furniture designer. His Villa Henny, designed in 1914, was one of the earliest modernist houses and one of the first to be built out of reinforced concrete. From 1917 he was an influential member of the De Stijl movement. Although he was born to a comfortable middle class background, married a wealthy heiress, and for a while was able to subsidise the publication of the De Stijl journal,[1] van 't Hoff was a member of the Communist Party of the Netherlands in the years following World War I. Following the failure of Pieter Jelles Troelstra's call for a socialist revolution in the Netherlands in 1919, van 't Hoff split from De Stijl's founder Theo van Doesburg and withdrew from artistic activity, declaring himself an "ex-architect" in 1922, and spending much of the rest of his life promoting experimental anarchist communities.

Life
Early life and education
Van 't Hoff was born in Rotterdam, the son of an eminent bacteriologist, and grew up in comfortable and cultured middle class circumstances. His mother had an interest in the visual arts and was a friend of the painter Willem Witsen (Willem Arnoldus Witsen), while his father was a friend of the psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden. From 1898 Robert accompanied his parents on visits to van Eeden's utopian Walden commune near Bussum.[2] The family moved to Bilthoven in 1904. The following year Robert assisted with the building of a house for one of his aunts and decided to train as an architect. In 1906, on the advice of an architect friend of his father's,[2] van 't Hoff travelled to England to study architecture at the Birmingham School of Art, which had been a major centre of the Arts and Crafts Movement since its reorganisation by Edward R. Taylor in the 1880s.[3] Studying under William Bidlake, he came under the influence of the theories of William Lethaby and the work of the Glasgow School,[4] and worked in the progressive architectural

Robert van 't Hoff practice of Herbert Tudor Buckland.[2] From 1911 to 1914 van 't Hoff studied at the Architectural Association in London, where he became a friend of the cubist and futurist painter David Bomberg and through him became acquainted with the work of the avant-garde Omega Workshops.[4]

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Early career
Van 't Hoff's first built works were designed while he was still based in England. Løvdalla – a house built for his parents in Huis ter Heide near Utrecht and completed in 1911 – featured an informal cluster of gables reminiscent of some of Buckland's work in Edgbaston, while De Zaaier was a model farmhouse built in Lunteren and completed in 1913, with a more distinctively Dutch design.[4] Van 't Hoff's third house, built for the artist Augustus John at 28 Mallord Street, Chelsea, London, after the two met by chance in the pub, was both designed and built in 1913.

Villa Verloop, Huis ter Heide. 1915–1916.

In 1913 van 't Hoff was given a copy of a German translation of Frank Lloyd Wright's Wasmuth Portfolio by his father.[5] This made a profound impression and in June 1914 he travelled to the United States to see Wright's work in person, visiting the Unity Temple, Taliesin, Midway Gardens, the Larkin Administration Building and Wright's suburban houses in Oak Park, Illinois. Van 't Hoff and Wright discussed collaborating on a project for an art gallery on Long Island, New York that van 't Hoff had become involved with through his relationship with Augustus John, but the project did not progress and van 't Hoff returned to Europe.[6] Van 't Hoff's first work on returning from the United States was the Villa Verloop – a summer house in Huis ter Heide whose design bore the unmistakable influence of Wright's Prairie Houses. More remarkable however was his next work – the Villa Henny – which was a highly idealistic and experimental house in both design and execution. One of the earliest houses to be built entirely out of reinforced concrete, the Villa Henny made full use of the aesthetic freedom this presented with a flat roof, overhangs, receding walls and a highly geometrical outline that presented an unambiguously modern profile compared to the rustic naturalism of his earlier designs. The Villa Henny established van 't Hoff with the international avant-garde as a major figure in the emerging modern movement, gaining an influential and appreciative review from the architect Huib Hoste in De Telegraaf and attracting the attention of the emerging De Stijl group.[2]

Robert van 't Hoff

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De Stijl
Van 't Hoff probably met De Stijl founder Theo van Doesburg some time in mid-1917. Their radical views on art and society had a natural affinity and by the end of the year van 't Hoff was in regular correspondence with van Doesburg and other members of the movement including Vilmos Huszár and J. J. P. Oud. Over the next two years he was to write five articles for the De Stijl journal – three radical essays on the future of architecture and two critical pieces on buildings by Jan Wils and Antonio Sant' Elia.[2] Van 't Hoff went on to support the journal financially after van Doesburg split from its original publisher over his insistence on installing a separate architecture editor.[7] The range of van 't Hoff's design work also broadened around this time: he published designs for banister posts and chairs, and in 1918 designed a houseboat, which he christened De Stijl and in which he and his wife lived shortly after their marriage in July. This was conceived as an attempt to "further the new direction" and he was involved in every aspect of the interior and exterior design including the furniture and fittings. Van 't Hoff's preference for Banister post, c. 1919. Bart van der Leck over van Doesburg for the painting of the interior was the first sign of tension between the two, but a commission for van Doesburg from van 't Hoff for a colour scheme for the interior of a house he was designing for the pacifist and anarchist Bartholomeus (Bart) de Ligt in Lage Vuursche suggested that there was no serious split.[2] During 1918 and 1919 van 't Hoff's ideological stance hardened in the light of the recent Russian Revolution. His design work at this time moved away from private houses and consisted largely of unrealised designs for prefabricated mass housing in association with the Utrecht architect P. J. C. Klaarhamer. In 1919 he joined the Communist Party of the Netherlands and was active in arranging an exchange programme with artists in the Soviet Union, making his political stance clear in a letter to fellow communist Chris Beekman: "I myself am convinced we will get a Soviet government, albeit that the transition will take a toll of some of our lives".[2] Van 't Hoff's attempts to influence the De Stijl group in a more avowedly political direction met with frustration, however. The first De Stijl manifesto, published in November 1918, was interpreted by most of the group's members as a largely artistic statement, rather than the revolutionary document van 't Hoff sought. Van't Hoff criticised Van Doesburg in the summer of 1919 for exhibiting individually rather than maintaining an exclusive commitment to the De Stijl collective. In October 1919 Van Doesburg failed to circulate a petition demanding free postal interchange with the Soviet Union that had been signed by leading Dutch artists and designers and this prompted van 't Hoff to make a final and decisively split from both De Stijl and van Doesburg, remarking that "In Russia they execute such people".[2]

Later life
Disillusioned with the revolutionary potential of the artistic avant-garde, van 't Hoff sold his houseboat and moved to Laren in North Holland in 1920, where he built two small houses for himself and his parents that were largely devoid of the abstract aesthetic ambitions of his earlier works – one even had a thatched roof. Although these featured some furniture and interior design work by Beekman and Rietveld, van 't Hoff had distanced himself from his earlier artistic lifestyle. The tenth anniversary issue of De Stijl featured an open letter signed "Robert Van. ('t Hoff)., ex-architect."[2] In 1922 van 't Hoff moved to London with his family, spending most of the following five years promoting his communist and anarchist ideas in England and frequenting the British Museum Reading Room. In 1926 he published an anonymously authored social and political manifesto called Abolition, in which he called for a mass uprising.[8] In

Robert van 't Hoff 1928 he was invited by the American radical philanthropist Charles Garland to redesign the buildings on his utopian commune in Coopersburg, Pennsylvania. The two disagreed over the proposed designs, however, and within nine months the van 't Hoff family had returned to Laren.[9] Van 't Hoff retained some links with De Stijl during this period – continuing his correspondence with J. J. P. Oud, meeting Piet Mondrian in Paris in 1931 and financing the final issue of the De Stijl journal in 1932.[9] The ill health of their daughter led the van 't Hoffs to move to Davos in Switzerland in 1931, but in 1937 they returned to England to settle permanently in Hampshire.[5] The bombing of Coventry in 1940 profoundly touched van 't Hoff, who knew the city from his days studying in Birmingham and designed a large communal housing association building in the hope that the city could be rebuilt in accordance with his progressive ideals. In general, however, his last years in England were marked by increasing reclusiveness.[9] The architect realised his last work in New Milton, (Hampshire, U.K.). He designed an interior for his study in his own house in 1960. The atmosphere in the study was very similar to the interior of the houseboat De Stijl (1917). When the house was demolished in 2006, this interior was donated to the Kroller-Muller Museum in Otterlo (The Netherlands) by Van 't Hoff's daughter Megan.[10]

15

References
[1] Overy, Paul (1991). "De Stijl and Modern Holland". De Stijl. World of Art. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0500202400. [2] Vermeulen, Eveline (1986). "van 't Hoff". In Blotkamp, Carel. De Stijl: The Formative Years 1917–1922. trans. Loeb, Charlotte I.; Loeb, Arthur L.. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 206–220. ISBN 0262022478. [3] Crawford, Alan (1984). "The Birmingham Setting". In Crawford, Alan. By Hammer and Hand: the Arts and Crafts Movement in Birmingham. Birmingham: Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery. pp. 27–40. ISBN 0709301197. [4] Vermeulen, Eveline (2008). "Hoff, Robert van 't" (http:/ / www. groveart. com/ shared/ views/ article. html?section=art. 038460#art. 038460). Grove Dictionary of Art (Grove Art Online ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. . Retrieved 2008-03-30. [5] Warncke, Carsten-Peter (1991). "Biographies – Robert van 't Hoff". The ideal as art : De Stijl, 1917–1931. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen. pp. 208. ISBN 3822805475. [6] Langmead, Donald; Johnson, Donald Leslie; Prak, Niels L. (2000). "Discovery" (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=HnHBzzLt2VQC). Architectural Excursions: Frank Lloyd Wright, Holland and Europe. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0313305676. . Retrieved 2008-04-02. [7] Overy, Paul (1991). "Writing De Stijl". De Stijl. World of Art. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 46. ISBN 0500202400. [8] Broekhuizen, D., "Abolition (1926). Robert van 't Hoffs visioen van een revolutie", in: Jong Holland 1996, nr 3, pp. 38–46 [9] Broekhuizen, Dolf (2008-03-13). "Hoff, Robert van' t (1887–1979)" (http:/ / www. inghist. nl/ Onderzoek/ Projecten/ BWN/ lemmata/ bwn6/ hoff) (in Dutch). Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland (Biographical Dictionary of the Netherlands). Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis. . Retrieved 2008-05-26. [10] Broekhuizen, D. (ed.), Robert van 't Hoff. Architect of a new Society, Rotterdam: NAi publishers 2010. (ISBN 978-90-5662-750-8)

Vilmos Huszár

16

Vilmos Huszár
Vilmos Huszár (1884 - 1960) was a Hungarian painter and designer. He lived in The Netherlands, where he was one of the founder members of the art movement De Stijl. Huszár was born in Budapest, Hungary. He emigrated to The Netherlands in 1905, settling at first in Voorburg. He was influenced by Cubism and Futurism. He met other influential artists including Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg, both central figures in establishing the De Stijl movement with Huszár in 1917. Huszár also co-founded the De Stijl magazine and designed the cover for the first issue. In 1918 he designed interior colour schemes for the bedroom of Bruynzeel house in Voorburg. From 1920 to 1921 he collaborated with Piet Zwart on furniture designs. He left the De Stijl group in 1923. He collaborated with Gerrit Rietveld on an exhibition interior for the Greater Berlin Art Exhibition. From 1925, Huszár concentrated on graphic design and painting.

Mechano-Dancer, 1922, Private collection, New York

In 1926 he created a complete visual identity for Miss Blanche Virginia cigarettes, which included packaging, advertising, and point-of-sale displays. The concept drew on the imagery associated with the emergent "New Women", or Flappers. The Flappers were perceived as young, single, urban, and employed, with independent ideas and a certain disdain for authority and social norms. The smoking of cigarettes was closely associated with their new found independence. The whereabouts of many of Huszár's works are unknown. Many of his paintings and sculptures are only known through photographs that appeared in De Stijl, or from photographs taken by the artist himself. Works that are lost include the Dancing mechanical doll, a device that could adopt several different postures and was used during Dada conferences in the early 1920s. Huszár died in the Dutch town Hierden in 1960. From 8 March to 19 May 1985 a large Huszár retrospective was held at the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague.

External links
• Artcyclopedia [1] Links to Huszár's works • Brief biography [2] • Short biography (in german) [3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. artcyclopedia. com/ artists/ huszar_vilmos. html [2] http:/ / www. racheladlerfineart. com/ artist/ vh_bio. html [3] http:/ / www. vilmos-huszar. de

Piet Mondrian

17

Piet Mondrian
Piet Mondrian

Piet Mondrian in 1899 Birth name Born Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan 7 March 1872 Amersfoort, Netherlands 1 February 1944 (aged 71) Manhattan, New York, United States Dutch Painting Rijksakademie De Stijl

Died

Nationality Field Training Movement

Influenced by Hague School, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Bart van der Leck, Theo van Doesburg

Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrian (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈpiːt ˈmɔndriaːn], later pronunciation: [ˈmɔndriɔn]; March 7, 1872 – February 1, 1944), was a Dutch painter.

Dutch

He was an important contributor to the De Stijl art movement and group, which was founded by Theo van Doesburg. He evolved a non-representational form which he termed Neo-Plasticism. This consisted of white ground, upon which was painted a grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and the three primary colors.[1] Between his 1905 painting, The River Amstel, and his 1907 Amaryllis, Mondrian changed the spelling of his signature from Mondriaan to Mondrian.[2]

Piet Mondrian

18

The Netherlands 1872–1912
Mondrian was born in Amersfoort in The Netherlands, the second of his parents' children.[3] He was descended from Christian Dirkzoon Monderyan who lived in the Hague as early as 1670.[2] The family moved to Winterswijk when his father, Pieter Cornelius Mondriaan, was appointed head teacher at a local primary school.[4] Mondrian was introduced to art from a very early age: his father was a qualified drawing teacher, and with his uncle, Fritz Mondriaan (a pupil of Willem Maris of The Hague School of artists), the younger Piet often painted and drew along the river Gein.[5] After a strictly Protestant upbringing, in 1892, Mondrian entered the Academy for Fine Art in Amsterdam.[6] He already was qualified as a teacher.[4] He began his career as a teacher in primary education, but while teaching he also practiced painting. Most of his work from this period is naturalistic or impressionistic, consisting largely of landscapes. These pastoral images of his native country depict windmills, fields, and rivers, initially in the Dutch Impressionist manner of the Hague School and then in a variety of styles and techniques documenting his search for a personal style. These paintings are most definitely representational, and illustrate the influence that various artistic movements had on Mondrian, including pointillism and the vivid colors of fauvism. On display in The Hague's Gemeentemuseum are a number of paintings from this period, including such post-impressionist works as The Red Mill and Trees in Moonrise. Another painting, Evening (Avond) (1908), a scene of haystacks in a field at dusk, even augurs future developments by using a palette consisting almost entirely of red, yellow, and blue. Although it is in no sense abstract, Avond is the earliest of Mondrian's works to emphasize the primary colors. The earliest paintings that show an inkling of the abstraction to come are a series of canvases from 1905 to 1908, which depict dim scenes of indistinct trees and houses with reflections in still water. Although the end result leads the viewer to begin emphasizing the forms over the content, these paintings are still firmly rooted in nature, and it is only the knowledge of Mondrian's later achievements that leads one to search for the roots of his future abstraction in these works. Mondrian's art always was intimately related to his spiritual and philosophical studies. In 1908 he became interested in the theosophical Piet Mondrian, View from the Dunes with Beach movement launched by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late 19th and Piers, Domburg, oil and pencil on cardboard, century, and he joined the Dutch branch of the Theosophical Society in 1909, Museum of Modern Art, New York City 1909. The work of Blavatsky and a parallel spiritual movement, Rudolf Steiner's Anthroposophy, significantly affected the further development of his aesthetic.[7] Blavatsky believed that it was possible to attain a more profound knowledge of nature than that provided by empirical means, and much of Mondrian's work for the rest of his life was inspired by his search for that spiritual knowledge. Mondrian and his later work were deeply influenced by the 1911 Moderne Kunstkring exhibition of Cubism in Amsterdam. His search for simplification is shown in two versions of Still Life with Ginger Pot (Stilleven met Gemberpot). The 1911 version [8] is Cubist, in the 1912 version [9] it is reduced to a round shape with triangles and rectangles.
Mondrian's birthplace in Amersfoort, Netherlands, now The Mondriaan House, a museum

Piet Mondrian

19

Paris 1911–1914
In 1911, Mondrian moved to Paris and changed his name (dropping an 'a' from Mondriaan) to emphasize his departure from The Netherlands. This matched the changed signature on his works that is dated to before 1907.[10] While in Paris, the influence of the Cubism style of Picasso and Georges Braque appeared almost immediately in Mondrian's work. Paintings such as The Sea (1912) and his various studies of trees from that year still contain a measure of representation, but increasingly, they are dominated by the geometric shapes and interlocking planes commonly found in Cubism. While Mondrian was eager to absorb the Cubist influence into his work, it seems clear that he saw Cubism as a 'port of call' on his artistic journey, rather than as a destination.

Piet Mondrian, Gray Tree, 1912, an early experimentation with cubism

The Netherlands 1914–1919
Unlike the Cubists, Mondrian still attempted to reconcile his painting with his spiritual pursuits, and in 1913, he began to fuse his art and his theosophical studies into a theory that signaled his final break from representational painting. World War I began while Mondrian was visiting home in 1914 and he was forced to remain in the Netherlands for the duration of the conflict. During this period, he stayed at the Laren artist's colony, there meeting Bart van der Leck and Theo van Doesburg. Both of these artists were undergoing their own personal journeys toward abstraction at the time. Van der Leck's use of only primary colors in his art greatly influenced Mondrian. After a meeting with Van der Leck in 1916, Mondrian wrote, "My technique which was more or less Cubist, and therefore more or less pictorial, came under the influence of his precise method."[11] With Van Doesburg, Mondrian founded De Stijl (The Style), a journal of the De Stijl group in which he published his first essays defining his theory, for which he adopted the term neoplasticism. Mondrian published “De Nieuwe Beelding in de schilderkunst” (“The New Plastic in Painting”)[12] in twelve installments during 1917 and 1918. This was his first major attempt to express his artistic theory in writing. Mondrian's best and most often-quoted expression of this theory, however, comes from a letter he wrote to H.P. Bremmer in 1914: I construct lines and color combinations on a flat surface, in order to express general beauty with the utmost awareness. Nature (or, that which I see) inspires me, puts me, as with any painter, in an emotional state so that an urge comes about to make something, but I want to come as close as possible to the truth and abstract everything from that, until I reach the foundation (still just an external foundation!) of things… I believe it is possible that, through horizontal and vertical lines constructed with awareness, but not with calculation, led by high intuition, and brought to harmony and rhythm, these basic forms of beauty, supplemented if necessary by other direct lines or curves, can become a work of art, as strong as it is true.[13]

Piet Mondrian

20

Paris 1919–1938
When the war ended in 1918, Mondrian returned to France, where he would remain until 1938. Immersed in the crucible of artistic innovation that was post-war Paris, he flourished in an atmosphere of intellectual freedom that enabled him to embrace an art of pure abstraction for the rest of his life. Mondrian began producing grid-based paintings in late 1919, and in 1920, the style for which he came to be renowned began to appear. In the early paintings of this style the lines delineating the rectangular forms are relatively thin, and they are gray, not black. The lines also tend to fade as they approach the edge of the painting, rather than stopping abruptly. The forms themselves, smaller and more numerous than in later paintings, are filled with primary colors, black, or gray, and nearly all of them are colored; only a few are left white. During late 1920 and 1921, Mondrian's paintings arrive at what is to casual observers their definitive and mature form. Thick black lines now separate the forms, which are larger and fewer in number, and more of them are left white than was previously the Piet Mondrian and Pétro (Nelly) van Doesburg in case. This was not the culmination of his artistic evolution, Mondrian's Paris studio, 1923 however. Although the refinements became more subtle, Mondrian's work continued to evolve during his years in Paris. In the 1921 paintings, many of the black lines (but not all of them) stop short at a seemingly arbitrary distance from the edge of the canvas, although the divisions between the rectangular forms remain intact. Here too, the rectangular forms remain mostly colored. As the years passed and Mondrian's work evolved further, he began extending all of the lines to the edges of the canvas and he also began to use fewer and fewer colored forms, favoring white instead. These tendencies are particularly obvious in the “lozenge” works that Mondrian began producing with regularity in the mid-1920s. The "lozenge" paintings are square canvases tilted 45 degrees, so that they hang in a diamond shape. Typical of these is Schilderij No. 1: Lozenge With Two Lines and Blue (1926), also known as Composition With Blue and Composition in White and Blue, which is currently on display at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. One of the most minimal of Mondrian's canvases, this painting consists only of two black, perpendicular lines and a small triangular form, colored blue. The lines extend all the way to the edges of the canvas, almost giving the impression that the painting is a fragment of a larger work. Although one is hampered by the glass protecting the painting, and by the toll that age and handling have obviously taken on the canvas, a close examination of this painting begins to reveal something of the artist's method. Mondrian's paintings are not composed of perfectly flat planes of color, as one might expect. Brush strokes are evident throughout, although they are subtle, and the artist appears to have used different techniques for the various elements. The black lines are the flattest elements, with the least amount of depth. The colored forms have the most obvious brush strokes, all running in one direction. Most interesting, however, are the white forms, which clearly have been painted in layers, using brush strokes running in different directions. This generates a greater sense of depth in the white forms, as though they are overwhelming the lines and the colors, which indeed they were, as Mondrian's paintings of this period came to be increasingly dominated by white space. Schilderij No. 1 may be the most extreme extent of Mondrian's minimalism. As the years progressed, lines began to take precedence over forms in his painting. In the 1930s, he began to use thinner lines and double lines more

Piet Mondrian frequently, punctuated with a few small colored forms, if any at all. Double lines particularly excited Mondrian, for he believed they offered his paintings a new dynamism which he was eager to explore.

21

London and New York 1938–1944
In September 1938, Mondrian left Paris in the face of advancing fascism and moved to London. After the Netherlands were invaded and Paris fell in 1940, he left London for Manhattan, where he would remain until his death. Some of Mondrian's later works are difficult to place in terms of his artistic development, because there were quite a few canvases that he began in Paris or London which he only completed months or years later in Manhattan. The finished works from this later period demonstrate an unprecedented business, however, with more lines than any of his work since the 1920s, placed in an overlapping arrangement that is almost cartographical in appearance. He spent many long hours painting on his own until his hands blistered and he sometimes cried or made himself sick. Mondrian produced Lozenge Composition With Four Yellow Lines (1933), a simple painting that introduced what for him was a shocking innovation: thick, colored lines instead of black ones. After that one painting, this practice remained dormant in Mondrian's work until he arrived in Manhattan, at which time he began to embrace it with abandon. In some examples of this new direction, such as Composition (1938) / Place de la Concorde (1943), he appears to have taken unfinished black-line paintings from Paris and completed them in New York by adding short perpendicular lines of different colors, running between the longer black lines, or from a black line to the edge of the canvas. The newly-colored areas are thick, almost bridging the gap between lines and forms, and it is startling to see color in a Mondrian painting that is unbounded by black. Other works mix long lines of red amidst the familiar black lines, creating a new sense of depth by the addition of a colored layer on top of the black one. The new canvases that Mondrian began in Manhattan are even more startling, and indicate the beginning of a new idiom that was cut short by the artist's death. New York City (1942) is a complex lattice of red, blue, and yellow lines, occasionally interlacing to create a greater sense of depth than his previous works. An unfinished 1941 version of this work uses strips of painted paper tape, which the artist could rearrange at will to experiment with different designs. His painting Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1942–43) at The Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan was highly influential in the school of abstract geometric painting. The piece is made up of a number of shimmering squares of bright color that leap from the canvas, then appear to shimmer, drawing the viewer into those neon lights. In this painting and the unfinished Victory Boogie Woogie (1942–44), Mondrian replaced former solid lines with lines created from small adjoining rectangles of color, created in part by using small pieces of paper tape in various colors. Larger unbounded rectangles of color punctuate the design, some with smaller concentric rectangles inside them. While Mondrian's works of the 1920s and 1930s tend to have an almost scientific austerity about them, these are bright, lively paintings, reflecting the upbeat music that inspired them and the city in which they were made. In these final works, the forms have indeed usurped the role of the lines, opening another new door for Mondrian's development as an abstractionist. The Boogie-Woogie paintings were clearly more of a revolutionary change than an evolutionary one, representing the most profound development in Mondrian's work since his abandonment of representational art in 1913. In 2008 the Dutch television program Andere Tijden found the only known movie footage with Mondrian.[14] The discovery of the film footage was announced at the end of a two-year research program on the Victory Boogie Woogie. The research found that the painting was in very good condition and that Mondrian painted the composition in one session. It also was found that the composition was changed radically by Mondrian shortly before his death by using small pieces of colored tape.

Piet Mondrian

22

Wall works
When 47-year-old Piet Mondrian left the Netherlands for unfettered Paris for the second and last time in 1919, he set about at once to make his studio a nurturing environment for paintings he had in mind that would increasingly express the principles of Neo-Plasticism about which he had been writing for two years. To hide the studio's structural flaws quickly and inexpensively, he tacked up large rectangular placards, each in a single color or neutral hue. Smaller colored paper squares and rectangles, composed together, accented the walls. Then came an intense period of painting. Then again he addressed the walls, repositioning the colored cutouts, adding to their number, altering the dynamics of color and space, producing new tensions and equilibrium. Before long, he had established a creative schedule in which a period of painting took turns with a period of experimentally regrouping the smaller papers on the walls, a process that directly fed the next period of painting. It was a pattern he followed for the rest of his life, through wartime moves from Paris to London’s Hampstead in 1938 and 1940, across the Atlantic to Manhattan. At the age of 71 in the fall of 1943, Mondrian moved into his second and final Manhattan studio at 15 East 59th Street, and set about to recreate the environment he had learned over the years was most congenial to his modest way of life and most stimulating to his art. He painted the high walls the same off-white he used on his easel and on the seats, tables and storage cases he designed and fashioned meticulously from discarded orange and apple-crates. He glossed the top of a white metal stool in the same brilliant primary red he applied to the cardboard sheath he made for the radio-phonograph that spilled forth his beloved jazz from well-traveled records. Visitors to this last studio seldom saw more than one or two new canvases, but found, often to their astonishment, that eight large compositions of colored bits of paper he had tacked and re-tacked to the walls in ever-changing relationships constituted together an environment that, paradoxically and simultaneously, was both kinetic and serene, stimulating and restful. It was the best space, Mondrian said, that he had ever inhabited. Tragically, he was there for only a few months, as he died of pneumonia in February 1944. After his death, Mondrian’s friend and sponsor in Manhattan, artist Harry Holtzman, and another painter friend, Fritz Glarner, carefully documented the studio on film and in still photographs before opening it to the public for a six-week exhibition. Before dismantling the studio, Holtzman (who was also Mondrian’s heir) traced the wall compositions precisely, prepared exact portable facsimiles of the space each had occupied, and affixed to each the original surviving cut-out components. These portable Mondrian compositions have become known as "The Wall Works". They have been exhibited twice since Mondrian’s death at Manhattan’s Museum of Modern Art (1983/1995-96), once in Soho at The Carpenter + Hochman Gallery (1984), once each at Galerie Tokoro in Tokyo, Japan (1993), the XXII Biennial of Sao Paulo (1994), The University of Michigan (1995) and, the first time to be shown in Europe, at the Akademie der Künste (Academy of The Arts), in Berlin (February 22 – April 22, 2007).

Death
Piet Mondrian died of pneumonia on February 1, 1944 and was interred in the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.[15] On February 2, 1944, a memorial, attended by nearly 200, was held for Mondrian, at the Universal Chapel on Lexington Avenue and 52nd Street in Manhattan. The Mondrian / Holtzman Trust functions as Mondrian's official estate, and "aims to promote awareness of Mondrian's artwork and to ensure the integrity of his work."[16] The U.S. copyright representative for the Mondrian / Holtzman Trust is HCR International.[17]

Piet Mondrian

23

References in culture
• The National Museum of Serbia was the first museum to include one of Mondrian's paintings in its permanent exhibition.[18] • Along with Klee and Kandinsky, Mondrian was one of the main inspirations to the early pointillist musical aesthetic of serialist composer Pierre Boulez,[19] although his interest in Mondrian was restricted to the works of 1914–15.[20] By May 1949 Boulez said he was "suspicious of Mondrian", and by December 1951 expressed a dislike for his paintings (regarding them as "the most denuded of mystery that have ever been in the world"), and a strong preference for Klee.[21] • In the 1930s, the French fashion designer Lola Prusac, who worked at that time for Hermès in Paris, designed a range of luggage and bags inspired by the latest works of Mondrian: inlays of red, blue, and yellow leather squares [22] . • In 2001–2003 British artist Keith Milow made a series of paintings based on the so-called Transatlantic Paintings (1935–1940) by Mondrian.[23] • Fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent's Fall 1965 Mondrian collection featured shift dresses in blocks of primary color with black bordering, inspired by Mondrian.[24] The collection proved so popular that it inspired a range of imitations that encompassed garments from coats to boots. • The L'Oréal cosmetic group's Studio Line products feature a design sometimes described as Mondrian-esque.[25] • The La Vie Claire cycling team's bicycles and clothing designs were inspired by Mondrian's work throughout the 1980s. The French ski and bicycle equipment manufacturer LOOK, which also sponsored the team, used a Mondrian-inspired logo for a while. The style was revived in 2008 for a limited edition frame.[26] • The Oreca racing team ran its Le Mans Prototype cars in a Mondrian-inspired livery from 2008 to 2010. • Piet is an esoteric programming language named after Piet Mondrian.[27] • The Burglar Who Painted Like Mondrian, a novel by Lawrence Block[28] • The Mondrian is a 20-story high-rise in the Cityplace neighborhood of Oak Lawn, Dallas, Texas (USA). Construction started on the structure in 2003 and the building was completed in 2005,

Partial list of works
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Molen Mill; Mill in Sunlight (1908) External link. [29] Avond Evening; Red Tree (1908) External link. [30] Chrysanthemum (1908) External link. [31] Windmill by the Water (1908) View from the Dunes with Beach and Piers, Domburg, (1909) The Red Tree (1909–10) Amaryllis (1910) Evolution (1910–11) The Red Mill (1910–11) External link. [32] Horizontal Tree (1911) Still Life with Ginger Pot I (Cubist) (1911) Guggenheim Collection. [33] Still Life with Ginger Pot II (Simplified) (1912) Guggenheim Collection. [34] Apple Tree in Bloom (1912) Gray Tree (1912) Eucaliptus (1912) Trees (1912–1913) Scaffoldings (1912–1914)

• Composition No. II; Composition in Line and Color (1913) • Ocean 5 (1915)

Piet Mondrian • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Composition III with Color Planes (1917) Composition with Color Planes and Gray Lines 1 (1918) Composition with Gray and Light Brown (1918) Composition with Grid VII (1919) Composition: Checkerboard, Dark Colors (1919) Composition A: Composition with Black, Red, Gray, Yellow, and Blue (1920) Composition with Black, Red, Gray, Yellow, and Blue (1920) External link. [35] Tableau I (1921) Lozenge Composition with Yellow, Black, Blue, Red, and Gray (1921) Composition with Large Blue Plane, Red, Black, Yellow, and Gray (1921) Composition with Blue, Yellow, Black, and Red (1922) Composition #2 (1922) Composition with Yellow, Black, Blue, and Grey (1923) Berardo Collection. [36] Lozenge Composition with Red, Black, Blue, and Yellow (1925) Lozenge Composition with Red, Gray, Blue, Yellow, and Black (1925) External link. [37] Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue (1927) Fox Trot; Lozenge Composition with Three Black Lines (1929) Composition with Yellow Patch (1930) Composition with Yellow (1930) Composition with Blue and Yellow (1932) Composition No. III Blanc-Jaune (1935–42) Rhythm of Straight Lines (1935–42) Harvard University. [38] Rhythm of Black Lines painting (1935–42) Composition blanc, rouge et noir or Composition in White, Black and Red (1936) Vertical Composition with Blue and White (1936) Abstraction (1937–42) Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue (1937–42) Composition No. 8 (1939–42) Painting #9 (1939–42) Composition No. 10 (1939–1942) New York City I (1942) Trafalgar Square (1939–1943) Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1942–43) Museum of Modern Art. [39] Place de la Concorde (1943) Victory Boogie-Woogie (1943–44) Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. [40]

24

Footnotes
[1] "Piet Mondrian" (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ servlet/ ArtistWorks?cgroupid=999999961& artistid=1651& page=1& sole=y& collab=y& attr=y& sort=default& tabview=bio), Tate gallery, published in Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, pp.532–3. Retrieved 18 December 2007. [2] Michel Seuphor, Piet Mondrian: Life and Work (New York: Harry N. Abrams), pp. 44 and 407. [3] Deicher (1995), p. 93 [4] Milner (1992), p. 9 [5] Milner (1995), pp. 9–10 [6] Deicher (1995), pp. 7–8 [7] Sellon, Emily B.; Weber, Renee (1992). "Theosophy and the Theosophical Society". In Faivre, Antoine. Modern Esoteric Spirituality. World Spirituality. 21. Crossroad. pp. 327. ISBN 0824511440 [8] Guggenheim Collection – Artist – Mondrian – Still Life with Gingerpot I – Large (http:/ / www. guggenheimcollection. org/ site/ artist_work_lg_112_9. html) at www.guggenheimcollection.org

Piet Mondrian
[9] Guggenheim Collection – Artist – Mondrian – Still Life with Gingerpot II – Large (http:/ / www. guggenheimcollection. org/ site/ artist_work_lg_112_11. html) at www.guggenheimcollection.org [10] Mondriaan, Pieter Cornelis (1872–1944) (http:/ / www. inghist. nl/ Onderzoek/ Projecten/ BWN/ lemmata/ bwn1/ mondriaan) at www.inghist.nl [11] The Dictionary of Painters. New York, NY: Larousse and Co., Inc.. 1976. pp. 285. [12] Mondrian 1986, 18–74. [13] Van Doesburg at Tate Modern (http:/ / www. ft. com/ cms/ s/ 2/ 711772d8-11e4-11df-b6e3-00144feab49a. html) By Jackie Wullschlager, Published 2010/6/2 [14] (Dutch) "Eerste filmbeelden Mondriaan" (http:/ / www. nos. nl/ nosjournaal/ artikelen/ 2008/ 8/ 28/ 280808_boogie_woogie. html) (NOS Journaal, 28-08-2008, visited: idem) [15] October 21, 2010 (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=7810314) at Find a Grave [16] Mission Statement page of The Mondrian / Holtzman Trust website (http:/ / www. mondriantrust. com/ mission. html) [17] Reproduction Rights page (http:/ / www. mondriantrust. com/ hreproduction. html) on the Mondrian Trust website [18] (http:/ / www. anothertravelguide. com/ eng/ europe/ serbia/ belgrade/ destinations/ culture/ national_museum_in_belgrade) [19] Peter F. Stacy (1987). Boulez and the Modern Concept. Scholar Press. ISBN 0803241836. [20] Strauss 1989, 133. [21] Boulez and Cage 1995, 103, 116–17. [22] Guerrand 1988, 57. [23] "Keith Milow – Paintings II" (http:/ / www. keithmilow. com/ Paintings-II/ Paintings-II. html). Keith Milow. . Retrieved 18 Feb 2010. [24] "Yves Saint Laurent: 'Mondrian' day dress (C.I.69.23)" (http:/ / www. metmuseum. org/ toah/ ho/ 11/ euwf/ ho_C. I. 69. 23. htm). Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (Metropolitan Museum of Art). October 2006. . [25] That Mondrian Look (http:/ / www. worldandi. com/ specialreport/ 1991/ july/ Sa19180. htm). The World And I. . [26] "Look! It’s 1986! The French frame maker offers a limited edition Mondrian paint scheme" (http:/ / www. velonews. com/ article/ 75935/ look-it-s-1986-the-french-frame-maker-offers-a-limited). velonews.com. 8 May 2008. . [27] David Morgan-Mar (25 January 2008). "Piet" (http:/ / www. dangermouse. net/ esoteric/ piet. html). . Retrieved 18 Feb 2010. [28] Jandys Reading Room online synopsis (http:/ / www. jandysbooks. com/ mystery/ burglarpainted. html) Retrieved July 27, 2010 [29] http:/ / www. artchive. com/ artchive/ m/ mondrian/ mondrian_mill_sunlight. jpg [30] http:/ / www. artchive. com/ artchive/ M/ mondrian/ mondrian_red_tree. jpg. html [31] http:/ / www. art. com/ asp/ sp-asp/ _/ pd--10083376/ Large_Chrysanthemum_c_1908. htm [32] http:/ / www. soho-art. com/ cgi-bin/ shop/ shop. pl?fid=1044454597& cgifunction=form [33] http:/ / www. guggenheimcollection. org/ site/ artist_work_lg_112_9. html [34] http:/ / www. guggenheimcollection. org/ site/ artist_work_lg_112_11. html [35] http:/ / www. artchive. com/ artchive/ M/ mondrian/ mondrian_composition_a. jpg. html [36] http:/ / www. berardocollection. com/ ?toplevelid=33& CID=100& opt=sw& tab=enlarge& v1=623& lang=en [37] http:/ / www. artchive. com/ artchive/ M/ mondrian/ mondrian_lozenge. jpg. html [38] http:/ / www. artmuseums. harvard. edu/ mondrian/ studies/ du3. html [39] http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ browse_results. php?object_id=78682 [40] http:/ / www. gemeentemuseum. nl/ index. php?id=031845& langId=en

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References
• Bax, Marty (2001). Complete Mondrian. Aldershot (Hampshire) and Burlington (Vermont): Lund Humphries. ISBN 0-85331-803-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-85331-822-0 (pbk). • Boulez, Pierre, and John Cage (1995). The Boulez-Cage Correspondence, new edition, edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez; translated from the French by Robert Samuels. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521485584. • Cooper, Harry A. (1997). "Dialectics of Painting: Mondrian's Diamond Series, 1918–1944". PhD diss. Cambridge: Harvard University. • Deicher, Susanne (1995). Piet Mondrian, 1872–1944: Structures in Space. Cologne: Benedikt Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-8885-0. • Faerna, José María (ed.) (1997). Mondrian Great Modern Masters. New York: Cameo/Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-4687-4. • Guerrand, Jean R. (1988). Souvenirs cousus sellier: un demi-siècle chez Hermès. Paris: Oliver Orban. ISBN 2855653770.

Piet Mondrian • Janssen, Hans (2008). Mondriaan in het Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. [The Hague]: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. ISBN 978-90-400-8443-0 • Locher, Hans (1994) Piet Mondrian: Colour, Structure, and Symbolism: An Essay. Bern: Verlag Gachnang & Springer. ISBN 978-3-906127-44-6 • Milner, John (1992). Mondrian. London: Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-2659-6. • Mondrian, Piet (1986). The New Art – The New Life: The Collected Writings of Piet Mondrian, edited by Harry Holtzman and Martin S. James. Documents of 20th-Century Art. Boston: G. K. Hall and Co. ISBN 0-8057-9957-5. Reprinted 1987, London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-60011-2. Reprinted 1993, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80508-1. • Schapiro, Meyer (1995). Mondrian: On the Humanity of Abstract Painting. New York: George Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-1369-X (cloth) ISBN 0-8076-1370-3 (pbk). • Strauss Walter A. (1989). "Stacey Peter F. Boulez and the Modern Concept. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987". SubStance 18, no. 2, issue 59:131–34. • Welsh, Robert P., Joop J. Joosten, and Henk Scheepmaker (1998). Piet Mondrian: Catalogue Raisonné, translated by Jacques Bosser. Blaricum: V+K Publishing/Inmerc. • Larousse and Co., Inc. (1976). Mondrian, Piet. In Dictionary of Painters (p. 285). New York: Larousse and Co., Inc.

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Further reading
• Busignani, Alberto (1968). Mondrian: The Life and Work of the Artist, Illustrated by 80 Colour Plates, translated from the Italian by Caroline Beamish. A Dolphin Art Book. London: Thames and Hudson. • Gooding, Mel (2001). Abstract Art. Movements in Modern Art. London: Tate Publishing; Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1-85437-302-1 (Tate); ISBN 0-521-80928-2 (Cambridge, cloth); ISBN 0-521-00631-7 (Cambridge, pbk). • Hajdu, István (1987). Piet Mondrian. Pantheon. Budapest: Corvina Kiadó. ISBN 963-13-2265-3. (Hungarian) • Apollonio, Umbro (1970). Piet Mondrian, Milano: Fabri 1976. (Italian) • Wiegand, Charmion (1943). "The Meaning of Mondrian" (http://1rhumb.com/1189/wp-content/uploads/2010/ 04/The-Meaning-of-Mondrian.pdf). The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism (Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The American Society for Aesthetics) 2 (8 (Autumn, 1943)): 62–70. doi:10.2307/425946.

External links
• Mondrian Trust (http://www.mondriantrust.com), the official holder of reproduction rights to Mondrian's works. • Piet Mondrian (http://www.moma.org/collection/artist.php?artist_id=4057) at the Museum of Modern Art • Piet Mondrian: The Transatlantic Paintings (http://www.artmuseums.harvard.edu/mondrian/) • Mondrian at Artchive (http://www.artchive.com/artchive/M/mondrian.html) • Piet Mondrian at Olga's Gallery (http://www.abcgallery.com/M/mondrian/mondrian.html) • Guggenheim NY Mondrian collection (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_works_112_0.html)

J. J. P. Oud

27

J. J. P. Oud
Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud

Born

9 February 1890 Purmerend, Netherlands 5 April 1963 (aged 73) Wassenaar, Netherlands

Died

Nationality Dutch Work Buildings Weissenhof Estate Keifhoek Housing Development

Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, commonly called J. J. P. Oud (9 February 1890 - 5 April 1963) was a Dutch architect. His fame began as a follower of the De Stijl movement. Oud was born in Purmerend, the son of a tobacco and wine merchant. As a young architect, he was influenced by Berlage, and studied under Theodor Fischer in Munich for a time. He worked together with W.M. Dudok in Leiden, which is where he also met Theo van Doesburg and became involved with the movement De Stijl. Between 1918 and 1933, Oud became Municipal Housing Architect for Rotterdam. During this period when many laborers were coming to the city, he mostly worked on socially progressive residential projects. This included projects in the areas of Spangen, Kiefhoek and the Witte Dorp. Oud was one of a number of Dutch architects who attempted to reconcile strict, rational, 'scientific' cost-effective construction technique against the psychological needs and aesthetic expectations of the users. His own answer was to practice 'poetic functionalism'. In 1927, he was one of the fifteen architects who contributed to the influential modernist Weissenhof Estate exhibition.

J. J. P. Oud

28

In America Oud is perhaps best known for being lauded and adopted by the mainstream modernist movement, then summarily kicked out on stylistic grounds. As of 1932, he was considered one of the four greatest modern architects (along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier), and was prominently featured in Philip Johnson's International Style exhibition. Johnson maintained a correspondence with Oud, tried to help him get work, commissioned a house for his mother (never built), and sent him socks and bicycle tires.
Gallery house at Weissenhof Estate designed by J. Oud

In 1945, after the end of World War II allowed photographs of Oud's 1941 Shell Headquarters building in The Hague to be published in America, the architectural press sarcastically condemned his use of ornament ("embroidery") as contrary to the spirit of modernism. After World War II, Oud designed the Dutch National War Monument in Amsterdam and the monument on De Grebbeberg. By then, he had mostly let go of any Stijl influences. He continued to take a highly individualistic stance against mainstream modernism. He designed projects such as the Spaarbank in Rotterdam, office-building De Utrecht in Rotterdam and the Children's health-centre in Arnhem (Bio-herstellingsoord). Oud's brother, Pieter Oud was mayor of Rotterdam. Oud died in 1963 at the age of 73 in Wassenaar.

Chronology of works
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1906 House in Purmerend. 1912 Movie theatre, block of worker housing and small individual houses in Purmerend. 1913 - 1914 Small houses in and about Leiden. 1915 Project for a municipal bath house, unexecuted. 1917 House in Katwijk-aan-Zee (collaboration with Kamerlingh Onnes). House in Noordwijkerhout (collaboration with Theo van Doesburg). Project for a row of seaside houses, unexcecuted. 1918 Spangen, Blocks I and V, Worker housing in Rotterdam. 1919 Spangen, Blocks VIII and IX. Projects for a factory and a bonded Warehouse, unexcecuted. 1920 - 1921 Tuschendijken, Blocks I to IV and VI in Rotterdam. 1921 Project for a house in Berlin, unexcecuted. 1922 Garden Village in Rotterdam at Oud-Mathenesse. 1923 Superintendent's office at Oud-Mathenesse, temporary. 1925 Café de Unie in Rotterdam 1926 Project for Hotel Stiassni in Brno, Czechoslovakia, unexcecuted. Competition project for Rotterdam Exchange, unexcecuted. 1926 - 1927 Worker's Houses at the Hoek of Holland 1927 Row of 5 houses, Weissenhof Housing Exposition, Stuttgart. 1927 Additions to the villa Allegonda at Katwijk-aan-Zee. 1928 - 1930 Kiefhoek Housing Development in Rotterdam. 1931 Project for steel apartments in Rotterdam, unexcecuted. Project for house in Pinehurst, unexecuted. 1938-1948 Shell Headquarters, The Hague

• 1942-1957 Spaarbank, Rotterdam • 1952-1960 Bio-herstellingsoord, Arnhem

J. J. P. Oud • 1954-1961 Officebuilding De Utrecht, Rotterdam • 1956, National Monument (with sculptor John Raedecker), Dam Square, Amsterdam PUBLICATIONS: Taverne, Ed, Broekhuizen, Dolf, J.J.P. Oud's Shell Building. Design and reception, Rotterdam: NAi publishers 1995 (ISBN 90-72469-73-9) Broekhuizen, Dolf, De Stijl toen / J.J.P. Oud nu. De bijdrage van architect J.J.P. Oud aan herdenken, herstellen en bouwen in Nederland (1938–1963), dissertation University of Groningen, Rotterdam, NAi publishers 2000 (ISBN 90-5662-193-9) Taverne, Ed; Wagenaar, Cor; Vletter, Martien de; Broekhuizen, Dolf (ed.), J.J.P. Oud Poetic Functionalist 1890-1963, Complete Works, Rotterdam: NAi publishers 2001 (ISBN 90-5662-198-8)

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Gerrit Rietveld

30

Gerrit Rietveld
Gerrit Rietveld

Born

Gerrard Thomas Rietveld 24 June 1888 Utrecht, Netherlands 25 June 1964 (aged 76) Utrecht, Netherlands Soestbergen Cemetery Utrecht, Netherlands Dutch Furniture designer, architect Red and Blue Chair (1917) Schröder House (1924)

Died

Resting place

Nationality Occupation Known for

Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (24 June 1888–25 June 1964) was a Dutch furniture designer and architect. One of the principal members of the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl, Rietveld is famous for his Red and Blue Chair and for the Rietveld Schröder House, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Biography
Rietveld was born in Utrecht in 1888 as the son of a joiner. He left school at 11 to be apprenticed to his father and enrolled at night school[1] before working as a draughtsman for C. J. Begeer, a jeweller in Utrecht, from 1906 to 1911.[2] By the time he opened his own furniture workshop in 1917, Rietveld had taught himself drawing, painting and model-making. He afterwards set up in business as a cabinet-maker.[3] Rietveld designed his famous Red and Blue Chair in 1917. Hoping that much of his furniture would eventually be mass-produced rather than handcrafted, Rietveld aimed for simplicity in construction.[4] In 1918, he started his own furniture factory, and changed the chair's colors after becoming influenced by the 'De Stijl' movement, of which he became a member in 1919, the same year in which he became an architect. The contacts that he made at De Stijl gave him the opportunity to exhibit abroad as well. In 1923, Walter Gropius invited Rietveld to exhibit at the Bauhaus.[5] He designed his first building, the Rietveld Schröder House, in 1924, in close collaboration with the owner Truus Schröder-Schräder. Built in Utrecht on the Prins Hendriklaan 50, the house has a conventional ground

Gerrit Rietveld floor, but is radical on the top floor, lacking fixed walls but instead relying on sliding walls to create and change living spaces. The design seems like a three-dimensional realization of a Mondrian painting. The house has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000. Rietveld broke with 'De Stijl' in 1928 and became associated with a more functionalist style of architecture, known as either Nieuwe Zakelijkheid or Nieuwe Bouwen. The same year he joined the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne. From the late 1920s he was concerned with social housing, inexpensive production methods, new materials, prefabrication and standardisation. In 1927 he was already experimenting with prefabricated concrete slabs, a very unusual material at that time. In the 1920s and 1930s, however, all his commissions came from private individuals, and it was not until the 1950s that he was able to put his progressive ideas about social housing into practice, in projects in Utrecht and Reeuwijk.[6] Rietveld designed the "Zig-Zag" chair [7] in 1934 and started the design of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, which was finished after his death. In 1951 Rietveld designed a retrospective exhibition about De Stijl which was held in Amsterdam, Venice and New York. Interest in his work revived as a result. In subsequent years he was given many prestigious commissions, including the Dutch pavilion for the Venice Biennale (1953), the art academies in Amsterdam and Arnhem, and the press room for the UNESCO building in Paris. Designed for the display of small sculptures at the Third International Sculpture Exhibition in Arnhem’s Sonsbeek Park in 1955, Rietveld's ‘Sonsbeek Pavilion’ was rebuilt with new materials at the Kröller-Müller Museum in 2010.[8] In order to handle all these projects, in 1961 Rietveld set up a partnership with the architects Johan Van Dillen and J. Van Tricht built hundreds of homes, many of them in the city of Utrecht.[9] His work was neglected when rationalism came into vogue, but he later benefited from a revival of the style of the 1920s thirty years later.[10]

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Recognition
Rietveld had his first retrospective exhibition devoted to his architectural work at the Centraal Museum, Utrecht, in 1958. When the art academy in Amsterdam became part of the higher professional education system in 1968 and was given the status of an Academy for Fine Arts and Design, the name was changed to the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in honour of Rietveld.[11] "Gerrit Rietveld: A Centenary Exhibition" at the Barry Friedman Gallery, New York, in 1988 was the first comprehensive presentation of the Dutch architect's original works ever held in the U.S. The highlight of a celebratory “Rietveld Year” in Utrecht, the exhibition “Rietveld’s Universe” opened at the Centraal Museum and compared him and his work with famous contemporaries like Wright, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe.[12]

Gallery

Red and Blue Chair (1917)

Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht (1924)

Metz & Co. in The Hague

Muziekschool, Zeist (1932)

Gerrit Rietveld

32

Rietveld receives honoris causa degree from TU Delft

References
[1] Alice Rawthorn (October 17, 2010), Design’s Odd Man Out Gets Moment in the Sun (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 10/ 18/ arts/ 18iht-design18. html) New York Times. [2] Gerrit Rietveld (http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ artist. php?artist_id=4922) Museum of Modern Art, New York. [3] Fleming, John, et al. (1972) The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture; 2nd ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin; pp. 237-38 [4] Red Blue Chair (1923) (http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ object. php?object_id=4044) Museum of Modern Art, New York. [5] Rita Reif (October 13, 1988), Rietveld, an Esthetic Wellspring (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1988/ 10/ 13/ garden/ rietveld-an-esthetic-wellspring. html) New York Times [6] Gerrit Rietveld - Biography (http:/ / www. vangoghmuseum. nl/ vgm/ index. jsp?page=13910& lang=en) Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. [7] http:/ / www. bonluxat. com/ a/ Gerrit_T. _Rietveld_Zig_Zag. html [8] Sculpture Garden at the Kröller Müller Museum (http:/ / www. kmm. nl/ statue-garden?lang=en) [9] Gerrit Rietveld - Biography (http:/ / www. vangoghmuseum. nl/ vgm/ index. jsp?page=13910& lang=en) Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. [10] Fleming, John, et al. (1972) The Penguin Dictionary of Architecture; 2nd ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin; pp. 237-38 [11] History of the Academy (http:/ / www. gerritrietveldacademie. nl/ en/ history) Gerrit Rietveld Academy, Amsterdam. [12] Rietveld’s Universe - Rietveld, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Theo van Doesburg, 20 October 2010 - 13 February 2011 (http:/ / www. centraalmuseum. nl/ page. ocl?pageid=133& expo_id=215& filter=1) Centraal Museum, Utrecht.

External links
• Rietveld furniture and archive in Centraal Museum, Utrecht, The Netherlands (http://centraalmuseum.nl/ ontdekken/object/?q=rietveld&sort=richness&img_only=) • www.ModernFurnitureClassics.com Rietveld Bio (http://www.modernfurnitureclassics.com/index.php/ main_page/designers/designer_id/12) • Great Buildings Online (http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Gerrit_Rietveld.html)

Georges Vantongerloo

33

Georges Vantongerloo
Georges Vantongerloo (24 November 1886, Antwerp–5 October 1965, Paris) was a Belgian abstract sculptor and painter and founding member of the De Stijl group.[1]

Life
From 1905 to 1909 Vantongerloo studied Fine Art at the Fine Art Academies in Antwerp and Brussels. Conscripted into World War I, he was wounded in a gas attack and discharged from the army in 1914. During 1916 he met Theo Van Doesburg and the following year he was a co-signator of the first manifesto of the De Stijl group. Vantongerloo moved to Paris in 1927 and began a correspondence with the Belgian Prime Minister, Henri Jaspar in relation to the design of a bridge over the Scheldt at Antwerp. In 1930 he joined the Cercle et Carré group in Paris and a year later he was a founding member of Abstraction-Création.

References
[1] "Biography" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060428124318/ http:/ / www. annelyjudafineart. co. uk/ artists/ vantongerloo/ gvbiography. html). Georges Vantongerloo. Annely Juda Fine Art. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. annelyjudafineart. co. uk/ artists/ vantongerloo/ gvbiography. html) on 2006-04-28. . Retrieved 2006-08-01.

Jan Wils

34

Jan Wils
Olympic medalist

Wils c1928 Medal record Art competitions Gold 1928 Amsterdam Architectural design

Jan Wils (22 February 1891 – 11 February 1972) was a Dutch architect. He was born in Alkmaar and died in Voorburg. Wils was one of the founding members of the De Stijl movement, which also included artists as Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg and Gerrit Rietveld. Among others, Wils designed the Olympic stadium for the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. His design was also entered in the Olympic art competition, and won the gold medal.

External links
• Short biography [1]

The 1928 Olympic Stadium, designed by Wils.

Jan Wils

35

References
[1] http:/ / www. the-artists. org/ ArtistView. cfm?id=D9900FFA-C762-11D4-A93800D0B7069B40

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Artists strongly influenced by De Stijl
Ilya Bolotowsky
Ilya Bolotowsky (1907–1981) was a leading early 20th-century painter in abstract styles in New York City. His work, a search for philosophical order through visual expression, embraced cubism and geometric abstraction and was much influenced by Dutch painter Piet Mondrian. Born to Jewish parents in St. Petersburg, Russia, Bolotowsky immigrated to America in 1923 via Constantinople, settling in New York City. He attended the National Academy of Design. He became associated with a group called "The Ten Whitney Dissenters,"[1] or simply "The Ten," artists, including Louis Schanker, Adolph Gottlieb, Mark Rothko and Joseph Solman, who rebelled against the strictures of the Academy and held independent exhibitions.
Black Diamond, Screenprint, 1978 During this period, Bolotowsky came under the influence of the Dutch painter Piet Mondrian and the tenets of neoplasticism, a movement that advocated the possibility of ideal order in the visual arts. Bolotowsky adopted his mentor's use of horizontal and vertical geometric pattern and a palette restricted to primary colors and neutrals.

In 1936, having turned to geometric abstractions, he was one of the founding members of the American Abstract Artists, a cooperative formed to promote the interests of abstract painters and to increase understanding between themselves and the public. He taught at Black Mountain College during the period 1946-1948, Kenneth Noland was among his students. Bolotowsky's mural for the Williamsburg Housing Project in Brooklyn, was one of the first abstract murals done under the Federal Art Project. Despite Bolotowsky's clear, precise control of his images, he emphasized the role of intuition over formula in determining his compositions. In the 1960s, he began making three-dimensional forms, usually vertical and straight-sided. He taught humanities and fine arts at the Southampton, New York campus of Long Island University.

Ilya Bolotowsky

37

References
[1] "The Ten Whitney Dissenters" (http:/ / www. louisschanker. info/ tendisc. htm). louisschanker.info. . Retrieved 17 December 2010.

External links
• List of artworks by Ilya Bolotowsky at The Smithsonian American Art Museum (http://americanart.si.edu/ collections/search/artwork/results/?num=10&name=ilya+bolotowsky&title=&keywords=&type=& number=&btnG.x=0&btnG.y=0/) • American Abstract Artists (http://www.americanabstractartists.org/) • New York Times Article on Ilya Bolotowsky (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. html?res=9B01E5D7163BF937A35751C0A965948260) • Image and artist bio at Rehs Galleries, Inc. (http://www.rehs.com/visual_history.html?page=50)

Burgoyne Diller

38

Burgoyne Diller
Burgoyne Diller
Born Died 1965

Nationality American Field Abstract art

Burgoyne A. Diller (January 13, 1906 – January 30, 1965) was an American abstract painter. Many of his best-known works are characterized by orthogonal geometric forms that reflect his strong interest in the De Stijl movement and the work of Piet Mondrian in particular. Overall, his Geometric abstraction and non-objective style also owe much to his study with Hans Hofmann at the Art Students League of New York.[1] He was a founding member of the American Abstract Artists.[2] Diller's abstract work has sometimes been termed "constructivist". He also did figurative and representational works early in his career working as a muralist for the New York City Federal Arts Project. His work is in many major museums, including the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, as well as the National Gallery of Art and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, DC.

Footnotes
[1] accessed online August 19, 2007 (http:/ / www. michaelrosenfeldart. com/ artistsestates. php?id=2) [2] Larsen, Susan C. “The American Abstract Artists: A Documentary History 1936-1941”, Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1974), p 2.

References
• Larsen, Susan C. “The American Abstract Artists: A Documentary History 1936-1941”, Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1974), p 2.

Books
• Barbara Haskell; Burgoyne Diller; Whitney Museum of American Art. Burgoyne Diller (New York : Whitney Museum of American Art, 1990) (Worldcat link: (http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/21761803& referer=brief_results)) ISBN 0874270715; ISBN 9780874270716 • Walker Art Center; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts; Pasadena Art Museum. Burgoyne Diller, an American constructivist: paintings, sculptures, drawings. Exhibition, Walker Art Center, 12 Dec. 1971 - 16 Jan. 1972; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 16 Feb. - 26 Mar. 1972; Pasadena Art Museum, 9 May - 2 July 1972. (Minneapolis, 1971) (Worldcat link: (http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/38719365&referer=brief_results)) OCLC 38719365

Burgoyne Diller

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External links
• Askart.com's info summary page on Burgoyne Diller (http://www.askart.com/AskART/D/burgoyne_a_diller/ burgoyne_a_diller.aspx?searchtype=SUMMARY&artist=31443) • Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Art: interview with Burgoyne Diller (http://www.aaa.si.edu/ collections/oralhistories/tranSCRIPTs/diller64.htm) • American Abstract Artists (http://www.americanabstractartists.org/) • Artcyclopedia entry on Burgoyne Diller (http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/diller_burgoyne.html) • Burgoyne Diller Papers at Smithsonian's Archives of American Art (http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/ findingaids/dillburg.htm) • Chronology of related artists and art fields (http://www.minusspace.com/chronology1930-1939.htm) Burgoyne Diller involved with Public Works of Art Project in 1934 and WPA in 1937

César Domela
César Domela (January 15, 1900 - December 30, 1992) was a Dutch sculptor, painter, photographer, and typographer, and a key member of the De Stijl movement.

Life
He was born César Domela Nieuwenhuis in Amsterdam. His father, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, was a former Lutheran pastor and influential anarcho-socialist member of the Dutch parliament. A self-taught artist, he lived from 1919 to 1923 in Ascona, Switzerland, developing his constructivist style, influenced heavily by cubism. He relocated to Berlin in 1923, where he became friendly with members of the influential November Group. In 1925, he became a member of De Stijl, working closely with the famed Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian. His work in this period often straddled several mediums. He concentrated on three-dimensional reliefs, often incorporating pieces of plexiglass and metal as well as photomontages and cutouts from advertisements. In 1936, he took part in an exhibition of Cubism and Abstract Art in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. He settled permanently in Paris in 1933, where he remained until his death in 1992. After he died, his vast archive or personal belongings and works was willed to the Netherlands Institute for Art History. In 2009, his two daughters Anne Dutter Domela and Lie Tugaye Domela donated a selection of nine of their father's works to the Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, and a room inside the museum is now dedicated to the painter.

External links
• Composition [1] César Domela and Lao Tseu through the composition

References
[1] http:/ / www. francois-murez. com/ compodomela%20en. htm

Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart

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Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart
Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart (November 17, 1899, Osnabrück, Germany – December 19, 1962, Ulm) was a German Neo-plasticist (De Stijl) painter. He was one of the first painters to work for his entire career within an abstract style.[1]

Life
Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart was born in Osnabrück, Germany and studied architecture, interior design and sculpture Hanover School of Art and the Technical College, Hanover. In 1924 he formed the abstract art group Gruppe K in Hanover with Hans Nitzschke and joined Der Sturm in Berlin. After meeting Theo Van Doesburg, Kurt Schwitters and Hans Arp, he became a member of De Stijl in 1925. Together with Kurt Schwitters and Carl Buchheister he formed the 'Abstrakten Hannover' group in 1927. He was a member of a number of other artistic groups including: the Cercle et Carré, 1930, Paris and Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart was a founding member of Abstraction-Création (1931), also in Paris. In 1938 he was exhibited in the infamous Degenerate Art exhibition, most of his works were confiscated and he was forced to leave Germany for the Netherlands.[2] [3]

Work
His works include:• • • • • • • 1925, Composition No. 15 - 1925[1] 1936, Composition No. 104 - 1936[3] 1946, Composition No. 154, oil on canvas, 120 x 80 cm 1946, Untitled (C8), collage, paper and plastic on paper, 28.5 x 23.5 cm c.1947, Untitled, collage on paper, 27.5 x 22.3 cm 1953, Composition No. 194, oil on canvas, 50 x 60 cm 1959/60, Composition No 212, oil on canvas, 105 x 80 cm[2]

References
[1] "Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart" (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?cgroupid=999999961& workid=15766& searchid=9064). Glossary. The Tate. . Retrieved 2006-07-31. [2] "Biography" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060303194259/ http:/ / www. annelyjudafineart. co. uk/ artists/ vordemberge/ vgbiog. html). Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart. Annely Juda Fine Art. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. annelyjudafineart. co. uk/ artists/ vordemberge/ vgbiog. html) on 12006-03-03. . Retrieved 2006-08-01. [3] "Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart" (http:/ / www. museothyssen. org/ thyssen_ing/ coleccion/ obras_ficha_biografia829. html). Virtual tour. Museothyssen-Bornemisza. . Retrieved 2006-08-01.

Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart

41

Further reading
• Gabo, Naum; et al.. Naum Gabo, Georges Vantongerloo, Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart: Works on paper : (Paperback). Annely Juda Fine Art. ISBN 1-870280-87-3.

External links
• Photographic portrait of Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart (http://www.xs4all.nl/~winnubst/seuphor2.html) • Photographic portrait of Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart as an older man (http://the-artists.org/ArtistView. cfm?id=8F695DD1-5F7F-4CB8-917EF29E01766027) • German initiative for the promotion of Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart, resident in Osnabrück. (http://www. vordemberge-gildewart.de)

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Works
Red and Blue Chair
Red and Blue Chair

Designer : Gerrit Rietveld Date : 1918 Country : Netherlands Materials : wood (lacquered). Style/Tradition : De Stijl Dimensions: 66x83x88cm (WxDxH) Colours : Black, red, blue and yellow

The Red Blue Chair is a chair designed in 1917 by Gerrit Rietveld. It represents one of the first explorations by the De Stijl art movement in three dimensions. The original chair was constructed of unstained beech wood and was not painted until the early 1920's[1] . Fellow member of De Stijl and architect, Bart van der Leck, saw his original model and suggested that he add bright colors[2] . He built the new model of thinner wood and painted it entirely black with areas of primary colors attributed to De Stijl movement. The affect of this color scheme made the chair seem to almost disappear against the black walls and floor of the Schröder house where it was placed[3] . The areas of color appeared to float, giving it an almost transparent structure[4] . The Museum of Modern Art, which houses the chair in its permanent collection, a gift from Philip Johnson, states that the red, blue,and yellow colors were added around 1923.[5] The chair also resides at the High Museum of Art, Atlanta.[6] It features several Rietveld joints. The Red and Blue Chair was reported to be on loan to the Delft University of Technology Faculty of Architecture as part of an exhibition. On May 13, 2008, a fire destroyed the entire building, but the Red and Blue Chair was saved by firefighters.[7]

Red and Blue Chair

43

External links
• • • • Building plan (adaptation based loosely on original) [8] plans in PDF with dimensions in mm [9] Gerrit Rietveld's Red and Blue Chair & What I Learned about Rest and Motion in Myself, by Anthony Romeo [10] Museum of Modern Art [11]

References
[1] Victoria and Albert Museum. Modern Chairs, 1918-1970: an international exhibition presented by the Whitechapel Art Gallery in association with the Observer, arranged by the Circulation Department, Victoria and Albert Museum, 22 July-30 August 1970 (London: Whitechapel Gallery, 1970), 8. [2] Klaus-Jürgen Sembach, Twentieth Century Furniture Design (Köln : Taschen, c2002), 93. [3] Victoria and Albert Museum. Modern Chairs, 1918-1970: an international exhibition presented by the Whitechapel Art Gallery in association with the Observer, arranged by the Circulation Department, Victoria and Albert Museum, 22 July-30 August 1970 (London: Whitechapel Gallery, 1970), 8. [4] Klaus-Jürgen Sembach, Twentieth Century Furniture Design (Köln : Taschen, c2002), 92. Victoria and Albert Museum. Modern Chairs, 1918-1970: an international exhibition presented by the Whitechapel Art Gallery in association with the Observer, arranged by the Circulation Department, Victoria and Albert Museum, 22 July-30 August 1970 (London: Whitechapel Gallery, 1970), 8. [5] (http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ browse_results. php?object_id=4044)

[6] "Press Release" (http:/ / www. high. org/ main. taf?erube_fh=erblog& erblog. submit. PostDetail=true& erblog. blogid=31& erblog. BlogPostID=704). High Museum of Art. . Retrieved 2009-11-20. [7] TU Delft fire news story (http:/ / www. dutchnews. nl/ news/ archives/ 2008/ 05/ minister_visits_scene_of_delft. php) [8] http:/ / www. cs. hut. fi/ Opinnot/ T-106. 270/ 2003/ Ohjeet/ files/ 2003-05-09-chair. pdf [9] http:/ / 1472472304617244308-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites. googlegroups. com/ site/ rietveldrnbchair/ Home/ plans-1/ RietveldR%26Bchairplans. pdf?attredirects=0& auth=ANoY7crn3tWJ9iRXCJUjxZweFQme6oXAaVM7JvFVFp6m2ErPuCgO6hGoCdqk72rQF0ljzBLSkwjO7Th43ieSeVpuFQcXMMLURppBAcZEC8bIOzDnx [10] http:/ / www. terraingallery. org/ Anthony-Romeo-Chair. html [11] http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ browse_results. php?object_id=4044

Rietveld Schröder House

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Rietveld Schröder House
Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House) *
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The exterior of the Rietveld Schröder House Country Type Criteria Reference Region ** Coordinates Netherlands Cultural I, II 965 [1]

Europe and North America 52°5′7″N 5°8′50″E

Inscription history
Inscription 2 December 2000 (24th Session) [2]

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List [3] ** Region as classified by UNESCO

The Rietveld Schröder House (Dutch: Rietveld Schröderhuis) (also known as the Schröder House) in Utrecht was built in 1924 by Dutch architect Gerrit Rietveld for Mrs. Truus Schröder-Schräder and her three children. She commissioned the house to be designed preferably without walls. Rietveld worked side by side with Schröder-Schräder to create the house. He sketched the first possible design for the building; Schroder-Schrader was not pleased. She envisioned a house that was free from association and could create a connection between the inside and outside. The house is one of the best known examples of De Stijl-architecture and arguably the only true De Stijl building. Mrs. Schröder lived in the house until her death in 1985. The house was restored by Bertus Mulder and now is a museum open for visits. In the year 2000 it was placed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.[4]

Rietveld Schröder House

45

Architecture
The Rietveld Schröder House constitutes both inside and outside a radical break with all architecture before it. The two-story house is situated in Utrecht, at the end of a terrace, but it makes no attempt to relate to its neighbouring buildings. With its revolutionary design, the house really sticks out to its suroundings, and is a beautifull addition to the neigborhood. It faces a motorway built in the 1960s. Inside there is no static accumulation of rooms, but a dynamic, changeable open zone. The ground floor can still be termed traditional; ranged around a central staircase are kitchen and three sit/bedrooms. The living area upstairs, stated as being an attic to satisfy the fire regulations of the planning authorities, in fact forms a large open zone except for a separate toilet and a bathroom. Rietveld wanted to leave the upper level as was. Mrs Schröder, however, felt that as living space it should be usable in either form, open or subdivided. This was achieved with a system of sliding and revolving panels. When entirely Maquette, ca 1985 partitioned in, the living level comprises three bedrooms, bathroom and living room. In-between this and the open state is a wide variety of possible permutations, each providing its own spatial experience. The facades are a collage of planes and lines whose components are purposely detached from, and seem to glide past, one another. This enabled the provision of several balconies. Like Rietveld's Red and Blue Chair, each component has its own form, position and colour. Colours were chosen as to strengthen the plasticity of the facades; surfaces in white and shades of grey, black window and doorframes, and a number of linear elements in primary colours. There is little distinction between interior and exterior space. The rectilinear lines and planes flow from outside to inside, with the same color palette and surfaces. Even the windows are hinged so that they can only open 90 degrees to the wall, preserving strict design standards about intersecting planes, and further blurring the delineation of inside and out.

Construction
Initially, Rietveld wanted to construct the house out of concrete. It turned out that it would be too expensive to do that on such a small building. The foundations and the balconies were the only parts of the building that were made out of concrete. The walls were made of brick and plaster. The window frames and doors were made from wood as well as the floors, which were supported by wooden beams. To support the building, steel girders with wire mesh were used.

World Heritage Site
The World Heritage Committee inscribed the Rietveld Schröder House on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites on 2 December 2000, during the 24th session in Cairns, Australia. The committee decided to apply criterion i and ii, and said about the house:[5] The Rietveld Schröderhuis in Utrecht is an icon of the Modern Movement in architecture and an outstanding expression of human creative genius in its purity of ideas and concepts as developed by the De Stijl movement. (...) With its radical approach to design and the use of space, the Rietveld Schröderhuis occupies a seminal position in the development of architecture in the modern age.

Rietveld Schröder House

46

Gallery

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 965 http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ ?search=& search_by_country=& type=& media=& region=& order=region "Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House)" (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 965/ ). World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. . Retrieved 2007-05-06. [5] "Nomination file" (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ p_dynamic/ sites/ passfile. cfm?filename=965& filetype=pdf& category=nominations) (PDF). World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. . Retrieved 2008-05-06.

External links
Dutch Rijksmonument 18329 (http:/ / www. kich. nl/ kich2010/ rapport. jsp?id_qualifier=ODB:Rijksmonumentnr& id=18329)

• • • •

Rietveld Schröder House (http://centraalmuseum.nl/en/visit/locations/rietveld-schroder-house/) Rietveld Schröder House (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/965) at the UNESCO World Heritage Centre Video tour of Schroder House (http://www.roland-collection.com/rolandcollection/section/17/502B.htm) Galinsky page, with photos (http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/schroder/index.htm)

Broadway Boogie-Woogie

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Broadway Boogie-Woogie
Broadway Boogie Woogie

Artist Year Type

Piet Mondrian 1942-43 Oil on canvas

Dimensions 127 cm × 127 cm (50 in × 50 in) Location Museum of Modern Art, New York

Broadway Boogie-Woogie is a painting by Piet Mondrian completed in 1943, shortly after he moved to New York in 1940. Art critics consider Broadway Boogie-Woogie to be Mondrian's masterpiece, and a culmination of his aesthetic. Compared to his earlier work, the canvas is divided into a much larger number of squares. Although he spent most of his career creating abstract work, this painting is inspired by clear real-world examples: the city grid of Manhattan, and the boogie woogie music to which Mondrian loved to dance.[1] The painting is owned by the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

References
[1] Boogie-Woogie (http:/ / www. moma. org/ collection/ browse_results. php?object_id=78682''Broadway)

External links
• Boogie-Woogie (http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?object_id=78682''Broadway) in the MoMA Online Collection

Victory Boogie-Woogie

48

Victory Boogie-Woogie
Victory Boogie Woogie Artist Year Type Piet Mondriaan 1942-44 Oil and paper on canvas

Dimensions 127 cm × 127 cm (50 in × 50 in) Location Gemeentemuseum, The Hague

Victory Boogie-Woogie is the last, unfinished, work by the Dutch abstract painter Piet Mondriaan. Left incomplete in 1944, since 1998 it has been in the collection of the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague. It was purchased at a cost of 80 million guilders (approximately 35 million euros) from the American collector Samuel Irving Newhouse. It was bought by the Stichting Nationaal Fonds Kunstbezit (National Art Foundation) through a gift from the Dutch Central Bank, commemorating the introduction of the euro. This gift raised questions in the Dutch House of Representatives.

External links
• Victory Boogie-Woogie in the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. [40]

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
De Stijl  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459495745  Contributors: 100110100, 1717, Adam Zivner, Alansohn, Antiuser, Arch2all, Arman Cagle, Bantosh, Barticus88, Biblbroks, Blaaah24, Brookie, Bumper12, Bus stop, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanisRufus, Coffee, Cowboy456, Delfeye, Dionidium, Dogears, Dyami Millarson, Dysprosia, Ellywa, Epbr123, Error, Eugene van der Pijll, Fieldday-sunday, Flillibridge, Fralor, Freshacconci, Frédérick Lacasse, Galoubet, Geekman3000, Hananeko, Hans castorp81, Heymarcel, HiLo48, Husky, Inquam, InverseHypercube, It's-is-not-a-genitive, J04n, JaGa, Jack Bethune, Jahsonic, Jamespjgrennan, Jareha, Jaxl, Jebba, Jebdogdaddy, Jeff G., JimmyGuano, JoeSmack, Justin Foote, KRS, Kaihsu, Kf4bdy, Kozuch, Krash, Kummi, Kwamikagami, Latitude0116, Lithoderm, Lockley, Look2See1, Luna Santin, Mafmafmaf, Majorkev, Mandarax, Manfroze, MapsMan, MarylandArtLover, Marzedu, MathMartin, Mbecker, Mbroooks, Mcginnly, Mjackso1, Modernist, Ms2ger, NHRHS2010, Neddyseagoon, Nimbusania, PGWG, Picapica, Picklegnome, Piet Vollaard, Planetneutral, Platinumbuddha, Pontauxchats, Puckly, QuackGuru, Qyd, R'n'B, RadRafe, Radioflux, Rasmus Faber, Red Scharlach, RepublicanJacobite, Rettetast, Revoranii, RexNL, RobertG, Ronaldomundo, Ronline, RoyBoy, S.dedalus, Sageo, Sannse, Sapphic, Sartas Regem, Seraphim, Seylyn, Shinmawa, Shoeofdeath, Solipsist, Sonett72, Sparkit, Spellcast, Spinster, Storkk, Stormyhawn, Szalax, Taarten, The Dark Peria, The Thing That Should Not Be, TwoRivers, Unyoyega, Vinsfan368, Wapcaplet, Wavehunter, Wik, WikHead, William Avery, X10, Шизомби, 203 anonymous edits Theo van Doesburg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455288975  Contributors: Alphachimp, Benfo-Dutch, Buxtehude, Bxtrby, Character.assassin, Ciceronl, Clicketyclack, CommonsDelinker, Cowboy456, D6, Darius Dhlomo, Droll, Dysprosia, EoGuy, Eugene van der Pijll, Ewulp, Frietjes, GearedBull, Gero, Gidonb, Hephaestos, Husky, Ichthys58, Ilse@, Ixfd64, J.smith, Jannetta, Japanese Searobin, JocK, Jokemijn, Koszmonaut, Kreegah, Lambiam, Lempkesfabriek, Liftarn, Lockley, Mandarax, Modernist, Monfornot, Pedant17, Pethan, RCS, Res2216firestar, Ruhrjung, Sapphic, Sietse Snel, Sparkit, Spinster, Stepshep, Tothebarricades.tk, Vincent Steenberg, Vnnycnt, W guice, Whaledad, WhisperToMe, Wizardman, Yakushima, 53 anonymous edits Bart van der Leck  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=449514535  Contributors: Afasmit, AlexGWU, GearedBull, Joanenglish, JocK, Meisterkoch, Mikeblew, OlenWhitaker, Rbraunwa, Rich Farmbrough, RobertG, Wknight94, X10, 14 anonymous edits Robert van 't Hoff  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=465128075  Contributors: 777sms, Aesopos, Dvanthoff, JimmyGuano, Kwamikagami, Mild Bill Hiccup, Rawralittlemore, Woohookitty, 4 anonymous edits Vilmos Huszár  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416464492  Contributors: BD2412, Bearcat, Cactus.man, Echtner, Husky, Joanenglish, Lkinkade, Lockley, MaxSem, NetRolller 3D, Radh, RobertG, 1 anonymous edits Piet Mondrian  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462300137  Contributors: 02357347-J, 03466996-G, 04029090-C, 07034789-F, 08034909-F, 09785885-!, 13bohmk, 83d40m, ABF, AHMartin, Acebulf, Addshore, Adjam, AdjustShift, Afasmit, Ahoerstemeier, AirdishStraus, Aitias, Akmie, Alai, Alansohn, Alerante, Alsandro, Amorymeltzer, Andrejj, Andrew.baggott, AndyZ, Andycjp, Anon user, Anonymous Dissident, Antandrus, Antonio Lopez, Arcadian, Arimoca, Art LaPella, Artlover, Ashwin33, Atomic Toast, Austrian, Avenged Eightfold, BD2412, Banpei, Bantoanthony, Barrymartin2, Baxart, Bazzargh, Benfo-Dutch, Bennievermeer, BernardH, Big Bird, Big Smooth, BobJones77, Bobak, Bobo192, Bookermorgan, Bratsche, Brian dalee, Btouburg, BuickCenturyDriver, Burgercat, Burntsauce, Bus stop, CWenger, Cacophony, Cactus.man, Calvin 1998, Camembert, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canadian-Bacon, CanadianLinuxUser, Capricorn42, Captain B, Cbernasc, Cdbarker, Cdc, Charles Matthews, Chcknwnm, Chickengiraffe, Chiswick Chap, Cholmondeley-Smythe, Christopher Parham, Chunting123, Closedmouth, Cmprince, Coelacan, Coffee, Colibri1, Cometstyles, Comics, Commander, Confuzion, Conversion script, Coolperson675, Courcelles, Crab182, Craigz, Craverguy, Crculver, Curb Chain, Curps, Cyhawk, Cynthia x, D6, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DVD R W, Danim, DarkAudit, Davewild, David Warner, Dcooper, Dead2world, DeadEyeArrow, Deltabeignet, Denisarona, Deon Steyn, DerHexer, Devnut, Diannaa, Dimadick, Dina, DoomsDay349, Dovedale, Dysprosia, Dzhim, Edwinstearns, Egil, EhsanQ, Ekmai, El aprendelenguas, Eliz81, Ellywa, Elockid, Emusauce, Entropy, Epbr123, Ephemeronium, Eragon3001, Eru, Ewulp, Excirial, Fadedglory23, Fashionobserver, Fbifriday, Fieldday-sunday, Filing Flunky, Flightx52, Flowerparty, Flyguy649, Forenti, Fram, FreplySpang, Freshacconci, Frumoase, Fullerene, Fyyer, G026r, Gabbe, Gd, Gegege13, GetsEclectic, Gilliam, Glane23, Glen, Goodmanj, Graham87, 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MarnetteD, Martarius, Materialscientist, Matthew Desjardins, Matthew Meta, Matthias92, Maxis ftw, Mdd, Mel Byars, Melsaran, Merechriolus, Mettimeline, Mickey1529, Mike Selinker, Minderbinder, Minesweeper, Minimac, Mitchrm555, Mlaffs, Mmoneypenny, Modeha, Modernist, Mp-phot, Mr Mulliner, Mr Rookles, Mwilso24, Mygerardromance, Nakon, Nathan Scot, NawlinWiki, NeilFraser, Neutral Milk Hotel, NickB1954, NickBlackburn, Nightenbelle, Nightkey, Ninjakannon, Nivix, NoPuzzleStranger, Nyyr2cool1, Observateurdelamode, Oda Mari, Ohnoitsjamie, Oliver202, Olivier, Omphaloscope, Onorem, Opelio, Orenburg1, Orphan Wiki, Outriggr, Oxymoron83, P72mad, PIrish, PatrickFisher, Persian Poet Gal, Pethan, Petrb, Pfalstad, Philip Trueman, Phr, Piano non troppo, Piers mandrake, Pleasantville, Pmanderson, Pseudomonas, Qviri, Qwertyus, Qxz, RJN, Radon210, RandomAct, Raven in Orbit, Read.jeff, Reallikeunreal, Red Bowen, Res2216firestar, Rex Germanus, RexNL, Rjwilmsi, RobertG, Robertkeller, Rockolom, Roman619, Rothorpe, Rrburke, Ryanjunk, SDC, Salam32, Samuelsen, Sango123, Sceptre, Sean.hoyland, Semitransgenic, ShelfSkewed, Sjc, Sluzzelin, SmileyFish, Smokizzy, Soetermans, Sophitus, Sparkit, Spinster, Splitheart96, Squeezeweasel, St.daniel, Steele333, Stefan29, Stephenb, Sunnan, Suphawut, SuzanneKn, Swarm, Tad Lincoln, Tar7arus, Tevi, Tevildo, Tgwizard, That Guy, From That Show!, The Lion Sleeps, The Rambling Man, The Thing That Should Not Be, The juggresurection, The wub, TheConsoleKing, Tide rolls, Totorotroll, Trainmaster728, Trevor MacInnis, TspChef, Ttam, Turgan, Twaz, Tyrenius, Ulric1313, Uncle Dick, UuuuU, Vanished188, Varizer, Vegetator, Venerablebean, Vidkillradiostar, Vipinhari, VirtualDelight, WODUP, Waggers, WereSpielChequers, Whaledad, Wiki Raja, Wiki alf, Willsmith, Wirbelwind, Wizardman, Wkwkwk, Wmpearl, Xevious, Xkykwi, Yama, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yiumanwan, Yuanzheng, Zanimum, Zidonuke, Zoe, Zzoommgg, Zzzzz, 1197 anonymous edits J. J. P. Oud  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=444668043  Contributors: 777sms, ADeveria, Afasmit, Bahnmoeller, Campanile, Dogears, Drmies, Dvanthoff, Elekhh, Epolk, Gidonb, HeartofaDog, Husky, Jkeene, Jvhertum, Lockley, Mcginnly, Muhandes, Shaqspeare, Ulysses Zagreb, Uncle Dick, Wafulz, 11 anonymous edits Gerrit Rietveld  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459702075  Contributors: 194.109.232.xxx, Aiko, Alansohn, Aleks Amster, Alsandro, Andre Engels, AndreasPraefcke, Black Orchid, Blacklake, Brendastyvesant, Buxtehude, Cagedcalcium, Calixton, Cben, Centraal museum, ChildofMidnight, Conversion script, D6, Dennis!, Dismas, Dogears, Drmies, Dukealden, Dysprosia, EdBever, Erdaroho, Eugene van der Pijll, Felix Folio Secundus, Gdo01, Gidonb, Husky, Ilse@, JNW, Jareha, Jeronimo, Juanscott, Jvhertum, Kate, Looskuh, MathMartin, Mav, Moniquestern, Newageliving, Paul venter, Pethan, Przemyslaw Pawelczak, Puceron, Raymond, Rich Farmbrough, RobertG, Rozth, Saga City, Saudade7, Solipsist, Sonett72, Spellcast, Stef breukel, TreasuryTag, Tsja, Ulysses Zagreb, Woohookitty, Zzuuzz, 65 anonymous edits Georges Vantongerloo  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=449117768  Contributors: Dawynn, Fram, Goldenrowley, Mcginnly, NHRHS2010, Ozolina, Pegship, Rjwilmsi, RobertG, Sunnan, Waacstats, 8 anonymous edits Jan Wils  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=401055806  Contributors: Afasmit, D6, Doma-w, DutchDevil, Gabbe, Garion96, Ilse@, Jeronimo, Joy, Jvhertum, RJFJR, Robertsteadman, Waacstats, 3 anonymous edits Ilya Bolotowsky  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=458812389  Contributors: ALoveSupreme, Cowboy456, DarthVader, Doprendek, Edison, Gobonobo, Kelainoss, Lockley, MaggieBrooklyn, Marika Herskovic, Maxbeck, Mercury8, MillyMagic, Modernist, Nburden, Phl3djo, Rehsgal, RogDel, RoodyAlien, Thparkth, 12 anonymous edits Burgoyne Diller  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=450091124  Contributors: Aaa intern, AlexGWU, Cowboy456, Deb, Ethicoaestheticist, Gosox5555, Hu12, J JMesserly, Kappa, Lauren, Lockley, MarylandArtLover, Mcdanielm, Mhjohns, Modernist, Raven in Orbit, RobertG, Rosenknospe, SarahStierch, Sean.hoyland, Sparkit, UBU07, UPSUCK, Wizardman, 1 anonymous edits César Domela  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=452637289  Contributors: Afasmit, CommonsDelinker, Dawynn, Docu, JForget, Kingturtle, LittleRoughRhinestone, Modernist, Postcard Cathy, RCS, RadioFan, Woohookitty, 5 anonymous edits Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=397973644  Contributors: Andrew Kelly, Chicheley, Common Good, Crystallina, Ewulp, MarylandArtLover, Mcginnly, Michael Zimmermann, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Vanished188, 2 anonymous edits Red and Blue Chair  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464677177  Contributors: AbigailAbernathy, Andy Dingley, BL Lacertae, Brutaldeluxe, Chuunen Baka, DanielCD, HollyAm, Ilse@, Junes, Kjlewis, Koavf, Kznf, Lithoderm, Paulscf, Red dwarf, Rembrandt's NightWatch, Sunnan, Trouver, Twredfish, Valentinian, Vegaswikian, Yellowdesk, 37 anonymous edits Rietveld Schröder House  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459829658  Contributors: Andrwsc, Arnoutf, Avihu, Awelwood, Bearcat, Big Brother is Watching, CalJW, Centraal museum, Closedmouth, Dapsv, Fæ, Husky, Ief, Ilse@, Jalo, Joey80, Jvhertum, Kent Wang, Kummi, Leon..., Lkohut, Lockley, Look2See1, Looskuh, MIKHEIL, Massimo Catarinella,

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MatthewVanitas, Mephistophelian, Mikeblew, Mintleaf, Olborne, Piet Vollaard, PyroGamer, Rjwilmsi, RodC, Rubenescio, Sietse Snel, Sonett72, Spellcast, TheParanoidOne, Tickle me, Treffer, Vegaswikian, Warofdreams, Wetman, 40 anonymous edits Broadway Boogie-Woogie  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=433249277  Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Alansohn, Arcadian, Bsadowski1, Cmprince, CommonsDelinker, Danim, Deror avi, Gaurav1146, Helian, Manuel Anastácio, Modernist, Nirvalex9, Pharos, Pzoxicuvybtnrm, Rajah, Reguiieee, Remember, Robert K S, Sophitus, Sparkit, SteveHopson, Yvesnimmo, 22 anonymous edits Victory Boogie-Woogie  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462938778  Contributors: C mon, Gurchzilla, Husky, Minimac, Rajah, Reguiieee, RobertG, Sparkit, Tdls, Veuger, Violetriga, Woohookitty, Yvesnimmo, 33 anonymous edits

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File:Rietveld chair 1.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_chair_1.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Ellywa File:Destijl anthologiebonset.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Destijl_anthologiebonset.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Husky, Ilse@, Slavona, Vincent Steenberg File:Theo van Doesburg Counter-CompositionV (1924).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theo_van_Doesburg_Counter-CompositionV_(1924).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bukk, Husky, Ilse@, Lupo, Mattes, Slavona, Vincent Steenberg, 4 anonymous edits File:RietveldSchroederhuis.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RietveldSchroederhuis.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fransvannes, Steinbach File:Theo van Doesburg in military service.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theo_van_Doesburg_in_military_service.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Vincent Steenberg Image:Theo van Doesburg Selfportrait with hat.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theo_van_Doesburg_Selfportrait_with_hat.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ilse@, Mattes, Vincent Steenberg File:Stijl130.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stijl130.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was Vincent Steenberg at nl.wikipedia File:Magnify-clip.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnify-clip.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Erasoft24 Image:Theo van Doesburg Composition VII (the three graces).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theo_van_Doesburg_Composition_VII_(the_three_graces).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ilse@, Mattes, Olivier2, Vincent Steenberg, 1 anonymous edits Image:Theo van Doesburg Contra-Composition XVI.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theo_van_Doesburg_Contra-Composition_XVI.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ephemeronium, Ilse@, Lupo, Mattes, Vincent Steenberg, 3 anonymous edits Image:Ciné-dancing Strasbourg - Theo van Doesburg060611 006.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ciné-dancing_Strasbourg_-_Theo_van_Doesburg060611_006.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: User:Hatterer Jean-Claude, User:Havang(nl) Image:International Congress of Progressive Artists.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:International_Congress_of_Progressive_Artists.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, AnRo0002, BlackIceNRW, Man vyi, Mbdortmund, Till.niermann, Vincent Steenberg Image:Bonset zig-zag.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bonset_zig-zag.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Vincent Steenberg, 1 anonymous edits Image:Van doesburg als bonset.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Van_doesburg_als_bonset.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Vincent Steenberg Image:Theo van Doesburg Arithmetic Composition (1930).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Theo_van_Doesburg_Arithmetic_Composition_(1930).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Husky, Ilse@, Slavona, Vincent Steenberg File:Robert van 't Hoff Henny House.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_van_'t_Hoff_Henny_House.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anonymous (photographer) Image:Robert van 't Hoff Summer House Verloop.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_van_'t_Hoff_Summer_House_Verloop.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anonymous (photographer) Image:Robert van 't Hoff stair pole 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_van_'t_Hoff_stair_pole_1.jpg  License: anonymous-EU  Contributors: Anonymous (photographer) Image:Huszar mechano dancer.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Huszar_mechano_dancer.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Cactus.man, Mechamind90 File:Piet Mondriaan.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Piet_Mondriaan.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was Vincent Steenberg at nl.wikipedia File:Mondriaan huis Amersfoort 2.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mondriaan_huis_Amersfoort_2.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Ellywa File:'View from the Dunes with Beach and Piers, Domburg', oil and pencil on cardboard painting by Mondrian, 1909, Museum of Modern Art, (New York City).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'View_from_the_Dunes_with_Beach_and_Piers,_Domburg',_oil_and_pencil_on_cardboard_painting_by_Mondrian,_1909,_Museum_of_Modern_Art,_(New_York_City).jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Angusmclellan, Mechamind90, Tyrenius, Wmpearl, Wondigoma, 1 anonymous edits File:Mondrian gray tree.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mondrian_gray_tree.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Bragador, Mechamind90, Meeples, Melesse, Modernist, Stan Shebs, VegitaU, 2 anonymous edits File:Piet Mondrian and Pétro van Doesburg.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Piet_Mondrian_and_Pétro_van_Doesburg.jpg  License: anonymous-EU  Contributors: Bohème, Infrogmation, LBE, Mu, Shakko, Vincent Steenberg, 1 anonymous edits File:J.J.P. Oud.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:J.J.P._Oud.jpg  License: anonymous-EU  Contributors: Anonymous (photographer) Image:Weissenhof photo house north façade Oud Stuttgart Germany 2005-10-08.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Weissenhof_photo_house_north_façade_Oud_Stuttgart_Germany_2005-10-08.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Shaqspeare File:Gerrit Thomas Rietveld.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gerrit_Thomas_Rietveld.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Original uploader was Oscar at nl.wikipedia Image:Rietveld chair 1.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_chair_1.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Ellywa File:Rietveldschroderhuis.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveldschroderhuis.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Fransvannes, Husky, Missvain, Ultratomio File:Metz & Co. Den Haag 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Metz_&_Co._Den_Haag_1.jpg  License: anonymous-EU  Contributors: Anonymous (photographer) Image:sc0164c390.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sc0164c390.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Sdelodder File:Architect Rietveld ere-doctor Weeknummer 64-04 - Open Beelden - 31598.ogv  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Architect_Rietveld_ere-doctor_Weeknummer_64-04_-_Open_Beelden_-_31598.ogv  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Man vyi, Pa3ems Image:Jan Wils.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jan_Wils.JPG  License: anonymous-EU  Contributors: Vincent Steenberg Image:Amsterdam Olympisch Stadion.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Amsterdam_Olympisch_Stadion.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Chigliak, EMPPU, GeeKaa, Havang(nl), HenkvD, Ilse@, Jacklee, JePe, Maartenvdbent, Paulbe, Pmsyyz, Sinigagl, Vincent Steenberg Image:Ilya Bolotowsky-Black Diamond 1978.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ilya_Bolotowsky-Black_Diamond_1978.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALoveSupreme File:Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Friedrich_Vordemberge-Gildewart_1.jpg  License: anonymous-EU  Contributors: Anonymous (photographer) File:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-20.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-20.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Schroderhuis maquette.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schroderhuis_maquette.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Wasily at nl.wikipedia Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-7.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-7.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-15.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-15.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-1.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-1.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-13.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-13.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky

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Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-14.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-14.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-3.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-3.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-4.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-4.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky Image:Rietveld Schröderhuis HayKranen-6.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rietveld_Schröderhuis_HayKranen-6.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Husky File:Monumentenschildje blauw wit.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Monumentenschildje_blauw_wit.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Silver Spoon Sokpop

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