KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS 2007/2008

INSTITUTE OF OPEN LEARNING
SPECIAL/SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING) SET 312: FLUID MECHANICS III DATE: Wednesday 8th October, 2008 INSTRUCTIONS This paper contains FIVE questions. Attempt THREE questions only. Question 1 (a) (b) Differentiate between a streamlined body and a bluff body. [6 marks] TIME: 1.00 p.m. – 3.00 p.m.

A horizontal pipeline 40m long is connected to a water tank at one end and discharges freely into the atmosphere at the other end. For the first 25m of its length from the tank, the pipe is 150mm diameter and its diameter is suddenly enlarged to 300 mm. The height of water length in the tank is 8m above the center of the pipe. Considering all losses of head which occur, determine the rate of flow. Take f = 0.01 for both sections of the pipe. [14 marks]

Question 2 (a) (b) Derive an expression for the loss of head due to friction in pipes. [10 marks]

A sphere of 4cm diameter made of aluminium (sp.gr. = 2.8) is attached to a string and suspended from the roof of a wind tunnel test section. If an air stream of 30ms-1 flows past the sphere, find the inclination of the string and tension in the string. [10 marks]

Question 3 (a) What is meant by water hammer? Derive an expression for the rise of pressure when the flowing water in a pipe is brought to rest by closing the valve gradually. [10 marks]

2 (b) In a pipe of diameter 350mm and length 75m, water is flowing at a velocity of 2.8ms-1. Find the head loss due to friction using: (i) (ii) Darcy-Weisbach equation. Chezy’s formula for which c = 55. [10 marks]

Assume kinematic viscosity of water as 1.2 x 10-6 m2/s. Question 4 (a)

A horizontal pipe 150mm in diameter is joined by sudden enlargement to a 225mm diameter pipe. Water is flowing through it at the rate of 0.05m3s-1. Find: (i) (ii) Loss of head due to abrupt expansion Pressure difference in the two pipes. [10 marks]

(b)

On a flat plate of 2m (length) x 1m (width), experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel with a wind speed of 50km/h. The plate is kept at such an angle that the coefficient of drag and lift are 0.18 and 0.9, respectively. Determine: (i) (iv) Drag force (ii) Lift force (iii) Resultant force, and [10 marks]

Power exerted by the air stream on the plate.

Question 5 A pumping plant forces water through a 600mm diameter main, consumption head being 27m. In order to reduce the power consumption, it is proposed to lay another main of appropriate diameter along the side of the existing one so that the two pipes work in parallel for the entire length and reduce the friction head to 9.6m only. Find the diameter of the new main if with exemption of diameter, it is similar to the existing one in every respect. ………….. [20 marks]

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