Exercise # 2: Cells and Cell Division Group 1: Cruz, Earl. Inson, Noe. Ramos, Franklin. Talino, Marianne.

Tanjuatco, Luis Date submitted: Dec. 1, 2011

Introduction

In 1840, Albrecht von Roelliker discovered what we now know as gametes.

More than three hundred years ago, after the invention and developments of the microscope, scientists began studying cells. In the year 1665, after observing slices or pieces of cork under the microscope, Robert Hooke reported that: "These pores or cells, were not very deep, but consisted of a great many little boxes, separated out of one continued long pore, by certain

He claimed that the sperm and egg (cells) are also cells. Another five years later, Carl Heinrich Braun claimed that cells are the basic units of life. Ten years later, after studying Robert Brown‟s nuclei discovery, Rudolf Virchow completed the cell theory by concluding that all cells come from preexisting cells. “Omnis cellula e cellula.” According to Rudolf Virchow, all cells come from preexisting cells, how come he concluded this? The answer is the phenomenon of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. In general, cell division is divided unto two main parts, karyokinesis or mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis is basically the reproduction or formation of body cells or somatic cells. It is also a way of distributing the chromosomes and the DNA that a “parent cell” contains to continuing cell generations. However, this is not the only function of mitosis. Mitosis also functions as a rejuvenating process for cells or tissues, because through mitosis damaged and old cells are replaced by healthy and new cells (Hickman et al. 2011).

diaphragms." He thus discovered the cells. However, it was only about one hundred years later when the study of cells became very important. By that time, many scientists claimed that cells were indeed the building blocks of living tissue. In 1883, an English Botanist named Robert Brown discovered the nucleus of plant cells. Five years later, Matthias Jakob Schleiden claimed that all plant tissues are composed of cells and the embryonic plant came from a single cell. A year later, Theodor Schwann claimed that all animal tissues are composed of cells; he also claimed that plant and animal cells were fundamentally different in structure.

Mitosis is further divided unto five important processes or parts. First is interphase, it is in this stage where DNA replication occurs. Every DNA molecule replicates and new partners are synthesized for each strand making two identical DNA molecules produced from the original strand of DNA molecule. Next stage is Prophase. In this stage, the nuclear membrane or envelope centrosomes starts move to to disappear, opposite two poles,

On the other hand, meiosis is the reproduction or formation of gametes or sex cells. Basically, the process of mitosis and meiosis are similar. However, meiosis will undergo mitosis twice. Thus, the process forms four daughter cells. But, this

formation of four cells only applies to sperm cells. Egg cells on the other hand, lose the 3 daughter cells since they become polar bodies that could later be recycled in meiosis, therefore, only 1 egg cell is formed.

chromatin condenses and forms visible chromosomes and spindle fibers start to appear. After Prophase is Metaphase. In this stage, the condensed sister chromatids align at the metaphase plate or middle of the cell. By this process, it prepares itself to separate in the next stage. Next is Anaphase. In this stage, the cohesin proteins that held the sister chromatids are removed making them two separate chromosomes. The independent chromosomes then move toward opposite poles. Once the two chromosomes reach their poles, Telophase begins. In this last stage of Mitosis, spindle fibers disappear and the nuclear envelopes start to form around the separate two daughter nuclei (Animalgenome.org). After the division of the nucleus, the cytoplasm divides this process is called cytokinesis. In this stage, a cleavage furrow appears between the two independent nuclei. It deepens and pinches until the cytoplasm separates and forms two daughter cells. As Biology Lab class started, Materials and Methodology

handouts were given by the lab assistant to be used for the day‟s session. To be done for the day were the observation of the of the stages of both meiosis and mitosis,

observing the cellular respiration. For the observation and

identification of meiosis and mitosis that was done, a microscope was taken by each student or group, (depending on their preference,), each one having their assigned microscopes, which would all be found at the far end of the room. For the identification of the stages of mitosis, a prepared slide of whitefish blastula was used. The slide was examined under the LPO. Under this magnification, we located an area with the appropriate cell spreading, an area where cells wouldn‟t overlap each other and as a result, each cell

were clearly viewed. After being able to find an area with the said appropriate cell spacing or spreading, the HPO maginification was used by our group to have a closer look at the different stages of the cells. The different stages that were found in the slide with the use of the microscope were then drawn into the handouts. On the other hand, for the
Figure 2: Foraminifera

observation of the different parts of meiosis, a prepared slide of mouse testis was used. Much like what our group has done in the observation and identification of the parts of mitosis, same procedures were done as to finding and locating the cells that were needed to be observed.
Figure 3: Plasmodium

Results and Discussion

A.

Observing Protozoans

Figure 4: Trophozoite

1. What are the different organisms that you
Figure 1: Euglena

have seen? Describe the major locomotory organs of each. The first organism is the Euglena. It has flagella which looks like a cilia but longer and is only few compared to cilia. The next organism is called Foraminifera. It has

pseudopods, which are just temporary projections of eukaryotic cells. Next is Plasmodium. It has no locomotory organ. Finally, there is the Trophozoite. It has cilia as its locomotory organ which is composed of many whip like appendages.

2. What is/are the function of these parts of the cell? The nucleus processes genetic

information. The cytoplasm holds the organelles in place and acts as their medium of suspension. The plasma membrane allows molecules and ions to pass in and out of the

B. Observing the animal cell from multicellular organism

cell. 3. Do you think that Robert Hooke was correct in giving the name “cell” (small rooms) to the specimen he saw in the cork? Support your answer. Robert Hooke was correct. Cells definitely look like small rooms filled with organelles. Like rooms, cells are enclosed with walls called plasma membrane. Like a room, it

Figure 5: Unstained Cheek Cell (100x)

has

a

„door‟;

just

like to

how allow

transporters

function

molecules and ions to pass in and out of the cell. 4. Do you think Robert Browne was right when he gave the name “nucleus” to the “nut-like” part he saw inside the cell? Support your answer.
Figure 6: Stained Cheek Cell (400x)

A nucleus definitely looks like a nut in such a way that it is almost

1. What part of the cell became visible after the addition of the stain? The nucleus, cytoplasm and the plasma membrane became visible.

circular in shape. Furthermore, like a nut, it has a covering called the nuclear envelope, which is a double membrane.

5. Do you see a darker stained part inside the nucleus? Yes, that part is called the nucleolus. 6. What organelles did you see in the specimen? Under the microscope, there are only three things that are visible: nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma
Figure 9: Metaphase

membrane. 7. How do stains facilitate the study of cells? Stains give a clearer picture of a specimen. It enhances the image highlight some certain cellular

components.

C. Recognizing the different mitotic stages „

Figure 10: Anaphase

Figure 7: Interphase

Figure 11: Telophase

1. A large spherical nucleus, with the nuclear membrane intact, grainlike chromosomes and one to two

nucleoli. This is the stage of interphase.

2. A large, spherical nucleus with a
Figure 8: Prophase Figure 8: Prophase

nucleolus and nuclear membrane

intact and with thickened, more distinctly ribbon-like chromosomes. The chromosomes may look like a dish of spaghetti. This is the stage of interphase-Gap 2.

stage

seen

is

the

stage

of

cytokinesis.

D. Determination of Duration of Mitotic Stages

3. A cell in which the chromosomes appear as a loose knot in the center of the cell. The nuclear membrane, if still present, is indistinct. The nucleolus may start to fade. This is the stage of prophase.

4. A cell in which the chromosomes are aligned in the equatorial plane of the cell. This is the stage of metaphase.

Total number of cells in the field=71 Total number of cells(71) – Total number of mitotic figures(20) = Total number in interphase(51) Duration of stage(percentage) = (number of cells in a stage / total number of cells) x 100 Duration of stage(h and mins) =(number of cells in a stage / total number of cells) x 1440 Error% = (Actual Percentage-Theoretical Percentage) / Actual Percentage
Table 1. Determination of duration of mitotic stages.

5. A cell in which the chromatids are moving to opposite poles of the cell. This is the stage of anaphase.

Mitotic Stage Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Total

Number of Cells Field 1 Field 2 Field 3 16 14 21 4 5 3 3 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 23 21 27

6. A cell in which the chromatids, though fairly distinct are close to the opposite poles of the cell. A cell plate may be forming at the middle of the cell. This is the stage of telophase.

Total

Percentage (%) 71.83% 16.90% 8.45% 1.41% 1.41% 100%

51 12 6 1 1 71

Duration (h and mins) 17h 14mins 4h 3mins 2h 2mins 20mins 20mins 23h 59mins

% Error -25.30% 82.25% 52.66% 29.08% -41.84%

7. Look for two cells that appear to have finished dividing recently. These are the daughter cells and the

lengthen. The centrosomes are starting to move away from each other.

E. Meiosis Stages

Figure 12: Whitefish Blastula

Figure 12: Mouse Testis (LPO)
Figure 13: Field 1

(Note: The different Meiosis stages weren’t labeled because of the scarcity of clear pictures on the Mouse Testis)

Mitosis and Meiosis differ in such a way that Meiosis involves crossing over of homologous chromosomes. These
Figure 14: Field 2

homologous chromosomes will undergo almost the same division as mitosis. However, the end product of Meiosis I would be 2 haploid daughter cells. These daughter cells will undergo another division called Meiosis II. The division is also similar to Mitosis except it will yield 4

Figure 15: Field 3

haploid daughter cells.

a. What stage has the longest duration? Why? Prophase. It is because the nucleolus and the nuclear envelope is just starting to disappear and the mitotic spindle is beginning to

F. Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis Distinctive Features Chromosome number of parent cell Number of DNA Replications Number of cytoplasmic divisions Number of daughter cells produced Chromosome number of daughter cells Site of cell division Purpose 46 46 Mitosis Meiosis

2. Are the stages of mitosis occurring simultaneously? No, because it has to wait for one stage to completely finish until the next stage can begin.

1

2

3. In what material is the coded information of the cell stored?

1

2 4

The genetic information/DNA can be found in the chromosomes

2 4. What should be the chromosome number in daughter nuclei formed 46 23 by mitotic division of cells having the Somatic cells Cellular reproduction and general growth and repair of the body Gametes Sexual reproduction following chromosome

numbers? 16 __16__ 22 __22___ 68 __68___ 8 ___8___

5. Explain why the catfish blastula is selected for the study of mitosis. It is because it is the stage where

G. Error Analysis: Site a potential error that you may have encountered in you experiment. Explain. Some stages cannot be determined properly because of the blurry parts in the image. There could be that possibility of misidentification and miscalculation.

most mitotic activity happens.

6. Based on the obtained data in the table, what can you infer about the relative length of time that each stage spend in order for mitosis to be completed? Since mitosis is cell division,

1. During what stage of the cell cycle is the nuclear material doubled? Interphase – Synthesis phase

necessary preparations have to be made. Prophase, which is the first stage of mitosis, basically finalizes the preparation of the cell when the nucleolus and nuclear membrane

disappear and centrosomes start to part from each other. Next is metaphase, which basically involves the aligning of chromosomes in the middle of the cell forming the metaphase plate. Anaphase, which only took about 20 minutes, involve the pulling of chromosomes towards opposite poles. Finally, Telophase, which also took only a number of minutes, basically involves the

sperm. In oogenesis, one daughter cell becomes the ovum while the three polar bodies die.

10. Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction? It is important because it is able to make 4 daughter cells wherein the chromosomes split and crosses over for the interchanging of genetic information each daughter cell is different. It allows variation of characteristics in every generation.

forming of the cleavage furrow and the reappearance of the various parts of the cell.

Literature Cited 7. List three major differences between the events of mitosis and meiosis. Meiosis has 4 haploid daughter cells while mitosis has 2 diploid daughter cells. Meiosis has 2 cytoplasmic divisions while mitosis has only 1. Meiosis involves crossing over of traits while mitosis does not. Baker R, Vanhoeck. 2004. Cell Cycle Duration. http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/mol e00/mole00550.htm. Accessed 1 Dec 2011. Dillon, Mary. 19 Oct 2008. Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis. http://campus.udayton.edu/~INSS/Dillon230 /LECTHELP-2/2spermatogenesis_vs.htm. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. DOMIX Studio. n.d. Pseudopod. http://en.mimi.hu/biology/pseudopod.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. Goldsworthy, Traci. March 2009. Whitefish Blastula - Mitosis stages. http://goldsworthybiology.blogspot.com/200 8/07/whitefish-blastula-mitosis-stages.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. Hinterthuer, Burnetta. n.d. The Cell Cycle and Mitosis. http://faculty.nwacc.edu/bhintert/documents/ TheCellCycleandMitosis.pdf. Accessed 30 Nov 2011.

8. How are Meiosis I and Meiosis II different? Meiosis I produces 2 haploid

daughter cells while Meiosis II produces 4 haploid daughter cells.

9. How

do

spermatogenesis

and

oogenesis differ? Each daughter cell in

spermatogenesis develops into a

Kimball, John. 24 April 2011. Cilia and Flagella. http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/Bi ologyPages/C/Cilia.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. Laboratory handout. 2011. Exercise # 2: Animal Cells and Cell Division. Bi 101.1 Laboratory Handout. Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. The NAGRP Bioinformatics Project Team. n.d. Meiosis vs. Mitosis. http://www.animalgenome.org/edu/genetics/ mitosis.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. Nair, Sonia. 22 Sept 2011. Cytoplasm Function in a Cell. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/cytoplasmfunction-in-a-cell.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. Simmons, Kent. 2007. Cell Theory. http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/cm1504/ce lltheory.htm. Accessed 30 Nov 2011. Smith. 2001. Discovery of Cells and the Development of Cell Theory. http://www.smithlifescience.com/celltheory. htm. Accessed 30 Nov 2011.