# EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh.

Ismail January 2009

ELECTRONICS 1
CHAPTER 5: BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR BIASING

Introduction
There are two basic ways to set up the operating point of a transistor: base bias and emitter bias. Base bias produces a fixed value of base current whereas emitter bias produces a fixed values of emitter current. Base bias is most useful in switching circuits while emitter bias is important in amplifying circuits.

5.1

Figure below shows the CE connection mentioned in previous chapter, which is also an example of base bias (which means setting up a fixed value of base current).

Figure 1 We can find the Q point using a graphical solution based on the transistor load line, a graph of IC versus VCE. Based on the equation: VCE = VCC − I C RC IC = VCC − VCE RC

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

If we graph this equation, (IC versus VCE) we will get a straight line. This line is called a load line, because it represents the effect of load on IC and VCE. Substituting the values: IC = 15 V − VCE 3 kΩ

Note that the equation is linear. So, when VCE = 0; IC = 5 mA. When IC = 0, VCE = 15 V. The load line is :

Figure 2

5.1.1 The Saturation Point
The saturation point is where the load intersects the saturation region of the collector curves. Because the VCE at saturation is very small, the saturation point is almost touching the upper end of the load line. The saturation point tells us the maximum possible collector current for the circuit. To find the current at the saturation point, visualise a short between the collector and emitter to get figure below:

Figure 3

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

Then VCE drops to zero. All the 15V from collector supply will be across 3 kΩ. Thus the current: IC = 15 = 5 mA 3000

and the formula: I C ( sat ) = VCC RC

5.1.2The Cutoff Point
The cutoff point is the point where the load line intersects the cutoff region of the collector curves. Because the collector current at the cutoff is very small, the cutoff point almost touches the lower end of the load line. The cutoff point tells us the maximum possible collector-emitter voltage for the circuit. To find the cutoff point, visualise the transistor as an open circuit between the collector and the emitter, as shown below:

Figure 4 Since there is no current through the collector resistor, all the 15 V from the collector supply will appear between the collector emitter terminals. Thus, it is equals to 15 V.

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

The formula: VCE ( cutoff ) = VCC

Tips: Every transistor circuit has a load line. Given any circuit, workout the saturation current and the cutoff voltage. These values are plotted on the vertical and horizontal axes. Then draw a line through these two points to get the load line.

5.2 The Operating Point
If RB = 1 MΩ the base current is 14.3 µA. If β dc = 100, the collector current is about 1.43mA and the collector-emitter voltage is: VCE = VCC − I C RC = 15 V − (1.43 mA)(3 kΩ) = 10.7 V Therefore the quiescent point or Q point is: IC = 1.43 mA and VCE = 10.7 V

5.2.1The variation of Q point
By using the same circuit as in figure 1, let’s now assume an ideal transistor. The base current is : IB = 15 = 30 µA 500000

Suppose the gain is 100, the collector current: I C = 100 (30 µA) = 3 mA and; VCE = 15 − ( 3 mA )( 3 kΩ ) = 6V

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

The operating point is marked as Q below:

Figure 5

Now, assume the current gain of 50 and 150. Can you guess which is the operating point for gain of 50 and which one is for 150, QL or QH?

Example: Suppose the base resistance is now 1M (based on previous figure). What happens to the VCE if dc gain is 100?

Solution Ideally the base current would decrease to 15μA, the collector current would decrease to 1.5mA, and the collector emitter voltage would increase to: VCE = 15 – (1.5mA)(3K) = 10.5 V

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

To a second approximation, the base current would decrease to 14.3μA, and the collector current would decrease to 1.43mA. The collector emitter voltage would increase to VCE = 15 – (1.43mA)(3K) = 10.7 V

5.3 Emitter Bias
Figure below, shows emitter bias. As you can see the resistor has been moved from the base circuit to the emitter circuit. The Q point of this new circuit is now immune to changes in current gain. When the current gain changes from 50 to 150, the Q point shows almost no movement along the load line.

Figure 6

Note that the emitter voltage is now: VE = VBB – VBE

5.3.1Finding the Q point
Given the parameters below: VBB=5V, Rc=1K, RE=2.2K, Vcc=15V, βdc=100 Assuming second approximation, the emitter voltage equals: VE = 5 V – 0.7 V = 4.3 V

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

Use Ohm’s Law to find the emitter current: IE = 4.3 = 1.95 mA 2200

We know that the collector current is approximately the same as the emitter current, thus: VC = 15 − (1.95 mA )(1 kΩ ) = 13.1V VCE = VC − V E = 13.1 − 4.3 = 8.8 V Thus the Q point is at IC = 1.95 mA and VCE = 8.8 V. 5.3.1.1 Why the circuit is immune to changes in current gain? Notice the step we used in finding the Q point: 1. Get the emitter voltage 2. Calculate the emitter current 3. Find the collector voltage 4. Subtract the emitter from the collector voltage to get the VCE. We do not need to use the current gain to find the Q point, thus the exact values for the current gain no longer matters. By moving the resistor from base to emitter, we force the base to ground voltage to equals to the base supply voltage. This supply voltage minus 0.7 V is the voltage across the emitter setting up a fixed emitter current.

5.4 Voltage Divider Bias
Figure below shows a voltage divider bias. Notice that the base circuit contains a voltage divider R1 and R2.

Figure 7

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

Since the base current is small and has a negligible effect on the voltage divider , we can mentally open the connection between the voltage divider and the base to get the equivalent circuit in Figure below. In this circuit the output of the voltage divider is : V BB = R2 Vcc R1 + R 2

Ideally, this is the base supply voltage as shown in figure below:

Figure 8 As you can see, voltage divider bias is really emitter bias in disguise.This is why VDB sets up a fixed value of emitter current, resulting in a solid Q point that is independent of a current gain. The equations that can be used to analyze VDB are: R2 Vcc R1 + R 2 V E = V BB − V BE V BB = IE = VE , IC ≈ IE RE

VC = VCC − I C RC VCE = VC − V E

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

Example: What is the collector-emitter voltage in figure below?

Solution:

5.4.1

VDB Load Line and Q Point

Given the collector current of 1.1mA and a collector-emitter voltage of 4.94 V. These values are plotted to get the Q point shown below:

Figure 9 Since VDB is derived from emitter bias, the Q point is virtually immune to changes in current gain. One way to move the Q point is by varying the emitter resistor.
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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

For instance, if the emitter resistor is changed to 2.2kΩ, the collector current decreases to: IE = The voltages change as follows: Vc = 10 − (0.5mA)(3.6 K ) = 8.2V VCE = 8.2 − 1.1 = 7.1V Therefore the new Q point will be QL and will have coordinates of 0.5 mA and 7.1 V. On the other hand, if we decrease the emitter resistance to 510Ω, the emitter current increases to: 1 .1 IE = = 2.15mA 510 And the voltage change to: Vc = 10 − (2.15mA)(3.6 K ) = 2.26V VCE = 2.26 − 1.1 = 1.16V In this case, the Q point shifts to a new position at Q with coordinates of 2.15 mA and 1.16 V. 1.1 = 0.5mA 2.2 K

5.5 Collector Feedback Bias
Figure below shows collector-feedback bias (also called self bias).

Figure 10

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

Historically, this was another attempt at stabilizing the Q point. Again the basic idea is to feedback a voltage to the base in an attempt to neutralize any change in collector current. For instance, suppose the collector current increases. This decreases the collector voltage which decreases the voltage across the base resistor. In turn this decreases the base current , which opposes the original increase in collector current. These are the equations used for analysing collector feedback bias: IE = Vcc − V BE RC + R B / β dc

V B = 0.7V VC = VCC − I C RC Example:

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EGE217: Electronics 1 Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. Ismail January 2009

Tutorial 4
1. What is the emitter voltage and the collector voltage in figure below? Find the Q point and the load line and mark it on a graph.
+15V

150Ω

39Ω

33Ω

10Ω

2.

Using second approximation, β = 300, calculate IB, IC, VCE and PD.
2K

1M 10V

10V

3. Draw the load line for this circuit.
3K

500K 15V 15V

(a)

Find the Q point for the circuit above, when β = 100. Draw this point on your load line obtained.

(b) Change the value of Vcc to 9V. On the same graph, draw the load line for this new value and compare.

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