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THE

OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW.
A CONTRIBUTION TO

BIBLICAL CRITICISM AND INTERPRETATION.

THE QUOTATIONS FROM THE OLD TCSTAMENT IN THE N E W CLASSIFIED ACCORDlNG TO THEIR AGREEMENT WITH, OR VARIATION FROM. THE ORIGINALI T E E VARIOUS READINGS AND VERSIONS OF TEE PASSAGES +DDED AND CRITICAL NOTES-SUBJOINED.

BY

DAVID Mc CALMAN TURPIE M. A:
'

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,
14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON; AND 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.

LEIPZIG. PRINTED BY CARL B. LORGK

TO

MISS DUNDAS

OF

DUNDAS

XLZ Bark of blespect nab @stem a
ANU AN ACENOWLEDGEMENT

OF THE INTEREST FELT IN IT
PROM TEE BEGWNING

THIS VOLUBlE IS DEDICATED
BY

THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE.
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A few words only of Preface need be given, as the book must speak for itself. I t was drawn up in substance twenty years ago; and for the last four and twenty years a goodly portion of my time has been taken up with the study of the Languages and Literatures of the East, dead and living. And the followi~gwork is given to the learned world as the first , fruits of these studies. In examining the texts, I have used those I . a m most familiar with. Perhaps others would h&e selected different texts, or would have drawn up texts for themselves, among which to institute t h e comparisan. ,But it seemed better to take those in current use, that it might nnbt be said the texts were so 'far fitted to each other. The Various Readings of course no. one can alter (unless by saying that he finds this ather reading in the MS. there) though the values attachable to them may be differently estimated by different critics, and hence the different texts supported by them. The Versions for- the Hebrew of the Old and the reek of the New are those contained in the so-called Authorized Version. It was thought advisable to abide by them; but, when'

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ved when squired. . I t is to be borne in mind that the following work only classifies and critically discusses the passages in the New Testament, which are considered to be Quotations from the Old. It is the ground work for other volumes, wherein will be discussed the Introductory formulas as bearing on the Authenticity and inspiration of the books of the Old whence the Quotations are drawn; and the passages themselves as containing prophecies whose fulfilment is pointed out, or types whose antitype is given, or historical facts which are adduced, or illustrations which are drawn from the Sacred Store'house. While others have written on the same subject, it is yet to be regarded as containing an independent investigation. And the subject is an important one, not only in itself, but as bearing upon so many other questions of interest. It links the Old and the New together, shows how the New is the sequence of the Old, and the Old the preparation for the New. It is connected with Questions which have an interest for Christians at all times, and now as much as, perhaps more than, ever before. The Canon of the Old Testament is brought up for discussion, and its witness thereon must be heard. It speaks on the Genuineness and Authenticity of these books of old, and its testimony on these points must be listened to. The Inspiration of the Bible is under review, and its evidence for it as GOD'S word, must be regarded. It speaks in plainest phrase thereof, and the voice of truth must be believed.
Murray Rouse, North Eerwick.
October 31st 1867.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Introductory Remarks XV Key to the Signs and Abbreviations of Writing in the Various Readings XHII of the New Testament Key to the Signs and Abhreviktions of Writing in the Various Readings of the Septuagint Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVIII Key to the Signs and Abbreviations of Writing in the Various Readings : XXIX of the Old Testament Readings of the Codex Sinaiticuu, 2, bearing on the Quoted-Passages of the NLW Testament, and extracted from Tiachendorf's Notatio Codicis XXXII Sinaitici prefixed to Vol. Il. of his Critical Edition of 1859

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Table A contains t.he Quotations in the New Testament, which agree with the Original Hebrew Text of the Old, when the lotter h i s been eorreeflg rendered in the Septuagint Version, with which also they of course agree. It is divided into two parts, Table A.8, containing those passages in which the same arrangement of words is followed in the New T&tament and the Septuagint; and Table A.d, wherein the words occur in a slightly different order. Table A.s oontains Matt. XIX. 18.fp, p. 1; ch. XIX. 19:lp; ch. XXI. 16, p- 2; ch. XXII. 39;-MarkVII. l0:fp; oh. XI. 17; th, XII. 31; Luke X. 2i.lp, p. 3; oh. XVIII. 20.lp; John X. 34; ch. XIX. 24; a c t s I. 20.1~.p. 4; ~ h 11.34--35; . ~ h m. 25-26, p. 5 ; ch. XIII. . 3 3 ; ch. XIII. 35; Rom. 1 1 13.fp, p. 6 ; :ch. LU. 1 3 . 1 ~ ;ch. IV. 17, 1. p. 7; oh. IV. 18; ch. VIII. 36; ch. H. 7; ch. IX. 12; ch. IX. 15, p. 8; oh. X. 13; oh. XIII. 9.fp, p. 9; ch. XIlL 9 . 1 ~ ;ch. XV. 3; 1 Car. X. i ; ch. X. 26 (v. 28.1~i n F); 2 Cor. IV. 13, p. 10; oh.VI. 2; ch. H. 9; GaL 111. 16; oh. V. 14, p. 11; Heb. I. Lip; oh. I. , . 5 . 1 ~ ;ch. I. 8-9, p. 12; oh. I. 13: ch. 1 1 15; ch. IV. 3, p. 13; 1. . - ch. I . 7; oh. V. 5; ch. V. 6: ch. VII. 17, p. 14; ch. VII. 21; T 1 1. ch: XI. IS; James 1 . 8 ; App. Natt. XXVII. 35, p. 15; Rom. 1 1 4.fp, p. 16 1-16 Table B.d contains Acts XXUI. 5; Rom. IX. 13; Heb.Il. 13, p. 17; 1 Pet.1. 16, p. 1 S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l7-18

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Table B contains the Quotations in the New Testament, which agree with the Original Hebrew Text, when the latter has not been correctly rendered in the Septuagint.

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It is divided into two parts, Table B.s, containing those passages in

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which the Septuagint may have been partly followed verbally; and Table B d, wherein it may be supposed that suoh was not the case. Table B s oontainskark XU. 2 9 3 0 , p. 19; cb. XV. 28; Luke XXII. 37; 2 Cor. VIII. 15, p. 20; 2 Tim. 1 . 19; Heb. 11. 12, p. 21 1 19-21 Table B.d contains Matt. II. 15; ch. XXVII. 46, p. 22; Mark XV. 34, p. 23; 1 Car. In. 19, p. 24 22-24

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Table C contains the Quotations in the New Testament, which differ from the Original Hebrew Text, when the latter has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint. This ditference is I. in Words; or 1 . in Clauses; or 1 1 in Both. 1 1. Hence Table C is divided into three parts correspondingly, viz. Table C.1; Table C.11; and Table C.III. And, as the Difference in Words has reference to the rendering (denoted by r); to the omissxan (0); and to the addltion thereof (a), Table C I. is subdivided into corresponding parts. Also, as the Difference in Clauses has respect to their position, as (1) int~oductory; (2) intermediate; and (3) final, Table C.11. is also broken up into subordinate Tables to correspond; and the letters, r, o, and a will intimate, as above, about the rendering, omission and addition thereof. Similarly are there sub&visions of Table CIII. \ Table C.1.x. contains those passages of the New Testament which differ from the Original in the rendermy of a Word or Words, and are Matt. XXII. 44, p. 25; Mark X. 19.fp, p. 26; ch. XII. 36, p. 27; Luke XVIU. 20.fp, oh. XX. 42-43, p. 28; ch. XXIII. 46; .John 11. 17, p. 29; ch. XV. 25, p. 30; ch. XIX. 36, p. 31; 1. Acts III. 25; Rom. 1 1 4, 0. 32, ch. VI. 18; ch. X. 19; ch. XT. 11, p. 33; 1 Cor. In. 20; oh. XP. 27, p. 34; Eph IT. 8, p. 35; Heb. I. 7; ch. TI. 14, p. 36; cb. IX. 20; eh. XIII. 5, p. 37; James 1 . 11, p 38; 1 Pet. II. 24; 1 Tim. V. 18 lp, p. 39 1 25-39 Table C.1.o. contains those which difer bp the omission of a Word or Words, and are Matt. XV. 4.fp; oh. XIX. 19.fp; cb. XXI. 13.fp, p. 41; oh.,XXn. 32; Mark X. 19.lp, p. 42; oh. XII. 2 6 ; . L a e 1V. 10-11, p. 43; Acts Vli. 40; Rom. X. 5, p. 44;' ch. XV. 9; Gal.. I I 12, p. 45 I. .4145 Table C.1.r.o. contains those which differ both by the mnderinq and the omission of Wor&, and are Matt. XV. 4.111; Mark VII. 10.lp. Luke 1 . 23, p. 4i; ch. XIX. 46.fp, p. 48; ~ o h n 1 VIII. 17; Acts I. 2,.fp, p. 49; eh. VII. 32; eb. XIII. 34, . 50; 2 Cor. TI. p. 47-53 16, p. 51; G a l . - ~ n .8, p. 52; 1 pet. 1 . 9, p. 53 1 Table C.1.a. contains those which direr by the addition of a Word or Words, and are Matt. XIX. 4; Mark X. 6, p. 54; John XIII. 18.p. 55; Rom. 1 1 11-12; 1 Cor. XV.45, p. 56; Heb. IV. 4; 1. oh. XII. 21, p. 67 54-57 Table C.1.r.a. contains those which differ both by the rendering and the addition of Words, and sre Matt. XI. 10, p. 58; Mark I. 2, p. 59; Luke VII. .27; John VI. 31, p. 60; Rom. IX. 25, p. 61; 1 1 Cor. X. 20, p. 62; 2 Cor. TI. 18; 1 Pet. 1 . 22, p. 63. . . . . 58-63 Table C.1.o.a. contains those which dijfer both by the omission and thc addition of Words, and are Matt. 1 . 23, p. 64; Rom. 1 1 1 1. 10, p. 66; ch. XI. 3; 1 Cor. I. 31, p. 67; Gal. IT. 30, p. 68 . 64-88

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Tablc C 1.r.o.a. contains those whioh differ both by the rendering, the omusion and the addztrm of Wordr, and are 1 Cor. XV. 25: 1 Pet. III. 10-12, p. 69: 69 Table C.II.r.0. contains that whioh differs by the rendering and 72 omission of a Clause or Clauses, and iis Heb. XU. 20, p. 72 Table C.II.r.a. oontains that which diffws by the rendering and addi13 tion of a Clause or Clauses, and is 2 Cor. TI. 17, p. 73 . . . . . Table C.II.4.o. containr: those whtch differ by the omission of an intermediate CZame, and are Matt. IV. 6, p. 74; Rom. VIl. 7, p. 75 .74-75 Table C.II.l.o.2.0.3.a oontains those whioh dzffer by the omassaon of an initial and intermediate Clause, and the addition of a final one, and are Matt: XXII. 24, p. 76; Mark XII. 19, p. 77; Luke XX. 28, p. 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76-78 Table C.III.a.2.a. contains that which differs both in W2rds and CZauses by the addition thereof, and is Acts 1 . 17-21, p. 80 1 80, Table C.II1.o.a. contains those which differ both in Words and Clauses by the omission and addition of either, and are Acts XLII. 22, p. 84; ROD. XI. 8, p. 85 84-85

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Table D oontains the Quotations in the New Testament; which differ from the Original Hebrew Text, but agree with the Septuagint Version, which of oourse also varies from the Oriiinal. It is divisible into two parts, Table D.8, oontaining those passages, in which the same arrangement of words is followed in the New Testament and the Septuagint; and Table D.d, those wherein the words occur 'in a aslightly different order. 1 The Difference from the Heb. is 'I. in Words; or, 1 . in Clauses. >Henos Table D is divided into two parts corre~pondingly,Table D.I.; Table D.11.' And, as the Differenoe in Words, has reference to the rendering (denoted by r); to the omission ( 0 ) ; and to the addition thereof, [a), Table D.I., is subdivided into corresponding parts. Also, as the Diffcrenoein Clpuses has respeot to their position, as (I)introductow; (2) intermediate;' and (3) final, Table D.II. would also be broken up into parts to'correspond, if the passages were numerous engugh; and the letters, r, o, and a intimate, as above, about the rendering, the omission-and the addition thereof. Table D.8:I.r. contains those passages whioh agree with the Septuagint and have the same order, but differ from the Hebrew in the rendering 'of a Word or Words, and areMatt. IV. 7, p. 87; Matt. XIII. 14--15, p. 88; Luke IT. 12; Acts 1 . 25-28, p. 90; oh. 1 VlII. 32-33, p. 92; ch. xXi'I11. 26-27,. p. 97; Rom. IV. 7-8.; ch. X. 18, p. 99; 1 Cor. IX. 9; ch. XV. 32, p. 100; Gal. IV. 27; Heb. 1 . 13, p: 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-101 I Table D.s.1.0. contains that passage which, while agreeing with and having the same order. as the Septuagint, d i m s from the Hebrew -by the omission of a Word or Words, and is Acts VII. 35, p. 1C2 102 Table U.s.1.r.o. 'iontains those which agree as before, but difor from the Hebrew by the rendering and omission of a Word or 103 Words, and are Rom. XV. 12; Heb. XI. 21, p. 103 'Table D.s.1.a. oontains those which agree as before, but differ from the Hebrew by the nddilion of a Whrd or Words, and are Matt. XXI. 42; Mark XII. 10-11, p. 105; Luke XX. 17; John XII. 38,

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p. 106; Ram. X. 16; ch. XU. 20; ch. XV. 10, p. 107; ch. XQ. 21, p. 108; 1 Car. VI. 16; Heb. Xm. 6, p. 109; 1 Pet. 11.7, p. 110. 105-110 Table D.s.1.r.a. contains those whioh agree as before, but differ from the Hebrew by the rendering andaddition of a Word or Words, and are Rorn. IV.3; ch. IX. 29, p. 111; James II. 23, p. 1 1 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ill-112 Table D.d.1.r.o. contains those which, while agreeiny with the Septuagint, but having a slightly different order, differ from the Hebrcw by the rendering and omission of a Wbcd or Words, and are Rom. XI. 34; 1 Tim. Y. 18.fp, p.113. 113 Table D.d.1.r.a. contains those which, while agreeing with the Septuagint, hut having a slightly different order, di/ier from the Hebrew, by the rendering and addition of a Word or W'ords, and are Ram. X. 20-21, p. 114; Gal. III..6, p. 115 . . . . . . . 114-115 Table D.d.1.r.o.a. contains that which, while it is like the two preceding Tables in regard t o the Septuagint, differs from the Hebrew by the rendering, the omission and the addition of a W w d or Wbrds and is Hcb. X. 37-38, p. 116. 116 Table D.s.1I.r.o. contains those passagei which, while agreeing with the Septuagint and having the same order, differ from the Hebrew by the rendering and omission of a Clause or Clauses, and are, Heb.11. 6-8, p. 118; oh. X. 5-7, p. 119; JamesIV.5, p. 123. 118-123

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Table E contains the Qnotations in the New Testament, which differ from both the Hebrew and the Septuagint, which are also themselves at uariance. Thihir Difference is I. i n Words; or, 1 . in Clauses; or IU.in Both. 1 ', Hence Table E is divided into three parts oorrespondingly, vie. Table E.I.; Table E.11; Table E.111. And, as the Difference. in Words has reference t o the rendering (denoted by I); t o the omission (0); and t o the ,addition (a) thereof; Tahle E.I. is subdivided into oorresponding parts. Also, as the Diferenoe in Clauses hss respeot to their position as (1) introductory; (2) intermediate; and (3).final, Table E.11. is also broken up into parts to oorrespond; and the letters r, o, and a intimate about the rendering, omission and addition thereof. Similzrly are there subdivisions of Table E.111. Tabla E.1.r. containsthose passages which differ from both the Hebrew and the Septuagint, which themselves vary, by the rendering of a Word or Wards, and are Natt. I. 23, p. 127; oh. IX. 13, p. 128; oh. XU. 7; oh. XIII. 35, p. 129; Wark XIV. 27; Luke II. 24, p. 130; John XIX. 37, p. 131; Acts VII. 49-50, p. 132; Born. III. 14, p. 133; 1 Cor. XV. 54, p. 134; oh. XV; 55, p. 135; 1 Pet. I. 24-25, p. 136; ch. I . 24.fp; oh. IV. 8, p: 137; 2 Pet. I 1 . 22.fp; Rev. 1 . 27, p. 138 1 1 127-138 Table E.1.o. contains those passages which differ from both as above, by the omission of a Word, and are Rom. I, 17, p. 140; 140-141 Gal. 111. 11, p. 141. Table E.1.r.o. contsins those which differ from both as above, by the rendering and omission of a Word or Words, and are Natt. QIII. 17, p. 142; Luke VLIl. 10; Acts VII. 37, p. 143; ch. Xm. 47,-p. 144; Rom. 1X. 9, p. 145; ch. X. 15, p. 146; 1 Cor. I. 19, p. 147; ch. 1 . 16, p. 148; Eph. VI. 2--3, p. 149; Heb. XII. 26, 1 p. 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142--150 .

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Table E.1.a. contains those which differ from both as %have, by the addition of a Word, and are Matt. IV. 10; Lnke IT.8, p. 151 151 Table E.1.r.a. contains 'those which diffw from both as above, by the renderinq and addition of a Word or Words, and are Matt. XXVI. 31; Acts IT. 11, p. 152; Rom. 17, p. 153; ch. IX. 26, p. 154; ch. X. 11; oh. XlI. 19, p. 155; 1 Cor. XIV. 21, p. 156; 2 Cor. IX. 7, p. 157; Gal. III. 10, p. 158; Heb. I. 6, p. 159; oh. X. 30, p. 160; ch. XII. 5-6, p. 161; James IV. ti; ch. V. 20, p. 162. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152-162 Table E.1.o.a. contains those which differ fiom bath as above, by the omission and addilion of a Word or Words, and are Matt. IV. 4 ; ch. XVIII. 16, p. 164; ch. XIX. 5; ch. XXI. 13.lp, p:165; ch. XXII. 37, p. 166; Mark X. 7-8, p. 167; ch. XI. 1 7 . 1 ~ ;Luke XIX. 46.lp, p. 168; Acts VII. 3; ch. VE. 42--43, p. 169; ch. XIII. 41, p. 183; Rom. 1 . 24, p. 184; eh. XI. 4, p. 185; 2 COT.XIII. 1, 1 p. 186; Gal. ID[. 13; Eph. V. 31, p. 187. . . . . . . . . . . 164-187 Table E.1.r.o.a. contains those which di//ccr from both as. above, by the mmderiny, omission and addition of a Word or Fords, a n t are Matt. 1 . 6, p. 189; ch. II. 18, p. 193; ch. 1 1 3, p. 194; 1 1. ch. XV. 8-9, p. 195; Mark I. 3, p. 197; ch. VIL 6-7; John VI. 45, p. 198; Aots W. '33-34, p. 199; ch. XV. 16-17, p. 201; Rom. IX. 27-28, p. 203; oh. XI. 9-10, p. 206; ch. XI. 26-27, p. 207; Heb. I. 10-12, p. 209; oh. III. 7-11, p. 210; ch. VIII. 5; D 14--15, p. 215. 189-215 ch. X. 16-17, p. 213; 1 Pet. I L 6; ch. I . Table E.1I.a. contains t h a t passage which diffsers from both t h e Hebrew and the Septuagint, which are themselves at variance,' 218 by the addifion of a CZause, and is Luke X. 27.fp, p. 218 Table %.II.o. contains those passages which differ from both as above, by the omission of a Clause or Clauses, and,are Luke TV. 4; John L 23, p. 219 219 Table E.II.l.a.2.o.r. contains.those which difcr from both as above, by the addition of an izboductory CZause, the omission o f an intermediate one, and the rendering thereof, and are Matt. 1x1. 5, p. 221; John XIl. 14-15, p. 222; 1 Cor. II. 9, p. 223 : 221-223 Table E.II1.r.l.o. contains those which difer from both as ,above, by t h e rendering of a Word or Words, and the omission of the inhoducfory Ciause, rind are Matt. I . 15-16, p. 225; Rom. 1 1 T 1. 15-17, p. 226 225-226 able E.III.r.2.o. contains those which differ from both as abovr, by the rendering of a Word or Words, and the omission of an intermediate C/nzlse, or Clawes, and are Matt. XU. 18-21, p. 228; Mark IT. 12, p. 231;John XII. 40, p. 233. . . . . . . . . . 228-233 Table E.III.l.o.3.a.r. contains those which differ from both as above, by the omission of the introductory Clause, the addifiun of a filzol Clause, and the rendering of a Word or F ' ' r , and are llatt. Foo& X X W . 9-10, p: 235; 1 Ccr. II. 9, p. 23i. 235-231 Table E.III.r.2.a.o. contains those which differ from .both as above, by the omission and addition of ifitermcdiafe Clrruses, and the rendering of a Word or Wordr, and are Luke IV. 18-19, p. 239; 1. p. 243; ch. VII. 2&28, Acts 1 1 22LA3, p. 241,; ch. VII. 6-7, p. 244; Rom. IX. 33, p. 246; Heb. VIII. 8-12, p. 248; Luke I. 17, p. 253. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,238-253

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Table E.III.r.o.a.2.o. contains those which differ from both as above, by the madering, the omission and addition of a W o r d or Words, and the omission of an intermediate Ciawe or Clanses, and are Luke III. 4-6, p. 256; Rom. X. 6-8, p. 259; eh. XIV. 11, p. 261. ,256-261 Appendix contains John VlI. 38, p. 203; oh. VII. 42, p. 264; Eph. Y. 14, p. 265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263-265 General Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26i Index I. of Passages in the Old Testament Quoted in the New . . . . . . 4 7 1 Index l . of Quoted Passages found in the New . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 I

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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.
In reading the New-Testament, one cannot fail to observe passages, in regard to which it is either explicitly stated or directly implied that they are extracted from other writings. And one who is familiar with the Old Testament, will he able, in general, to refer them at once to their sources, so intimate is the connection between the two portions of Holy Writ. The New Testament being written in Graek, and the Old Testament in Hebrew, (excepti~g a small portion in Chaldee), it w07lld be necessary, in instituting a comparison between the extract and its original, either to translate the original into Greek, or to translate both into one's vernacular tongue, in order to see how far they agree or differ. Yet, for this end, it would not answer, to take any translation, our own Authorized Version for example, and make the comparison therewith, independently of the originals. Such a mode of procedure, though carried ant, would be found unsuccessful for the purpose in hand; and recourse mnst he had to the originals. But, it may be borne in mind that, before the New Testament was written, the original Hebrew Text had been translated into Greek, a version which appears in what is called the Septuagint. And thus the New Testament Greek extract may be compared with the translation found in the Septuagint Version. Now, it has been maintained by some, that the New Testament writers, in their Quotations, always made use of the Septuagint; while others have held that they quoted solely from the Hebrew Text, which they translated for themselves; and a third party, that they adhered uniformly to neither, but used, now the one and then the other, as best suited their purpose. Such a matter of dispute, it is impossible to determine a prim. The facts themselves mnst be investigated, and the conclusion arrived a t accordingly.

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In order to this, the Quotations must be classified according to their Agreement with, or Variation from, the Sources referred to, viz the Hebrew Text and the Septuagint Version, which will necessitate a comparison also of the two latter in these respects. And taliing it for granted at present, that the Hebrew Text may not be always correctly rendered in the Septuagint Version, and also, that the New Testament Extracts may not always agree with both, or with either, it will be found that there can be no more than Five Great Classes, to one or other of which all the Quotations will be referrible. These five classes are the following: Class A would contain those which agree with the Original Hebrew Text, when the latter has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint. Class B.wou!d contain those which agree with the Original Hebrew Text, when the latter has not been correctly rendered in the Septuagint. Class C would contain those which difer from the Original Hebrew Text, when the latter has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint. Class D would contain those which d z f 2 from the Original Hebrew Text, but agree with the Septuagint Version, which of course would vary from its Original. Class E would contain those which dzfer from both the Hebrew and the Septuagint, which also would be themselves at variance, the latter not correctly rendering the former. Thus, Classes A and B would contain those which agree with the Hebrew; Classes A and D, those which agree with the Septuagint; and Classes C and E, those which difer from both. In Classes A and C the Hebrew Text has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint Version; but in Classes B, D and E it has not been so Class A is thus common to both the Hebrew and the Septuagint; Class B is penclzar to the Hebrew, and Class D to the Septuagint; and in Classes C and E the Quotation dzfcrs from both the Hebrew and the Septuagint, which in the former Class agree, but in the latter dzffer. Of course, it is only an investigation of the facts themselves, that will show whether or not there are Quotations referrible to all these Classes, or, to how many of them they can be referred, the above classification being a generalization drawn up a pnori, and with reference to general principles, from which it is certain that no more classes will be required, however many of these may be needed in arranging the details.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

It may also be anticipated that each Class will be capable of subdivision, in various respects, according to the location, rendering, omission or addition of words or clauses. But, before proceeding to the Classification of the Quotations according to the above general analgsis, it may be requisite to name the S o w c e ~used in the comparison, or the texts from which the Extracts compared are taken The Hebrew Text is talcen from Hahn's edition of the Hebrew Bible, in regard to which Rosenm~iller says in his Preface: "Textum Hebraicum hlec editio sistit Hooghtianum, qnalem Bahnii accurata diligentia recognovit, et a mendis typographicis, q u a ei insederant, repurgavit. Booghtiana vero editio exhibet cum textum, quem R. Josephus Athias, typographus Amstelodamensis, in Bibliis a se editis, anno 1661 et 1667, collatis optimis qule tune exstabant editionibus, et ad emendandum adhibitis duobus codicibus antiquissimis, constituit. Editio hwc textum Hebraicum, judice Jablonskio in Pr~ftttionead Biblia Hebraica a se edita, a rudimentis Compl~~tensibus varia varii temporis incrernenta per ad adultam quandam maturitatem its eluctatum exhibet, u t omnibus, quw eum pr~cesserunt,palmam przripere merito censeri debeat. Quare digna illa erst, cujus textum Jablonskius et Van der Hooght in Bibliis Hebraicis a se editis potissimum sequerentur." This text has been compared with that of Van der Hooght, as edited by Judah d'Allemand who says: "In exemplari seligendo, ad quod hwc prwsens editio conformaretur, non potuimus non in usus nostros adhibere przstantissimum Everardi van der Hooght opus, Amstelodami publici juris factum anno salutis 1705; tanto virorum doctorum consensu per continuos saltem annos exceptum" etc.; and which has thus become the textus receptus, as it is called, for the Hcbrew Bible, as the Elzevir edition of 1624 became the textus receptus for the Greek Testament. I-Ie adds: "In foliis corrigendis, summam diligentiam adhibuimus, ut przesens hlec editio, et textu accurato et lectione sineera, doctionbus se commendaret.. . . Hoc modo, olnnia folia, sexies ad minimum, examini prius subjecta fuerunt, quam manum ultimam operi typographus admoverit!' Comparison has also been instituted between these two editions and that by Doederlein and Meisner, from which the various readings of the Hebrew Text have been taken. In the preface Meisner says: "Constat abunde, quam grata fuerit bibliorum hebraicorum editio, olim a b. Reineccio procurata, et deinde aliquotles hic Lipsile apud Breitkopfium repetita. Quze qunnl esset, divenditis omnibus exemplaribus, rursus imprimenda
B

XVIlI

1NTROl)UCTORY REMARKS.

et interea temporis cum orbe literario communicata essent opera illa przstankssima et ad crisin Veteris Testamenti maxime facientia, puta Kennicotti et de Rossi colleotw variantes lectiones ex immensa codicum hebraicorum manuscriptorum copia, Breitkopfius, Vir honestissimus et de r e literaria prwciare meritus, textum nudum repetere noluit, sed in nuce, ut dicere solent, proponere, q u z momenti ullius fuerint, in ntroque illo critico opere, variz codicum hebraicorum lectiones". . . . And towards the end he m i t e s : "Elabent enim nunc tirones et omnes literarum hebraicarum fautores, si htec b~blia sibi comparaverint, conjunctim et uno obtuitu, quw ad lectionis varietatem spectant; et brevi tenebunt signs critica, brevitatis caussa electa et magnam partem aliunde etiam nota, quuln in plagula, Pentat e u c h ~prafixa, omnia ac singula a b. Doederlino sint explicita." The Greek Version of the Old Tcstarnent is that of the Seventy, so called, edited by Tischendorf, who begins his preface with: 1 Inter docta antiquitatis sacrz monumenta insignem locum occupat Septuagintaviralis q u z dicitur librorum Veteris Testamenti interpretatio Quz postquam sive tota sive potius ex parte mirabili orta modo jam ante Christianw ecclesiz primordia credita est, quod idem placuit Josepho et Philoni, ab Sanctorum Apostolorum scriptis, ad q u a non raro eiimia cum gravitate invito ipso hebraeo textu adhibita est, novam contraxit auctoritatem, patrnm plurimorum ac gravissimorum ipsiusque ecclesiw fide atqne usu confirmatam" . . . In 5 14 he writes: 'Restat u t de apparatu critico explicemus. Superst~tum codicum grzcorum qui textum Veteris Testamenti continent magnus numerns est; ad plus trecentos apud I-lolmesium recensitos fere centum accedunt alii. Inveniuntur dispersi per Europam atque Orientales terras, inprimis Romw, Parisiis, Florentiz, Tlindobona, Londini, Oxonii, Venetiis. Plurimi a decimo inde saculo litteris minutis exarati sunt; pauci, quorum Ilolmes quindecim commemorat, a quarto fere usque ad nonum swculum uncialibus litteris . . . 15. . . . E x Holmesianis tesdbus ad summam antiquitatem fere octo pertinent, a quarto ad septimi saculi initium scripti. . . . Reliqui sunt Godex Vaticanus ex quo fluxit Romana editio, et Codex Alexandrinus. Ad hos Holmesianos accedunt vel eadem vel majore antiquitate hi sex: Codex Friderico-Augustanus,CodexEphraemi Syri rescriptus, etc.... E x his omnibus non editi sunt nisi iidem tres qnos ad apparatum nostrum adhibuimus [viz Codd. Alex, Ephr.-Syr., e t Frid.Aug.] . . . And in the last section, he a d d s § 23. . D u z vero res in editione paranda animum meum assidue occupabant ; quum enim quantus laborum campus pateret criticis textns

lNTRODUCTORY REXARKS.

XIX

r8ci Veteris Testamenti studiis, tum hoe intelligebam quantum inde esset frugis redundaturum ad rationes grzcze linguz, 'meque sermonis ejus quo libri Novi Fcederis conscripti expediendas atque. illnstrandas." This edition has been 'compared with that of Leander Van Ess, who writes: L'Dictus ergo qui textus Romano-Sidnus przsenti hac nova editione juxta Exemplar Romre 1587 edituni. fidelissime typis reddatur cura mihi fuit esactissima, omissis tamen hie variantibus lectionibus ibidem substratis, quas addere idea dehortabar, quia editioni huic manuali superfluw aeque fuissent ac mole et pretio libri molest%; insuper et critieo pro studio insufficientes, existentibus nempe copia infinitis variantibus lectionibus Holmes-P'arsoniunis, aliisque usu obviis editionibus plus voluminosis." Of t h i s Edition Tisehendorf says in Note 52: "Prre ceteris vero videndum est de editione nupera, q u z hodie in multorum manibus est. Editionem dico stereotypam Leandri Van Ess, Lipsiz 1824, apud Car. Tauehnitium. Dieitur in. titulo 'juxta exemplar originale vaticanum Romz editum 1587, quoad textum accuratissime et ad amussim recusa'. Ae verum est, incredibilem ix~ eo opere fidem servatam esse ipsis manifestis Vaticani exemplaris vitiis; . . . Accedit vero vitiorum q u z ipsa planesna vindieat numerus tantus ut Romanam editionem longe superaverit." Lambert Bos's Edition 'Seeundum Exemplar Vaticanum Romz editum, accuratissime denno reeognitum, upa cum Scholiis ejusdem Editionis, Variis MStorum Codic~~m Veterumque Exemplarium Lectionibus, nee non Fragmentis Versionum Aquilz, Symmachi, ,et Theodotionis", published at. Franeker in 1709, has also been used, especially for the Various Readings. Of his book he says: "opus, in quo elaborando quinquennium et amplius desudavimus. . . . h z c nostra Editio, quam plerisqne aliis accuratiorem fore atqne eommodiorem nos nobis persuademus." Of the translation itself he writes: "maximum tamen usom habuit in prima Ecclesia, eoque in pretio fuit, ut ab Judzis Grzciensibus passim sit lecta. Publice etiam in Synagogis przlectam Sabbatis Festisque diebus statuit eruditissimus Scaliger, quique eum sequuti, Waltonus, Simonius, aliique.. ..Bane translationem Christiani ubique et in Oriente et in Oecidente usurParunt. Hanc Veteres Patres Grreei Latinique in scriptis suis passim allegarunt atque illustrarunt. . . . Ipsi Evangelistae et Apostoli hanc Versionem usurparaut, et ubique ipsissiaa horum Interpretam verba protulerunt. Pauca tanturn sunt, in quibus ab iis discesserunt!' The conclusion of this extract bears on the subject of this work; and how far the statement therein
'

~.

XX

TORY REMARKS.

is correct, will be seen hereafter. Of the three chief editions in his day, viz, the Complutcnsian, the Aldine and the Roman, he says: "Complntensis e multis exemplaribus MStis concinnata a viris doctis . . . Sed magna aliquando libertate hi Editores nsi suut . . . multa enim in hac editione mutarunt, u t Hebrzo melius illa responderent", which shzuld be borne in mind when considering the various readings. "Aldina . . . . ex veteribus exemplaribus undique conquisitis . . . . Observavit Usserius varia in earn glossemata irrepsisse, eaque non solum ex variis editionibus et versionibus petlta, sed etiam in locis qua? citarunt Aposloli, a vulgata LXX. lectione discrepantia."-a circumstance most needful to be remembered. "Romana ... in lucem prodiit Romre a. 1587. . . . Sixtus V. Pontifex, quum Cardinalis adhuc esset . . . animadvertens, infinita pene loca non eodem modo ah antiquis sacris Scriptoribus afferri, quo in wlgatis Bibliorum Graeis editionibus circumferrentur, omni cogitatione ferebatur ad ederidum versionem Grwcam puriorem . . . . Libri Vaticani bonitas non tam ex horum codicum consensu perspecta est, quam ex iis locis, q u z partim addncuntur, partim explicantur ab antiquis sacris Scriptoribus, qui fere nusquall1 hujus exemplaris Lectiones mon exhibent. Ita se res habet. Plurima loca a Patribus antiquissimis adducta ipsemet contuli cum editione Ronzana, et cum illa maxime convcnire deprehendi." SO much for the text. As for the various readings he writes: "Ceterum ne quid in hac nova nostra editione desideraretur, visum fuit singulis paginis subjicere Scliolia Romanre Editionis, et przeter illa omnes variantes Lectiones quotquot conquirere potuerimus. Excerpsimus enim e Poiyglottis Anglicanis cunctas . . . . Has omnes inter familiam facile ducunt e z q u a de codice Alezandnnu'. . . sunt depromtw . . . . Non tamen diffiteor, quwdam esse in Cod. A h . qule przferenda sunt Romano. Quare optime factum, quod Vahcaizo textui przter alias varias leetiones prim0 loco subjecerimns Cod. Alex. Variantes Lectiones . . . . Prreter Variantes Cod. Alex. Lectiones exhibuimus omnes discrepantias editionnm duarum celebrium, l>nc,!a. sc. et Cumpiutenszs . . . . Ad h e c . . . excerpsimus differentias Ozo~ttenslslibri MS. coll. univ. Octateuchi dicti", denoted by Ox. MS. in the various readings. "Denique Prophetarnm minorum ex codice Cardinalis Barberini vetustissimo Variantes Lectlones exhibuirnus", marked B. or Barb. It has been deemed right to let L. Bos speak in regard to the sources from which he drew the various readings given in hi8 edition of the Septuagint. The Greek Text of the New Testament is that of the seventh edition of Tischendorf, who begins his Prolegomena with:

INTROIIUCTORY REMARKS

XXI

uSeljti,na h z c mea Novi Testament1 editio tantopere aucta emendata refecta prodit ut novum opus dici queat. Data enlm est opera ut prionbus editionibus omnibus quum lneis tum aliorum superior prodeat non tantum incrementis apparatus critici sed ipsa ratione ac via. Qnam ad adornandam q u a a me przestita suut statim breviter exponam, . . . . Consentaneum autem est separatim perscribere primum q u e ad apparatum criticum, tnm q u z ad recenslonem textus facmnt. Rursus in apparatu critico distinpenda sunt quattnor hrec: codices Grzci, versiones antiquw, scriptores ecclesiastici, editiones." After speaking of these he adds: (p. XXV.) "Atque haec quidem de incrementis apparatus critici ex quattuor laborum generibus, qulbus facile patebit ad perfectionem eum om~iibussimilibus operibus longe majorem perductum esse. . . . . Max~mumvero ac singulare in commeiltario isto uovo momentum hoe habet, qnod non mod0 ad omnes lectiones in textum receptas qua nituntur auctoritate notatum est, sed etiam aliorum (Griesbachii, Lachmanni) lectionibus i$sisque Elzevirianis testes sunt appositi . . . . (p. XXVII) Singularem autem apparatus nostri virtutem nondum tetl,' "~mus. Ceruitur in eo quod ad aliquot Iectionum centena judicii quod secutus sum bre.uissime ratio est reddita. Quibus ab exemplis certe hoc conclusum iri spero, nusquam temere hoe vel illud przferri vel rejici." . . . B e next comes to speak, in the second place, of the text, in regard to which he says: (p. XSVII) "Textns petendus est uuice ex antiquis testibus, et potissimum quidem e Grzecis codicibus, sed interpretationunl patrumque testimoniis minime neglectis. Itaque omnis textus nostri couformatio ab i p s ~ s testibus proficisci debebat ... non ab Elzeviriana qnam receptam vocant editione." Lastly, in mentioning the rules h e has followed in settling the text, he says, amongst other things, and as bearing on the subject of the following pages, (p. XXYII) "3. Locis geminis quum Veteris turn Novi Testamenti maximeque evangeliorum synopticorum, ad quos inter se exzeyuandos priscorum hominum przcipuam curam pertinuisse certum est, testibus qui consensum prebent przfereudi sunt qui dissensionem testantur, nisi gravis caussa aliud suadeat." And in illustrating the same he writes: (p. XLI) "Veteris Testamenti locos quod attinet, minime satis est Romanam sequi editionem, imrnerito plerisque codicem Vaticanum exprimere visam, nee ipse satis est codex Vatleanus sed confereudus est apparatus criticus ad LXX. interpretes. Quod quum in lecti6nibus d~judicandissaepe neglectum esset, proclive erat a vero aberrare. Rursus autem mngna editio Holmesiana apparatum satis imperfectum habet; propterea ipsa documents

XXII

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

antiquissima, quohrn plura nostra nuper opera ex tenebris pro-

tracts sunt, aliis mox secuturis, certe ubi gravius aliquid in
ceusum veuit adeunda sunt." It is from this seventh edition of Tischendorf's, published in 1859, that the Various Readings also have been extracted. And when he gives readings of the LXX, they are placed in their proper column. His text has also been compared with Laehmann's in Ed. of 1831.

--

.

Key to the Signs and Abbreviations o f Writing in the Various
Readings o f the New Testament
The Capital letters placed after a 'eading, as in p. 4 rrnu cBEG etc, sometimes before, as in p. 3 EIX a1 m ws Euvrov, denote the Unczal Manuscripts in which it is found: thus, A marks the Codex Alexandrinus in the British Museum, which seems to have been written after the middle of the V'h Cent., and, with a few exceptions, contains both Testaments; B marks the Codex Vaticanus, which also contains, with some exceptions, the whole Bible, and was written about the middle of the IVth Cent.; C marks the Codex Ephraemi rescriptus, a MS in the Imperial Library at Paris, containing portions of the Old, in the Sept. Version, and fragments of every part of the New, and written before the middle of the Vth Cent.; D marks Codex Beza Cantabrigiensis written about the middle of the VI" Cent., and containing with some mutilations the Gospels and Acts in Greek and Latin: and so on with the others. The curszve manuscripts are denoted by numeral Ggures; thus (as in p. 3) 13, 69, 271. For an account of both kinds of MSS. recourse must be had to Works on Biblical Criticism and the Prolegomena to Critical Editions of the New Testament. The Anczent Versions are denoted by abbreviations; thus, aeth (see p. 11) stands for aithiopica i. e. the Ethiopic Version, supposed to have been written in the IVth Cent. arr (see p. 27) stands for arabicae i. e. the Arabic Versions, of which one was made from the Greek about the IVth Cenh., another from the Syriac, a third from the Coptic, and a fourth from the Latin in the VIIIth Cent. arQtands for arab. Erpenii, and denotes the Arab. Ed. published by Erpenius at Leyden in 1616. arp for arabioa in polyglottis i. e. the Arab. Version found in the Polyglotts. ar' for arabica romana i. e. the Ed. of the Gospels published at Rome in 1590.

ski

*

XXIV

JIEY TO THE SIGNS AND ABURhVIATIONS

&L

a r a t for arabica versio in Vaticano codice. arm (see p. 19) for armenica i. e. the Armenian Version, made before the middle of the Vth Cent. armven(see p. 44) the edition a t Venice in 1605. basm for basmnrica i. e. the Bashmvric Version used in the East of the Delta of the Kile, or, a s others think, in the Oasis of Ammon. cop (see p. 4) for coptica i. e. the Coptic or Memphitic Version of Lower Egypt, thought to be of the IIFd Cent. georg for georgica i. e. the Georgian Version made in t h e VIth Cent. goth for gothica i. e. the Gothic Version made by Ulphilas about the middle of the IV'h Cent. perss (see p. 27) for persicae, i. e. the Persian Versions. perP (see p. 26) for persica in polyglottis i. e. Walton's. perw for persica a Wheloc i. e. the Version, begun by Wheelocke of Cambridgeefrom a MS apparently of the XIVih Cent. and finished after his death from his text, and Latin Version m 1657. sah (see p. 20) for sahidica i. e. the Sahidic or Thebaic Version of Upper Egypt, made apparently in the VLhor VIth Cent. sax for saxonica i. e. the Anglo-Saxon Vers~onmade about the VIIIth Cent. sl (see p. 35) for slavonica, i. e. the Slavonic Version of the IPhCent. syr for syriaca i. e. the Peschito Version made in the I I n d Cent. syrp for syriaca a Polycarpo i. e. another Syr. Version, made in the beginning of the VI'h Cent. for Philoxenus Blshop of the Monophysites (hence sometimes called the Philoxenian) by Polycarp a rural blshop. syrUtr (see p. 15) i. e. utraque denotes both of these. syrp mg and syrP c ast or c ob .denotes syrp revised by Thomas of Harkel, whose various readings are marked in the margin or with an asterisk or ohelus. syrh' or hrs (see p. 2) or syrhl*r for syriacai hierosolymitana i. e. the Jerusalem Syriac made in tbe XIth Cent. syrm for syriaca curetoniana i. e. Cureton's Ed. of the Syriac Gospels, said by him to be a very early Version, the MS belonging to the Vth Cent. There are two Latin Versions, the one called itala (it), the other vulgata (vulg). it for itala i. e. the latin interpretation, a s in use in the first centuries of our era, of which there are many mss, designated by small letters (see a h c in p. 4; a b i in p. 19). a denotes the codex Vercellensis, written as it seems by Eusehius the martyr In the lVth Cent. b denotes the codex Veronens~sof the IVLhor Vth Cent. c, the codex Colbertinus of about the XIth Cent.; and so on.

KEY T THE SIGNS AND ABBRE2VIATIONS &c. O

XXY

vg (see p. 11) for vulgata i. e. the Version commonly called the Vulgate, made by Jerome at the request of Pope Damasus 383 et seqq. ~grd(see p. 34) or vgmS(see p. 50) denotes this Version in manuscript. vgslxt (see p. 45) for vulgata Sixtina i. e. the Edition of it published by authority of Pope Sixtus Vth in 1590. vg~dfor vulgata edita i. e. the Edition by Pope Clement VIII in 1592, to take the place of that by his predecessor, which, though set forth as the standard of all future reprints, and by which all copies, if contrary thereto, whether in manuscript or printed, were to be corrected, was found so faulty that this new edition, which differs from it in many places, had to be published. Two or more letters are used to &note the mss. of the Vulgate, thus am (see 11. 11) for amiatinns i. e. the ms, formerly in the Cistercian Monastery at Anliatino in Tuscany, now in the Laurentian Library at Florence, written about A. D. 541. fnld (see p. 183) for codex fuldensis, of about the same age, in the Abbey of Fnlda in Hesse Cassel. to1 (see pp. 11, 21) for Codex Toletanus, at Toledo, of both Testaments, and in Gothic letters; and so on. An account of these Versions and Manuscripts must also be looked for in Works on Biblical Criticism and in the Prolegomena to Critical Editions of the New Testament. The Ecclesiastical Writers are also denoted by abbreviations; thus Or (see p. 2) for Origen; Eus (see p. 4) for Eusebius; Chr (see p. 4) for Chrysostom; and so on. Such abbreviations will be learned from the Prolegomena as above, and one acquainted with Church History can easily see what they stand for. s stands for the Elzevir edition of 1624, as also for that of R. Stephan of 1550. When these dlffer, 6 denotes the latter, ge the former. Besides, s includes Gb et Sz, when Gb et Sz do not differ from the Elzev.; when it is s (= Gb, Sz) (see p. 8) it means that Gb Sz defend the same reading as Tischendorf, unless it be otherwise mentioned. Bch stands for Birch who collated the Codex Vaticanus at the close of last Cent. Btl stands for Bentley, who proposed to publish a Critical Edition of the New Testament, for which he collected various readings. Gb stands for, in the Gospels, Griesbacb's third Edition by D. Schnlz in 1827, in the other books, Griesbach's second Edition in 1806. Gb Sz stands for the above edition of Griesbach by Schulz. Gbo (see p. 15) denotes an omission that seemed probable to Griesbach; and GboO(see p. 4) an omission that seemed nlosl probable to him. Gb' (see p. 18) denotes a reading commended by Griesbach; and

.

XXVI

KEY TO TEE SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS &L.

Gb",a reading especially commended by him.
G b t denotes what is received into the text by Griesbach wit11 some doubt. Sz denotes the Edition of Scholz in 1830 and 1836. Ln denotes Lachmann's larger Editions in 1842 and 1850; and Lnnl'" his smaller stereotype Edition. Where it is Ln [ruz] etc. ~t denotes something included by Lachlnann in brackets. When no mention is made of Lachmann, he agrees with Tischendorf. 49 denotes Tischendorf's Edition of 1849. a1 i. e. a l i ~ :a1 m or mu (see in p. 3) i. e. alii multi: a1 pm (see in p. 3) i. e. alii permulti: a1 pl (see p. 9) i. e. alii plnrimi: a1 pler (see p. 15) i. e. alii pleriqne: a1 longe pl (see p. 33), or a1 longe pler i. e. alii longe plurimi, or alii longe plerique: a1 sat mu i. e. alii satis multi. aliq i. e. aliquot ye1 aliquoties. bis (see p. 43) denotes twice; sometimes numeral figures so signify, as Or2, which see below. c i. e. cum sive auctoritate. Thus Gbo cA means that Grieshach thinks it should be left out, according to the authority of Codex A. et. (cum puncto) stands for etiam. add i. e. addo addit addunt. dis i. e. diserte, as Orals i. e. Origen expressly testifies. dist. i. e. distinguit, distinyuunt. cd cdd i. e. codex, codices. ed edd i. e. editio, editiones. e sil i. e. e silentio collatorum. diff i. e. differunt. g~ i. e. graeci. lat i. e. latini leg vel similiter i. e. legitur. mg i. e. in margine. mg eccI i. e. margo cum notis ecclesinsbcis. min i. e. cdd minusculi, or cursive manuscripts. om i. e. omitto omittit omittnnt. omn i. e. omnes. panc i. e. pailci. perg i. e. pergunt etc. pon i. e. pono ponit ponunt pp stands for either patres or loci paralleli. pr or prim i. e. primum. praem i. e. praemittunt. re11 i. e. reliqui. see i. e. secundum. ter i. e. tertium. transp. i. e. transponnnt. unc i. e. cdd unciales or Manuscripts in Cap~talletters. Tar i. e. variant.

KEY TO THE SIGNS AND AE3BREVIATIONS &e.

XXVII

vdtr i. e. videtur. vv (see in p. 4) i. e. versiones; w m (see p. 9) i. e. versiones multae; w pl (see p. 12) i. e. versiones plurimae; vv omn (seep. 18) i. e. versiones omnes. ' etc. (without a point) are cardinal numbers, as a17 (seep. 12) i. e. alii septem, or seven others; alpIus 30 (see p. 15) i. e. more than thirty others. When it is such as Or* etc. it means twice @is). On the other hand '. 2. 3. CtC. (with a point) are ordinal numbers. * (see p. 5), ** (see p. 12), ** (see p. 12), denote the first, second, third hand &o. = i. e. except0 exceptis.

-

-

Key t o the Signs and Abbreviations o f Writing in the Various
Readings o f the Septuagint Version.

-

The text followed is that of the Vatican MS. in Tischendorf's Ed. of 1850, compared with that by Van Ess in 1835, and that by Bos *pubhshed a t Franeker in 1709, whence, as also from Tischendorf's, the Various Readings have been drawn. Alex. MS. denotes the Codex Alexandrinus, now niarked A, for a very brief account of which see before p. XXlII. Ald. Ed. denotes the Aldine Edition from the celebrated press of Aldus a t Venice, and published in 1518; see before p. XX. B. or Barb. MS. denotes Cardinal Barberini's MS.; see before p. XX. Compl. Ed. denotes the Complutensian Edition, planned and executed by Cardinal Ximenes, and so called from Complutum, the Latin name of Alcala, where he founded a University and gathered a s many MSS. as he could procure, by means whereof with the help of learned men, of whom James Lopez de Stunica was the cbief, he prepared>the first Polyglott Bible in 6 vols fol , printed between 1513 " and 1517, "on Nov'. 8 of which year the Cardinal died, full of honours and good deeds", Pope Leo X. in 1520 giving permission to publish his Bible, which was done in 1522. FA denotes the Codex E'riderico-Augustanus brought by Tischendorf from the East, and regarded by him a s the oldest MS. in Europe, which he published in 1846. M or March MS. denotes a very ancient copy belonging to Renatus Marchalus. Ox or 0 MS. denotes a MS. in Univ. Coll. Oxford, of which see before p. XX.

.

Key to the Signs and Abbreviations of Writing in the Various Readings of the Hebrew Text.
-

The Various Readings are taken from Doederlein and Meisner's Edition of the I-Iebrew Bible, published a t Leipsic in 1793; and the signs and abbreviations there found have been followed. The Roman letters, inserted in the text, thus yy a), refer to the notes below, where ,the same letters occur, thus b ) . When in the notes a word with no sign prefixed is found, it is to be understood that that word is substituted in one or more codices, (as the numerals will show) for the one in the text, thus p. 2, Ps. VIII. 3. f ) iiy 158 f. K. If the variation is only in a certain letter of the word, that part only of the word is given, in which the variation is found, the sign of abbreviation, viz. ', being placed a t the end to show that the rest is wanting, thus p. 4, Ps. CIX. 8. q) ID). If the variation runs through several words, the note ends with that word in which the text and the collated MS. again agree. = indicates that the word following the Roman letter in the text is wanting in the codex or codices mentioned, thus, p. 3, Is. LVI. 7 c) = 80 K. When several words are left out, the first letter of each of the omitted letters is set down, accompanied by the sign of abbreviation, I thus, p. 5, P . 11 1 2 e) I ; but, sometimes, when a greater lacuna is found in a MS., the first and last words thereof only are given + indicates that the word or words following it are added in h 30K. the MS. or MSS. there cited, thus, p. 13, Ps. XCV. 7-8, x) indicates a transposi2zon, of which there are three kinds: erther two words only, which are side by side, have been transposed, when the mark i s simply used, thus p. 6, Ps. V. 10. k) 38 K; or, the transposition occurs in connection with two words, which are a t a distance from each other, when the Roman letter in the text, which refers to the note, is prefixed to each word transposed; or, lastly, the transposition extends through several words, when the note gives the initial letter of the words in that order in wlrlch they occur in the MS. thus, p. 169, Am07 V. 25-27. y) 'h '~'ifi 612 K.

+

-

-

XXX

KEY TO THE SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS &c.

indicates that two words in the text, between which the letter referring to the note is placed, are joined in the MS. thus, p. 127, Is. VII. 14. k) qd K et Edd. indicates that one word in the text is read in the MS. as divided into two. The numbers 1. 2. 3. and so on, are those by which Kennicott and De Rossi marked the MSS. collated by them: those preceding the letter K signify the MSS. collated by Kennicott, while those before R similarly signify the MSS. collated by De Rossi, thus, p. 38, Deut. V. 17-18. x) 1 -- S. 1 8 . . . a1 K. 1 7 4 . . . a1 R. E denotes Kennicott's work and the MSS., the various readings of which are noted in the former, thus, p. 2, Ps. VIII. 3. e) . 97 K. R denotes De Rossi's MSS., thus, p. 5, Ps. GX. 1. f) . . et p. R. S, standing by itself, denotes the Samaritan text, as fouid in MSS., thus, p. 10, Exod. X X W . 6. s) p y ~ i 363 S. S ed, denoted the edition of the Samaritan text as found in the Polyglotts. S, placed after one or more numbers, denotes that the MSS. marked with these numbers are Samaritan, thus, p. 149, Deut. Y. 16. n) . = 65 S. Ed. denotes that certain printed editions have the same reading, thus, p. 6, Ps. XVI. 10. 1) Ed. ant. a f i. e. a fine means from the end; thus, p. 17, Xr~l.I. 2-3. k) 7 a f = 125 K. a1 i. e. alii, thus p. 6, Pa. XVI. 10. h) . .. et 16 al. ap i. e. apud. a p. i. e. a prima means that a certain reading was in the MS. at first, but afterwards it was changed in this MS., and made conformable to the text, thui, p. 8, Ps. XLIV. 23. z) ...a p. R. c i. e. cum. codd i. e. codices exc. i. e. excipe means that Samaritan MSS., whose numbers are given, are to be excepted from the witnesses for the common Samarztan reading, and agree with the Hebrew reading. ex c i. e. ex correctlone means that the reading has been marked in the cited MS. from correction or emendation, thus, p 14, Ps. CX. 4. s) . . . ex C. ext i. e. extera points to the Rosszan MSS. of a so-called external collation i. e. a collation made by another, thus, p. 142, Is. LIII. 4. c) .. 91 ext a p. R. f i. e. forsan means that the readins of the MS., which is handed down, is doubtful, thus,-p. 90, Ps. XVI, 8-11. h) ... 130 f. f c i. e. finis coinmatis means the end of a clause or verse. f o I. e. fere omnes, or nearly all, thus p 156, Is. XXVIII. 11-12. q) N a f. = f. o K.

-

-

-

.

..

..

KEY TO THE SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS h e .

XXXI

mg or marg denotes that a given reading is found written on the margin of the MS., thus, p. 142, Is. LIII. 4. c) ... 403 mg. Mas i. e. hfasora points to the Masoretic notes which are found in the common Hebrew Bibles. MS MSS or ms mss i. e. manuscriptus or-ti. pl i. e. plures, thus p. 12, Ps. XLV. 7-8, f) 1 i m D pl. K. pler i. e. plerique. plur i. e. plurimi. praef i. e. praefixum, thus, p. 13, Ps. CX. 1. f3 5 praef. = 38 etc. qd i. e. quidam, thus, p. 127, Is. VII. 14. k) qd K. et Edd. i. e. quidam Kennicotti, etc. s p i. e. sine punctis denotes that a word found in a MS., which has points at other words, wants the points, t.hus, p. 149, Deut. V. 16. r) . .. s p l K i. e. sine punctis 1 K. t c i. e. totum comma, or whole clause or verse, thus, p. 13, Ps. XCV. 7-8. z) t.' c. YV i. e. varii means different MSS. vdtr i. e. videtnr means that that seems to be the reading, thus,p. 116, Hab. 11. 3-4. r) 3nIinf.Il vdtr 328 K.

-

-~

.

i !

i

i

Readings o f the Codex Sinaiticus, N, bearing on the Quoted-Passages o f the New Testament, and extracted from Tischendorf's Notitia Codicis Sinaitici prefixed to Vol. II. o f his Critical Edition o f 1859, with Additions. Ilatt. 1 . 18 xAmu8pos ut in textu, non 8pquoS xmz xAav8. ut in s. 1 IV. 16 a pr oxosr, ab altera (cum'solis BD Or') oxosra ut in textu. XII. 18 ov a pr cum B alz Eusl (Ln 49) non ut in textu. XIII. 35 xutupoAqs absque xoopov cB a12 etc., ut in textu, non nt in s. XV. 8 o Amos ouzo$ etc., cBDL alz etc. ut in textu, non ut in s. XXII. 44 confirmat zve~ogabsque articulo cBDZ, non ut in textu. XXVII. 46 cLwc cawr Acpu om,9ux8mvcr: dor c. a1 pauc cop harl; ,Icpu cBL 33 a1 a pauc am for cop (49); -vcr CARD a1 mu. Mark I. 2 rSvu sym uaooscAw: syw ut in s, non ut in textu. I. 2 om c p a p o a 8 w oou ut in textu, non ut in s. XV. 28 om versum cABCDX a14J fere, non ut in s (LIT). Acts 11. 20 qpeeuv cBD ut in textn, non ut in s sqv qp. cACE a1 ut odtr omn. 11. 25 m ~ o o ~ w p qut in textu, non nt in g meoweu 1 . 26 c v dnrS6 ut in textn, non ut in s (49) 1 Rom. 1 1 12 q ~ p c w 8 q o u vu t in textu, non lijleern,8. ut in s Ln 49. 1. IX. 28 a pr om cv S~xcrroo.orr Aoy. auurcsp. CAB a13 syr ut in Ln, non ut in textu. 1 Tim. V. 18 ,8ovv rtL ar prpworrg u t in textu, non ut in Ln cAC all. Beb. I. 12 a pr uL2m~clscD 43 et Latinis. VI. 14 E L pqu ut in textu, non ut in s 4 pqv. VIII. 10 *car x a ~ J i u v * * m c x u ~ a r u s :-81uu cK a1 Clem. VIII. 12 om a pr xur r. uvop. uuswv cB a12 f vg cop syr 49. 1 Pet I. 16 Jro yayprrnrccr mylor coen~?at Storr & y o myros" xarr et: post ycypunsmt om or6 nt in s (Ln 49) cACGK etc., nou ut in textu cB 31 a15 sencntYmr - 8 c m textu cAUC a]" vg Clem Syr etc. non ut in s y & ~ € ~ 8 & 1 Jtorr non ut in textu cK al ~ ; osr; uyros cA*B Clem Cyr ut in textu, non ut in s myroc c r p ~ cCGK a1 ut vdtr omn vv omn.

TABLE A
contains the Quotations in the New Testament, which agree with the Original Hebrew Text of the Old, when the latter has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint Version, with which also they of conrse agree. Such a table is found divisible into two parts, A. s, containiug those passages, wherein the same arrangement of words is followed in the New Testament and the Septuagint; and A. d, wherein the words occur in a slightly different order.
P

TABLE A. s.
(1)
Matt. XIX. 18. [Tb] 06 ipowSu&rs,
po~xeiu86s,

Exod. XX. 13-16.

Exod. XX. 13-16.
'4av'

04

1306 pogaiiosrg.

:1ujn

::nY7i? & 3

06 ~Xhjla~q,oh

X I I ~ ~ Y I . ' ~ O ~ ~ ~ O lEo6 ~ O ~ L ~ . YE~
~~~80papzvejw~s.

~mr~opupzwqju~cs,

nifi ~ 5 :aj?pi u5l5 ' ~ :ypw lL! Tp,?
Deut. V. 17-20.

Deut. V. 17-20.

Thou shalt dono murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal Thou shalt not bear false witness,

'3Thou shalt not commit adultery. \'Thou shalt not steal. 'EThoushalt notkill. '6Thou shalt notbear false witness.

'3Thou shalt not bill. '4Thou shalt not commit adultery. ISThou shalt not steal. 16Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighhour.

It may be remarked, first, that the order of these commandments in the Vat. LXX. of Exod. differs from the Neb., the sixth being placed after the seventh and eighth, so that, the sixth, seventh and eighth become the eighth, sixth and seventh respectively, taking the order seventh eighth and sixth. But the Alex. and other MSS. and the (40mpl. and Ald. editions agree with the Hebrew. Next, it is seen that the Heb. in Deut. joins them with 1 uand", which is not rendered in the LXX. where they are now found in the same order as the FIeb. of both Exod. & Deut. We should say, then, that Matt. has followed the Heb. of Exod. & not of Deut. agreeing, however, with the LXX. of Deut. and with that of Exod. also, in other than the Vat. MS.

Matt. XIX. 19 1p; X I . 16. Matt. XIX. 191p.
[xal]&~;ramjser~~rdv min; -lor sou i s oeavr6v. Syr hrs om (eademomttti vult Or) x a r aryuz. usq. (IeUVCOY.

[Table Lev. XIX. 18.

A.8.

Lev. XIX. 18.
xai &rem$wcg 2 m i p & slov oov &g s ~ a u r 6 ~ . &m6r in many MSS.and the Ald. & Compl. ed~tions.

(2)

qln?

7913 p;iF!

[and] Thou shalt love thy neighboux as thyself. Matt. XXI. 16.

And thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

(3) Ps. YIII. 3.

h m 6 p a r a s vqnlwv x a l [oGJdzors 6 u i p o r a i;n] 8qiat6vrwv xarr)~~dsW alEx m6yazosyrlzlwvxu18qlac6vrov xarqpricw ahov; YO".

~ 7 ~ 1 0 ~. 3 $ 1 0 + s 1 ~ I )enc) iYf) e) i,mina97K. Onu158LK.
Out of themouth of babes and sucklings hast thou *ordained strength. * or Hcb, founded.

.

P . YIII. 3. s

.:

LHave ye never read,? Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?

Out of themouthof babes and sucklings thou bast perfected praise.

Matt. appears a t first sight to give a different meaning from that conveyed by the Hebrew iY 177D: in his xarr/psicu givov. Yet, let US examine. The Heb. verb signifies primarily to set, place, lay, the foundation of anything (see Is. XXVIII. 16. Ezra III. 10, 1 2 ; Is. XIV. 32). And, as laying the foundation is, preparatory to raising the building, it is generalized into, toprepare, which is the meaning of the Gr. verb. Again, the noun in Heb. means properly might, pomer, as inherent in its possessor (see Job. XII. 1 6 ; Ps. XXIX. 1 1 ; Jndg. IX. 51); then, splendour, majesty, as the concomitants of power (see Hab. I .4; D Ps. XCVI. 7). And, as these excite in the mind admiration, which finds utterance in praise, it may appropriately be so rendered here (see Ps. XXIX. 1). And the corresponding word in the Greek expresses the same idea. Hengstenberg, however, says : 'lit almays signifies might, strength. By taking it in the sense of praise here, the meaning is disfigured." And yet it has been so rendered by those whom he believes to have been inspired! Besides, in his setting aside the expositions of others, he always uses it as if it meant praise. Thus he says: "De Wette, without cause, stumbles at the circumstance that praise to God is here ascribed to sucklings. Even a little child is conscious of pleasure in looking upon the lovely scenes of nature, in particular, upon the starry heavens, which are here specifically mentioned; and this admiration of the works of God is a silent praising of Sm!' The sense appears to be this: that God has, out of the mouth of children, prepared for Himself a power, to be used against His enemies, which is nothing else than the conscious or unconscious praise they give utterance to, in their admiration of His works, which manifesting His glory, proclaim His existence and perfections.

&bleA.s.]

Matt. XXD. 39; Mark V1I. lOfp; XI. 17; XII. 31; Luke X. 271p.

3

(4)
Matt. XXII. 39.
IAyan+sc's zbv nLqsiov V a1 m
wc eavrov

Lev. XIX. 18.
xal iya+cerr
rbv

Lev. XIB. 18.
nlq?ID?

q27> F?gF?

sioiov r w

i s oaavrav
but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Exod. XX. 12. ??

(GO.

Thoushaltlovethyneighhour as thyself. Mark VII. 1Ofp. [Mov&q4p~Znsv] TLpa
zbv nardpa sav ~ arljv pqi repa sou, bou sec D. 13. 69. 271. a1 pauc om.

iavzov in many MSS. and the Ald. andCompl. edrtlons. And thou shalt lore thy neighbour as thyself.

(5)
Exod. XX. 12.
zlpa rbvnm6par raw xori cijs pqz6qa so*,
oau sec Alex. om.

7DN-nNI y?yn!

...

[ForMosessaid] Honour thy father and thy mother; Mark XI. 17.
[ O i r E ~ a n r o rZrr] 6 ~ 02x6s pov aZxos nposmfis xlv%jsrrur mia'mv zais t8WD'Y;

Honour thy father and thy mother,

Honour thy father and thy mother, Is. LVI. 7 .

(6)
Is. LVI. 7. 6 ydrp 03.65 pov oikos n e a 5 ~ v f xl&srrac nEs' i cois t 8 v ~ s c v .

a\pqd)-n?ay in?? ?? i nlp%~-5;h -:
d)

i t not written,] My house shall be called* of all nations the house of prayer? ' or Tan house of prayer
&a

for my house shall he called a house of prayer *for all nations.
'or, by.

c) = 80 K. *nu 17. 19 K. 126K. e) b i 1K. for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people.

-

for all nations?

Mark has the words: nCatu tors L'8vaurv, omitted in Matt. XXI. 13; and therefore is the Quotation placed here.
Mark XU. 31. 'Ayolmjus~~ irkvsioio* rbr
saw i 5 ssarurdv.

(7) Lev. XIX. 18.
xal Ayanjr~csrbr nlqsiov uov 65 waurdv.
~ a v r o r manyMSS. and m Ald. & Compl. edd.

?In? q

Lev. XIB. 18.

~ ~>3 2 %

EX a1 m wc

rauzov.

Thoushaltlovethyneighbout as thyself. Luke X. 27 ip. xai zbv ~ A ~ u ~uou $5 ou
osmrr6v.

And thon shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

hut thon shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. ~ev.

(8) Lev. XIX. 18.
xni i y a m j s ~ ~ s nlqrbv siov sav i s seaurk.
ravrov in many Mss, and Ald. and Compl. edd. And thou shalt love thy neighhour as thyself.

k. 18. ID? 721.$ c??~!

A n a l prn or1 ostaucov. and thy neighbour 8s thyself.

but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Here the word uyanqass "thou shalt lo~e"has been of coarse omitted, as it was given a t the beginning of the verse.

4

Luke XYIII, 201p; John X. 34; XIX. 24; Acts 1. 20 lp. Luke XVIII., 20 lp. Exod. XX. 12; Deut. Y 16. . zipa ZAP nadqa cow xal
z j v ppbpe
"OW.

[Table A.s.

(9)

Exod. XX. f2; Dent. V. 16.

~

ripe i b v nazbqa aov xal $ pp6'qa aoz) 9

TD(+-nN]

?>?N-nN 1 3

oov see cEGHSWA etc. .. GbQo,Ln am cABDKLMX a1 m vv rn (non a b c cop eke.). Honour thy father and thy mother.

pqz. oov Alex.

om

oou.

Honour thy father and t h mother. ~

Honour thy father and thy mother.

Were the reading in Lachmann's text, viz omitting m u after pqr8ea followed, this Quotation would be transferred to Table CIo. where see Natt. and Mark. (10)
John X. 34. [OBx 8crrv rqearppdvou 8v Z@ v6pq &L] slna @ ~ o& m e ; l
r r m . cBEG(H7)KLUX ale... Ln e m o r cADMSUA a1 pm. [Is it not written myom law] I said, Ye are gods?

Ps. LXXXI. 6.
&&
~?%oL ~ o i @ ims

Ps. LXXXII. 6.

D R ~ D > ; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ..
1)

-

379 K.

I said, Ye are gods.
Ps. XXI. 19.

I have saidYe are gods.
Ps. XXII. 19.

John XIX 24.

(11)

[ha nLqew45 i I.+ovaa] d r e ~ ~ l a a vz& ro 8~8,,~~~iaarro rk i&r& tpciz~d v barnois xal6nl p p w Barnois, nal h i rbv o .rdv ipnzrap6v pov 8@c8alov iparrapdv pov c@aBailov dtnLijqor. ~ O Y .

+

733 lj3\n?e) : J 1 I ~ F7w12fsyy) !21 ? 0;i)')
e) +-268K. f) i 37K. g) 1 3 37. 150. 201K.

[thatthe ~cripture might be fuXUed, which saith,] They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots.

Theypartedmygarments They part my garments amo~themselnes,andupon among them, and castlots upon my vesture. my vesture they cast 'lots. * Gr. a lof or dze.

In s (= Gb Sz) in Matt. XXVU. 35 after p a h 6 m ~ sX L ~ Q W found, is as Tischendorf notes, [cf. *Ps 22, 19. Jo 19, 241: rwa z h q p o 8 q r o ~ 7 4 6 u ~ (oA a1 &a) rev ~ l p q ~ q z o u ~ p e ~ a a raz to a r l a pou E W ~ O L S ~1 d~ u p ( A ccvrocg), xai ~ n r rov ~ p m ~ u p o v cparZou xAqeou.. . haec om cdd pov uncial omn (ex0 A) a1 pl w pm Chr Tit bost Or int Hi1 al.
Acts I. 20 lp. [%at] l $ v Q?r~rno+u a b
zo6 Aa@Qrw &spoq.
~AacposcE etc.

Ps. C W I . 8.
xai z j v h'n~mon+v adz06 I&@oL &zqos

(12)

l

Ps. CIX. 8. n ilp! 'cO?pg) ~
7 , .

lar@eroeABCDa1 Ens Chr... (Thph. -&).

n) 'rn 30. 93. 156K.

[and] His *bishoprick let another take. * ¶ or, oflee or charge.

By agrees with the LXX, which may be regarded as rightly rendering

andhisXofficeletanother and let mother take his take. *office. * T o r charge. *or chargeor oucrseership. adopting the reading in as above, viz hapopoc, the Quotation

Table 8.8.1

dots

IL 34-35; IV. 25-26.

5

the Heb. ilp: 'he will take", which has here an imper. meaning, the fnt. being used for the imper. when the third person is required (see Ges. Heb. Gr. 5 125. 3. c.), and hence the reading Aaflmw, "let him take"; or it may be for the so-called potential (see Ges. Heb. Gr. 5 125.3. d), & hence Aaflot.-'in?pD means his oversight, charge, office, whether viewed in one's being set over a thing, or, in its being committed to one's care (see Numb. IV. 16, 1 Chron. XXIV. 19); and this is the proper and only legitimate meaning to be attached to the rendering word 2araxomy in the New Test., which radioally signifies the same thing, and has here no reference whatever to diocesan inspection, but solelv to the witnessine of Christ's life and resurrection (see vers. 21-22). (1 3) Acts I . 34-35. I Ps. cIX. 1. Ps. CX. 1.

. ,

[34a&86

8& &65]

Ehev

E?mv.d
plov

Y~QVIEq ~ zi

~lqlq
'

G @ o u 2 8atio'v plod % 4ov ti 8a.501-v p* 955a5 C ~ Z v 901 ZOLS 6z8.geo65 E & $6 z o t d&oirs uav uov 6mnd&ov zo'v n0801v &ndJ~ov z f i iro801v uov: uou. 34. mnw . D am eddlat ap Bed l a y e r / D om 6 35. D* om av. [=but he saith himsdf,] The LORD said unto my The LORD sai& unto my Lord, Sit thou on myright Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, asuntil I make thy hand, nutil I make thine foes thy footstool. enemies 'thy footstool. 'Gr.thefootstoolofthyfeet.

6 x i r ~ ~ r6 rupiq povKL;os

>e13q~y) QK! ;1!;~?~) ?,=;& n,@ye)-,j,?,)?,lj4)
?l)???)

Din

..

b) '17N 178. 251 K. c)Kametz sub nun Cod. Cass. d)rva676.245ap.K. e)u>lcu 76.41 f K. f) 5 praef. 38. 73. 97. 133K. 43. 263.350. 865.867 ct p. R. ?implures K. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, nutil I make thine enemies =thy footstool, 'Lit. astool for thy feet.

-

See Matt. XXII. 44 for a remark on the first part. (14)'
Acts 17. 25-26. ["G 8cdr rndpazogdavid na~Jds uov 8im&;iu] .%a ri $q.ge6afarv6+xa2laoi'Zplhrjoav n s i ; ZBnaedrn7o w oi flou~Lzis fis *a1 +E 02 u ~ z ~ o hi a v z b a k b xmdr zoi xvqlozr xal razh zoi Xecmoi arkoir. [%ha bythemouthofthy servant David hast said,] Why did the heathen rage and the people imagine vain things? 2sThe kings of the earth stoodup, and the rulers were gathered together, against the Lord and against his Christ.

~.

Ps. 1 . 1-2. 1

Ps. 11. 1-2.

zeXonss

' r v a ri dqQ6atav 6"%, D?l> ;I??) xai la01 $ p ~ L h ~ n a v XWL;; :?'? ?.l;i?,? Dl?&? 2na~6uqnnvo<@au~l~i~+~ ,35jjd) qligrni a .. : f i g ~ a oi ~ ; ~ X O ~ E E X i UW~ I~PII*) . . n,iiil.L) 2ni zb a ~ r bnnrh .roc xvgiov xai xardr zoi b) 3 73K. C)IJIX, 206x1 y,prmoi adro;. d) '35 93K. e ) '3 '1 'I i6K. f) = 41. 245 K.

?m?

:in:

'Y'@

-

1Why did the "heathen rage and the t p e ~ p l e imaginevainthings? ZThe kings of the earth stood up, and the *rulers were gathered together, against thelord, and aeainst his Christ. * or natlons or gentiles. f G .peoples. f o r , chefs r or pnnces.

-

'Whydgthe heathenXrage and the people timagine a vain thing? aThe kings of the earth set themselves, and the mlars take counsel together,againsttheLORD and aeainst his arointed. " *or~(umultuously s s e ~ a blc. t Heb. med~tatc.

6

dots XIII. 3 3 ; XLII. 35; Rom. III. 13.

[Table A. s.

This passage is an exact copy of the LXX. and is placed here, as the latter agrees with the Heb. But, it would be assigned to Table D s I r should the LXX. he supposed to depart from the original in rendering ?V??Utnmultuate" by Bppuu&u lL'demean proudly" (found in. act. form only in LXX Ps 1 . 1 and Quot.); Pi1 .Uemptiuess" e. a. vain 1 i. thing by ZEUS =vain things"; (i3:jil: "set themselves", "took a stand", with 5p in a hostile sense ~agai&", by aapdorqaau 'stood alongside" with x a r a "against"; 31e1>"sat down" for consultation; hence, Uconsult", by uuv+,y8qaccy 'were gathered together", or "brought together", the object being for consultation, which is only implied in the Heb. verb, the literal meaning,being, Yo be set down", an act preceded by the gathering together; from all which it is seen that the LXX, rendering is exact. (15) Acts XIII. 33. Ps. 11. I . Ps. 1 . 7. 1 [& *el & z$ mpdzcp
q 1 b l l p $ ~ 6 ~ ~ o r n r a rY 2 6 c p o u c] 81 a4, %i) a c p q w v r ~ & v q x d we.

- p e p v rsrkwqxci

Y 2 6 s pov e l a&, $7; re.

a$-

~ l n l $ ; ~ l??g? t y l ? ? p
Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

[as it is also written in the seeond Psalm,] Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

Thou a r t my Son, this day have I begotten thee.

The words eu 19 ltpwrq y a L p y yeypuasar will fall to he discussed when considering the sources of the Quotations.-At present we are ody concerned with the Quotations themselves, and no remark is needed here. , (16)
A& XIII. 35 Ps. XV. 10 [Ady~c] 0 6 8 d u a r s zdv o&?d 8 d a e c s rbv l i w ' 6 ~ WOW idsiv ~ ~ ~ x + g ~ o ~ o ia~o. u 86iv 8ruva.opciv.
o"rr6v

Ps. XVL 10 ~ ~ 1 ~ 0 ~ ' )
~ 5 1 2. 40. 1.

et 16 al. I) Tmn plurimi K. et R. Ed. ant. Masora etiamnotat3+?a,.

h)

nnv nru1ik) .. 7

k)

7x25

3 7 . 3 9 . K.

In regard to the reading llimn we believe the singular 11'Dii to be the correct one, not only because the rendering is rdu o"ac6u aou 'thy holy one", but since it is found (see Davidson's Revision of Text of Old Test.) in Cdd. 274. edd. mult. 'p, LXX. Syr. vg. Jerom. Talm. Bab. Midrash TehiUim, J a h t Simeon.
Rom. 111. 13.
r d v o s ~ Y E ~ ~ ' @ V Od I,;S pvy: airoh, z a i s p b i r u u c g a6r& 2 8 0 L o C a a v . .
~

[he saith ...I Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to see cormplion.

neither wilt Thou suffer Thine Holy One to see corruption.

neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One t a see corruption. --

Ps. V. 10.
zdvos &YE?~~&os 6 Liq v y E rr6riu, r a i g ~ A o j r l r a r s a l r & 68oAroirrau.

(17)

~~!~Cijl)~~~~ :pp?n:!
k) - 38 K. 1) A 206 K. r i

Ps. V. 10.

A al AapvE (GpwE).

6 AapuE.

Table A.s.1 Theirthroatis anopenseputchre; with their tongues they have used deceit.

Rom. 1 1 13; IV. 17. 1. Theirthroatisanopen sepulchre; withtheir tongoes they have used deceit.

7
Theirthroat isanopen sepulchre; with theirtongues they have used deceit.

Rom. ILI. 13-16 are found as verse 3 of Ps. Xm. Sept. L'B~t'' says Davidson, in Sac. Herm. p. 396 "although it is generally found in editions of the Septuagint attached to the 13th Psalm, yet it is wanting in most MSS. Accordingly, one scholiast has the remark ('these words are no where found in the Psalms. It ought to be inquired whence the apostle took them." Another says, Diodorus, Theodore, Cyril, and Didymus have z d p o ~ dvsq~yp&o~ E zuig d a o i ~ Y ~ Z ~ but -v L V , they are not found in the Hexapla. In Justin, however, as also in the Roman Psalter, the Arabic, and the Ethiopic, the words in question appear. It is certain that the Septuagint has been here interpolated from the Epistle to the Romans:' Not only are they wanting in very many copies of the LXX, but in all known Heb. MSS. excepting two (marked 649. 694 K. i. e. in Kennicott's collation) written about the end of the fourteenth century; so that, their haring been interpolated from the Epistle to the Romans seems most probable; and it m%y be noted that the Codex Alex. does not contain them. The latter clause of this Quotation is apparently different from the Hebrew, yet upon inquiry they will be found to be the mme. The Heb. means literally, "they make smooth their tongues", i. e. <'utter smooth words" (see Prov. XXVIII. 23:; 1 . 16) or 'Lflatter'', while the 1 Greek means, "they act deceitfully with their tongues", i. e. %peak deceiving words!' And can any speech be more deceiving than a flattering one? See Ps LXII. 4.
(1 8) Rpm. 1 1 13. 1. Ps. CXXXIX. 4. .Pa. CXL. 4. Lbs 2rmiJclv d a b z c i ~ ~ i k q ibs i o n i b v id =&xciAlj lnl,qlq > ) ~ J nnn x uirrrjv a&Gv the puison of asps is the poison of asps i s adder's poison is nnder under their lips. under their lips. their lips.

nnn

This quotation should be placed in D.I.r, if the sing. 3lW;p "an adder's" be rendered by the pl. u~nrd'ovYof aspsn-yet, as the former may be considered to be a collective, and an appellation besides, it would be rightly rendered by the pl. ciunL8ov.
(19)
Rom. IV. 17.
[ x E v 9 6 ~iF&Qamac] n a r 6 ~ aa o U i v d&Gv zd"YE'%& 06.

Gen. XVII. 5. ZiircPcarrdprrnoLAGv*Gv TMEAX& (18.

q'nn? n?u]?n;i-=~ r?

Gen. XVII. 5.

([As i t is written,] Ihave for a father of many for a father of many made thee afatherofmany nations have I made thee. nations have I made thee. nations.) The Neb. T'nQ3 UIhave given thee" is rendered by si8~rxoia& "I have placed thee" the usual rendering of jn! by si8qpc.

8

Rom.

IV. 18;

VIU. 36; IX. 7;

IX.12; IX.

15.

[Table A.s.

(20)
Rom. IV. 18.
$

[~&ix-cbsiq~,dvov]OSrws ~ U ~b on6qpe uov. L

Gen. XQ. 5. Oiizws Euzar .rb u d q p a
uo?

Gen. XV. 5.

qvl! n:.?? 73

[according tothat which was spoken,] So shall thy seed be. Rom. WI. 36.
[xa9ds rdreanzacl 5x6 Zvmav 006 BavacoGpda iL7v njv $,dq&v, W o ~ l c S v ~ E 6~np6fazo: u q a ~ s . Y

So shall thy seed be.

So shall thy seed he.

(21)
Ps. XLIII. 23. 5n5u'~anar ua6 B a v a r a b
p 8 a a 8L7v Z$Y ?@'pav, 3Lp~ i u 3 . q p s nQdfurauqa6~

+?

Ps. XLIV. 23.
+>?>]nY)

;iys)

1

ye.

7$~-!2~) ~ a,@p,.~11g . 3 .. . ~
p. R.

cABDEFGL ai mu clem 0r ~ c t chr . . . s (=I h Gb Sz) erwa eGK (e sil) ctc. Thdrl. Dam Th'ph. Oec. ([As it is written] For t h $ake we are kiued all ~ the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter). '
evsnw

ryere

. ..waxru. Alex.

x) = 9 i K . 9) 1% multiU.
z) in5 4 K. 31 a

.
Rom. IX. 7. 'EP'IU&%xL74@narluor
~depa.

For, for thy sake we are killed all the day long; weLareaccounted as sheep Vor the slaughter. * Gr. wcrc. t Gr. of slaughter.

Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long; we are oountea as sheep for the slaughter.

(22)
Gen. XXI. 12.
izc h'Isadm xLv8ijijrrszai UOV 0 ~ d Q p a .
-7

Gen. XXI. 12.

Dl q . Ml,?? p?? j ?>
~

In Isaac shallthy seed be called.

for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.

for in 1saao"sbaUthy seed be called.

~1l"the three mean literally, "In Isaac shall a seed be called for thee." Now "to be called is often i. q. to be, since men and things are called that which they are, or at least seem to be", and hence ube called for thee" would mean ube for thee."
(23)
Gen. XXV. 23. [d$&$v or&f] ~ Z d pzlL [mis l n ~ nipcog i&f] ... Swv 6avLe6oa~ i&&uuov~. *a1 6 p l t w v GavL&oz~z@ z@ Rom. IX. 12.
dL&arrovc.

Gen. XXV. 23.

331,
'

,..a> lngq -ly$, izy!",
d.

t) ~ y l i '62 S. u) ~ x nS. 223. R. a. p.

[It was said unto her] [And the LORD said to the *elder shall serve the her]. .and the *elder shall tyounger. serve the +younger. *qor,grcater. t~or,lcsser. * Gr. grcatcl.. t Gr. lesser.

[And theLORD said unto her]. and the elder shall serve the

..

(24)
Rom. 1X. 15.
Exoa. XXBIII. 19. Exod. XXXIU. 19.

Rom. X. 13; XIII. 9 fp. [For he saith to Moses,] I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I d l have compassion on whom I will have compassion. And I wl have mercy il onwhomIwil1 have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. And I will be gracious to whom1 will be graoious, and will shew mercy, on whom I will shew mercy.

(25)
Rom. X. 13. IIZS 5s ; d z w V

[rhe]
~

Joel II. 32.
xtrl gurac ncg i;s cv 6%'? *aA8m?ra' rb Svopa ~ v e l o v
UW*~~(T~U'.
7 .

Joel III. 5.

1Bc~zac zo Svopa xvqiov
U W ~ ~ ~ C C .

~lp-?q~ 53
OW:

For] whosoever shallcall upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

Andit shallcome to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.

Anditshall cometopass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be delivered.

Rom.

Xm. 9. fp

(26)
Exod. XX. 13-17.
I3oi
~OC,&UELS.

06 poc,ye6u~cr, 0 4 qovebuscs, 06 nA&,mc5,
[zb ykp]

04x

&L&~~.~USCE.

zlbq~~g. qov&us's. '606 ~ m 8 0 p a p ~ 2 ) q j u ~ ~ s . '706% Hnc&hrrz's.

.. ~ 5 :1z.q li. 7x7= ' ~

n j n & I 6 :saq s518

IN>^? gl14:nmn - - :.

Exod. XX. 1 3 i l i .
&\I3

delyecc

cABDEFGJ al pl.

Order 15. 13. 14. Dent*.Q. 17-21.
,

inno

vv m Clem2 Or2 a1 et er et lat m :. F (= Gb ~ z y a d d ov lyeuSopa mqqnocc, e mi nuscc cop af ~ce.

c?.

, ~ u f . p ~ "04 ; c~~o~Y~E. v ' TX~A5~ .'0 L S . ' 6 XF lQob ~E

[For this,] Thou shalt not commitadultery, Thon shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steel, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet.

2Qoir e 1 1 J o ~ a q z ~ l q ~ u ~ ' s . q

2 L 0 4~~ S & ~ ~ ~ U E - E L S . Z

..

..

Dent. Y. 17-21. :~p:~&5i.i6:nmn~5'7 ti5vo: hi51.l8

5;ik

" ? I

ti)? l i

m n.n ..- .

'/xl;

j3Thou18 shalt not commit adultery. ' 4 T h ~ shalt not steal. lsThoul7 s h l t not kill. KChon20 shaltnotbearfalse\Yitness. '7Thou2' shalt not oovet.

13Thou" shalt not kill. ~ ' ~ ~ T hshalt ~not oomou 8 mit adultery. 18Thouis shalt not steal. lsThou20 shalt not hear false witness againstthyneighbour. liThou21 shalt not covet.

%

In the Sept. the order in Deut. is the same as in Deut. & Exod. L of the Heb., whereas in Exod. o ?ovavasts 'thou shalt not kill" is put after the two following of the Heb. Paul follows the order neither of the Heh. nor of the Sept.-Of the first three quoted, he places the middle one of the Heb. od poc,y~-ira~cs "thou shalt not commit adultery" &-st, and then the other two in order, that is, he transposes the first two. And of the Sept. in Exod. he takes the first, but transposes the next two. The following one he leaves out, according to Tischendorfs text; but the textus receptus has oir ~ E U ~ O ~ U Q ~ U Q as noted, and he quotes of the last only the beginning 06% &%it%p$ua~s'thou shalt not covet." See more remarks in Table A.s. () 1.

#

~ G E I ~

10 Rorn.XLU. 9 ip; XV.
Rom. XIII. 9. 1p. jiyoniue~s,169 nAquloiov
uov cis wavr6v. aeavzov c ABDE a1 pm (pl?) Or? (et Clem ap Wtst)

3; 1 Cor. X. 7 ; 26;

28 lp in c; 2 Cor. IV. 13. Fable A.s.

(27j
Lev XIX. 18.
xai dynn4uecs zbv SATulov uov ;s w a v r 6 ~ . iavzov inmany MSS. and tlie Ald. and Compl. editions.

yn? ?,& F=QF!

Lev. XIX. 18.

Dial. . . e ravrav eFGJ ete. Clem. ~ h ; Thou shalt love thy ne~ghbonras thyself.
\

And thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyeelf.

but thou shalt love tbg neighbour as thyself.

(28)
Rom. XV. 3. Ps. LXVIII 10. Ps. LXIX 10.
[ x a a i s r&eanrar] Oi xai oi dvecJ~opoi r i v d v s ~ J ~ o r i v dve~6c56~rwv dved~C6yrwv rr8 6zdzssov pi
u &Sneoav in' d

$4.

d' dpd m

enmrrav cABCDEFG al pmDam.. r-oweJ etc.(Chr.

Thdrt.). [as it is written,] The reproaches of them that 'reproschedtheefellonme. * lrt reproach, or(are) reproaching.

.

And the reproaches of themthat'*reproachedthee fell upon me. * Ilt. reproach, or(are) r e proaching.

And the reproaches *of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me. * ht. of thy repmachers.

(29)
1 Cor. X. 7.
[ ~ u n s Q r i y e c m aEx&~] 8cow 6 labs way& rai me&, xai dvPoquav nai-

Exod. XXXII. 6.
nai ~ X & @ L U E Y d labs 9 a y8iv xai nrriv, xal a r d ~ aav sai@'v.

Exod. XXXII. 6.

)nwvp)9 8 nv,? 3..2
-:

pqS) pq 9' L

. I .

>

C~GV.

D*FG naar 1 FG avemq. [as it i n written,] The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.

and the people sat down to eat and t o drink, and rose up to play.

and the people sat down to eat and t o sirink, and rose up to play.

(30)
1 Cor.X.26 (and28lp. in<). .roc xvelov [7&e],rj y+j
xai rb nltqwpu e&rfs.

Ps. XXIII. 1.
zo; m~plov p no1 zb j nAiQwpa airr+js.

Ps. XXIV. 1.

6

ay15p p.g a'p>
The earth is the Lord's, and the folness thereof.

[For] the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.
2 Cor. IQ. 13. [xardr zb 7TQapp6~ov] Ezlormua, 6'6 2LLArjrra.

The earth is the Lord's, and the falness thereof.

(31)
Ps. CXV. 1.
2 ~ l m s v n n ,' dL&Lvua. 6 6

Ps. CXVI. 10.

[8ccording as it is written,] I believed, and therefore have I spoken.

I believed, therefore did I speak.

Ibelieved, therefore have I spoken.

2 Cor.

VI. 2; IX,9 ; Gal. III.
Is. XLIX. 8.

16; V. 14.

11
Is. S I X . 8.

(32)

2 Cor. PI. 2.

[Lire' ykp] Kncq@8&xr@ xarqC 8&m$ dnjxovo; ~nijxovudsou nai 6" $ p d p ~ uov xni dv $pdp+ oor7qLas uurqeing ~ ~ o ? ) ~ ? qOr ~ ~ dD0$6'~0.dU L U(L . B. 8axzpiswaatinginCompl. D*FG d e g Sedul xacpw yaq Arycr.

ni??iU) 11" TnQ
~
u) n p l 150 X.

np? ~ ~ t l1 n i!

1

~

[For he saith,] I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation have I succoured thee.
2 Cor. IX. 9. [xa8~sriypanm~]'Eux6.pn~oev, 88oxwxsv roisnivquiv, 6 J'xacocrbq a h 0 6 ~ ' Y E s&- rbv ai6vu. FGKalgvg(non am demid al) Aug. ap Wtst add in f.
CO"

In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I succoured thee. Ps. CXI. 9.
iuz6pncosv, 88wxe rois nivqocv, i A r a ~ o u b 7aiZ O $VEL ~ i zip aiciv(1~06 ~ 5 at&;.

I n an acceptable time have I heard thee, and i n a day of salvation have I helped thee. Ps. CXII. 9.

(33)

L

mi;",? o~J~'?x$ ?I? in? i p > nl.nL

alwos.

[Asitiswritten,]Hehath dispersed abroad; he hath given to the poor; his righteousness remaineth for ever.

Be dispersed, he gave to the poor; his righteousness remaineth for ever and ever,

He hath dispersed, he hath given to the poor; hisrighteonsness endureth for ever.

l~? 'to everlasting' "for ever", is rendered in the Sept. is tdv ulGvcc rot uiGvos Ufor ever and ever" lit. "to the age (or eternity) of the age (oreternity)", as if it had been ?Y! D$Y!, .while Paul ends with simply cis z6u aiGua eternity" "for aye."

Gal. 111. 16.
[o6 Iiyzc K a i ioi5 u d e -

Gen. XXII. 18.
%ai 2veuLoyrl~%joovz,ar z%

(34)

Fen. XXII. 18.

pau'v, 6; in( nollGv, &AI' r@ o d p p a r i UP n&nar b "E SF' 6 ~ 6 ~~i Z+ un.4~- 5avq i s rig. ~1 r puri urn. wloy?@. in Alex. Cbmpl. Z?F y ? ~ om in Alex.

?!If"'y T y? 1 ?

Y~H?
u) *uS 13 K. .
and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.

[He saith not, And to seeds, as of many;, but rts of one,] And to thy seed.

and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.

5v

I@

This is properly the citation of a single word or expression 'x! /l? e n d ~ p a oov for the purpose of commenting upon it. ~i
Gal. V. 14. Lev. XIX. 18.
xai & y a n j u c rbv nLq~~ aiov uov 6s w u v r 6 ~ . . . aaurov Many MSS. and

(35)

Lev. XM. 18.

[& r @ ] 'Ayamjuecs rdv nlvuiov u . 6 c iam6.v. w . eaurou cFGJ a1 ut vdtr pl. Chr. Thph. Oec ... Gb SzLn oralirov eABCDEK a1 ut vdtr om. [inthis;]Thoushaltlove thy neighbour as thyself.

qBli?>>11

the Ald. and Compl. Edd. and thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. but thou shalt love thy neighbonr as thyself.

6

12

Reb. I. 5 fp; 5 l p ; 6-0..

[Table As.

Though Euusov is given in the text, after Tisch. Ed. Sext. yet since Gb Sz Ln give mnruzow supported by ABCDEK, it is placed here; .and Tisch. in Ed. Sept. has rightly adopted it.
(36)
Heb. I. 5 fp, Y J ~pov EE 0i,sr6 S pspov y e ~ i w p c iu s ; Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. Ps. 11. 7. Ps.

II.

7.

YYS~ O Z d 04, @6 4I
@eeov rqdvvqxcI us.

ym./))]or%;? nne q g5
Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.

Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee.

(37)
Heb. I. 5 lp.~ [xal ncilrr] Ey& 8uapac a @ EL'< T C U L Z ~ ~xnia&bs & OI 8urar ~ O SL'S 1li6v. C [And again,] I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son. 2 Sam. VII. 14. 2 Kings VII. 14. @&kuopa' n6c- E ~ =,a- NN) ;l!2,Y$ S li-ii;,?~ r6pa rai a&bs Emac pol eis vibv.

VN 12)li-nr"!

I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son.

I wl he his father and il he shall be my son.

(38)
Heb. I. 8-9. Ps. XLIV. 7-8. Ps. XLV. 7-8. [Beds 6i zbv vi6v] ' 0 8pbros nov,'d 8 ~ 6 5 , D ~ I Y ~l ?qND37 ~ ji~ 8p6vos cow, 6 8865, 82s zdv cis aiGvm aiGvos, @6@Sos n>q -,&q=) Y ) ~ y , Q ~ aii-va zoir orii-yos. @i@8os &nicos $ifl$os r j s E ~ C ~ ~ Z4 ~ @~;@sos ~ S @ U W L I . S L ~ S UOV. 8+rinvrcts ~ 1 . y n?;lri;38 yn\>i$ O S Z .@au~~siars uou. s+y,iTC7ua5 ~ m a ~ o w i ~ v s+npm~ 1 - 9 yw'i nai S'xaraoiqw xal 6@miuar Bvop~av.$'& zoczo 8,puB 7'$ge)~$7~d)ynWnc) f.. . . . - : &o(llav' Grdr zoziro &puBv ue d 8eds 6 8eQsuov8Aacov ?l?) lyvy '.& ue,6 8e6s, d ~ C ~ S U O ~ ~ & ~ LOiralj.~O;(ie~s z&s psD Y napdl dyalLiu&s sapdl zobg ~ 6 x 0 uou. ~s

+

'?Y!p) l'g

~ ~ C ~ X O V .S F V

8. B.17, omcou a a m q

1

paps. (Ln pram x a u [el. cD*E* 17 d e am to1 aeth] q cAB[l I?] 53) au4. (Lnprzm r ?CAB 53) q (Ln om CAB ~ 53) qa/3S. r.6. aov (Bairrou) e m - * JK a1 ut vdtr fcre omn vv pl. 9. avaprav (D 'aw) . . . A a' a&xwv (item l A alEus. Ath. Cyr. Ps.45.7). 8. p u t unto the Son he soith] Thy throne, 0 God, i for ever and ever. s s sceptre of 'righteousness i the seeytre of thgkings dom. 9. Thou h a s t loved righteousness and hated iniquity-;. therefore God, evcnthyGod,hathanointpa thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. '¶Gr.rightaessorstraightness.

x) 3 3 6 ~ $ 7-1.97.117. 'I . 7 . Many MSS. read r o u a ~ . a&.It occurs in Alex. 133K. 7 ) 4.80K. z ) ? B l m 76. 121.131. 255; 8 a p. K. 8. anso. abruce*, in Alex. a ) ' n n ~ n ~ K. n = i 6 K. 31 b) NWl.?li . 255 K. c) Iwa+ l , , 224 K. d) I N IN 147K. m;is 156K. e) =166.253K. 1 3 ~ nhfi 137 K. f) p n n 5 ~ pl. K.
zov
,

-

-

7 Thy throne, 0 God, i s forever andever; asceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom. 8Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity; therefore God, thy God hathanointedtheewiththc oil of gladness above thy *fellows.

Why throne, 0 God, is for ever and ever; the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. gThou lovest righteousness and hatest wickedness; therefore 'God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness a50ve ,thy fellows.

Or, companions.

*

Or. 0 God.

Table A.s.1

neb. 1 13; IfI. 15; fP. 8. .

13
Ps. CX. 1.

(39)
Heh. I. 13.
[einxSu noze] Kk8ov b '8egcoiv pou 6"s h v 8 6 z d s i~8e06suau6nond8~arv zi

Ps. CIX. 1. K&ov & 8ebiv
8mS Elv 86 zzok &8qois uov 6non66~ovz i v no86-v

n?@ye)-?y n $ d ) ~~v ?$???) o i ? q ?s 7:
d) li+asi 76. 245 a p. K. D'BN 76.41 f K. f) 5 praef. 3 38. 73 eta:'; ,527 pl. K.
e)

[saidhe at anytime,] Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?

Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies 'thy footstooL 'Gr. the foatStaol of thy feet.

Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool

(40)
Ps. XCV. 7-8. [ivzcj Adysu8ac]Z(lEpov . aippov d&v zis qwris l$PT1-~N~) oy;Ii ') i v res qw+ airo6i'xol;- or8ro6&xol;uF~,ijj~xAq~vh :?ptgn v p , ijj uxLq~;yid z&s rpe =is xap8tas 6piv, cis a??>?) xap8Las86 p i v 6s Bv z@ iv z@ napam'xpaup6. napcnwprzup~. X) f 53 30K. 3 73.125. D*( bxilipwete I ? ? ) 370.496 K. y) 37.494K. z t.?. 3 255 K. a) -73K. ) Heb.
~

II 15. I.

Ps. XCIV. 8.

qii-5~~)~ fi?'ll

'

,

-

[While it is said,lPoday if ye will hear his voice, harden .not your hearts, as in the provocation.

Today if ye will hear his voioe, hardennot your hearts, as in the 'proyocation. * Or, embittering.

The last words of this passage ds the provocation" are a rendering of what is usually taken to be a proper name ;1?'?n? "as a t Meribah" the form being the accuse,tive of place. An account of the occasion when this name was gi'yen to a particular place is r e a d in E o d . XVII. 1-7. See also N q b . XX. .I-13.
'

Today if ye win hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the Xpro~ocation. * 1I Heb. contention. E T@ %a~am~xean,u@ in v '<as

~.

,

.

(41)
Heb. IV. 3: Ps. XCm. 11.
~xa8d~ei~rix~~]'&w'po~~ 6s ipoua $ zc 6qr5 Sv zT; d ~ ~ R p o v E i ~iosAs6~i- p o ~ EeideA~Guo~zolc~is Y i Z ~ ~ iv amaL ek Z$Y X ~ T L ; ~ L ~ V U L Y a ~ d m z u u FOB.
(Mu.

)?N?') T@N_~) ?@uQmj-5ij' ~.wi?~o!l.'o~
'LV~~L~I

Ps. XCV. 11.

sr... A om, C'q.

[as he said,] As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter idto my rest.

So I aware in my wrath, *They shall not enter into my rest. * Gr. If they shall enter. In Heb. 1 1 11 ds 6,uona are rendered "so I swafe"; but here, 1. UasI have sworn." Also ei ciusheinovtar are here literally translated

k)=74.97:133~. 1)-40K. m) + n u 166 K. Unto whom I sware in , my w ~ a t h%hat they shill not enter into my rest. * '(I Heb. If they enter &e.

by "if they shall enter", but there by '%hey shall not enter." There seems to be noreason for these variations. And ojg iponm will be rendered 'so I sware." The Heb. is.'npV!-lVNN generally translated

,,

14

Beb.

I .7; V. T

5; 6 ; W. 17.

[Table A.s.

"unto whom I sware"; or U(inregard to) whom I sware." Yet, as there m is no necessity for regarding l as, referring to the people, it may refer to.the previous circumst~nce and be rendered @(inview of) which," i. e. then". See Ges. Heb. Lex.. sub voc. 13. 8. Note. Also the latter rendering of EI & i c T ~ ? , & ~ o bViz a ~ they shall ente?', being v ~ "if liberal and exactly corresponding to the original, may be retained, though the original J~N=!-DN will bear to be rendered Yhey shall not enter." Ges. in Heb. Lex. sub voc. says "C) Conj. 1. C) By an ellipsis of a formula of swearing, DN becomes in some connexions a negative particle:" and so the 'lif I do" would become '1 will not do." And a similar thing here. (42)
Heb. IV. 7. Ps. XCIV. 8. [xaads npodp7ra~] t Z2$pspor ddrv 6 s qwvfs pspov d i v rfs qovi* shot a h 0 5 aixoGulrc, ps)~d . 7 I;xoirmp,,Ejl d 7 e 2 ; ~ q r ~ r & ~ pbFs ~ d xapYics vp6-v. r ~ xme8Lm~ Gp6v. Ps. XCV. 7-8.

yS@- DNY) 67"

?qn -

8,

")+ 5 i 30 K. i 3 . 125. 370. 496K. y) 37.494 K. z) t. e. = 255 K. a) 73 K.

--

:3yp!i!

;!3'

D??$)

[as i t issaid,] Today if ye will hear his voiee, harden not your hearts. Heb. V. 5. [&.A' d Aal$uagn@g a& z6v] Yi6q pou EZ 04, Py6 04pepov r ~ r 6 ~ ue. x i ~ B u t he that said unto him,] T6bu art my son, today have Ihegottenthee. Heb. V. 6. [xa465 xu2 b &6po 162; t ~ ~ ~ i . ; e i ai6vu sz& x a r i z$v Z&$LW M~Ax~ue8&. A (~tcrn. Chr. ublque ut vdtr) pe.ly.oe8ex ((et A 7,
1 ; sed alibi-8~).

Today if ye vdl hear his voice, harden not your hearts.

Today, if ye d l hear his voice, sharden not your heart.
Pa. 1 . 7. 1

'

(43)
Ps. 11. 7. Yl65 pau sl-6, p p o v rq6wrixO; u . s

ui-

ynll7 Dl>?7%

fiqy >>2

.:

Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. Ps. CIX. 4.

Thou orf my son, this day have I begotten thee.

(44)

P. CX. 4. s

[As he saith also in another 'place,] Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. * Or, psalm.

Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.

Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedek.

(45)
Heb. VII. 17. 21. Ps. CIX. 4. [paprupeira~ c%r] u& rip 6pm xberas xal 06 pa*p& ei* Z ~ Y(li6va xu=& zapeA?@unor~Z&&pe&s e& z.'S~v MeAxcusJBn. rdv a l i v e x d Z+v rciEw mr Mc2~tus8~ Ps. CX. 4.

n;l?!-rti) ;l!;l:3yzt&iq)

-52 n>iy! p j - f i ~ g

?? ,! !Q '

q=?7

Bom

m.4 fp.

[Table A.s.

This passage is omitted in TischendorPs text, for the reason noted above. It is given in the received text, and placed here that no one' may be disappointed. It is found in John XIX. 24, which see in Table A.s. (11).
(16*)
Rom. UI. 4 fp. Ps. CXV. 2 ~ r i s ~ ~ ~ v ~ q o ? r o s y e ~DCS&Yqonos lys4urvs. uz~s.

Pa. CXVI. 11.
11 1

02t$?~)-5?

but every man a liar;

Every man is a liar.

y) n = 38 K. All men are liars.

These words need not bc regarded as a Quotation; only they correspond exactly qith the original and may have been in Paul's mind when he was writmg.

Acts XWI. 5; Xom. IX. 13; Heb. IS. 13.

TABLE A. d.
Acts XXIII. 5.
(1) Exod. XXU. 28.

Exod. XXII. 27.

[rgrqanra~ L Q';4q,yom0~ . c+xovz.r r o c Lao; uov 06 ~ ] .ro; Lao6 uov o& $ p i s X ~ X & Speis. EV~(WS. ou rax. o~ .... otrx op. xanws YII. X . and various other

-

~ i i~ q p ? N'W;!

[for it is written,] Thou shalt not speak evil of the mler of thy people.

MSS.manyFathcrs andAld. & Compl. edd. Thou shalt not speakevil of the ruler of thy people.

nor ourse the mler of thy people.

This Quotation would have been placed in the foregoing Table A.R. only the closing words EQE?~xaxG~are found for xax6s i~zis,unless the other reading be adopted, which the Alex. MS. supports, when Table A.s would be the proper place for it.
(2)
Rom. IX. 13.
[xa>&s r&~anzac] Tbv l a x i @ $ r & s 7 u a , r l v 86 'Home ip"mjua.

M R ~I. 2-3. .
+a2 $ + r 7 u a rbv'Iand@

3zbv 8 NvaG $piu7ua. 2

-ne!. :>+p-nN 3;iN .
k) a f. = 125 K.

Mal. I. 2-3.

23

~nkxw? ;$y

[As it is written,] Jacob hive Iloved, butEsau have I hated

?and I lovedJaoob, abut 1hated Esau.

zyet I loved Jacob, 3And

I hated Esau.

The difference here is seen to be in the order of ~ d Iaxd,b' and v

?jy&55116&.
(3)
A h . ' 1 . 13. 1
Is. VISI. 17-16.

Is. VIII. 17-16.

[xul nhLv] 'Eyd,guoyrr' "nui ksnor8&r tuapcc nenor$&s Sn' a6rG. [ x o i L?2 a h & . '82804 2ri xai d n & A ~ v ]'I&& dy& xal r r t r n u d i e Z poi 88wzeu 6 d nar8im ;pot $Jw%ev6 8 s 6 ~ . 4 ~ 6 ~ .

73;yag :j..pq>i 8 l .I. ' 7 r 1 ,~-ln311 ' ,?&: o,+31 ' :

;i$irn) 1 p'i 471 K. m) a h 1. ) 93. 590 K. ,,,N 249 K.

[And again,] I will put my trust in him. [And again,] Behold 1 ana the children whioh God bath given me.

nand I 'mill +trust in him. CsBehold I and the ohildrbn whioh God hath given me. 'Gr. Iwill be. tGr. having trustcd.

'land I will look for him. IaBehold, I and the ohildren whom the Lord hath given me.

The words which occur in the first part of this Quotation are found in 2 Kings XXZI. 3 of tho Sept. version, as the translation of a passage the same as that which occurs in Ps. (XVII. 3 of the Sept.) XVIII. 3 of the Heb., where the Sept. varies, having EllnrG $n' aairsdv "I will t n s l upon him." 'But this Psalm" says Barnes #has never been regarded as having any reference to the Messiah, even b y the Jews;

18

1

Pet. I. 16.

[Table A.d.

y

and it is difficult to see how it could be considered as having any relation to him. Most writers, therefore, as Rosenmiiller, Calvin, Koppe, Bloomfield, Stuart, &c. regard the passage as taken from Is. VIII. 17. The reasons for this are, (1) that the words are the same in the Sept. as in the epistle to the Hebrews; (2) the apostle quotes the next verse immediately as applicable to the Messiah; and (3) no other place occurs where the same expression is found." The whole matter stands thus: In Hebrews we have words the same as are found in two passages of the Sept., the one as the translation of a passage, which when it again occurs is rendered with a slight variation, besides being confessed to be inapplicable: the other, the version of different words, whose immediate subsequents are forthwith quoted. To my mind, then, there is no doubt that Is. is quoted, which, meaning literally "I will wait for him", is with sufficient accuracy rendered by t'aopcrc z e ~ o r 9 . dE ads@ UIwill be (as one) having trusted upon ~ d him", as it is in the New Tcst.; since "to wait for Jehovah" means "to wait for his help", which can be only when one "rests his hope on him", or "puts his trust in him." The next part should have been assigned to Table D.s.1.r. since, while the New Test. and Sept.a gree, they differ from the Heb., which has ; ) ; reading 6 8 ~ 6 5 . i l, by
(4)
Lev. XI. 44. [ ~ C ~ rlypazzah] ' X y c o ~ Z L re2 Zy'oc Su~c88, &c $ucu+e, ~ Z G ~ ~ L O E ;ITLOG eifir drd. aoea4e(Gb') cABC all1 vg tora@e Zyroc in Compl. ClemCyr. . ~ y e ~ e & e c E e t c .. ed. v. 45 eo. d y inVat.MS. G d plus.20 Thph. Oee. y&- dy. so inAlex.MS. I nliqcos veorPe I wcos cA*B Clem. is roanting mOxf. MS.,Sar. Cyr.. . F add eslcr cCGK ele. MS. and Ald. ed. vv omn Thph. Oec. [Because it is written,] and ye shall be holy, Be ye ho1y;for I am holy. for I am holy.
1 Pet.

I. 16.

Lev. XI. 44.

-

alnp'? o>w?p")
.p,,,, ),

Dp!;l!

S.

'F I

-

and ye shall be holy, for I am holy.

The same words that occur in Lev. XI. 44, are found in verse 45. The Sept. to the former verse adds &pro5 6 Szdg 6fiGv 'the Lold your God"; and to the latter mqros. In Lev. XIX. 2 the words are a little different, being ~ 3 T l 3 7 Ds Wl'lj! '? ltq;iI?D'W-tp rendered i1 ~ 7 rightly by the Sept. Zycor t'mcr8e, d t c Z y ~ o i .Eyd xzSqros 6 8 a d s irpw"v "holy ye shall be, for holy am I the Lord your God." The reading y w c a 9 e "become ye'' may seem to be different; yet what is the real difference between them? am holy" is said of Jehovah; and, if his people are like him, ILthey shall be holy" too. But, in order to be like God, it is necessary that 'they become holy", since 'He is holy". The one reading holds out the promise of holiness, the other exhorts to being holy: the one looks to the result, the other to the condition for attaining it, and, the means being used, the end will be reached. Hence they are equivalent.

'

TABLE B
contains the Quotations in the New Testament which agree with the original Hebrew Text, when the latter has not been correctly rendered in -the Septuagint: Such a Table may be divided into two parts, B.s. containing those wherein the Septuagint may have been partly followed verbally; and B.d, those wherein it may be supposed that such was not the case.

TABLE B.s.
...

(1)

Nark XI. 29-30. 2 g 2 z ~ vToqmjL, zxirqcos s ci 8ebs < p i n xxirpros e&imLv, 30nai dyamjmtsxipov zlv 8ets6voou6E i;17~zijsxae6ias oou naL cs Z ~ 7 q . qvXjs q~ w u lrai $8 =is i q i a s
001).

3OX(B?) om .njs prim et B om znjs tcr (in seqq?) I K. 157.31 om*. $ 0 . z.+ux. o. I s Ln post yrux. o. add uu e5 olqs r 7 s 8'avocak oou ( a h i et ex totisviribustuis) --om eD 157. evg 49 cE. g1.k (k on1 et. x. e5 o. z.muy.a.) syr , hrs arm Cyp3 (A post x a q o. pon, cd' post 'ax. s) I

Deot. VI. 4-5. -'2zov~ 'IoqarjL, xdqros 6 8zbs j p 6 v i~kq-s &$mi. +xai dyanjos~s ~xir~cor rbv 8 ~ 0 .6o ~66 817E ~ 8iavoias oov xai z 3.7s zljS yvyis oov xai $6 gilS zic 8vhl~ip~&s (TO". Smv ...nopSaas in VII.'XI. Ald, Compl. I oux ... Some MSS.reodcoXuos. I v q . a o v
and many other M S . ; also

I Dent. T : 4-5.

i N ? ~ ~?~ j ~ ) d 3, t n=+l % :qnNnla? 5,,2',E . - &' -'?? 1:. . 1 : ':' '6 -5?? q??i-i??? ??=5

-

:

:? $ l <

Two MSS. add. xar a5 oinjs

'

4) yet 7 Masora; sed non cst rnajuseulum in S. el permultis eodd. H. K.

rnjs (O;(VOF OOV. another xar r o i q s r ~ ra J'as oou j F s Svv . ~ ~ m e ~ ~ I ~ Sur. oov. T w o MSS. add rac rE olnjs znjs ~ o x v o soov at

..

.

8

~

a

~

~

~

~

s

the end.

ZSIlear, 0 Israel; theLord our God isoneLord: 30And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, ih and w t all thy soul, and withall thy mind, andwith all thy strength:

.

&Bear, OIsrael; the Lord our God is one Lord: sand thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy mind and with all thy soul and with all thy strength.

?Hear,OIsrael;TheLORD ourGodisoneLOED: SAnd thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart,andwithallthysonl, and with all thy might.

This Qnotation has been placed here, since Mark, in Tischendorf's text, in Ed. 1849 agrees with the original, rendering 7lsQby ~o,yvos oov, and limiting it to bodily power. But if the reading in s Ln.& Tisch. Ed. Sepi be adopted, viz. after yi~xqgnov adding xu2 E ilhqs sfs S~uwolrcs t oov "and with all thy mental-might", which is the clause with whichMatt. ends, then,if an additional c l a ~ ~be assumed,Mark's passage will be assigned se

,

,. .,
'

20

hrarlr XII. 2%-30;

XV. 2 6 ; Luke XXII. 37; 2 Cor. VIII. 15.

[Table R.5.

to Table E.11; but, as the last clause in the Heb. speaks of Ustrength"; and we have seen that Matt. restricts it to S ~ u v o r a "strength of mind," "considerate resolution" as it means; yet as there is also "strength of body" taxus, it would seem that Mark may have considered the Heb. l&n as expressing both, and so rendered 8g ZLrlS z 6 ~ Stuvoius oov x a i EE 8Lvs 1ists Ioxiog uov 'from thy whole mental-strength and from thy whole physical strength", q. d. all the powers of mind and body are to be devoted to loving the Lord. And thus it would be seen that Mark has only fully developed the ideaof ustrength", whilst Matt. lays hold of the nobler part.' Mark follows the LXX. in using dE which points to the source, Matt. having dv like the Heb. ? which denotes the place.
(2)
Hark XT. 28. Is. LUX. 12.
xarl e'v zois &vipois 8.0rirr8~.

Is. LIII. 12.

i

[xai e'nlriqoj87 i 7pu& Ld70vlrcr] 'Kal p z d i v 6 p v 6Aoric%.

??IJ? ~ y ~ ~ - .n & l . .

k-sah. [And the scripture was fulfilled, whioh saith,] And he was numbered with the transgressors.

and he was numbered among the transgressors;

and he was numbered with the transgressors;

This verse is omitted in Tischendorf's text, but has been taken from Lachmann's. See, as noted above, for the MS. auth. Mark nearly quite agrees in word with the LXX., yet markedly adheres t o the Heb., the former reading Ev r o i ~ Y ~ ~ U O I S & "among the lawless", the latter oywcnx "with transgressors", like Mark's fietd C2lli;lLmv; where his not being one of the lawless is, I think, distinctly stated, a point which may be inferred, yet not with certainty, from the Septuagint's Ev, and therein it is deficient.
Luke
[ZO~ZO

HXU.37.

(3) Is. LIII. 12.

Is. LIIX. 12.

zb rz7gapp&ovov 8zi idac+a~ h e'poi, zo]
KCL

p a d d ~ 6 p m v $ A o ~ i c 9 ~ .~ ~ ~ v T o ~ E & Y ~ ~ o L E . ~ o ~ ~ o @ . x ~ ;I>n>i,pWD-nel: -:.

[this that is written must yet be aocomplished in me,] And he was reckoned among the transgressors:

and he was numbered among the transgressors;

and he was numbered with the transgressors; .

For reinarks see MarkXV. 28 above.
(4)
Exod. XVT. 18. 2 Cor. TIII. 15. [~e8&grdraazza~] 'Orb o 4 x e ' d z 6 v a w v d zb no&, no& 04% dnAedvaoev, xaid xal d zi,B.az.rov oix jlaz.rb 62iyor o4x + l a ~ . r 6 ~ r r s v , z&vqsev.

il;13lgno) ???;in) ~'5)")
-,j~n;jq)
:

Exod. XVI. 18.

: .

~5 ~J>Y?~*!P)

Table B.s.1

2 Tim. I . 19; Hcb. 11. 12. I

FG a1 mom 6 see (a1 pauc to1 his 4).

z ,f& d r b in utr. i

Comvl. E d . . . .Ald.Ed. 5

6r a oun r d a o v . r o oiryov in MS. Alex. zo rAac.rav in MSS.Vct. Ox&

<.

...

1

m) 1 = 4. 136 K. n) m n 64 S. qmy 221 S. o) = 75. 109K. p) 1 = i 5 K . 'q) van 64.12i 221 S.

[Asit is written,]He that had gathered mnch, had nothing over; and he that hadyntheredlittle, had no lack.

he that had gathered much had nothing over, and he that had gathered less had no lack.

he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had. no la&.

This Quotation differs from the Sept. in order, by transposing the parts of the first clause, and in reading, merely by giving oAlyov for arlcxmov, a proper alteration, inasmuch as the opposite of LLmuch" is "little", just as "to become more" and 'to become less" are opposed. The Hebrew is rendered accurately enough, but the original expression is more definite, and means literally: I1The muchmaker (i. e. he who gathered much) made not to be redundant (i. e. did not g a t h s more than enough) and the little-maker (i. e. he who gathered little) made not to be lacking (i. e. did not gather less than enough)."
2 Tim. 11. 19. 2 7 ~ 0Y+OS ZOLS~ V T D E
airro:.

TheLord 'kuoweth them that are his.

Num. XVI. 5.. Num. XVI. 5. xai t j o B S ~ $ robs ~ I - y g ~ - n ~ ' )y?ilh) p y S . . : >:a? . 6vr&s arkoii. h) .).n*r64. 66. 183. 197. 09-eoc .. .one MS.nvpro~. 221 S. Y l V 190 K. i) = 223 K. andGod hathkncwnthem The LORD willshew who that are his. are his.

(5)

This is the same as in the Sept., only Paul has followed the Heb. 6 &JS. Y l i is translated as Hiph. let know, i. e. shem, & hence the various readings: but it may be read in Eal, V,?.andre'ndered know, or i)? part. act. knhuing, which is preferable.

ail! not

(6)
Heb.

fi. 12.

\ ,

Ps. XXI. 23.

Ps. Xxn. 23.
7nN5 .: ;
o)

[hd70v] .'AzarrehG r b 86?77$~opan &oP& uov zb o'~op0iuovroisai8eI'poispo11, z o i ~ 8 ~ I q o i s 6 pow, 6v @uq~ b@opd+.7iulaiasipjvw 56. ixx2qoiag 6 pjrro re. e ~ p r o o Cod. Alex. in s v p r o o : i t a B C D E m sil L M eto. A eppeoo.

7pV) >?+3DN

$!g8

5 ? qln? ~

..

= 245 K.

[Saying\] I will declare thynameuntomybrethren, in the midst of the church willIsing praise unto thee.

I will declare thy name unto my brethren; in the midst of the 'church will I sing praise unto thee. * Or congregation.

I will deolare thy name unto my brethren; in the midst of the oongregation will I praise thee.

The first word only is that wherein this Quotation differs from the Sept., reading S ~ q p + a o p a ~ will relate throughout", while the. '1 former has cmacyyeA& "I will announce." The meaning of the original ;i?+3E. is properly "to recount with praise", "to celebrate", which is better expressed in the New Test,.,than in theSept,.; (for which see Exod. IX. 1 6 ; Ps. CII. 22; especially LXXVII. 3. 4.) and comp. with Sept. trans.

Matt. 1 . 15; X W n . 46. 1

[Table B.d.

TABLE B.d.
Matt. II. 15. Hos. XI. 1. [iwor nAqqo85 zb # 7 8 h i n b xvplov &d: za< n e o ~ $ zov 16yovros] 'ESAZy4nrov xa2 <E AiyCzzov Wze&&lava rbv vi6v PO*. n&Asua zdr z6xva abroG. *nenoAeoaw in Comp. [that it might be folfilled which was s ~ o k e n of Ed. t h e Lord by t h e prophet, saying,] Out ofEgypt have And out of Egypt did I I called my son. call his children.

(1)

Hos. XI. 1.

$ ? !

?nN?p D??9nn)3
a)
1

= 245. 297 K.

And called my son out of Egypt.

In this quotation, Matt. has had recourse to the original, which is literally rendered. And that the present Hebrew text is correct may be gathered from the versions of Bquila: cimd Aiydnzou ExclLca sdu u26u pou, of Symmachus: E Aiydszou xexL4tac uibs IOU and of Theox dotion: EzciLc~auitu pou bz Aiyhnzou. 'The Seventy says Davidsou "must have, read the Hebrew word ' ~ 3 5in the plural, as if it were pointed '33>." But it should rather have been said: For the Heb. word ':$, the copy used by the LXX. translators must have read 11315, since they give neither zdu vi6v pol,. as Matt. has it, nor r$ rixua par as Davidson would have it, but sd zixulcuu d s o i ; . It is thus seen that the rendering in the LXX. varies widely from that of Matt., and from the original, and could not have been used by him for the purpose in view.
(2)
Matt. XXVII. 46. Ps. XXI. 2. 'HA2 ljrti 1 4rcr@n~8avl; zo&' ~ Z N 0s6 pov 088 ' 8 s b s d 8 e d g p u , nq60 wov, Eva zi . &%ar6kmss; q s s POL. &a ri 6rzaxarEAr ~. ? l a qlc ($2.6 hoespiritu [et n8s pe; LnIEFMetc.; heliamgatmm & x ~ a i r m a ~ Alex. in ingfor a b d f IT1 g l ... +Ah [ut S] KU tte.; eZi v g c f gz h) D eAFGH(?)KL (L GALoi?jAr) MS(?)UV(?) etc.. . . qlar +ar DEd etc. . . riwca rkwtwrr B ete. . . . eAwa 33 a1 ( i r ~ eB o ap Btl) L 33 a1 am ing far a 1 g l . . Ln i n ~ (7pro eB a ap Beh) - - s lam eD ete. &t m m b h (lammavg 8%)-AKUd ete. f A'pa - - EF GHMSV etc. i r r ~ a o a # a ~ I vYavc ( ~ t a S) eEFGH(7)KL et MSf7)W. .ABfanBeh. scd oa&xravar ap B'tlj d ompox@ m a r . . D Caw@-aver, D*o w O a v r r (d h zapthoni, b zaptanr a zahlhant) . Ln Pa. XXII. 2.

'???jXC)

a?) 755 '

5~~)

.

.

B

.

.

aa@ax8avreuln(sabrrrtl,ant) vg (ct MSS.) c f lfi2gZ (gb

.

Table B.d.1
zahocthang IAEPGKMzf etc.
warsicczc-s.

Nark XV. 34.

23

Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, N y ~ o d ,my God, why hsst thou forsaken me7

0 God, my God, attend to me; why bast thou forsaken me?

My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

That this exclamation, found in Matt. XXVII. 46. has reference to Ps. XXII. 2, (in LXX. Ps. XXI. 2) and is even taken therefrom, may be reckoned certain, since the rendering of the words, as given by Matt., is also that of the words in the Psalm. In the latter it begins with 1 5 158 read, as pointed, 517 eli, and meaning ILmyGod, ~ my God!' In Matt. there are various readings: qRc q;tr (either @c idc heli heli, o r ? L eli 611) ~ R E ~ A E L ; EAOEC; ~Rwc; which j +RL L CAWEL ERWL of pw pow, the first is preferred, and which Matt. translates by OLEo OEE "0 my God, 0 my God!' The LXX. gives d 8 ~ 0(rs 880s pou, "0 God, 0 my God", omitting the first pow, as is done in MS. 33 as noted above. It next adds ~ ~ 6 u ; r ~"be near to me", or 'Lhelpme", found ,uoc s neither in the original nor in Matt., whose next word has various forms also, viz.: A~ga, Aqfia, Aqua, illpa, L ~ p a the Heh. for read as pointed, limih, and meaning "for what" or 'wherefore",like Matthew's h a si. The only difference between the two is in the verb. The ori' ginal has !Q>TP ILhastthou left me", read 'azavtini, in Greek letters auup4avc, whereas Matt. gives ua,9a~9.avras in the text, whence the various readings ua@ux4au~c, ~ @ ~ X T uapa~4av1, ~ @ ' O Inap-I , ~ UVEL, ~ VE 8avar. Now, the two last and similar forms are evident accommodations to the Heb., the former ones alone being such as Matt. would use; and, though his word would thus differ from the Heb., yet the difference may be satisfactorily accounted for thus: 'JQ31Y was the word in Heb. signifying "thou hast forsaken me"-but, when the Neb. ceased to be a spoken language, the synonymous verb of the Syrochaldaic, a cognate tongue which took its place, would be employed; and that is precisely the verb which Matt. gives, uapa;r8auc (found in 216 K. Unn2V "sabacthani" says Davidson "is now in the Targum:') 'm rendered by: pe ~yxurzAm~s e hast thou left", by which position of the pronoun, attention is more readily drawn to the abject condition of the speaker. (3') Mark XV. 34. Ps. XXI. 2. Ps. XXII. 2.
'~7.~1~ w t i p & repaxa Savi; i;6uzrvp$eqmvm6pevov'0 8 8 6 s pow, 6 8e6; pov, cis 6y~cziAlr~n6; pe;
i h w a bis (hcloi s f 1am ins prag gat mt) . . s ;Am&. 1) a1 vv m Ems. ~Aer ~ 1 . '/ s. law eBD al am eat . . c lappa sine cod u<c . Ln ArracCLd al vv ..AKMPUX al vv Ath. allrpa. .EFGBSV

'0 8 a b s
VXEC
POL;

6 $ ~ 6 ; p o v , mgo&or zl &raz6A~-

m13 31

mi $8 + K ~ )

. . ..

-6s , ; a Alex. + x ~ s A e a n e ~ .

b) + a I = 43 ex c. K. c) +;nn>w 216K. l m s y 206 K.

24
A oc/3~ilax8aurc,B C a / 3 ~ 8 a v a rCG o a / 3 q @ a v e r , , D t a w @ a v e ~ B om o 8. gas

1 Cor. 111. 19.

Fable B.d.

a1 Aswzlror

/

alt..AEFGKal pm vg(ms7) Eus. Thph. om pou prius ]
~YXM.

I

( - A I c ~ F EGL - A e ~ m q

K
Pel

pe

Cop Vg d . . C Po

cBL a1 (D vv uvrSwm$
EYIM.

Eloe. Eloe. lama. sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, MyGod,myGod, -whyhastthoufarsakenme?

0 God, my God, attend to me; Why hast thou forsaken me?

hh My God, my God, w i g hast thou forsaken me?

In exhibiting this exclamation in Greek characters, Mark varies from Matt., a variation which is worthy of notice. In the original it is +y. elf, which is found in 'Matthew's qrlr. Now 5~ takes the suffix the of the first person only (hi)), other sufhes never being found i~ with it; so that, $0 express thy God, his c o d &c. the forms ~ ; ? ' i ~ ( , l ' ; i&c. ' &re atlded, are used. I to this latter form the s u f k of the first f it would become '355, as appears in Ps. XVIII. 29, which is the form adopted by Mark in his ~hwr. So far, then, Mark varies from Matt., and from the Heb. also, using instead of the original form qhi, the form more .frequently occurrent ehwc i. e. '358 for he. For the rendering of the first part, Matt. Sves h e pou Qce pou, Mark 6 8 ~ 0 spov 6 QEOS pov, whereby the latter nearly coincides with the LXX. which has not the first pou, as in Tisch. Ed. Sept. here. But the meaning of both is the same; an exclamation of YmyGod, my God." At the end Mark says cis si "for what (thing)", instead of iva 7i "to what end" of Matt. and the LXX. Further remarks will be found above onflatt. XXVII. 46. (4), . 1 CO*. I I 19. I. Job V. 13. Job V. 13.
[m'yqa7ccurydq] 6 d'qauu6pwos z a i s voqoiis dv nwovqyla ah6-v. FG am d et zauq.'
[For it is written,] He taketh the wise in their own cri~ftiness
~ ~ z ~ l ~u opq o~ ~ & omy3') film3 b v ~ r 7 : .7 -: & zt qqovijo~'.
7 :

735

ppov. a i d v

Alex. MS.

I).:naiy> 89 a p. K. .nay>
801 R.

who taketh the mse in their omn prudence.

He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.

This Quotation, taken from Job, is a literal version of the Hebrew, and verbally varies as far from the Sept. as evidently never to have been copied from it. On it Dr. Davidson (in Sac. Herm. p. 415) observes: "This is from the Seventy. The apostle, however, according to his usual manner, alters several words, and substitutes others, which express the sense more forcibly." This alteration and substitution, however, have been carried so far that any one, I am convinced, could never recognise the one as having been copied from the other.

--

-

TABLE C
contains the Quotations in the New Testament, which direr from the Original Hebrew Text, when the latter has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint. 1 1. This difference may be I. in Words; or 1 . in Clauses; or 1 1 in Both. Hence Table C will be divided into three parts correspondingly. Table (2.1; Table C.II. & Table C. III. And, as the Difference in Words may have reference to the rendering(r); to the omission(o); and to the addition thereof (a),Table C.I. will be subdivided into corresponding parts: Table C.1.r; Table C.1.o; Table C.1.a; or combinations thereof. Also, as the Difference in Clauses may have respect to their position, as (1) introductory; (2) intermediate; and (3) final, Table C.11. will also he broken up into Table C.11. 1; Table C.11. 2 ; Table C.11. 3 to correspond; and the letters, r, o, & a will intimate about the rendering, omission and addition thereof. Si~nilarlywill there be subdivisions of Table C.III.

(1)
Matt. XXII. 44.
Ps. CIX. 1.

Pi. CX. 1.

[ * 3 1 I i < o6v d a v i 8 e w ' zvsdpar~ndsinirrbvxbeior Adrov] "Elaw 6 X ~ ~ L O E r$ EZzw 6 xdqras r$ xu& xuqip p o u K i B o u 2 ~ 8ebGr pow K i h v & J E S C ~ pow Y pow & J <Cv 8 G 7 0 6 2 ~ 8 q 0 6 ~ o < a v 86 r 0 6 ~ 2 ~ 8 q o b s ~ i Y uov mv 6 ~ o a & . r wz i v zo8Gv CnondJ~arr i u - 0 8 6 ~ rov.
UOV.

3*

' ~ N P ) ON? ;il;;i'h) Tzkn,@6e)-,e ,?, :;$dl
:+hy) D-2

x u cos cDZ-- s o ruems e BEF~HKLVSU~'~I~~O~~C,,, (Gb') eBDGLZ al rn Sg-rbe h Aug--qvnonoS~ov, eEFHK

MSUV.

b) +nu178. 251K. e) Kamctr sub Nun Cod. Cass. d) r;*alii6; 245a p.K. e) U ~ 76; 41 f. K. f) ipraef.=38. 73. 9i. 133. K.43.283. 350. 865. 8 6 i a p. R. -,im pl. K.

N

26

Nark X. 19 fp.

Fable C.1.r.

HOW then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,] 44TheLORDaaid unto my Lord, Sit thou i n my
righthand,tillImakethine enemies thy footstool?

The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemiesXthy footstool. * Gr. the footslool of thy feet.

TheLORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies' thy footstool. ' Lit. a stod far thy feet.

By adopting the readings given in s, Matt. is found t.o agree with the LXX., so that this quotation might rightly be placed in Table A. ; I <'the oracle (or declaration) of Jehovah The Heb. N to my Lord" is correctly gi&n in: EZXTW6 x t g t o ~t@ zupip pou <<the Lord said to my Lord." Also l!jn$ Yo my right hand" in the sing. is idiomatically rendered: Ex Sr&& pov %om my right hands" - the idea expressed being that of protection and assistance. Lastly the Heb. Y'!l>f, oi;l l'a stool for thy feet", is literally given in zinonb&ov t G v noSGu tiou L'a stool of thy feet" of the LXX., whereas Matt. says only ziaoxdsw sGv noSGv tiou <<underneath feet", according to text thy of Tisch., with the same meaning however.
(2) Exod. XX. 13-17. Exod. XX. 13-17. Mark X. 19 fp. [ r k s &orol&s oE8os] M i I3o6 p o ~ ~ e i r e ~ s . "06 : ~ r ! ~ ~ ? ) ' 4 : i l ~l > ~ ~ 5 3 ~ O L X ~(i UP O YS~ ~ V , ~ S , I A ~ ~ ~ W I5o6S (POYEGUELS. ~ ( ~ , l EC . ;~!jln j ' 6 : g '5 x k ~ , q s ,EWj yw8opaq-cvgj'% y e v i ~ p n ~ r ~ r v e o j. ~ ~ s o ~ 5 ~ ):1p 12 ?Ell3 " UjlS, i"bU16q$u~s, "o& ~ Z L ~ V ~ $ U E L S . . Ln rc? rpo"evo.antepvpocX. -#nn poncBCdalvv ... syr pcrsP z ) 851 196K. a) xi1 6 9 ' ~ : Alcr. 13. 14. 15. ov vow. b) ~51s.e x . 61. 64. 65. 66. ( postxiw.pon .. edd4fplane ou pmx. ov x i t , ~ ; om (Gbo) . t . D (nand k 127.) n o e v r v s pro vow: / B * L Deut. V. 17-21. Deut, V. a1 m Thph. om p? anoms (a c non ahegabis, knia!: "oi(Pov&oe~s. "06 PO': 85'' ~h,~) negaveris. I ~ ~ i r c a 1806&+~YIELS. : jJn X) 1.9 : ~r. 1°06 gj, ysv8opaqruqjmrs . "oix :. 19 TF.? EIj).x)20 ~z'%~$uEc. . ~

..

2&c~ 5 3

c!ln

.

ibnn h'ii")21:~IIU'~)

+2n-

lN?n

lThou knowest the commandments,] Do not oommit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defiand not,

13Thou18 shaltnot~ommit lsThou17 shalt not kill. adnltery.~~Thou~~shaltnot IIThonig shalt not commit steal iJThoui7 shalt not adulterg.iSThou'%haltnot kill. lsThou20 shalt notbear steal. 16Thouao shalt not false witness.. 17ThouZS bear false witness against shalt not covet.. thy nelghbonr. *iThouZ' shalt not covet.

As noticed on Matt. XIX. 18, the Vat. LXX. differs from the Web. in the order of the commandments, placing the sixth, h e n t h and eighth as seventh, eighth, sixth. Mark also alters the order, arranging them seventh,' sixth as in Tischendorfs text, but Lachmann's follows the Heb. order.

Table C.I.T.]

Mark 111.36.

27

Mark differs from Matt. and the LXX. by using (17 with the aor. subj. and not 06 with the fut. Now, the future is used for the imperative, the place of which it always supplies in negative commands, or prohibitions; and when i t expresses ~rohibition,it is preceded by ~ 5as: ll?? ~5 Ex. XX. 15, "Thou shalt not steal", (See Ges. Heb. Gr. 5 125.3. c) rendered in LXX. 06 1~IZays~g. -But a prohibition can also be expressed in Greek by p7 with the aor. subj., as in 11. a, 564; 5, 265, Arist. Lys. 1036; Aesch. Prom. 628; a form which Mark has adopted. &rk has also, after mentioning four of the ten commandments, (See Matt. XIX. 18, 19, Luke XVLII. 20) added what one would in such a situation suppose to be another. And that it is intended for another, there cannot be the least doubt, since it, along with the rest, is introduced by the words: r & g Bvrohu~oi8ag 'thou knowest the commandments." Now, by turning to Rom. XIII. 9, we h d the same as those in Matt. and Luke, with an additional one also, which we know is the tenth. The question, then, occurs; May not Mark's be intended for the same, though he says pvj dnomapljog~ 'Thou mayst not defraud", and not: pc+ Ern~t%~pljc~?jg mayst not covet"? ''thou To my mind there is not the least doubt, since to cheat or defraud supposes a covetous desire of a neighbour's property, and the commandment would thus mean, Do not allow yourself to be impelled by a spirit of covetousness, so as to take your neighbour's property by fraud or dishonesty. As the other commanrlmeuts seem to look to the outward act, Mark expresses the tenth also in its outwardness of defrauding. Those, to whom this solution is not satisfactory, will find a full explanation by referring to Lev. XIX. 13, where it is expressly forbidden in ? W Y I ~ - K "thou shalt not defraud", extort by fraud ~ and violence, (in the LXX. ozin &31xljotcs"thou shalt not do injustice to"), well rendered by Mark odx daoortg6cTgg "thou mayst not despoil" i. e. by fraud; hence, defraud. (3)
&rk
XII. 36.
Ps. CM. 1.

Ps.

CX. 1.

[a&hsdcrulb &nsv dv z@ E?nw d xireros r@ xueiy nvsbpaz~z@ iriy] E?nsv 2W 6x6erosz@rcveiwplov~L;8~- pou R h 4 o ~ G E & ~ pow d5 Y TOV 6~ SE&& ~ I U L ) ~ 1 ; ~ zWs ~ 8 6 ~ ~ j 1 4 ~ 0 6 ~ ~ 0 1 1 h <0 i ~ irnond&av z6-y no86v row. 46 robe 6 p 9 q o Q oau ;nox&ro r 6 v na8Gv now.

?!lHfi

n,yee)lp 3!,p7y) :7?5ny) a12

;IF?'') D,y>

metz sub Nun Cod. c a ? ~ . d) >1*n-ii6;245ap.K.e j 3 . u ~ 76, 41 f . K . f) i praef. = 3 8 , 73. 9;. 133 K. 43. 263. 350. 865. 86; a p. R. 742, pl. K.

cRD 28'eop am perss.. Ln unono8~ov c ut sup ARFC, etr xacw
F

[For David himself said by the Holy Ghost] The

The LORD s a d unto my

TheLORD said unto my

28

Luke XVIII. 20 fp.; XX. 42-43. Lard, Slt thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies *thy footstool. 'Gr thefootstoolofthyfeet

[Table C.1.r. Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies "thy footstool. * Ltt. a stool for thy fcet.

LORDsaidtomy Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thins enemies thy footstool.

Mark differs from Matt., in this text, by having xaeraov for xu8ov, which reading is given in s Ln, see above. And if the other reading in s Ln, viz. vnono8~ovfor vzoxarw be adopted, whereby Mark is made conformable to the LXX., this quotation would be assigned to Table A.s. Tisch. in Ed. Sept. gives L & ~ Lfor ET~EV.For more, see above, on Matt. XXII. 44.
Exod. XX. 13-16. Exod. XX. 13-16. Luke XVIII. 20 fp. [ = i s i v r o l i s o l G a s ] Mi 130i ~ O L Z ~ S U E L S . "04 : 7 y &)I4 :?jln & I 3 ~ O L X E ~ C pi ~ ,o v L ~ op$~ ~ x~@.%s. ~ ~ S . , "06 q o v 6 i u 8 c ~ . ;13yn-N j 6 : 3 j ~ n ii ~ ~ 1 f , , a ~ d y ~ s , p ~ ~ ~ v d o p n"0~ E Z~~ $ O ~~C~~ .~ W ~ $ O E I ~ + S . pz ~ ~ ~~ .. : Alex. 13. 14. 15. OW . o ~ . z ) ~h 196 K. a) NSI 69K. ou p o l l . ou x l n y .

(4)

yt .le q~?.?
:=q air.x)
lo

Deut. V. 17-20, "06 aoveiruscs.
~OG&~~C'G.

'
f80&

Deut. V. 17-20. :?Wn ~(51.~) '8:?g?m
'

1 9 %+LC. ~ ~ -,qS?)ao l006 ~ E V ~ O ~ ~ Q Z V & U ~ C S . :" )

i e sgl.:

;i!zr?

x) t = S. 18.107.150 alK. 174. 872. a1 R y) ?ps 84. ?pw 111. 152 K. 199. &c.

+

[Thou knowest t h e oommandments,]Donbtoommit adultery, D o not kill,, Db not stea/Do not bear false witness, :

13Thdutsshaltnot commit adultery. W h o u ~ s s h a l t n o t steal. 1JThoul7 shalt not kill. 16Thouzoshaltnotbear false witness.

1aThou17 shalt not kill. ~4Thon~8,shalt commit not

aaultery.~~Thoul9shaltnot
steal. tsThou20 shalt not bear fdlae witness.

Luke has arranged the commandments in the same order as Mark, transposing the sixth and seventh. He has also adopted the same grammatical form: viz p with the aor. subj., and not od with j the fut. ind. See further remarks on Mark X. 19 fp.
Luke XX. 42-43.
["xa2

Ps. CIX. 1.

(5)

Ps. CX. 1.

atrbsdcrvi8 i d y ~ i
ydpGv]

6 @@v v
xip~os r

EZnsP6
iv

c

~ v e i q p o Ki4ov v

i x GeEciin pow 43scd5

8s

:w viini.1 "!;if) D?? ? ~ Y Nn ~ ~ ~ ~ ) , i y ~ ; ~ n $
:.j>%n?) 013 b) 3nx 178.251 K. e ) Kamctz sub Nun Cod. Cass. d),,j,~.ji6.245ap.K. c) wmx 76.41 f.K. f) 5 ppraef. = 38. 73. 97. 133. K.43. 263. 350. 865.867. a p . R.$r,pI. K. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies *thy footitool. 'Lit. a slool for thy feet.

robs
Grow

&$go45

vov

6~0x6-

zo'v nod& u a u ; ' 2 E ~ n e v . D a e f f 2 A ~I ~ r ~ .
'3ews..D

xvpros cBD..'so xuq.cAEGH

KLMPVRSUVrA /

rws.rrSw / v z o x a z w i"D 145.

"Z[BndDavid himself saith in the book ofPsaIms,]The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou onmy right hand, 4aTillI make thineenemies thy footstool.

The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou a t my right hand, until I make thine enemies *thy footstool. Gr. thefootstaolofthyfeet.

Table 6.1.7 1

Luke XXUI. 46; John 11. 17.

29

For any remarks see Matt. XXII. 44. above. It should be put in Table A.s, to which it rightly belongs.
I
Luke XXIII. 46.
X E ~ ~ & S napazi8z(TOO
,UCZC

(6)
Ps'. XXX. G. Ps. XXXI. 6.

~Lls~ciqcisuov

naqa86-

zb Z Y E G ~FOV. &

rropa' zb nvsCp& pov.

' l ? p e 312> ql

<a acceewar (b) eABC G' KBfF'fKJx a1 m (cornmendo vg it syr. cop. ete.) Just Or Thdot. Eus.Cyr. hrs.. D R a l prn Ath Bas Nyss. Eplph. Thdrct a1 napazcJhp . .f nrrpar4?joopar cEGBLSVd a1 pl

into thy hands I cammend my spirit.

Into thy handa I will commend my spirit.

Into thine hand I commit my spirit.

The reading in s is the same as in the LXS., which would place the passage in Table As: but the different form of the verb, nuparrS~par (pres. for fut.), given in Tiscb. text, brings i t here.
(7)
John 1 . 17. 1 Ps. LXVIII. 10. Ps. LXIX. 10.

VIX

mu. [that itwas written,]Ths zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.

na<avayaraa (Gb Sz) cA BEFGHKLMPSUVXdA a1 CerelSO. fxaze(payc c mix

..

c) nix1p137 ap.K. d) u h ~ 39 K.

For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.

For the zeal of thine house [bath eaten me'up.

Had the reading in s, as noted above, been followed, the passage would have been set down in Table A.s. But Tischendorf, with Griesbach, pc o Schulz, and Lachmann, reads xarurpuyErar. Now r a y is obsolete, there being used instead, Eo8io or #"; and rpuyopur would be the pres. mid. thereof, but used as a fut. for rpuyo5pvr in the New Test., Hellenistic and Alex. writers. See Gram. Matth. 252. For instance, in Luke XVII. 8. xu2 pcrd rufirix rpkyyenu~xai ni+ouc 04 'and afterward 5 thou shalt eat and drink;" ch XIV. 15. Maxchgcog, 6 - rpky~rur&psov EY r? flu(~rL~iq ZOO "Blesseil is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God." And thus here, xumrp&ycyszur will mean: =shalleat up" or devour. And the original could bear to be so rendered, for, Praeter. as a representative says Gesenius in Heb. Gr. 5 124. 4. UTl~e of the present, is employed also to denote the future, principally in prophecies, assevcratzons, assurances, the fulfilment or verification of which is, in the animated expression of the thoughts, represented as present." Whichever reading, then, be adopted w ~ l lgive rise to no divergence from the original.

40

John XV. 25.

[Table C.1.r.

John XV. 25. [iva z k v e w 85 6 i b y o q d

(8) Ps.XXXIV.19 andLXVlII.5.

Ps.XXXV. 19 andLXIX. 5.

k r @ r 6 p p air& y y q q a p p'vo5J b l I ~ d , u i l ~ ~ ~ i ~ 02 ~ U O G Y T B fie 8 q 8 a v . PE S 8myauv. Alex prooGvrsc Soqa'av In Ps. XXXIV

omg)>xIw~)? -.
-:

f) 125 K.'m 245K.g)= 206K n) h ' m e 180K. ,=,IN 145K.

Ps. CVIII. 3.
xei S
Z O A ~ ~ O ~ V

Ps. CIX. 3.

p a 8wpdav.

n ~ 7p~nk~') n
I) ion531 SO

K.

Ps. XXXVIT. 20.

at
[that t h e word misht he fulfilled that is written i n their law,] They hated me without a cause.

~ L U O < Y Z ~p S

68ko~.

P s XXXVIII. 20. :lpy >5yEJ

A'ex'

O m pr.

they t h a t hate me *witho u t a cause. * or, for nothing..

they t h a t hate me without a cause.

On this passage Dr. Davidson in his Sacred Herm. p. 377 thus remarks. '?t is difficult to determine whether this be from Ps. CVIII. 3. where we h d EnoLipvudu'pe 8mqiau; or from Ps. XXXIV. 19, where we have oi plgoi7vris pc 6 w ~ e d u ; from Ps. LXVIII. 4 (5) where or the same words occur. Surenhusius regards the citation as made up of the two last passages. Doepke refers it to Ps. XXXIV. 19; Knapp to Ps. LXVILI. 4 (5). I t matters little whether it be refei-red to either or to both. Perhaps it is better to look for the original in Ps. CVIII. 3 ;" and so in his Sac. Herm. he conlpares it there with. But in his Introd. to the Old Test. p. 133 he compares it with Ps. XXXIV. 19 which he has evidently at length preferred, since it exhibits his later views. Now, in Ps. CVIII. 3 the verb EsoLip.rjuuv "they fought" is no doubt in the same form as Epimpuv %hey hated" in John; but I incline to seek for its original in those passages, where the same verb is fonnd, though of a different form, and thus it might be referred to either Ps. XXXIV. 19 or Ps. LX\'III. 5 (see also Ps. XXXVII. 20). Of the former Psalm Hengstenberg says: "David speaks in the person of the righteous, with what view may the more easily be understood, since the truly Righteous One could appropriate this Psalm to himself (John XV. 25 comp. with verse 19 here), an application which led many of the older expositors to give the Psalm a too direct and exclusive Messianic interpretation." And on the latter, he remarks: "In the New Test. there is no Psalm, with the exception of the 22nd, which is so frequently quoted and applied to Christ as the one before us, not only by the apostles, but by Christ himself. . Many expositors have hence been induced to adopt a direct Messianic exposition. But these quotations do by no means justify such an exposition, inasmuch as the Psalm, even though it refer to the suffering righteous

.

Table C.I.r.1

John XIX. 36.

31

man, is still a prophecy of Christ, in whom the idea of righteousness
was personified, and in whose case the intimate connection, spoken of in the Psalm, between righteousness and the opposition of sinners, was exemplified in living reality, as seen in the suffering he endured from an ungodly world." From this Psalm, then, it was probably quoted, which, however, includes its reference to Ps. XXXIV. 19, as each of them contains an allusionto the same point, and, as a whole, they &'form links of one common chain and parts of one great picture." And as to the form, the accuracy of the original, as found in the quotation, is manifest from this, that persons could not he called "haters of any one" unless %hey hated."
(9)
John XTX. 36. Exod. XII. 46. Exod. XII. 46.

al;zoG.
azrzou

Cyr. a1 aanavrov.

. . .a1 pl vv m Or'

aLroG. ovv.rqrwe.rar. .ouuzprpqv~rar -grpqone.p

..

1)

1

-

13 K. m) = S9K.

Ps. 21. (PVAC;OUSL Z ~ Y %dl~duzZ T 'a&&, 6ii 68 a i z & ozi uuvzgr,4+utzac. eul. xuqror. Alex. Ald.

xxm.

Ps. XXXIV. 21.
) I ? ) - ~ ~ ~ U ) - ~ $ ) -@is)

n>zij> i n?;lnMN :. u
7T

Campl.

[that the scriptme should be fultilled,] A bone of him shall not be broken.

s) t. e. 142K. t) +an, 148 K. 554 a p. R. u) nlnvy . . 275 K.

-

Exod. XU. 46 ye shall not break a bone thereof.

.Exod.XII.46neithershall ye break a bone thereof.

This passage is commonly referred to Exod. W. 46 as above; but there is another place which speaks of the same point, viz Numb. IX. 12. I>-n;U?H'7 n!g; , :. a bone they shall not break in it? in the LXX xu; 6omCv 0'6 rrvvs~iyouatvEn udroi7. In the former, t' Jehovah is represented giving directions apparently to Moses alone, yet it is seen to be in such a way that they were to be obeyed by all the Hebrews: in the latter, the Lord is said to have been doing the same thing, the Hebrews, however, being specially mentioned as those whom the command concerned. If we were to choose between them, the mdre likely seems to be Numb., which differs from John in this, that he mentions only the subject of the command, 'and hence uses 6asoCv and auvtq1,8<msur in the pers. sing., whereas Numb. states the command as addressed to individuals, and hence says 6aroCv and auvspiqouor 3 pers. pl. Some refer it to Ps. XXMV. 21 (LXX. XIiXIII. 21) as given above: =He keepeth all his bones; not one of watcheth all their hones: not one of them them is broken;" LXX. &IHe shall be broken", where the idea i s t h e same as that in John, and even the verbal form ;i??Wl h' ou m v s g t , 9 ~ a ~ t c r r found, so that i is it is probable that John may have had it in view also, according to his usual mode, though there is a difference in expression, the Psal-

32

Acts. 111. 25.; Ram. 111. 4.

[Table C.1.r.

mist saying: "one of them" i. e. of his bones, John: "a bone of him." In the other passages also, there is a difference here - the Heb: saying: "a bone' in it", marking the mhe7.e - the LXX: "a bone from it", marking the whence, and John "a bone of him", marking the mhose.
Gen. XXII. 18. [Adrwu nebsAoqudp] Karl dv r c a f p p u r i oov ~ Y E V ~VE~~~O~?L%~~OYTOIL k >!>A~) q? y . . 732,;n7! , ! .. . Aoy?$juovrac z i o m aina16 o z d q p ( ~ z o m ~ & Y T L Iz i ; r e ~ a r<q 6 s . i $ 8 ..is~ rie s (F Gb SZ)om w contra ~yev2.0~. . m2.0~.Alex. .. u) S. 13 K. ABCIIE cte.1 C encvLoyq# ... Cornpl. za a#*. .r?r.yqs.. . A'(vd1r)alChr. alrvAoyq@. Alcx. om .r. y. Acts. UI. 25. (1") Gen. XXII. 18.

5>

p?;!

[saying unto Abraham,] And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.

And in thy seed shall all the nations of tbe earth be blessed.

And in thy seed shall all the nations of the eartll be blessed.

The Heh. '!J3 is rightly rendered by the LXX. rd &?vv "the nations", for which zuzqia2 "the kiridreds" is read in Acts, and that on the supposition that the whole passage is taken from Gen. XXII. 18. But one nlay be disposed to infer that the oonclusion was taken from Gen. XII. 3 ;in,?;! nkeep h q= D?! "and all the families of the l! earth shall he blessed in 'thee", 'which,' although spoken in reference to Abraham himself q? "in thee", is quite applicable to his seed, of which the same promis; is given him in other places, mentioning "all the nations" eivra rd G u q , which evidently includes "all the tribes" zGoar a r p ~ ~ (LXX. of Gen. XII. 3,) into which these nations were divided. 2 ai Hence it pay be assumed, if deemed needful, that the first part is taken from Gen. XXII. 18, and the last from ch. XII. 3, of which in i Acts is given a more literal rendering by sEaur a nolr~rai"all the kindreds"; as. in the Beb., than in the LXX. by noi.aac ac rpvrlolc the tribes". Other instances of Quotation in a similar way, that is, . by combination, are met with elsewhere, so that this instance would not he singular.
Rom. 111. 4. (11) Pa. L. 6.
[ x n 3 . d s y d ~ q a n r a c ~ O n w s 8nwq ZV 8'x&w4,?~ dw iiv 8 m a ~ w $ ~ s rots 1 6 7 0 ~ ~ h ZOCE A ~ ~ O L ~ mziv'x&s UOU, oov xal vcxigris Cv T@ ~ q i - 2v z@ ~ q i v e o f t ~ ~ i m. vsv891 re., ,
r'wp~q.

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Ps: LI. 6 .

p

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mi n
nip

?)' & !
.

..AD al v'r?ouq.

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[as it is written,] That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged.

that thou mightest be justified ' in thy sayings, and mightest oveioome when t h ~ u judged. art

that, thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be olear whenthou judgest.

The following is the translation of Rom, 111. 4. "In order that

Table C.1.11

Rom.

I I 18; X. 19, SV. 11. I.

33

thou mightest be justified (i. e. regarded as just) in thy words, and mightest overcome (or gain the suit) in this-thy baing judged." And thus Ps. LI. 6. reads: "In order that thou mayest be just in thy speech, and mayest be pure in thy judgment." The latter states the matter absolutely, that the God of truth would judge uprightly and pass a just sentence of condemnation for sin; the former, relati~ely,that, after the sentence had been passed, and when his decisions were being judged by man, God would be found to be really a God of truth, and without iniquity, and thus would be acquitted. Hence the two passages contain the same thought. This Quotation belongs Table D.1.r.
(12)
Rom. III. 18. Ps. XXXV. 2. Ps. XXXVI. 2.

There is no fear of God before their eyes.

There is no fear of God before his eyes.

There is. no fear of God before his eyes.

Here, the description is of the collective wicked ''adrGlil "thei?', which depends upon the truth stateid of the indi~idualwicked i>i?p "his eyes", as found in the Psalm, and hence they agree.
(13)
Rom. X. 19. Dent. XXXII. 21. [MO~IC~SI~~EL] 'Erd %ax i y $ nopa<vLdeo a&paC7Loiqw ipL;c 6%' 06x robs 2 % ooZn e"9.re6, 2z2 ' B9yecC ?%1 #&EL 6011~d~y8 - h ~ V U V ~ Z ~ O ~ %?~apoqr& m u q o ~ ' 6&pis. airrabs. V + ~ S pr.. C a w o u ~ e m I eSvweAFGLal utvdlr longe pl BC**DE al e ESY~'. n [Moses saith,] I will proand I will provoke them voke you to jealousy by to jealousy by them that them fhat ore no people, are no people, and by d and by a foolish nation I foolish nation I will anger will anger you. them. Dent. XXXII. 21. E~fi5> DEy,psk)

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...

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and I will move them to jealousy by those mhieh arc not a people; I will, provoke themtoanger with a foolish nation.

In this Quotation, the individuals, whom the discourse concerns, are represented as addressed (dpci~Uyou"), whilst, in Moses' song, as being spoken of ("them"), and so in the Sept. Yet, there is no variance, since the Lord is exhibited as having spoken of them to Moses, who in his turn delivered the saying to them personally. And a combination of the two results is found here.
Rom. XV.. 11. [xain&Lv] Aivairs na'na z i S89.v~ rbv xt;pov, nai Ezacv~dzooorvairrbv na'r T E S oi A O L O ~ . m.kc e4uq r. nvq. (ita a uemo ( LXX) eABDE 47. d n e vg s jrP arm ;:oChr.Thdrt.

(14)
Ps. CXVI. 1. A ~ Y S ~ Z E L O YZ&YTLI zbv X ~ Q zdr d*, 6nrra~wE'vazs a6rbv rl&vze5 a i laoi. xar(sedxaradd*) snarvaoacooav Alex.. -uaoazeed ex cdd. iler

~?)f)-5? >>l?-n@ q\>2'') n ?.~ ~ > ~ j min?w -5$
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Ps. CXVU. 1.

.

b l
,

'

1 35.

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255 K. d)

I , ,

34
a1 pp'at...
lurrwaav
5 r o v xu*. *.=a r.

1 Cor.

ID.20; X T ' .

27.

[Table C.1.r.

(ita m LA. all Dad) cABC39. Chr....s-me CDEFGL etc. Thdrt Chr. a1 (a1 m Syr. Chr. om ra').

eCFGL etc. syr. a1

errare-

[And again,] Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles; and laud him, all ye people.

Praise the Lord, all ye nations; laud him, all ye *people. * Gr. peoples, as the Heb.

0 Praise the Lord, all ye nations; praise him, all ye people.

Had the reading in s given above, viz bnolrvi~are,been adopted, this Quotation would have been set down in Table 8 . . Also had the order, in s, of the &.st part viz z w mp. n. sa! 8. been followed, it would have been placed in Table As. From the reading given above, the Version will be the Lord, all ye nations; and let all the peoples praise him:' whence it is seen that P a d adds xal "and", and puts the verb in the 3'6 pers. pl., thus making the peoples be spoken of and not to.
x 6 p o ~ r v r j ~ i % ~o b &ay r rrjuxcs .cobs S~aloympobs loy~apoi.srrjv b 4 p & n w v , z6v a ~ 6 v eiwlv p&za'oir ;in eicl p&raror ooqwv a18 (~lem harl*?) MemnChre ltemCdt ap Mt. Hler. a ~ & ~ w n w u .

1 Cor. III. 20. [xal z&Acv] X2ipo~yr-

, Ps. XCIII 11.

.

Ps. XCIV. 11.

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[And again,] The Lord knoweth the thoughts of thewise,that they arevain.

The Lord ,knoweth the thoughts of men that they are vain.

The Lord knoweth the thoughts of man, thatthey are vanrtg.

The SraAoy~~poc 'plans" mentioned here, are said to be those "of man" i. e. zwv roywv "of the wise," lout in the original it is of mankind, as in the Sept. zGu olvBgwnmv 'lof the men." In other words, what in the Hebrew is stated to belong to the body-general, is in the New Test. made applicable to a part particular, and that to the more unlikely part. No one will doubt the inclusion of a part in the whole, and hence the correctness of the Quotation may be seen. Dr. Davidson (in Introd. to 0. T. p. 156) remarks: "This citation agrees equally with the LXX. and with the Hebrew. It differs from for but both only in the word ~ o y n 6 v Dye !SJv@~dnwv, this does not alter the sense. Those MSS. of the Pauline epistles, as well as versions, that have dv@g&nov, have it by correction." If it agrees, how can it differ? True, it agrees as much with the one as with the other, because they agree; yet it cannot be said to verbally agree throughout, since it differs.
1 Cor. XV. 27. n&vra [ydQ]6z&a5w inb roGr d S a s a&oG. F o r ] he hath put all things under his feet.

Ps.Vm. 7.
*&rra;*&eEas h o d m z 6 r znoSrjv a4roi.

(16)

l ? > ~ > - n g ~ 537
r) 76 K. thou hast put all things under his feet.

thou hast put all things under his feet.

-

P . VIII. s

i .

Eph. IV. 8.

35

The statement is made objectively here, GnSza&u "he has arranged," but in the Ps. it is said personally ;iQW 'thou hast put." The reason for this change of person is obvious. The Psalmist is addressing God and, speaking of his infinite condescension and love towards man, although being possessed of infinite greatness and glory, which the universe proclaims, and of the high honour which he has conferred on him, says: "Thou hast put all things under his feet." This statement Paul applies to Christ, "because the glory of humanity above the whole creation, lost in Adam and reduced to a base servitude, is to be again restored in Christ, and that, indeed, in a still higher and more perfect manner than it was possessed by Adam." So much for the propriety of its application. And its form is defensible on the ground that Pan1 records it in the historical mode. For Gnoxasm with the gen. is read h with the acc. s l b
, ,

Eph. IV. 8. [8~b?.+EL] Xva,6drs sis zvos i . z p ~ ? . ~ r e u o s ~ capeAooiav, 880xsv86parra rois 6vBeainocs. qxpalozr~oev (a1 fere10 a'%+) .AL aloaeth. (postes

Ps. LXVLI. 19.
.rwrmsu;,ypaio~i*v, WaBss 8 6 p r a i v &vBpinq

P .LXVIlI. 19. s
D?N?P)

o'ra,6&sais;;Wos~,ypaii- ?>8 pqy c]&

sSmxac s1 pastea e a3l pr A i ra r) ( Thdrtc -r~urrasI rawxrv eA C'D*E(7)FG 17. a1 vg it cop ...F (GbOO) praem nar eB (e sd) C***D***LK vv mpp elc. m I Leg et w av0po1no'c (FG ete.) et a-nw. Ivhereforehesaith,]When he ascended up on high, he led "captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. *Tor, amultltude of eap-

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WheGthou didst ascend on high, thou didst lead captivity captive, thou didstreceivegiftsrforrnen. ' Gr. 1" "an.

Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led oaptivity captive: thou haat received gifts *for men. ' 4/ Heb in the man.

In this passage is read $xparZdscuacv Uheled captive" for ;'?? "thou hast led captive", but the reason for the use of the third person and not the second is obvious, since he is spoken of not to. The Sept, in accordance with the Heb. D ? s n 3 n Qnp> has 6Laj3cs C3'0,uasa 1F BY mv8qmnp "thou hast taken gifts among men," lit. in man i. B. mankind, for which Paul writes dC3'mxav So,uaza sorg au@qmnocors "he gave (or distributed) gifts among men.'' On this apparent variance Hengstenberg well remarks: "The prisoners whom God leads away, and the gifts which he receives, cannot be taken by Him into heaven. He takes them only that he may give them to his people, "his hosts," a t whose head he had gone forth to battle, and leaves them behind h i when he ascends to heaven, just as the gifts of Israel to Him were imparted to his ministering servants - the priests. Hence it is evident that by the "he gave", which occurs in Eph. IV. 8. instead of Uthou takest", the sense is not altered but only brought out; the

t1VBS

36

Heh. I. 7 ; VI. 14.

[Table C.1.r.

Ugiving" presupposes the "taking"; the "taking" is succeeded by the <'giving3'as its consequence. The apostle gives prominence to this consequence, because it serves his object, as common to the type with the antitype. The passage, in his view, has this complete sense: "he received gifts among men and gave gifts to men." Since the person or thing from whom anything is taken o r received is put with In, may there not be here an instance of the constructio pruegnans? @Thou hast taken gifts (and given them) among men."
Heb. I. 7.
[LQ~EL]

<o ZOLGV

.TOGS

irrBiavs aGro6 ?vfi6paza xai zobs L~crov~raGs ~ 0 6 oupyobs cr6ro6 n6q p l f p v . -6 nuqbs pL6rci. DEalr(i1em ed Tisch. V1. nueA~roAeya.lll.nvpo~~ioya h) Ir9-309K. i)245K. Ald. ColnpL Edd. sod many F.) d e z v w p a . MSS. Who maketh his angels Who maketh his angels [he saith,] Who maketh his angels spirits, and his spirits and his ministers spirits; his ministers a a flaming fire. flaming fire. ministers a flame of fire.

('8) P s . ClII. 4. Ps. CIV. 4. 6 ZOLGYT O L S i 7 r ~ o ~ n'ihnh) iry& ;IVY *ir~ ro6 nve6paza, xa2roLs IELZlclni VN') iii;l-gn

Here mrgos rpioyoc "a flame of firs'' is read instead of n!e @&yw Uaflaming fire" as in the, Sept., whereby is literally rendered tfi WN. Yet the two renderings are seen to denote the same thing or nearly so, since there could not be "the flame of a fire" unless the fire were flaming.
Heb. TI. 14. [%wv] 'HEIp+v &4).orGv fiG/lopjcw ue xa2 n h 9 l i u o v m).'i9.vvG OE. I; eJ* ($pi") K a1 ut vdtr longe pl vv pl pp m . . . Ln P I CAB (CDf*L*' e r p v ) D* E. a16 Did Dam, D*' p?* p ~ o pq vdtr rest iten1 niss vg ~ t , Amh Bed [SiyingJSurely blessing Iwillbless thee, and multiplying Iwill multiply thee. (19) Gen. XXII. 17. Gen. XXII. 17. i pju & & h ' i ve ~ L a r 4 ~ w;I?l;11~/?1;~71?3-'3 UG, xrai irlq96~w.ncArp?u"ZlK v 6 .rd unfqpa sou. sr pqvA a1 une3 a1 I Afler r) S. nL~8vucv M S . inserts ns one

*!igp

rar.

Surely blessing I will hlessthee, andmultiplying I will multiply thy seed.

ThatinblessingIwill bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed.

The difference between this Quotation and its original consists in.. this, that the latter states the increase of Ab.raham's seed F/2:1!nN;I?lk! "I will multiply thy seed," whereas the former says it of Abraham himself n i ~ 8 u u & "I will multiply thee." Now, may not an individual GE he said to be multiplied when a number of human likenesses of him are made? And offspring are the likenesses of their forefathers, according, to the Hebrew phraseolo~.See Geu. V. 3 'And Adam. begat in his own likeness, after his image." And thus, to make Abraham's descendants numerous would be equivalent to multiplying

..

Table C.I.r.1
'

Neb. M.20; XIII. 5.

37

himself, as the apostle expresses it, instead of the former way as in the original. In Heb. TI. 13 we r e a d . . b 480s.. 6pousv w e 8 Buutoi; ver 14. Lcymv, which might be set down as part of this Quotation, since in Gen. XXII. 16. 3l;i;-DNl 'p!gl$ "By myself have I sworn i s the sayiEg of Jehovah", i i & e Sept. Kui EpuutoC oiipouu, L+EL X ~ ~ G O "By myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah", the expression is similar, differing only in the person, the first for the third, and in having mpros for d 8 ~ 0 s . (20) Heh. IX. 20. Exod. XXIV. 8. Exod. XXIV. 8. 'I&& zb bfpa r j s ' 8 ~ a r - 7% nq?;i-nl !?; [Le'rov] Taka .rb a@a :I

.

'=

S

rijs B ~ a 4 ; j n ~ s d v n s a r r ~ ~81jxIs $5 8'68ez0 X J ~ C O S $5 ngbs 6pGs i 8865. lrpbs GpGc. I8ov add zou.ro I rfce4. ... wmer.lazo ... C all S's&~o svrrariaro 1 x. n. v ... m. u. Apost. Const. I. i BPOF

'

-

D? : ?

a!?? n y

Behold the bloodof the Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord covenant which the Lord hath made with you. hath placed upon you. This Quotation begins with souto 'lthis" for the original 34.3 'YO! see!", both possessing a demonstrative power, which the one sets forth in the object pointed at,, the other in those called on to behold that object. 'The covenant is said in Exod. to have been made by "~ehova;h', and in the Hebrews by 6 4sos"God1', which are but two names for the same being; only by "Jehovah" was He more particularly known t o the Israelites, and hence the propriety of its use by Moses. This, however,-does not allege an improprikty against Paul, since %he Jehovah" of the Isrrtelites was at the same time =their God." . In the Heb. the covenant is said to be one 4s EvesairZocro 6 dgos "which God enjoined", and in Exod.;l!;i; [7?? 1% %hich Jehovah made or 'laid down." It is known that a covenant or agreement is made between two contracting parties, agreeing to certain conditions, which may originate from both, or be proposed by one of them. When God makes a league with his people, he, in accordance with his sovereign right, states the terms, which he wishes them to accede to, and their acceptance thereof forms the agreement. Thus then may God, when he strikes a league with any one, be said to enjoin it, inasmuch as he enjoins the. conditions.
of the testament whichGod hath enjoined unto you.

[Sayhg,]Thisisthehlood

(21)
Heh. XIII. 5. [nLzbs r r eiq7xr;J 06 dq pi re &YW^ o6b' 06 (wj US
ir*ardsino.

Deut XXXI. 6.
OGCE, .UE

Deut. XXXI. 6.
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?ell 85

38

James 11. 11.
e p a z a A c n o (D*

[Table C3.r. Josh. I. 5.

.. .qLn49.a1 ul vdtr pl. wx.) c D*

Josh. I. 5.
~8

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OW

ou p q eyxcrrdarnq ar Alex. 5. ryx. o.a.. . r y r m a A r m w oe ouSe Alex.

. . . ovre in Alex. .. ow8 ow I syxazalcnq ... ryxaraiacnq Alex. 8. o d e p . a. eyx. .. . ou8
6. ouza

[for he hath said,] Iwill never leave thee, nor forsake thee.

he willneitherleave thee nor forsake thee. 5. I will not forsake thee nor neglect thee.

6 and 8. He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee. 5. I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.

The Hebrew of Deut. XXXI. 6 and 8 and of Josh. I 5. are the same, excepting that the last is in the first person and the two former are in the third. Now this Quotation is in the first person, and one would conclude consequently that it was taken from Josh. I. 5. But it is altogether different from the Septuagint Version of that passage, and hence could not have been copied from it. When, however, we turn to Dent. XXXI. 6 or 8, we find similar phraseology, only as said before, the verbs are in the third person. If then, the writer used the Sept., he copied from Deut. XXXI. 6., with which his words nearly quite agree, except the person of the verb, which he had to make the first, inasmuch as he is telling the words of the speaker; not from ver. 8, since though they agree in the latter part, they differ in the former, excepting as before, nor from Josh. I. 5 at a l since the l, words are quite different. Yet, as, in this last passage, the words are the same as those in ~ k u t . , excepting the person, what should hinder the writer from giving an entirely new version of Josh. using a t the same time the rendering in Deut.? And thus this Quot. would come undor Table B. See Dr. Davidson's contradictory remarks on this Quotation, in Sac. Herm. p. 440 and comp. in Introd. to 0.T. p. 171.
(22)
James 11. 11. Exod. XX. 13 and 15. [d~drpeilt~v]M;jpo~n~6ans,1306 p o ' ~ d 0 . 8 ~ ~"06 . [stnev ral] M 7 q o v s 6 q s . q o v s i w ~ g . C a1 wThph.Mq p r o v t u ~ ~ c ran. xar M q p o q . Deut. V. 17 and 18.
qove6a~'s. pa~p6uecs.

Exod. XX. 13 and 14. :7K>E N+) ":?31? ~ 5
7 . .

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z) ni, 196 K.

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Dent. V. 17 and 18. 180d : ~ K > E ~5138 : ~ y NY' i ~n
7 . .

[For he that said,] Do not commit adultery, [said also,] Do not kill.

lsThouis shalt not commit adultery. lOThoul7 shalt not kill.

S. 18. 101. 150 a1 K. 141. 872. a1 R f3Thoun shalt not kill. 14Thoul8 shalt not commit adultery.
2)-I

-

The same order of commandments is found here as in Mark X. 19, as also the same forms of the words; hence remarks applicable here will be found there. See, then, this Table C.1.r. (2).

Table C.I.r.1

1 Pet. 11. 24; 1 Tim. V. 18 ip.

39
Is. Lm. 5. 135-;1?.14 m72n21g)

(23) 08
1 Pet. IL 24. r$ piiwza a & o i
aw.

Is. LIII. 5.
r$ipd.wnc aha5

$pic

i1;40rs.
eG a ut vdtr pl 1 Thph. Oec.. . Gbo Ln om amou eABCKh a125 (nullus om 05)).

~1;L%pv.

.

by whose stripea ye were healed.

by his stripes we were healed.

and with his'stripes we are healed. *qHeb. bruise.

This being written in the epistolary f o m accounts for the change of the first person '?id' into the second "ye." The, omission of the pronoun shows that the stress is to be put not upon the objects for whom the bruising was undergone, "the we", but upon the effect "are healed." The Heb. literally means: =byhis bruise healing is for us", or "there is healing for us", equivalent to "we are healed" in our idiom, and whose person Peter changes into "ye."
1 Tim. V. 181p. xai 2E'oc d E'py&qsTOG prv~oiio&oli.

(24)

and thelabourer isworthy of his reward.

I shall afterwards consider the former clause of this verse, in Table D.d. 1.r.0, and the latter comes for consideration here. In no part of the Old Testament are these very words found, and hence follows the inference that it cannot be a verbal Quotation. But, because exactly the same wordsare not met with, it by no means follows that it is no Quotation at all, inasmuch as these very words may convey the same idea as is expressed in the original by different language; and the writer may give the sense, though not the letter. Eveq one knows that, if several individuals are wishing to impart to another a knowledge of something-to comunicate their idea of it to him,-supposing the idea of each to be the same, they may employ such words as are deemed suitable, but which in the end are seldom, rather never, found to be the same. Or, an individual, who has been asking several others their respective opinions on a particular snbject, and has found them all express the same judgment, will, upon recollection, h d that the same words have not been used by each, though the same idea has been conveyed. For instance, suppose it concerns some line of conduct which one wishes to know how he should act therein, one may be found laying down the general principle to guide him; another, detailing the result of that principle in the particular case, i. e. how it should be applied, and so on. Now, in Lev. XIX. 13. and Deut. XXV. 1 6 1 5 it is commanded that the wages of any poor and needy hireling are not to remain

40

1 Ttm.

V.

18 lp.

Fable C.1.r.

overnight unpaid, but, that, e'er the sun is set and as soon as his day's work is done, they are to be given him, for which the assigned reasons are his condition and his earnestly desiring them. But the command is based upon a more general principle still. If one does not deserve a thing, he shonld not get it, even though he earnestly ask it, and much less shonld it be voluntarily given him. But when one receives something, whether asked or unasked, we cannot but infer that he is regarded as deserving it, and more especially when Jehovah commands it to be done. We thus then reach the general principle stated in our passage: "worthy is the workman of his hire'', of which the command in Lev. and Deut. is a principal particular. Hence it is seen that, although the same words are not found, yet the idea is contained in substance in the Old. Test., and that is enough for our purpose. The same expression is found in Luke X. 7; as also in Matt. X. 10, excepting that we there read sfg z ~ o q q s rdzov" "his food3<here and in Luke r o c ,ur&oii uzjroi; "his pay", in which passages, however, the statement is not inserted as a Quotation, but r& as a reason, apparently admitted, for certain conduct to be pursued. What has thus far been stated appears sufficiently satisfacto~y, yet if it be not deemed so by all, there remains another mode of solution. By referring to 1 Cor. IX. we find the apostle pursuing a line of argument, to support which and show, besides, that he is not advocating anything new, there is introduced, at ver. 9, the same Quotation as this passage begins with, and which he follows up with an interpretation, pointing out that it was written, not so much because of the care God takes of oxen, as to be a rule to man. Now, just in the same way may what is added here be regarded as an interpretation of the Quotation, thus making the verse be rendered: "For the Scripture saith, The ox treading thou shalt not muzzle"; and (not intended to add some new command, but as showing that the command given was not to be restricted to the ox treading, so that it may be nearly the same as: i. e.) L L ~ o r t isythe workma11 of his hire"; or, and (if such h be the command in the law concerning the treatment of an ox, surely much more may it be said of man) "worthy is the workman of his hire." Any one acquainted with the'nses of x a i will perceive that it can bear these meanings, and it may be left to every one to adopt which solution he pleases, or to h d another for himself, which may be more satisfactory.

Matt. XV. 4 fp. XIX. 19 f p . ; XXI. 13 f p .

41

TABLE C.1.o.

-

Matt. XV. 4fp.
hrov] T+a .rbv narQa xni .rjv p&p, tvazrrl. iry. eCEFGKLMS UVXd@ rcll fere omn fsyr. B D 1.124.itvg et a l v v Ptal CyrI~Hieremav(Gb') I 9 post mar. add oou eC"KL MU rtc. Plol. Or2 ete.

(1) Exod. XX. 12.
rrov,

[d yip 8sb5 ~ V ~ E U U I O ripe zbv nariqc
rjv ~ r e ' q a cov,
'

xai

YDN-nN! TqN-nN ?=2

Exod. XX. 12.

...

p?j.rrpa oov. .omoau Alcx. and scvcral Fathers.

Deut. V. 16. zip, rbv nariea uou xai i v hz+ ooU [ZY Z P ~ ~ O * 2vezerslkazci uor xdqros 6 886s
r . 0J

Deut. V. 16.

ypu-n#) 7 3 - n u 1?> 77?5tj .r,p!7 $ i ~ ~ ~
Honour thy father and thy mothcr.

[For God commanded, saying,] Honour thy father . and mother.
~

Honour thy father and thy mother.

I n both Exod. and Deut. the LXX. follows the Heb. whilst Matt. has omitted the oou. Some read oou after marspol, (see above), whence it is suppliable after pquspa. The case is the same a$ here, with the French and English idioms, of which the former corresponds with the Heb., and the latter with the New Test.; the one saying: ton pkre et ta mire", the other: @thy father and mother." If the reading in g, which Tisch. has adopted in Ed. Sept. viz. 6 8 e d s 6v4rrcilaro h+wu be correct, the quotation will have been taken from Deut.; but if 6 8 ~ d & eZ%sv, as'risch. had read before, then Exod. will have been used.
(2)
Matt. XIX. 1 9 f p .
zlpa rbv nardpa xai njv

M Z ~ Q ~ , nazepar CBC'DEFGHKLM

Erod. XX. 12. z l p a zbv nr*rCqa oov,xoi r;iY p&qa oou,
;

Exod. X X . 12.

q~iy-il~j Tqe-n# 1%

p7.r. o'ou

SUVA a1 plus76 vv m Or 11. and several Fathers. Cyp ...s add oou cCS"ete. vv pm Aug al. Honour thy father :and Hononr thy father and thy' mother; thy mpther.

.. om oau Alex.

Honour thy fatber and thy mother.

If the reading in Alex. and several Fathers be followed for Exod., and s (-Gb Sz) for Matt. tt.iz, sipa rdv nasipa oou xal' rqv /wt@ac, "honour thy father and mother", then, the LXX. and Matt. agreeing would place the passage in Table D.1.o; and so may it be said of the above corresponding passage. (3)
Matt.' XXI. 13fp. Is. LVI. 7. '6y;lq o&6s paw o b o ~ [l%rqunra~]' oSrdspou 0 ohos npoue11fisxl?4jo~zuc, hqosmX?E xkq%vezixr nioc rot5 ~ & ~ E ( T C Y , '0.. D om Is. LVI. 7.

.

+ ~ ~ ) - n ? =n~>) ?? 3 ? :~"?v_;l-5?2 1 ~ j'~
c)

6)

--

80 K. n9211.19 K. 126 K . e) 1>>1 K,

42
[It i written,]Ky house s shall he called the house of prayer.

Matt. XXII. 32; Mark X. 19 lp. for my house shall he called a house of prayer for all nations.

[Table C.1.o.

fo; mine house shall be called an house of prayer. for all people.

It need only be observed here that Matt. has not completed the Quotation, leaving out, as is sken, the last words: D ~ ~ x G S ? ~ , %Em tois t8vsorv 'for all peoples."
(4)
Matt. XMI. 32.
[ 3 lo& ~ V ~ ~ V W 6 7 8Z2 ~ I B ~

d l b 0 8 ros] 12Eyd eipc 6 8cb; %p'qa&p, =el 6 8ebs31ua&, xlri 6 8 s b s "Ibruwp';

-

Exod. 1 1 6. 1. [ m i E ~ W ] Epi E ~ P L 6

Exod. II 6. I.

[Jlhave ye not read that which was spoken unto youbyGod, saying,]3zIam the God of Abraham, and the God .of Isaac, ana the God of Jacob?

46bs roi narpd; uou, 8 ~ o r ?n~l;i5$ D;~?:N ; i ~ ;i 2pQrriP, wi 8e6s ' I r a i x , : 3 p : lq%i ;x,& 8eb; 'lozip'. z o v n a r p ....r o r z a q m v l y) ' N 'N 109. 129 K. many MSS. as 2) pirr:n S. ,a).lm S. I . 69. Alex. an edlt~ons have 6 253 K. 606. 262. ap. R. *p . O .. @roc (in each place). [And He aaid,] I am the [And He said] I am the

q1q~~) t 9 j yng11 355::) ~

God of thy father, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

God,of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

Here Matt. leaves out 6 8cdg 705 ~ U C C OOU, ~@the S ~ S God of thy father." For q'?i$ the Samaritan reads 77n12n in the pl. "thy fathers." Also, he has prefixed the article d to 8 ~ 0 g which is not found in the LXX., unless the reading fo;nd in many MSS. and editions, as noted above, be adopted. Yet it cannot bk said that he here departs from the original, since in Heb. <'the article is regularly omitted before a substanti&, whose application is limited by ti following genitive." See Ges. Heb. Gr. 5 108. 2. , .
(5) Exod. XX. 12. dpi~ca m r d p 6orrxal zi)v
T$Y

Mark X. 19 1p. ripa rbv Z a d Q a trovxai Z+Y ppdpa. , no". D Clem o m I wzepa cABDEGHKMSUVXr A a1 pler k lvg syr a1 Clem CF 28. 124. 238 allnab c f go cop syr add oov (Ln).

Eaod. HB. 12.

..

~ r d p 6011, a

qFv-nKl?93K-ny 322

Om aou Alex. and several Fathers in pqr. oov.

. ..

Deut. V. 16. .rips rbv narden vou xai
T$Y M T ~ aou. Q ~

Dent. V. 16.

qqyn,ulq7?rne 123
Honour thy father and thy mother.

Honour thy father and motler.

Honour thy father and thy mother.

See above Matt. XV. 4fp. XIX. 19fp. If Lachmann's text be used, this Quotation goes into Table A.s. As it is, it differs only-in omitting the last rrou 'thy," as we do in English.

Table C.I.o.1

Mark XII. 26; Luke IV. 10-11.

43

(6)
Mark XII. 26. Exod. 1 1 6. 1. Exod. 1 1 6. 1.
[oGx iv+vwre h. zc @ i @ i ~ , Mouu6ms 6nl irlo6 @&row c2mv ~ r & & 6 8ebs e w v &]+I '! 6 8ebs'A@~a&.u; [%at E ~ E Y ]' E r i 6iPc 6 *&)Ed5 roit narqds oov, 8ebc X C ~4665 'Iua&n, %a1 3sbc 'A@pu&p, xai arbs 'Iuaix, 'Iax86; nai Sebs ' I a ~ 8 @ .
ffeoc bis cBD Or (BOietc. post Eyo alibi Or ter 6 8.) .c a Ueoe r ~rar o Se r a x .

79?N3 ?;i5~~)9?>$l&lhiq

?E? D;?F;?N,855 '55~")
109. 129 K. a) 'nl S. 1. 69. 253 K. 606.262. a p. R.

.

zovnare. ; r a v z m e p w v I ffrosApq.. . o ffroc (in each place)inmanyMSS.andedd.

y)

'N

in

z) piiil~ S.

-

:2@: ?$) ;N.

cACEFGHKLMSUV~A ur a1

vdtr om cop or2

[have ye not reap in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, [and he said,] I am the saying,] 1 om the God of' Abrnham, and the God of God of thy father, the God Isaac, and the God of oTAbraham, and the God Jacob ? of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

[And he said,] I am tha God of thy father, the God o f d b ~ ~ h a r ,the God of n, Isaao,andtheGodofJaeob.

Like Matt., Mark omits T?h: 985~6 8 ~ 0 s sov lcarpos oov "the God of thy father"; and by adopting the reading in s, o *cog, in the three places; he is brought t o agree with Matt, though to differ from the LXX., get not from the Heb. See above Matt. XXII. 32.

PS. XCI. 11-iz. Luke IV 10-11. PS. 11-12. i l & ~ rrooir ifrQLa'sa&oi [ " ' ~ ~ ~ a n d pa ~&c rr ] $-;1g l>?!fin 1 " 3 zo6 zois irrQh~s krreti- dvrsi~ircu S E Q ~ u ah06 : racnzpi u o i r o C b c a ~ d ~ 5 a ' ~ ~ a r q u i & u dv n d e a ~ g us (TS, "mi k-1 Z E ~ ~ G..is ;d?a mv. lZ&i XSCV T V N n!@?-5g1' ~ a'qaSvLv ue, nore npoupoiv a'yo~uiU E , .pj morn ?I$? rbv x d q p nebs ii9ov zhvnddar np~p&yqs nebs 1 1 4 0 ~ UOV. ndds oov. p) 7, 30. 92. 128 a1 K. ,1 11. DEFGHSUVd a1 longe mrxc'p.OneMS. adds xa' pl vv pm Ems. Thph. Or int befo~ee , xrcp n q) mnltl X. fnon Or\ om or' (Gbool. ~, "For he shall give his llForhe~hallgivecharge [LOFor it is written,] He

xc.

-IF

?:2lP)-3?? 7y?LL5
:+gq~

shallgivchisangelscharge over thee, to keep thee; 1lAnd in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest a t any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

unto his angels concerning thee, to keep thee in all thy ways. '2In their hands they shall bear thee np, lest a t any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.

angels charge over thee. to keep thee in all thy ways. '2They shall bear thee np in therr hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.

This is the same Quotation as is found in Matt. I . 6, only Luke T gives it more fully,leaving out, however, the essential part: BY %&BUIS rais baois now =in all thy ways," and joining the verses by %ah 8s; "and that," or because. See Matt. for more remarks.

44

A'cts VII. 4 0 ; Rom. X. 5.

[Table C.1.o.

(8)
Acts VII. 4 . 0 E d . BXSII. 1 or 23. l h i ~ r o v$piv 880hS 08 ~ C O ~ ~ U U$Y @ v 8~066 0; n p o x o ~ s ~ u o v r a$prjv' 6 npono~zbvourar rj,u&. r d y i p 3Zrnv.i~ 06z?s, 2s d&j@ p M o v o i ~a8rog i, i v rarev $ p i s & 6 s A i y b Sewnos 8s BF+yu7zv +,u& rot!, 0 ; ~ L ~ U ~ C Y ~ ~ ~ O ~ O& E P z'fir&czou, o& 0 t h O zi Y rrj< a@ &. pcv x i y~yolieva 2 r ~ . E o rtayaywv I yqovevcO w O q . MS. Ox. & Ald Ed EH a1 ut vdtr longe pl Chr avqp / e x y.Aly.Many MSS. Oec Thph. . Ln ty!y.vsro read $5 Acyunzov, as Cod. cABC s l t Vat. docs in v. 13. where

Exod. XXXIL. 1 or 23.

l q 5 ~ 1 3 ?>>-?WZ 5 nqn,a,-,$ ?>;,?$~ ?,j! .?y ~ n " . si&W'U?~) -:.:.. - . ' ) 1 ' D???? 1?! i
d) =178K. f) 136 K.

..

-

:Y> n$)

e) 'uan109K.

Alex. has

ex y. Aby.

Make us godstogo before us; for as for this Moses, which brought us out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.

milkeusgods which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, t h e man t h a t brought us out of the land ofEgypt, we wot not what '. is heoome of him.

make us gods, which shall go before us; f o r a s for -this Moses, t h e man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.

The expression 6 6mY~wlcos"the man" is omitted in-Acts, though found in the LXX. and the Heb. E : ; , where it seems to be contrasted j&? with "the gods", which Aaron was requested to make. There appears to be an antithetic parallelismin the verse: L'godswhich will walk in front of u and *this Moses, the mala who brought us up &c." where s : ' they keep out of view that he acted under the order of Jehovah. It was not necessary for Stephen to keep up the contrast., but he still retains the expression of contempt which they uttered: "for Moses, this (fellow), who &c." () 9 Rom: X 5. . Lev. XVIII. 5. Lev. XVIII. 5.
SOS C+onac

Bv a h o i s .

GbQ a m Ln [avra]: om cADE 6. 9. 47.67**vg Dam Ruf a1 (d*' e go cop Cassmd earn a12 aeth z a v r a / F G f e g syr sr Chr Htl om -9s. I w au.roae . . Gb' Ln ru f z CAB 17. 47. 80 vg d ;q e g o cop armYEn Dam Rnf al. F o r Moses describeth..] That the man which docth those t6ings shall live by them.

nos C$c~rar a h a i ~ . 2v ; 2 Compl. Ed Iavca... ... Alex om 1 kld. Ed. as al.

e)

6)

-

c?; 5 n i
1 0 9 . 1 i 8 K. 8 0 K.
3

-

95.

which "if a man do, h e shall lire in them. * Gr. a man h a v ~ n g done them.

which if a man do, he shall live i n them.

P a d differs from the Sept. only in omitting & and writing 6. His form means: "The having-done-them man (i. e. the man who has done them) shall live in them." The Sept. says: "which, a man having done them, shall live in them", which comes near totheoriginal, meaning literally: "which, the man shall do them, shall also live in them." Here

Rom. X I ' .

9; Gal.

ID. 12.

45

we have an instance of the idiomatic use of %hethird person of the verb, and also of the relative in the oblique case. DQk..T@K"which . . them1' = quae, acc. pl. See Ges. Heb. Gr. § 121. 1. "which, the man &all do, then shall he live in them" = 'which the man (that) shall do, shall also live in them," or "which (if) the man shall do, then shall he live in them!' See Neh. IX. 29. Ezek. XX. 11.

..

'(10)
Rom. XY. 9.
[ ~ a 8 & ~ y6reararar] A'& ~ ~ i z o 6Sopoloyjoopui aar 6 &%EDLY xal .rG dvbp(laz1 " uov ( v a l i . & . . a1 ferelb w pm

Ps. XVII. 50. dr& roCzira BEoployjeop o i uor & 88vsu~, xGps, xoi r@ dvdpcrri sou yral6.

Ps. XVIII. 50.
,

D]jQs) q ? j ~ j33-51! 7;nl~~) ..- -. '.li?vb . . .
s)',?-li3K. - r),liOK. u) at-156. 36.37.117.156.219.245K. 1) u?x206K.
; I

chr Pel Sedul add

.

xvera

I

DEGg 9% z. o. o.

[as it is written,]For this cause1 willconfess t o thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy name.

For this cause Iwill confess to thee, OLord,among the8Gentiles,and will sing unto thy name. * Or, natibns, or heathen.

220. 245K. Therefore will I "give thanks nnto thee, 0 LORD, among the heathen, and sing praises unto thy name. " l Or, confess. J

This Quotation omits ;!i "0 Jehovah", found in the Sept. X U Q ~ l ;' "0 Lord", which is noticeable, inasmuch as it shows that the confession among the Gentiles was not to be limited to God as Jehovah, the peculiar title by which Israel .knew him, but to God as the God of the whole world- as the.God of the Gentiles also. 71lN may seem to be incorrectly rendered by 8 ~ 0 , u o ~ o y . j ucot;i but, while it o~ means also "to give thanks," "to celebrate", it signifies as well, "to profess or confess", the former proceeding from the latter, i. e. the acknowledgment (or confession) of benefits being naturally followed by thanksgiving and praise : and thus it is seen that the prior meaning is given in the versioh. The same passage is found in 2 Sam: (Sept. 2 Kings) XXII. 50 which reads xu@. ev sots ~ 4 v .. . Ald & Compl. Edd E&. xu@ ( EV ry ov.. Ald & Compl. om iv.

-

-

..

.

(11)
~ a l 1m. 12. . Lev. XVIIl. 5.
,

i n o ~ + a a gair& S j a n a ~
E %

I noc$oas a h & g v 9 . q ~ ;

D ? : ; !

u&ois.

noq

~ a e t a av~ UGTO~S. B

onor.arvaaABCC*FGl7. 8 . . .Compl.Ed.6 / av.ra Alex. om 1 AH Ed. as (ii.** al vv pl pp 6'et1" m... - F (- Gb Sz) add ~u8qu,noc Vat. ~D'*'EKLalplvg"~ syrh a1 Thdrt al I m a w . . FGg n r

...

e) = 80 K.

. ~ c k; ~ ) ~ ~ * ) 7 @ ~ i ~ Dil? m! d) = 109.178 K. ' ;= 95.
Lev. XMII. 5.

a"=@).

.

The man that doeth them shall live, in them.

whioh,'if a man do, he shall live in them. ' r a man having done G. them.

which if a man do, he shall live in them.

I t appears that, to the question, u(Who) shall live in them?" as connected with G l 111. 12, the answer would be, ' a man who doeth a. them'', or, in other words, that %he man" is limited by #who doeth them." In the Sept. a prominency is given to the time, and, along with the Hebrew, to the statutes, each beginning "(as regards) which",
1WN =

6.

For further remarks see Rom. X. 5 in this Table.

C.I.r.o.]

Matt. XV. 4 lp; Mark VII. 10 lp; Luke 11. 23.

47

TABLE G.1.r.o.
Exod. XXI. 16. Matt. XV. 4 lp. 6 xaxolayi~ narEqa a&[ ~ ~ ' ]xaxahyGv nai0 f pFdpa $ n ~ & z y z o 6 i MTQC a6106 TEAS&.rshvr&rw. Bavairy.

(1)

Exod. XXI. li.

nln ID& 1 ' 3 ~iipF> ntp

[and,] He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death.

raroV11. X. and many other MSS. &Ald. & Compl. Edd. He that curseth his father or his mother 'shall die the death. * or, shall surely dle.

%m. w o v v ~ q rawro". a . am a w o v 1 B a m c p c e l m

..
And he that 'curseth his father, or his mother,shall surely he put t o death. * or revileth.

Here Matt. omits the d r o i i qualifying azrrpu and pqrepu in LXX. and Heb., and he renders the fut. npl' LXX. reLeurquer by the imp. rer2evraro. But, that this last need not be wondered at, is evident from this, that in the Heb. verses 12, 15, 16 and 17 end 'in the same form: npv nln, whereas in the LXX. verses 12 and 15give: 8 u u d t p r?uu m 6 & o ; ver. 17 for Heb. 16: t%zvcirp reLsvrdrm and ver. 16 for Heb. 17, as above, reLeurljaec 8eudrp. If, then, the verses 16 and 17 of the LXX. were transposed, to agree with the order of the Hob, excepting that the last part of each remained, Matthew's rendering would be found in the LXX. Says Gesenius in Heb. Gr. 5 125. 3. c. The future "is also used for the imperative when the third person is required"; and thus Matt. is right in rendering npl' by selsurrno. The form nln, standing before the finite form, adds, in general, an expression of intensity (See Ges. Qeb. Gr. 5 128. 3 a.): "let him certainly die."
Mark VU. 10lp. [lcui] ' x a x o A g r j v na0 . r i p p~/rdpo3avairo rsAsvr4~~. Exod.

(2)

XM. 16.

Exod. XXI. 17.

i

d xuxoloyiv jvnardpa -6- nfn
raC$ &a /p u6roirsAsur~wer a a v d r p om avrov 1 S a v a q .reArvcare in VII.X.&many olher MSS. & Ald. & Cornpl. Edd. He that curseth his father or his mother 'shall die the death. or, shall surely be.
am.aurau?jpqr.aurav..

li=y j>pnl :n ? ~

.

[and,] Whoso cnrseth father or mother, let him die the death.

And he that *curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely he put to death. ' or revlleth.

See Matt. XV. 4 lp above, with which Mark agrees, for any observations.
Luke 11. 23.
[nar3dc y+pormar dv v6py xupLolou Zrr] n& bpw Exod. XIU. 2.

(3)

Exod. m . 2. 1

1DB
' A y t a ~ . Lyo' n&

new-

>IJ{->?

~rll-??~) ..

+-0l4?

48
8~avaiyov pjzqav Z p a v rqi

Luke XIX. 46 fp.
.rd.raxov nporayev& &avoiyov nGoav p j r p w . * p o x . x u c Szuv m Alex. x a i avocy in Ald. Ed.

[Table C.1.r o.

xvq@ xl.riS?jcerar.
ro, xvq..

..D om r w .

a) = 8 O . l l l K . 699ap.R.

[(As it is written in the law of the Lord,] Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord)

Sanctify t o me every first-born, first-produce&, opening every womb.

Sanctify unto me all the first-born, whatsoever openeth the womb.

In Lnke, we have a result stated: "every male opening the womb shall be called holy to the Lord", or, as we call things by names designating what they are, or at least what they seem to be, "shall be holy to the Lord." Now, if we look upon the original as expressing what produces this result, viz. =makeholy for me (i. e. for the Lord, who is giving the command) eevry male first-born, the fissure (i. e. the breaker forth, [the abstract being put for the concrete]) of every womb", we shall find the two entirely coincident. In the original, it is given as a command; hence the imperative form: l ) - ~ ? p "Sanctify to me," but in Lnke, it takes the affirmative form, from the connection in which it is found: 2 y r w s@ xu& xlqihjactur "holy to the Lord shall be called," = shall be. Again, whilst in Exod. a greater number of terms is used in describing the consecrated than in Luke, e. g. 1123 Ufirst-born male," Luke having only: tiqaau Urnale," which is expressed in the form of the Heb.; and ~nl:b? "every womb", whilst Luke has p p p a v Ywomb"it is nevertheless apparent that their words convey a statement of the same fact, viewed by both prospectively, but by the one as an act, by the other as a result. (' 4 ) Luke XIX. 4 6 f ~ . Is. LVI. 7. Is. LVL 7.

Ea' eorar etc. cBLR alee cop arm Or F Ln or' (azr cACDKM al pmvv ...s om)

.. .

.

d) = 126 K.

e ) 8 0 K m 17. 19 K. a e) h 1 K. 2

o ocxo< ILov OL* cpoc. eCz&* (C" a1 pouc x i . q s q s n a ' ) .

eACDEGHKMSUVrA4 rlc. [It is written,] My house
is the house of prayer.

for my honse shall be called a house of prayer *for all nations. * or, by.

for mine house shall be called an honse of prayer for all people.

Like Matt. Luke omits the last words aciar r o i &?vcatv, "for or ~ by all nations." Also, instead of rendering N l z l by xlq9.qacrar "shall be called", he says #UZUL %hall be;" and get there is no difference, properly so called., since men and things are called, or a t least, should he calied, that which they are, or at least, seem to be. And

John VlII. l i ; Acts I. 20 fp.

49

hence Umyhouse shall be called", because it is; or ('my house shall be", (or "is" rurtv as another reading gives it), and hence, shall be called "a house of prayer'', present no variance, both looking to the future, and the latter being the foundation of the former.
(5)
John VIII. 17.
[%a2 i v rG rhpq JA r$ tiprdpq y@qanmc] &L 860 Bv.'3pfednov rj paqrupia &A7+his

Dent. BIX. 15.

Dent.

XIX. 15.

imrv.

i n 1 m6paros 840 pole1,y nsly 7rt''j z6qwv x a i 8n2 uz6pozos ~1p:nqy:iq5rpq-5$) qcO7v papr6qov orjrrsra~

mZv Gus.

VI1.X XI. and many other MSS, also Ald Cornpl.Edd.

,.. rnvuezac . . . ora@qljotraa

:7?;

h) o m 18.69.et al*i)= *o iy 16.69.109K. 872; 539.656 a p. R. a t the mouth of two witnesses, or a t the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.

[It is also written in your law,] that the testimony of two men is true.

at the mouth of two witnesses, or a t the mouth of three witnesses, shall everyword be established.

The passage, to which we have referred this Quotation, states that =at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall stand." Now the mouth of a witness" is the same as Uuponthe testimony o an individual": and it will be adf mitted that a matter could never stand- stand firm or be established, unless the testimony concerning it were true. This is just what John states: S6o uu~7~~&nrnv 4 puqruqicc CiLq8.j~Eurtv "the testimony of two men is true." When two individuals give the same evidence concerning a matter o f fact, without concert, we have a proof, as it were, of the truth of that evidence, and inferentially of the reality of the matter evidenced. The Evangelist reaches the former result, Moses carries it onward to the latter, so that both make mention of the same thing, but a t different degrees of progress.,

.

,

. (6)
Acts I. 20 fp. Ps. LXVIII. 26.

, .

Ps. LXIX. 26.

[ydybanra~y&e dvfiflAa ~ a k / Z 6~~E] Y ? ] ~ $ ZZLZZI~ T W ~€W%ZO ~ Y C ~ U ~ L E i -6A ~ sa&oi Zprpog x.1 yjl z 7 +.q7,mpdvq,x a i dv zois Ov Zaro d x u t o ~ x i vi v athi. v q f e d p ~ la &~ v & ZWW ~ & 6 xara~xi-v. avmv pr .; a1 m vg (nan .

a?$')

:2~7 ?;?'-%

@~?>~q)?~@j ~.;.. r i:; i ~ ~ .l
nT

.

am demid al) d* aetb m avzw.1 roro. . D q .'. [For it is written in the book of Psalms,] Let bis habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein.

p) +m 121 K. q) nnnw 97 s p . K. r) $05 97. 133; 73. 38 a p. K. 640 a p R. . Let 'their habitation be desolate, and t l e t none dwell in their tents. *qlHeb.theirpalaee t w e b . Lei there not be a dweller.
',

Let their habitation he made desolate, and let n there be n o . dweller i their tents.

iYilTp in

the LXX.

4 2havrlrg

dzGu

"their habitation" becomes

50

Acts VII. 32; XIII. 34.

[Table C.1.r.o.

in Acts Ij Enauhrg adroii "his habitation", the psalmist predicating in the plnral of his enemies what is applied in Acts to one person. Also, instead of t; ;> !l i h: in the LXX EY toic O X ~ Y ~ [ ~ E aiizaiu U .in their ( U ~ ~ <<in u tents", it is said: $9 ~ 6 ~ 1 1 it", i. e. Z zfj Enuu?.~~aZjtoii which, of course, amounts to the same thing.
(7)
Acts VLI. 32. Exod. 1 1 0. 1. Exod. 1 1 G. 1. [ 3 ' & i ~ m o qwv+ x , , ~ ~ o " ] 6 8sbsri-v ;naripu 'Ey& 680bg ZO; 1~m- >;i$&q>?yz) >?iEy) p j y rrov, 6 88bs apea air,^, xn2 r p 6 s rov, %b~X&,ipxai "n~l7~ ' I r a h xal 'Iaxo(L Ss&s'1ra&xxai8~bs3Iu~&@. -2pv:! ?;i$N!. ver. 15. ver. 15. xGecos 6 8ebs r i u -a- 75iN m n i E >;ih ;? ;!l i ~~P~ p I $ G ~ S x @ ~ a k ~ 'b6 ;i? >$'I# ;s:. .. xnl 9 s b s 'Iuakx xai 8sbg , ver. 16. Seealsover.16. >??: 6. y) 'N O = 109. 129 K. x CII*ryw(Evg[nan am] add 6 . Alex. o Oaoc Apemap. ecpy) 4.0~ I o 0.05 scc. . . C 15. .r. nar. u#wv. Alcn. z) ? ' i i l x S. a) 'N? S. I . 69. om 6 1 ro. (CD '"ax) x . 'ax. MS. et Cornpl. Ed. 253 K. GOB. 262 a p. R. . eABC a15 vg msSyr utr cop sah arm ... q o 4 c o q ~ o x. . o Beos 'an. cD (bis om 6 ) EH a1 pl aefn arr al Thph. al. [tithe voice of the Lord lamtheGodofthyfather, came anto him,] 3zSaying, 6 1 am the God of thy I amtheGod ofthy fathers, father, theGodofAbraham, the God of Abraham, t h e the God of Abraham, and and the God of Isaac, and God of Isaac, and the God the God of Isaac, and the the God of Jacob. of Jacob. 15TheLORl1,theGodofour ~rTheLORD,GodofyourfaGod of Jacob. fathers, God of Abraham thors, theGod ofAbraham, and God of Isaac and God t h e God of Isaac, and the of Jacob God of Jacob

q5~.=)

.si,:;,

sii??&

,

The substantive verb is leR out in Acts VII. 32, whereby it conforms to the Beb. which, however, includes it in the pronoun. Instead of p$ thy father" zov" n a z ~ 6 5uou, it is read plurally zEu n a t . 6 ~ i "of uou "of thy fathers", i. e. Ilebraically, "of thy forefathers or ancestors,'' who are presently mentioned. In Acts, they are reviewed 'collectively, the three as fathers; Moses views them individually, each as a father. Compare verses 15 and 16, where we read it plurally DJXjBc rGu nurd~mu dp6u (or Ij@u) uof your (or our) fathers", in which the addressed are viewed plurally of course. 6 @cog "God" is read before 'Aflqadp only, but it can be readily supplied before the others.

~ ~

() 8
Acts XIII. 34. [a~rossie7rm 8ivw 8r'] i p i v .r& 8oca drrvi8 rB z'rr4.
3. xol&a%#opa~6p(lij8ca8 + x r j v aiivror, 7; ;ima drrvi8 zi* z~rrz4.

Is. LV.

Is Lv: 3.

n>l> ~ 3 5 " ) ;iQTKl.
R,!'$&;l;i.'.i:)?

,l?i+$lyo)

n) a?$ 72.80.151; 93 ctf. 1 s p. K. o ) = 80 K.

Table C.I.r.o.1 [he said on this wise,] I will give you the sure 'mercies of Dmid. * 8nca lhe holy or just things.

Aots XUI. 34; 2 .COT.VI. 16. And I will make a n everlasting covenant with you. t h e sure *mercies ofDavid. * =A 8oca the Sept. both herc and in many other plsecs, uses l o transl.ate prop. mercies.

51

And I will make a n cverlasting covenant with you, even t h e sure mercies of David.

Of the original 'lI wifl make with yon an everlasting covenant", which covenant concerned "the sure mercies of David", i. e. the peron petual benefits coilfei~ed him, Paul in his adclress has the latter part was only in view; and as the idea of the cove~~ant therewith connected, though not expressed, he states the certainty of their reception will in &040 d p ~ vL'I give yon." When Jchovah has offered a covenant to his people, they may, on agreeing thereto, dcpend on receiving the benefits; and it is evidently with this object in vicv that Paul alters the form of expression from "making a covenant" to "bestowing the . promises!'
2 Cor. VI. 16.

(9)
Lev. XXVI. 11-12.
llxcri 8juo rijv u ~ l j v j v t(~-

Lev. XXVI. 11-12.

rvow+uw C t~
z ~ ivebs xa2 v
poc

[na*dsaZmv 6 . 4 ~ 6 ~ 1c k
~ O zC. ~ C2

nepmunjuw,rrri$uopar

a&

adrol

$uoJzal

nj>jn? 1~3wnr g ~ " Pow ivipiv,... 12~i~iip=eQ6n$S'in* y&;in;?rl\.. . n a r i o w dv 6piw %a1 $UO~C(L < p ~ 8 e l r , x a ? 6 p ~ ? ~ $ ~ ~ ( i 0&C~;?"li5055 ~ 7 ? ; ? 1 v 8d 1
p o l~ o s . a

lar6s.

0%
d) = 129K.

7 :

av.ro,~

Chr Hill avrohs (Chr Hill SImSpergunt rrs 4eov).l r o c cnEFGKL alutvdtrferc omn vvut vdlr omn ClcmOr (Chr por $6; i a o v ) a1 pp'at ... Ln r o v cBC 17. 37. Dam.

...FG g c a p sl"Wr2

;p)v ? ~

11. orqv. ita MS. Sar. et Compl. Ed. at MS. Alex. et Ald. Ed. Sha4vtljx7jv ( nr uwv OneMS. p a 9 lipuiv 1 por . Alex. MS. pov Compl. .Ed.
pou rrq

..

laov.

Ezek. XXXVJI. 27. Ezek. X X X W . 27. 1 s o;? mwn 3771 poU aGroCs lral guopa~ atmi D ~ F ~ R ) Vn~!?! n35 adrois 8ebs, xai u d r o i pow i r a v r u r iahs. o$~+-Y~? avzorq rc5Be~~Ale~.MS.... u) a:>n> 107 K.

>zu)

[asGOD hathsaid,l I will dwell i n them, and walk in fhem; and I will he their OOD, and they shall he my people.

a v c o ~ o o n . pol l a o r Alex. e MS. Ald. Ed. 1lAndIwiIl set my tahernacle among gnu: "and I will walk among you, and I will be your GOD, and ye shall be unto me a people. zlAnd mytabernacle shall, be among them, and I will be t o them a GOD, and they shall be my people.

lrAnd I will set my tabernacle among you: lzAnd I will w a k among you, and will be your GOD, and ye shall be my people. 27Ny tabernacle also shall be with them; yea, I will be their GOD, aqd they .shall be my people.

The apostle, in making this Quotation, has slightly altered it from Re has changed the pronouns the original in Lev. XXVI. 11-12. from the second to the third person (udsoi~,aus&v and a2jroi for dpiv, dy&v and &psis) in arcler to adapt it to the orutio obliqzlr~,and

52

Gal.

I. D 8.

[Table C.1.r.o.

reads 6vo~xqaco "I will dwell" instead of ))?@n UI will set my tabernacle", which variation, however, fonnded'on the difference of a nomadic from a settled life, is easily explained by knowing that, whenever a nomade h e s his tent anywhere, there he for that time i s . . said to dwell, and that the Israelites were of this description - wilderness wanderers - a t the time when theoriginal was delivered, whereas Paul's idea refers it to a fixedness of habitation - to that land whither the Lord was guiding them, and which He had promised to' give them. He also omits E iipiu 'Lamong v you" or rather, as he would have read it, E udroii. "among them", after Bp%ipr%olrr/ao"I will walk v about in (or among)", since it may easily be supplied from the preceding words. The latter part of the passage in Ezek. agrees with Paul's words, so far as the person is concerned, it being there the third also. But the former part differs, giving i'arolr .I xasolaxTouLg pov "my taber; nacle shall be" (literally rendering the Hebrew), instead of Evorx~oco "I will dwell", though truly the sense is the same. However, the next clause is left out or rather not found there, viz. Epnsprnarqao "I will walk about in", so that, on the whole, it may be said to have been taken from Lev., while the passage in Ezek. shows the propriety of the altered forms.
(10)
Gal. 1 1 8. 1. (npo~80iioa $ rga&... 8 d n ~ o s ~ , ~ ~ ~ sz@'ApprrAbaro iP] dv8vLo~8+sovrur Ezc dv rrol nrlna zdr E 8 q . Gen. XI. 3.
xu1 $vswLom%aoma~ dv uoi nEua6 al p A a i z j s

Gen. XII. 3.

ris.

p,@?#n y .. 2

T=

?31=?)

;i$i(q

.

euioyq9ljoouzas Alex. MS. Compl. Ed. at .tru.vl. i n MS. Ox. et Ald. Ed. Gen. X W I . 18.

@en. XVIII. 18.

xal d v s d a m ~ u o n a dv r c&@sO:na z . ; 8 8 ~ 7 ~ + 5 p j 5 . eveday. eABCDEKL a1 pl ppm cg (non c Gb Sz)w h y . eFG a1 mu Chr Thph.

p.5; qd)!3-?212>1 53 ::.:
S.

...

[And the Scripture, foreseeing. preaohed before the gospel unto Abraham, suying,j In thee shall all nations be blessed.

..

XII. 3. and in thee shall all the trihes of the earth be blessed. XVI1I. 18. and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him.

XII. 3. and in thee shall all fanilies oftheeartlibeblessed.

X V I ~ .18. . and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him.

.

This Quotation is generally referred to Gen. XU. 3, which ends with ;ipTL$;! nh$?#p 53 "all families of the earth", in the Sept. nciaai a rpuholi rlis i "all the tribes of the earth", Galatians reading ndvrac r& d.Yvri "all the nations." In Gen. it would appear.as if the collective units of humaility formed one vast nation, whose territory was the earth, and which was divided into L'tribes"r LLclans," whilst Gal. would represent the earth's inhabitants as separated into several

Trable C.I.r.0.1

1 Pet

II. 9.

53

Speoplesn or "nations". Such being the variations, we might look for the original in Gen. X U . 18, where we meet with the same words as in Gal., except that they are spoken, not personally to ("you") but objectively of ("him") Abraham. Perhaps the best way would be to consider it a combination of the two, seeing that they both contain the same idea, and that it is referable to each. And such an opinion is more likely to be formed, since Y7?;! ,972 53 nations of the earth" is read in all the other places viz. Gen. XXII. 18; XXVI. 4; in the Sept. s&vrac t d #8vq zfc yes; and had, Ilh?&'p '(tribes" been introduced, it might have been limited to 'the tribes of the land", i. e. to the Hebrews.

(11)
1 Pet. 11. 9. ;psis J4 - @orni&cav . $eimrpa, E8vo5 27'ycav.

Exod. XIX. 6.
$psi< 84 #rm8g.8 POL @a. uiAs~or ise&zsupa xai68uas
Zy:ylov!
"

Exod. XIX. 6.

j=)>5nn ,>-r;ipy one!
''
~ = = 1 V 7TKT. %ll, tI$?> 5 ~

But ye are a royal priesthood, an holy nation.

-

And ye shall be nnto me a royal priesthood, and a holy nation.

And ye shall be nnto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation.

It is obvious that 1 Pet. 11. 9 is partly taken from Exod. XIX. 6, as we read its second and third appellations therein; and its last appellation rlaos ECS ~ ~ ~ O L ~ Dpeculiar people'' may have a Ua I V reference to that in verse 5, as they have a t least the same fnudamentaI idea. The title y ~ v o s E Z ~ I E S O V l%hosen generation" may be gathered from various portions of Scripture, as that by which the Israelites were known. Indeed their whole history is founded on the idea of their being selected from among the other nations of the earth to be the Lord's. See Deut. VII. 6; XIV. 2; XXVI. 18. Peter applies to Christians names which were primarily applicable to the Hebrew people only, inasmuch as the Jews were but the type of Christians, the antitgpe.

Matt. XIX. 4; Mark X. 6.

[Table C.1.a.

TABLE C.1.a.

(1)
Matt. XIX. 4. Gen. I. 27. Gen. I. 27.
& v d p m r ~b z ~ ] 6 L ; ~ V S HC'~ 8 j h u & o i ~ v a ~ Y novjoas dn' rlq,yjs L;qv~v a6r06s xai 4 j h u bnolrjusv airobs; Gen. V . 2. B 1. 22. 33. 1?4.(cops&i L;~,,, H R 9<hU $fl,,~TrSY ~ Drz TitAthDleth o rzccaslE a1 oauc Or1 aoorvlD"47iAtiv. "4'obs. f ~ a v ye e rkad, that] male and female made

[O&

D?E( N?? ;I?j7?)
Gen. V. 2.
Crj??

11 2
77!

i139!

nbi

he which made'them a t the begin~ling made them male and female.

he them.

male land female created he them.

Here it is only the last words that are quoted, the subject viz. 6 nocqoas, 'the Maker", and the time 8%' c2~x+s"from the beginning" being necessarily additional, tomark the who? .and the when? In the original, the latter is not needed, since the record is telling what 6u oipx? "in the beginning" God did, and the former is snpplied in the preceding context by 6 3 ~ 0 s . The Heb. N?? is rendered by E%oiqmu ILhemade." Some might have expected another verb, conveying the idea of "creating"; yet the LXX. rightly used ~oceiv, since h'?? says nothing about "forming out of nothing." Paul in his address to the Athenians employs, the same u word, Acts XVII. 24 6 Ocds d sor+sag sdu x 6 ~ ~ p oxal n d u r a sd dv ads@ 'God who made the world and all things in it:'

.

.

Mark X 6. Gen. 1. 27. Gen. I. 27. dnb 3 L ; ~ f i s mmiosos A i p o s v xai Bnoi~wv Dn& H% ;l!pJ) .. Z q m v m &jLv Z)no170ir i a&-co6s. a4roirg. D 81% f ffz ssr pcrsP om b Gen. 'V. 2. Gen. V. 2. nrioaws I D a1 v; 6 om auzous I in f. add "acoF, i;~aav % O ~ ~ I ~ E Y DN?? [o 41 cADEFGIlKMSUVXr . aSza6s. a1 oler. But from the heginmng male and female made male and female created H e them. of t h c creation GOD made Hc them. them male and female.

(2)

lsl

For remarks see above Matt. XIX. 4, from which, however, Mark slightly differs,"or~tnot in the words found in the Old Test. Instead of saying with Matt. an' ~ Q X + S Uat the boginning", he says rind 8 2 c2~x+s X Z ~ ~ E W icRomthe boglnning of the creation", where the last S word xsiocws is additional, more strictly defining the beginning by telling of what. Also Matt. begins with 6 n o n j ~ a s"he who made", vhich Mark omits to express, unless the reading 6 8 ~ 6 s adopted, be as noted above.

Table C.I.a.1

John XIII. 18.

55
Ps. XLI. lo. $7?;~i ?n?jk)3 1 ~ 5

(3)
Ps. XL. 30. [ i ~ c r j ~ ~ u q + p ; i n l ? ~ w 4 ? ] ' 0 .6 Snttiwfl liprotis pov 6 p 7 i L w ~ v S p i nzspLuW z e ; r w ~ pS; ipoCDZ,zdv @ZOY ;p;iiew Sm3 Z+Y -ZE~QYU.Y p6v. airroc. epou (Or>). BCL alt tolO~8C~~~(comn:) 1 AU lib"

John XIII. 18.

952

:3p.t')
k) lh 38 K. 1) mpy 60 K.

.

1. En7,q"m.

[that the sori1)ture may be falfdled,] E e thateateth braad with me hath lifted up his heel against me.

h e t h a t eatethmy *bread, flifted up his heel ilgainsl me. *Gr.loaves. +Gr.magnilled.

[he] which did eat of my bread, hath *lifted up his heel against me. * TI Hcb. magnified.

This passage has evidently not been cited from the LXX, as it has scarcely one word the same as those found there; nor from the Beb. has it been translated, which is literally and even radically rendered in the LXX. both being "who eateth my bread hath made g r e ~ upon me his heel." Now the expression "hath madc great upon t me" is the same as "hath made high upon me" i. e. Uhath lifted up upon (or against) me"; and hence '5): 5>?L;! will bear to be rendered Em?jqtw i' Spk 'To eat one's bread", and "to eat bread with one" may n be supposed t o be somewhat different, the former denoting, to belong to one's housd~oldand be supported by him, the latter, to enjoy his ' friendship, of which eating together is among Orientals a proof. Now, this latter foim is that which John uses, and the above may he considered the idea he intended to be conveyed, which we nnquestionably find in the Ps. also, as the first line of the stanza reads: I2 'nnt?z-lWf: >n!i~ trire-08 'yea m y peace-man, in whom I confided". John means to stite that Judas, of whom it is spoken, had been admitted to a l l the privileges of friendship and had partaken of the usual evidences of nffiction. And, though there is no doubt about the ultimate meaning of the figurative language employed to express the return which he made for this kindness, viz. that Judas proved himself ungrateful and base in inflicting an injury on one who had made him a friend, and which he aggravated by doing it under the mask of pretended friendship, yet there is a difficulty in seeing from what the figure is taken. .The Heb. and L X . as shown above, read "hath made great", which John expresses by "hath lifted up"; and Suidas says that this figure is taken from those who are m n i n g in a race, when one attempts to trip the other up, and make him fag. But some suppose the expression to mean: to lay snares for one; others: to kick or injure a man after he is cast down. The latter idea, that of kicking, appears t o us the probable one, yet not at a person cast down, that is, trampling upon him, but simply calcitrating, as a horse would do.

'

56
Rom. III. 11-12.

Rom. 111. 11-12;

1 Cor. XV. 45.

[Table C.1.a. Ps. XIV. 2-3.

" o h # m ~ v ruvc6v, ood 6 -6v jvj~~n 3mw G $X@Z&P zbv 8 ~ 6 ~;&xt7r6vzrbv 8aYEdv. 3 s ( i ~ ~ s . i ' a c i m , s B ~ ~ K ~ L Y I X Y +a , E'Sdnlcvav, +a $ x g ~ ~ 6 % r ,

Ps. XUI. 2-3. 2za6 8 8 ; ~ i 8m' e

() 4

53;1113:~l;il#-n$) Wl?

@,i,l?')

illN$") 2

1K ~z'XY>~) ''n~lm) 10 $,yC~mi3yoav. 06% S m ~ v av, 06%Sor~ no~ojv ~ r n d -.~ : na~6v~~~m6nj.ror, oix8vb-r~v vrcc, a& 3 m ~ v 8 ~ 6 5 . $mg

1

?!)5-diF~~;G)-%!Y

$WE

6 ~ 6 ~ .

11. a ovvcwv eDEKL a1 ut 2. EGO>@. qx~ro@qow. h) n1,*5 74.97.133K.*i)= vdtr olnn Chr Thdrt Dam Alex M' lestc Babaro. & 76K. k) = 142 K. 1) +xi* Thph Oee Ln o m d eABGl 1ynP39ap:K. m ) ~ a f . = Ln[dIerC o~ndB(t~ljzwv)G. 172 K. I?n3 35. 37. 43. 76. 12. AB*D*G ilypro9~aau 117. 133. 158.170.206 alK. q Ln 49 q ~ p a c w S eB'*D**% . n) /N 'I 157 K. > N N ~ 249 KL a1 pl Isarwv..DE praem a p. R. 0) = 240 K. o' 1 B 67." sgr aeth arp om OW Erc'~ see. 2. to see if there is any 11. There is none that 2. to see if there were understandeth, there is one that understandeth, or any that did anderstand, none that seeketh after that seeketh after GOD. and seek GOD. 3. They GOD. 12. They are all 3. They are all gone out are all gone aside, they gone out of the way, they of the way, they are to- are o L together become Z are together become nu- gether become *nuprofit- %lthy; there is none that profitable; there is none able; .there is none that doeth good, no, not one. that 606th 'good, no, not doeth +good, there is not one. even one. * Gr. goodness. * or, worthless. t ar, Gr. Neb. stinking. goodness.

... ....

a

The original, Ps. XIV. 2-3, describes the act, "the Lord from the heavens bent over, upon the sons of men"; the reason of itsbeing done, %o see whether there were a prudent (person, one) seeking GOD"; and tbe result, 'Ithe whole have turned away (i. e. apostatized), together (=all as one) are tbey corrupt." It was thus seen that "there was not a prudent (person, not one) seeking GOD." Now, the apostle, wishing to state the result merely, might include the reason thus changed into the form of a result, and sag 06%fnou b ~ J V L G Vz A. X. . "there is none that understaudeth &c." By the prudent or intelLigent person is pointed out in both the seeker of GOD i. e. His pious worshipper, and in the Sept. the particle 4 &(or" inserted, whereby it may he shown that they are synonymous. is I t may be added that Ps. LIII. 3-4 (Heb.) has the same passage, excepting that., in ver. 4 (for 'iQ h) has > 153; and Ps. LII. 3-4 it ! (Sept.) agrees also, only having in ver. 4 &yaikw (for ~ ~ q a r o t r ] s u ) .
1 Cor. XV. 45. [a&os re2 rirpnzac]
%~dvszo d np6zos c%Hqw-

(5) Gen. 11. 7. na2 Eyivero 6 a'v9qonas

-

3)i

Gen. 11. 7.. D i m> i ~ )

sig ylu&

C6oav.

. ..

7 T :

noc %J&uE ~ wuXiiv t & ~ a v . S

Heb. I . 4 ; XII. 21. T [and so it is written,] The fist man Adam was made a living soul. and the man *hecam8 a living soul. * Or was made.

57
and "'man became a living soul. Properly the man.

-

Here we have two additional words, the one raewsos "first" limiting it to which of men; the other A6ap "Adam" calling him by the name by which he was well known, and probably also in contrast to the "Adam", mentioned in the next part of the verse, and named d &'o,yazos "the last" i. e. Christ, who was the founder of the Bpiritual race,-the pneumatic-as Adam was the head of the physical beings the psychic.
Heh.

I.4. T

(6) Gen. 1 . 2. 1

Gen.

II. 2.

[siflxw now nspl cis Spbpqs o ~ ; ~ o E ] Kai rar6nwusv d 8865 2v r? i p 6 e p r?iiiglldp,7 ibnb n&vzov r 6 v 8qywv airroi. A am n (om a12 Chr) 7.7.
z7 e@.

rdrp

m i xazQnavcrs z ?.i$p?r , zfj 2086pg dnd nalvrwvr6v
6prwv adroi.
Many MSS. read nrrzdnrnlaev d @miF,andstillmore insert CY as in Compl. Ed. I

pi?^;?^) i12 n2W?! 23
h)
= 81. 474

in~ccin-i?n
K.

[For he spoke in a certain place of the seventh day on this wise,] And GOD did rest the seventh day from all his works.

MS. Ox om avzav

and he rested on the seventh day from all his works.

and he rested on the seventh day from all his work.

There is here the insertion of d & d ~ , which is evidently transfcrred from the beginning of the verse m auverdLemu d 4 8 0 s and i added here as the subject. Some as Dr. Davidson (See Sac. Herm. p. 432 and Introd. to Old Test. where he notes, Vhis is from the Greek, with some slight changes") refer this Quotation to Gen. II. 3, which would bring it under Table C.1.r.a.; but it is clecidedly preferable to refer it to ver. 2, from ahich it differs only by adding d 8 ~ 0 s . (7)
Heb. XII. 21. [Mwuvijs a h e v ] %xqof6s
E L ~ xai Evreopo~ L a1 fercio pp ahq wlpop. ( M wp.1 I D* e17qop

Dent. IX. 19.
rai txlpo@tis~ i p ~ .

Dent. I . 19. X

7 !! J '

'3

[Moses said,] Ieuceedingly fear and quake.

and I was greatly terrified.

For I was afraid.

The last expression in this Quotation, viz fvtpopog seems to be additional, as the original has only "I was afraid of (turned aside from) the face of the anger and wrath &c." but it is so natural, "trembling" being the attendant of L'fear",that it is allowable.

58

Matt. XI" 10.

[Table C.1.r.a.

TABLE C.1.r.a.
Matt. XI. 10. Mal. In. 1. Mal. 111. 1. [OETOEy i q ~ V Z L Vzeq2.s &earnab] '1% sy& &no'1306 6tanom6ALw rdv ,,N\pr)) 3)!>;14 rrriAiw zbv <yysl.dv pow <yysL& pow, aai dn~fliiqaq@ . . nqb n q o o r j n o v oov, nu2 ru6 dJbv npb qql(,or&nov XCIIOI(TXE~II~(TFC Z+Y 6 % ~ oov po~. ipnpoo86v voo. Ln [cyw] ..omZ eBg2 AlnbI fils.Alcx. et Compl. Ed. a) $?IN ? i n 597 K. b) ~ N S D X a1 ppue anoozedm I r a ~ aya atman. #IS. Rarh et Ald. 5 9 i K. c w 5 a 327 K. c) n a r a o x . e P cop syrP B b e Ed. r E a n o a r ~ d u i Cyr r y o arb. 612 K . Chrz (ei blatlhaei ad h. I.) anomadG I x a ~ enrpd. o& : . Amb' Hier . . s os r a r a o x . Bm's koap&orcd&v Compl. cACDEFGKLMSUVXA cte. Ed. [For this is he, of whom i t i s written,] Behold, I Behold, I will send my Bohold, I send forth my send my messenger before messenger, and he shall messenger, and he shall' t h y face, which shall pro- survey the wag before my preparetheway'beCoreme. pare thy way before thee. h o e . *or,ratller, belore my face.

(1)

n>a

ql.l-ii:e+=)

9 ,

.

'

This Quotation is found in each of the three first evangelists, who agree in giving it in nearly the same words, and differ each from the LXX. with whose version, in which the Heb. may be said to be correctly rendered, they have little in common. "We are of opinion" says Dr. Davidson Yhat the Hebrew text was followed, though not implicitly. The chief difference between the citation and its original in the Old Testament is the change of person from the first to the second. In this respect it is a t variance both'with the Hebrew and the Septuagint". Sac. Herm. p. 344. He elsewhere (p. 457) says: "The present Hebrew and Septuagint are here conforinable to each other, while they differ from the evangelists. Some have therefore concluded that the Hebrew was early corrupted and the Greek acljusted to it. So Drs. Randolph and H. Owen." Although we would have the testimony of three evangelists against Malachi in the Beb. and the Greek version, we should not feel ourselves entitled to oome to such a conclusion, until the failure of all the means in our power of reconciling them; and such we must believe to have been the condition df those who admit corruption. In the New Testament zed. %eo~d%OV oov is added after rbv CiyyeL6v pow; 711 in heing'rendered by s+v 68bv rov, has the corre.spending addition of aov; and $ p ! z ~ ~ ~ S .GOU seems to correspond $u t with ?!pi, except in the change of person from f i ~ s to second. Yet, we are of opinion that U?', in Malachi a n d ' ~ p x ~ o r t 9 . ~ ~ Matt. GOU in are not correspondent., but that Matt. has altered the place and pronoun of the former, and added the latter, which, though apparently almost a repetition, yet includes the accessory idea of advancement. But, how

*

~

Table C.1.r.s.l

Mark 1 ?. .

59

sEallwe account for the changing of: "before my face", into: "before thy facen, and thus reconcile the two corresponding phrases? Shall we, as some do, assert that was once 13305 and %~oocoaov pov in the LXX. q o g o n o u oou? I think we should not, as there are no various readings ;athe Neb. or LSX.to support such an assertion; more especially as, by attending to the speakers and the addressed, the variations may be harmonized. I t i s admitted that John the Baptist is spoken of by rLv 2yysrZ6v pov. Now, in Malachi, tbe Godhead, of which Christ the Son is a person, declares through the prophet to the Hebrews: 'lhe shall prepare a way before my +ace", or in other words: before the Messiah acting in my name. See Exod. XXIII. 21. Bnt, in the New Testament, the Father-GOD is represented addressing the Son-GOD in these words: "Behold I send my messenger before thy face." Thus the Evangelists report the conversation between the Father and the Son, with regard, to the appointment of the messenger, whereas the prophet communicates it to the people, as if delivered by the triune equal The two expressions are thus found to be not i~~consistent, they as amount in meaning to the same thing, digering only in representation.

'IPS

(2)
Mark I. 2. [xaffd~ ydyqqnra~ z$ h 'Hva@ nQomjzv] 'I&& dnoordlio rhu +ysL6v p n v npd TZQoodnou rrov, & %aZ I I ~ ~ E ~ It7jv ~6 % ~ I ; E C oov. e Z W ( D a1 am TO) ?o. .rw v

Mal. 1 1 1. 1.

Mal. 1 1 I. 1.

'I806 ESrmomiLlo rbv iy7~i.6~ XC(~ POZI, 2n~@l&~ZCL d3hv n p b nqoodnov
p08.

>?*$pL) n$kj ?>,?a)
r>hi?1l-;i?plF)
- 7 :

. .

MS. Alcx. et Compl. Ed. LYW ~ 5 a zMS. Barb et Ald. . mp.cBT)Ldalzs fcre vg itsyr hrs cop are g.o Ir gr (11% la,. Ed. ~Eanooraiw' Cyr ryw a. zocp z p o g . ) Or4 P o r p h E u ~ aiaonrelC I x a a sncpi. 08. Bo.ns &o~#&nrc 6Sov Compl. a1 m ..p (Gbi) ev zos'npog?jra's eAEFG***HKMPSU Ed. VI'al longc pl . . ed1 iv zo, n q p q T z 7 . . to1 +plane am I 'Sou cBD a1 am ing it Ir Aug a1 ... F '80" e y e c u t sup. I S (= Gb SE) in t add rwnqn" Q r v aov.

..

a) >a 5'JiK. h) YNSD : 5 9 i K. m u i a 327 K. c) 93 612 I<.

[As it is written in t h e prophets,] Behold, I send my messenger before t h y faoe, which shall prepare thy wag before thce.

Behold I s e n d forth my messenger, and he shall survey the way before my face.

Behold I will send my messenger, and h e shall preparetheway"oef0reme. * or,raLihcr, before my facc.

The first point to be determined here is the introductory clause. Tischendorf has given it:-Ev z@ 'HraiCq s@ neocp4rrj "in Isaiah the prophet" -supported by the authorities noted above. Now, if this be the reading, since the first Quotation is not found in Isaiah, but in Malachi, though t,he next is, how is it to be explained? Shall we say with Dr. Davidson "Bere we have an example of the mode in which several passages are joined together in one quotation. Two places, from different prophets, are cited as one prophetic expression, with

60

Luke VII. 27; John VI. 31.

[Table C.1.r.a.

the formula 6s yeypamsur kc. &." Yet, such is no explanation. It is true that two passages are here put together, which are seen to be related to each other, so related in fact that they may be called "one prophetic expression", yet are they taken from two prophets' writings. Why, then, is it said: "in Isaiah the prophet" only? Was it because he gave his name to that division of the sacred writings, since his book was placed first in it? Or, if that does not satisfy, will it be said that Mark did not remember that the two passages occurred in different writings, Malachi's and Isaiah's, only he ascribed them both to Isaiah? But that I cannot allow, more especially since there is MS the authority for the reading k soi sseognijsarg &'in prophets", adopted in s, though not in Gb Sz, and commended by Griesbach, see above, whereby the difficulty is entirely relieved. With regard to the Quotation itself, Mark agrees with Matt., except that he omits eyo, mless it be read, as in s c8ou E ~ Oputs ; 8s Uwhonfor xai Uaud";and omits i'p;llapou46v uou at the end, though (see above), s (=Gb Sz) adds it. For additional remarks recurrence may be made to Matt. XI. 10.
(3)
Luke W. 27.
[o&~E d m ~ v nep2

Mal. III. 1.

Mal. IU. 1.

08 76-

rpamoz] 'I&$ i n o m B l w 'I806 dEarnom6AAo z'bv rbv677sAdvpvnpbnpoc& Z7:rrsibpov, xai dnc@i6yyrsno" nos, dc xazauxmoios~ . wr ddbv l t p b neordnov

?t' ?>w'!?;la) ?&) '1~5 ?/l.l->?@ ..
7 7 :

q add ryolD 122. a lTert om o p q . aov.

MS. Alcx et Compl Ed. MS.Barb et Ald. Ed ePaarnoorrl.ii Cvr evo, " .
r e etan. y

a) a l x ma 597K. b) lnin 597 K. n , > ~ i n327 K. e) I : ma1 612 K.

azoonaii.

[This is he, of whom i t is written,] Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.

Behold I send forth my messenger, and he shall survey the way before my face.

Behold I will send my messenger, and he shall preparetheway*beforeme. * or, rather, before my face.

Like Mark, Luke differs from Matt. in omitting zyw, and reading 6s xasau. for xar xasao., in this differing from the original; but he agrees with Matt. in having i'pnpoa8dv oou, which Mark wants. For a comparison with the Heb. see the remarks on Matt. XI. 10.
John VI. 31.
[xa9.ds d m ~ v767papI$YOY]~ T O Y &paX 2% TOG roii Edoxsv or&oir q q s i ~ .

(4) Ps. LXXVII. 22.
xai Zqrov a6pavoii 88mxw aiz~is.

Ps. LXXVLU. 24.

ti$")

D!nq-]Jl>

[as it is written,] He gave them bread from heaven to eat.

andHe gave them bread of heaven.

h) ~ n n4 K. i and had given them of the corn of heaven.

Table C.I.r.a.1

Rom. D . 25. (

61

There are different opinions with regard to the passage or passages from which this Quotation is taken. Doepke affirms that In; l q on?;! N>;i ~ the words are found in Exod. XVI. 15 D?) 3535 UThis is the bread which the Lord gave you to eat"; in t'he LXX oZ;:s S; 6pzos 8v f&za xhpros +pZv yocysrir. But here the E zoii x oCpavoii &'fromheaven" does not appear, though otherwise the words could be changed into the quoted form. Davidson says 'lmore probably, however, it is taken from Ps. LXXVII. 24. The words nearly agree with the Greek." And if this opinion be followed, it -is brought here by having the additional word yayeiv "to eat", which is borrowed i g! ~ n from the preceding clause ~ j ~ jp ?D 3 h l! "and had rained upon them manna to eat"; in the LXX. xGi #&eEew dro;s pdwa yayeiv; and by having E zoir oCpavoC "out of the heaven" as denoting the x quarter whence the manna came, instead of simply olipvoG "of heaven", which would properly denote the kind. However, it may be worth while to examine whether it may not be made up of two passages, as are some other Quotations, for insqance, of Exod. XVI. 4 and 15. In the former we read D:t?Pj;l-jn D OJ! l'Unn*!?l "Behold me raining & for you bread from the heavens"; in the LXX TSod Byd 561 6piu Gsovs E roii oli~uvoii,and in the latter, given above, we have "This is the x bread which the Lord gave you to eat." Now, from a combination of these two passages, how would one write of the circumstance sometime after it occurred? I should think none otherwise than thus: "The Lord gave them bread from heaven to. eat", &psou dx r o c olpavoC mpios ~SOJXBV i s yayaiu, which is just what John records, excepting dzo the word xupro~,which was not requisite with him, Yet I doubt not that the simplest is the preferable source, though the last, on which the Ps. is evidently founded, may have been remembered too.
(5)
Rom. M. 25. Hos. IL 23.
A$UL]
r a i iya7ium rjv o h l~yaqPdvrlv, xal d p 6 z6 06 A@ pew A a 6 ~ $06.

Hos. 11. 25.

[ i xai dv .r$ Z A ~ v
Kal6um
26"

oirAa6u pov

la6v pou xa2 z j v a h $ye-

n ~ p d v ~yvu m p d v ~ . i

-me

"'

85-nK

??l)nll

q-tiS> q ~ n i $ i :
3nF

AlexMS AldEd prneml La& pov om. pov 53. 153.

xa* ay. z?jv oux qy. xai $Ailr?jaw z+ orix j l ~ ~ & k " , "

...

[As he saith also iflosee,] Iwill call them my people, which were not my people: and her beloved, which was not beloved.

and I will love her that was not beloved; and I will say to that lvhrch mas not my people, Thou art my people

and I will have mercy upon her that hild not obtained mercy; and I m11 say to them mdach mere not my people, Thou a d my people

Paul inverts the order of the clauses, wbich will account for the changes he has made on the original. There the two clauses

62

i Cor. X. 20.

[Table C.1.r.a.

are distinct, stating two different acts, the one subjective, and the other objective, but Paul states' them both objectively, in which there is no inconsistency, since "the not-beloved (or comnpas-. sionated)" could be called "beloved (or compassionated)" after being loved or compassionated, which, it is mentioned, she should be. He also represents the words as spoken of a third party, without giving the precise form of words which would be used, %a26001 sdu od Aa6u you ha6u pou "I will call ,the not my people, my people", ? -whereas Hosea says ;IQCr7Dj!~ ~ Y - K S Ip?ne!"and I will scly lo not my people, my people art thou", thus giving'the very words to be used, in speaking to them. And following the idea of speaking o/: P a d adds xai (liarlimo) z+u o6x qyaallpiulju ijycmljpiu?jv "and (1 will call) the not beloved, beloved", which idea of speaking of is additional, the original only intimating the fact of pitying "and I will pity the unpitied"; but, as remarked before, after the act (or in consequence of the certainty of the act,) the calling could take place (or could be certainly spoken of beforehand). Thus, then, there is seen to be only a slight diffeqence in expressing the same ideas.
(6)
1 Cor. X. 20. Deut. XgXII: 17. [&A?.'] KL 2 S ~ O ~ I C L V69urrav J C ~ ~ ~ YX IC O~ L ~ , Z 8a~povIocsBISovrnv ral od 06 $88eG.
@VOVOL~ bis (Gb') cABCD EFG a l e ..s Susc cKL al longe pl Chr Thdrt a1 1 8ar+ovrorg cBDEFG d !e . . . q (Gb 00) praem zu r 9 y cAC,(J post or' pon) K etc. vv pl Chr I ~ ~ I O U C LSCC. cDEFGIiL ete... Y Ln post @rw'pon. cABC 37.

siK ~5 ~ . ..qqnzji - .~ .. ..

Deut. XXXII. 17.

j

46. 137 arP,Eus. Or Aug. [But I soy,] that t h e

things which t h e Gentiles
sacrifice, they sacrifice t o *devils and not t o GOD. * Rather, demons.

They sacriGced toedevils and not to GOD.

They sacrificed unto devils, *not t o GOD.

* Rather, demons.

GOD.

' (I[ Or,

which were not

Moses is speaking of the Hebrews, who, in their wildernesswanderings, had forsaken the only true GOD and h,ad worshipped thosc which were not GODS; and Paul, in order to adapt it to the conuexion in which it is introduced, makes the slight change upon it, of ~ Q w c ~ a u "they sacrificecl" into 4uou~du'%hey sacrifice", and prefixes & ~ v o u ~ r u "what they sacrifice." Now, that such a change is admissible will be evident from the fact that the Israelites, in so doing, imitated the heathen dwelIers of Canaan, and hence, what was truly said of the imitators must be us l r t ~ l ysaid of the imitated, and of such us they, if not more so.

2 Cor. TI. 18; 1 Pet. 11. 22.

63

(7)
2 icings VU. 8. 14. 2 Sam. VII. S. 14. 2 Cor. TI. 18. x o i $ r o p n c + ~ ~ i ~ 6 4 n a z s ' . a , d y i h o p n ~a5r6 &is Mill. 3$ $$-D?>N7 2 ~ p i xal ;pa% $utc8d poc E?S IZUI~QOL, U ~ Z ~ S $UTOLC . - .::. O ~ u f o ; ~ 8uyors'QaS,[&@EL P L E ~ E 2 6 ~ . %a2 njpcog navzoreilro(;l ~ c r . 8 .T i 8 8 ~ ~ ~ E I ~ ~ ~ c o 1 ~ D>' s 5 navroxphop.

I-; ..;$-s3ily <<

' ~

n)~?:

And (I)will be a Ii'athcr unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, [saith the LORD 81mighty].

14. I will be to him a Father, and he shall be t o me a son. 8. These things saith the LORD Almighty.

14. I will ha his Father, and he shall be my sou.

8. Thus saith the LORD of hosts.

This Quotation has been referred to various passages in the Old Testament, but it agrees entirely with none of them. Some refer it to Jer. XXXI. 33 "and (I) will be their GOD anJ they shall be my people"; but Ezek. XXXVI. 28 %nd ye shall be my people, and I will be your GOD" is nearer to it in form, while Jer. XXXI. 1 "I mill be the GOD of all the families of Israel, and they shall be my people" is nearer in idea than both. Ifowever, the nearest is 2 Sam. VII. 14 from which it differs in being stated directly, not objectively, and plurally not singularly, and also in adding xu2 9.uyasepns "and daughters". But it may be objected that 2 Sam.. was said of Solomon, whereas Paul is not speaking .of him at all. In answer to this let it be sufficient to state that Paul applies generally what is there stated particularly, and that, for whatever reason such language was used in that instance, for the same could it be~nsed any other application: in in other words, if GOD addressed these words to Solomon on conrlition of his obedience, on fulfilment of the same conditions, could not the same language be applied? (6) 1 Pet. II. 22. Is. LIII. 9. Is. LIII. 9. ~ B T dvopiav 06%inoirju~v ;j??nd) g$ ; @ L Iq &pllapri.ava& dnolrjmv, ; l i19~-g5 2" 0482 &p697 8 i h r JV Z@ 068d 8610~ zqi m6paz' V D. .3 orirroli.
(II&~UTL adroc.

auop.~u...~paq~r~av41.1Soi o v edebih, Sd1o~ Alex MS Soioc Carnnl. Ed. .

..

6) 'a> 153 K. he had done no vlolenoe, neither nas any deceit i n his mouth.

Who did no sin, neither was gulle found in his mouth.

no for he d ~ d iniquity, neither spolce \guile wrth his mouth.

.

IJeter here renders Doc "violence" by d p u ~ s i u v "sin", transgrossion, the Scpt. giving n.voptnw 'clawlessness"; and he has inserted E-SQ& "was found" as the verb to 8oAos uguile." The substantive verb is understood in the Heb.; and every one knows that a thlng which is not in a place can never be found there.

Hatt. II. 23.

pable C.1.o.a.

TABLE c.1.0.a.
(1)
Matt. II. 23. [$nos ~ ~ p 8 f &Sdvb z ~r 8'; z6-v rnporp,~Gv] jlr1 Naroqaios xL78r;lmac. [that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets,] He shall be. called a Nazarene. Is. XI. 1.
m i h8os dx rijg @ 7 t5
&ra@$usrac.

Is. XI. 1.

?71?1l'$?$??') ..
a)

lY4. .

P~tljsazirov Compl. Ed.
and a flower shall arise oat of his root.

w?ma 651 K.

and a Branch shall grow out of his roots.

This evidently bears to be set down among the Quotations, inasmucl~ as the circumstance recorded in the previous context is spoken of as a fulfilment of what was spoken by the prophets, whence are drawn the last words of ver. 23. But Matthew does not refer it to one writer, as he speaks of r i v iuqopqrGv 'Ithe prophets", unless it be that it is met with in several of them. One would rather, however, conclude that it need not be looked for in some one writer, but may be found, as to substance, in several; as to substance, I say, since, on examining the writings of the prophets no suchform of expression is found. In consequence of this, some have hazarded the conjecture that the evangelist refers to what the prophets spoke, but did not write. But this is a mere evasion of the difficulty, and an indefensible translation besides, since rd p q 8 h "which was spoken" is found in the introductory formula to prophecies met with in the writings of the prophets (see Matt. I. 23; II. 15; 18; 1 1 3; IV. 15; 1. VIII. 17;) and that too, when heyovros "saying" is added, (see Matt. I. 23; 1 . 15; 18;) which one might .suppose to refer to what they 1 spoke and did not write. And why should an exception be made in 1 the case of ch.. 1 . 23 which occurs among such formulas? Should it not be understood to mean and be translated like the rest? Is. XI., I- is the passage generally thought to be referred to. I t 1: l:?l: "and Netser (i. e. a branch) from his roots shall says 3 9 l'??t$ beaT (L'e. fruit) or shall grow. In the Sept. aa2 Oim9.os Ex t+s PiCr~s dva@;iu&ra~ Uand a flower (in the Vulgate flos) out of his root shall arise." This word ly?,occurs elsewhere only in Is. XIV. 19; LX. 21 where qpp "thy people" are called by the name lppp ?y!Ubranch (or sprout) of my planting"; and Dan. XI. 7 ;I,V?V V3.n 'lfrom a branch of her roots", where 'ubranchn is used metaphorica~i "offspring". And of so in Is. XI. 1. And this word W1.W properly mroot", also, "shoot" or "sprout" as springing from the robt, is applied metaphorically to the Messiah in Is. XI. 10, under the name l W ! W ~ '<sproutof Jesse." Comp. V Pi& daPiS in Rev. V. 6.

Table C.I.o.a.1

Matt. II. 23.

65

Others refer to Judges XILI. 5 jp?;?-jn l@? Ufor a:?? ~,;jl& ly!3-t? a Nezir of GOD shall the child be from the womb".. In thi'sept. Nagq Szoi;. Vat. MS. NuSrpuiov z@ 9 ~ Alex. MS. Ox. MS. et Ald. et Compl. @ Edd. NaS~paiou other Greek copies and NaEmqaZov in one MS. which in name is found explained by ijy~au,utvov Alex. et 0x.MSS.)" "hallowed." (in l l i ? means "consecrated" and, as "consecrated to Godn,"a prince? Hencc in Gen. XLIX. 26 Joseph is called l'?? 1 3 3 "his brothers' prince", (in the Sept. c $y4uuto EiJeAqxih "of the brothers whom he led" i. e. whose chief & he was,) which is repeated in Dent. XXXIII. 16. In Lam. IV. 7 ;1?!3 <'her Nezirs" may have the same meaning. Now, one was called l>!j from being separated and consecrated (root 14 to separate; and then; 1 to devote oneself); with which may be compared g>Vp "anointed", and, used as a substantive, %he anointed Prince", "the Messiah", in Gr. xqsuros "Chist"; more fully '!?'Wn 9he Messiah of Jehovah" or "the Lord's anointed", in the Sept. 6 Xpcurd~ rmgiov. . But the Messiah is styled ilD: Ua sprout" or "bra,nch", in Jer. XXUI. 5; XXXIII. 15; where is promised to David 317Y Dl.': "a righteous branch", to- he called by the name U p , : n!il? (lJehovah our righteousness":' also in Zech. 1 1 8; VI. 12, where he is elliptically called 7inY %he 1. branch" i. e. offspring s c . of David. See Ges. Heb. Lex. s. v. And such passages Matthew may have had in view, and thus his use of the expression Stci to"umpoyljt6u 'by the prophets." So says'Dr. Davidson in Introd. to Old Test. p. 114, OBut because he joinedwith it '(he means Is. XL' L) in his mind other passages, where the. Messiah is styled il9: dranch, equivalent to l g shoot, he uses the plural, by
the prophets.':

The Messiah was to come in humiliation, as Isaiah prophesied oh. LIII. 3.. D9e'N 5 ~ D!?! "despised and forsaken of men"; ;ilD> : ? i ? "despised J ' k e regarded him not." And. in ~oh.;;'s ; ! @ kand! r Gospel I. 46 we h d Nathanael, when Philip told him he had found the Messiah (see vs. 41, 42; 45) in Jesus of Nazareth, saxing, ver. 47 'Ex ~ a S u & s%uarai n dyyoc9.d~eiuar; ,!Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?'It would thus seem to have been a despised place,. and so, suitable for the despised man. Says Dr. Davidson. 1. c. "Nazareth had its name y!, because it was a feeele twig, an insignificant place exposed to contempt; and in the fact that Jesus chose that despised place, there was at the same time.a fulfilment of the prophecy that he was to be ahumble sprout from the stem of Jesse." Matthew seems to point out that Jesus' upbringing at Nazareth a place so called from its lowliness and which was held in disrepute fulBs some prophecies; or, as he expresses it z d &]@c\v d s6u itpocpljS t & Uwhat was spoken by the prophets." And that was dsr N a b paiog xrllj8ijocsu~?hat he shall be called a Nazoray". Bow, as one could he called only by a name which is appropriate, the words mean "he shall be a Nazoray"; And, as the place where he was brought up

66

Matt. I . 23; Rom. 111. 10. I

[Table C.1.o.a.

had its name from 132, so might he be called by a similar name,
'Jqaoiis ~ U ~ G J Q ~ T O ~ of Nazareth1'-the man who was foretold "Jesus by the name 1 ) Matthew finds the prophecies fulfilled in his living 9.

at Nazareth, which gave its name to him. And Jesus may have selected this despised place, in order to conuect the outward lowliness of the family, from whom, according to the flesh, he sprang, with a symbolical locality, or in other words, in order to shadow forth by a place, held in disrepute, the outward lowliness of the house of David, and his own humility. Says Kuiuoel in his Comment. on this place: UScilicetNazaraeus NaSaqqvds, Nac~~paios (quae est Syriaca pronuutiatio toi? Na&xpllybs) nomiuabatur Jesus a Judaeis (Marc. X. 47; Luc. IV. 34; XVIII. 37) ... quod Nazarethi educatus fuerit. Nazaretha autem erat oppidum iguobile atque obscurum, et ornnino Galilaei atque ideo Nazareni a civibns Hierosolymitanis et Judaeis reliquis oontemuebantur, ita ut, cum homiuem stultum, vilem atque abjectum et contemtum nominare veuent, eum Nazarenum et Galilaeum dicerent, hinc etiam his ipsis nominibus, contemtus causa, Judaei Jesum insigniebant. v. Matt. XXVI. 69. 71; coll. Joh. I. 47; VII. 52. Itaque NaSweaios significat h. I . Nazarenum et hominem contemtum, atque meus et sententia scriptoris nostri haec est: habitavit Jesus Nazarethae, nomen et omen habebat, dicebatur Nazarenus et erat, contemtus erat, et vel sic eventum habu-. erunt, quae prophetae de vili, obscura, et -contemta ipsius sorte cecinerunt!' And Wolfius in his Curae in loc. had written: %ihi quidem hic omnium optime conjecisse videntur, qui vel Matthaeum antiquissimum aliquod vaticinium, turn temporis frequentatum, in animo habuisse existimant, quae B. Calovii sententia est; vel, si de sententia magis quam verbis Prophetarum eum loqui credideris, de illis Prophetarum oraculis Evangelistam cogitasse censent, qui Messiam ut 1P seu surculz~met germen repraesentaut. Hoc enim modo et verbis Matthaei optime cousulitur, et scopo, qui in hoc positus erat, ut ostenderet, cur Christus sedem suam Nazarethi, &he alioquin contemta, et cum aliis facile permutauda fixerit."

(2)
Rom. 111. 10.
7i7pama~]Z' r 06% 8mrv bixacog oibd 6%.
[xai%s

Eccl. VII. 20. gr‘ Z~8~anoch tmr o Jlxarog b z 7 i , Zg norf ,
+om ira4bv

Eccl. VII. 20.
Yl.i$z
NLln,Nl,131Q
%: . ':

?? 's

xal o~ GpupC noyaamcc

15 D35 l? 1 ,vN . -.

njoarat.
920r7ue6..
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u#uer..

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1
For there is not a just manuponearth, that doeth good, and simeth not

aux ufiupc.

[An it is written,] There is none righteous, no, not one.

That there is not a just man on the earth, who will do good, and not sin.

It is said to be "doubtful, whether this be a quotation or not':

Table C.l.o.a.1

Rom. XI. 3; 1 Cor. 1. 31.

67

as "it doe5 not occur in the Old Testament, though there are severil passages, which contain the same sentiment, as 1 Kings VIII. 46; Job IV. 18; Eccl. VII. 21", and that Probably it is not to be reckoned a quotation": Davidson's Sac. Xer. p. 396. I it be, however, I should, f of the similar passages, refer it to Eccl. VII. 20, as above, part of which is quoted, and the expression strengthened by the addition of ad82 t'k, linot even one." (3)
[Z &

Rom. XI. 3. ZL Lip'

3 Kings XIX. 14.
Tj

I Kings

XIX. 14.

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xai zi 8 v u ~ a u r i p l i uov xa8~~av,xr*i.rairsnpo~jras
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layPe&va w q v Cod Ephm.

[z what the Scripture saith *of Elias '?I.. .%Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and 1am left alone, and they seek my life. ' 9,Gr. In Elms7 (i e. m the Ehas section).

and they have thrown down t h e altars, andslain thy prophets with the sword, and I 'only am left, and they seek my life to t&e it away. 'GI. very loncly orentlrely alone

(they have) tbrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away.

In this ~uotatiou there is a transposition of the first two clauses, and 3E & papyxzip Uwiththe sword", found a t the end of the second 1 J Aaaaiu a<r?;u take it" at the conolusion is is omitted. another omission; yet "to seek the life of" any one is the same as "to strive to take it", sothat the Heb. (andthe Sept.) merely expresses the same idea with more fulness. In Rom. it begins with xvqra "0Lord", which is not expressly read in the original, yet may be easily gathered fromit, sinoeGOD is addressed therein as %he Lord,GOD of hosts." For the original of this Quotation 1 Kings XIX. 10, where the same words occur in the Heb., might have been referred to, in preference as, in the Sept. (3 Eings XIX. 10) we find xasdoxuyiau. (instead of acc9aTAav of ver. 14) which is read in the Quotation. But otherwise the Sept. is the same in both verses, and v. 14 is generally referred to.

?$n$

(4)
I Cox. I. 3i.
[ii.axa4~sySrerptrmzm] ' 0

Jer. IX. 24.

;AX

h z o 6 r g xauxio?w

rauxbpwios
X & ~ 8

6 %

xv&

xa xw

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68

Gal. IV 30.
est I ywwoxrsv

[Table C.1.o.a.

p h a t , according as it is written,] He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

f ) = 4. 107. 237K. g) ' a OTclnC~mpl. 107; 93 a p. K. h) -180K. i) = 384 K. Ed. ycv ice or'. B u t let him thatglorieth But let him that glorieth glory in this, to under- glory in this, that he unstand and know that I derstandeth and knoweth am the Lord. me, that I am the LORD.
q inAld.Compl. Edd. de-

-

In this Quotation we have Ev 1~uqip "in the Lord", which does not occur in the original, where is read instead 'to understand and know me, that I am Jehovah, who do mercy and judgment and justice in the earth." Before one can 'glory in the Lord"' he must know the Lord; and a knowledge of the Lord can be obtained by seeing what he does, by examining the effects from which to infer the nature of the cause. And hence it is evident that "glorying in the Lord" and 'glorying in a knowledge of what the Lord is" amount to the same thing, and that the latter precedes the former.
Gal.

I . 30. T

Gen. XXI. 10.
" E x @ a l s n j vz a ~ 8 l o x ~ v r a l ; rdv vibv abr+js. a6

(5)

Gen. XXI. 10.

[&a& A67a $ year$;] zl
%%@ahZ$Y na'8lvqv xai z6v ~ l b v L & ~06. y i p (uj C S x X ~ ~ O Y O ~ $ Ud ~ Z I ~ ~zi/s S nuc8lcxrjs per& zol; via6 ziic dLau48oac. m c d c o n l j v . A add rauzljv I FG al om pv 1 . T o A vopqolj eACFGKL alut vat; 1ongepl.ChrThdlZDam Oec Ln -oar cBDE a1 Thph I r v q ~ A P v B . .D'(E7) FG d e demrd IIier a1 paw I o w r . [Nevertheless what ssith the Soriptnre7lCast out the bond-woman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman.
Z ~ xai Y

.-

.

.

Y&?p$ X ~ ~ ? O V O6~6+ d ~ L iUG rlj~ ntrcJilrx7~za6qs rai vioi uov 'Iu.a&x. Cornpl. Ed. om .ravzq~ 1 s) nN S. 5 . 6 9 a1 H. K. = 225 K. t) nx 9. 69. xAqeovor~p? in edd m I om lavrqq Alex. MS. 125. 196 K.

+

+

...

.

Caat out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not inherit with my son Isaac. .

Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.

This Quotation omits suvrvv and rmrqs modifying % a r J ~ ~and xp ~ ~ L S L the~ propriety of which is apparent, since "this" refers t o a G T~, person or thing present, which one can as it were point a t with the finger. As Paul could not do so, it is omitted, whereas its occurrence in Genesis, as a word of conversation, might have been expected. For ?FRir-Dp93-DX 'kith my son, with Isaac'' Paul gives p&zd roc uioa scs &icu9.fqus 'with the son of the freewornan." Now, Hagar, who had a son Ishmael, was the bondmoman of the freemoman Sarah, whose son was Isaac; and of the former it is said that he should not inherit with the latter. Such is what is said by Paul also, who is making a contrast between the children of the bondwoman, i. e. of the flesh, and the children of the freewoman i. e. of the promise. And from this statement Genesis does not differ.

Table C.1.r.a.o.l

1 Cor. XV. 25; 1 Pet.

I I 10-12. I.

TABLE C.1.r.a.o.
(1)
1 Cor.

W . 25.

Ps. CIX. 1.

Ps. CX.

1.

i:Ws 1;v 46 zois Bx4gaGc dxSqobs h b zois n 6 u ~ oov 6non68~av zCv no8Gv a6zoG. 0011. a~pc (AB"D am F Ln -LC cBa*DEFGKL) ou eABD*FG alWr2 . . . c (GboQ) add a v eKL a1 pl Or1 I e,pFpous cB DEKI. a1 pl d e vg ... Ln ex9-0. laucoul cAFG a l w pml . ~ 6 ~ ' H i io&mcou. er - '

ZXQA 08 8f1*&uras ZO&S

~ 1 q,=?k nyf5-1~ 7

?i.r?\

till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
~.

until I make thine enemies 'thy footstool. * Gr. the stool of thy feet.

until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

This Quotation reads in the third person 8 "he put" for the 5 first nit@$ '? put", inasmuch as i n t h e Ps. GOD the Father is speaking of himself acting, whilst Paul speaks of Christ. The former ascribes the act to the Father GOD, the latter to the Son GOD, but there is no difference between them, since quad faeit per alterurn, faeit per se, i. e. GOD does it through Christ and Christ does it for 'GOD. find sods n66q afizoi, (or adtoijrather) "under his own feet" is given by Paul, since he is speaking of what Christ does, but ?$??\D l ? =a stool for thy feet" occurs in the Ps. since GOD is addressing him. Also, instead of "a stool for thy feet" P a d gives simply "under his own feet"; and T ? ? j i %hy enemies" is in the New Test. extended to mnvras r m s 8 x 8 ~ 0 ~ s the enemies", a oircnmUall stance presenting at first sight a difference, which instantly vanishes, however, when it is recollected that the enemies of man. would be Christ's enemies, when he is' engaged in working out man's salvation.
(2)
'%is &nv E v 8 ~ o n a s 6 D>?nY?p;I H>e;id)-?)?la nEv xai i8air $,udqms &ye- 4 6 A w v T m ~ ~ , a ' ~ r r n 6 v l j ~ d ~ a ~ alp, >;~ge) 8drs navo&zo zijv yA6aoav i8aiv &yaB&s; l 4 nnar6~ov i n b nanoc nai ~ s U 7 zaC zrjv ylClro&v aov a'nb xrr~ l ;LaA+mc ~ o i o v , .i 1 ~ x ~ ' - x o ~ ,.%at ~6&7/rou ZOG i 13~9 l5 ' v6zo 8 imb XU& . 4 xa2 laAflror~86Lov. '5&xl~vov ' 23D-hWel Y??? norrllr6rw & ~ a 8 6 vhnio&, a'nb raxoG%crinocfcovdye- 141pLB : nf~? rw aipjvqv nai 8~w5&.rw 86v, S;lr?oov sip$w?v xai rgiFi: nlpl'iii-5s n.l-c+v, "Bzc dpSul,uol XU8b50v a&+v. '6dp4alpo1 qlov Bni 8~xalousxai Zra xvpiav 8n2 8cxaloug, xal ": u $ " :D"~w-~E?. 7 a&oG eis 8 6 7 ~ ~ ~ rr6z6v1 &a 6;s 8 6 7 0 ~-6~ Y?") ~ V Y ? ~ ) apioonav 8 i xvgiou 6%; z6vTv' "nedsonou 8d rnr~iav R O I O ~ S Sx ~ x O ~ . 6 x 2 nnorokas rm&.
1 Pet. III. 10-12. 1°6 y&p 86Aov 5wjv ;ye-

Ps. XXXILI. 13-17.

Ps. XXXIV. 13-17.

nlN,i

7~"?$,',~jn7>rwii$~' : ~ j i w)? ? qa~ll~' nrn:

10. urarravusqueq~rpas ... a12 to1 Cassiod zuc uymirov w. ~ P C Y I YIWOC~CIY C eABC a14 . . 5 (Gboo) add avzou cGK al pler ete. X E C L ~ (C* praemza) eABC alssyrp..:~ 1Gb0oiaddavrovcGal lonee

In. 10-12. 13r8ecv .. . EGS~LY.
1 Pet.

[Table C.1.r.a.o.

.

harlsyrp (arp Z ~ E X Z ~ . ) . F C omPcC**GKal pler v,a cop syr al Thph Oec. I 5 (non sC Gb ST)om q a S w , r7j.rqdaro ex errore ut vdtr. 12. om@~XLLO~CABC*GK h a1 fercrs Thph ...c(= Gh0aSz)praem or cC** a1 pm Oec. 10. For he that willlove life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile; nLet him eschew evil, and do good; let him seek peace, and ensue it. 12For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears areopenuutotheirprayers; hut the face of the Lord is *against them that ao evil. * lJ upon. Gr

..

13What man is he that desireth life, that loveth to see goo& days? '"Refrain thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile: istorn away from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. W h e eyes of the Lord are upon the ~ i g h t eaus, and his ear8 are opm unto their prayer; '?but the face of the Lora rs against them that do evil.

13What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see good? laEeep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. l5Departfrom evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. W h e eyes of the Lord are upon the nghteous, and his ears are open unto their cry. f T h e faoe of theLordisagainst them that do evil.

There need be little doubt that this Quotation follows the Sept. which, however, begins with a general inquiry sic Borru ~ U ~ Q W "who is the man &! or <'what man is there", and then, as if the c' question "Is it YOU?' were suppressed, goes on to deliver the advice, as it were to some individual aaiiaou slju yLGaaary aou dsd xaxoii L'Ceasethou thy tongue from evil &c."; whereas Peter gives the advice as a general address nauadro z+u yAlGacrccv orirsoii dad xaxoii "let him cease his tongue from evil &c." and introduces the reason thereof by the particle 6st "smce" in ver. 12, which is not found in the Sept. or Heb. There is a great difference in the beginning. The Sept. runs zis B ~ L Ud u 8 ~ 0 a o g 6 4iAlwv [o+v, dyas&u $~BQoc$ i S ~ i u d y u 8 S s ; '(what man is there that wishes life, loving (or that loveth) to see good days?' according to which the Heb. can bear to be translated, although it more exactly means: "who is the man that desires life, loving days (or that loveth days) for the sake of seeing good" i. e. that he might prosper; or, it may be, "loping days for seeing good" i. e. when he may see good. But Peter.says B ~ U Q 8idmu Sodu dya%Gu xai i8siu 6 p t ~ a s y a 4 d s 'for he that wishes to love life, U and see good days", as it is commonly rendered, or perhaps better thus: "that wishes life to love and see good days". By making a

~ O S

parallelism of the readings and comparing them, it will be found that they all mean the same thing, and that Peter expresses the Heb. more explicitly than does the Sept. Heb. "that desireth life - loving (or that loveth) days for seeing good". Sept. "that wisheth life -loving (or thatloveth) to see good days". Peter ?hat wisheth to love life and to see good daysn. or %hat wisheth life - to love and to see good days".

Heb. XU. 20.

TABLE C.1Lr.o.

Heb. XII. 20. Exod. XIX. 12-13. Exod. XIX. 12-13. [oix ~ q x q o v i q rb &ay '2.. 6 iyt&ynvo* 206 ~j>-5?" ~ S U ~ ~ V O V ] X6v %ploy o"qov~davirq reievrjira~. 5i)?? :npr l3 air?/ ; ~ W S Ac90@.q- 13...dv rip U ~ O L E roc 1~8000-D$ ; 1 nilb)-~xa) 12 4jrrszac. I~drjoarar$ @oli& xmaV.tN-DK ;I;?;?? zo6m8$cszar' ddv 26 ~ ~ Y O S div ZE C ; y 8 e w ~ o MVWOIC. ~~i 9 (= Gh, Sz) add in f.

.. a s

nmn? 'm? 5rpp-'?

...

317 ~ii

7 p'oicS'

iroraco5eu9~oeza~

c. minut vdtrpaueeontra AC DKLM al longe pl vv omn PP m. [Forthey oouldnot endure that which was commanded,] And if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or thrust through with a dart.

IzEveryone that toucheth the mountain *shall surely die. 1 3 . . .for it shall be stoned with stonesorthrust through with a dart; whether it6e beast, orwhether it he man. it shall not live. *Gr. shall d ~ with death. e

12Whosoever toucheth the m o d shall be sorely put to death. 13.. .hut he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live.

This Quotation gives the original in an abbreviated fonn. The latter tells what was to be done to Yeve:y one that touched the mountain", 'whether man or beast3'; the former tells what was to be done "And if a beast should touch the mountain" thus to a beast only quoting a portion only from the first and last clauses given above. But, instead of taking from these clauses, either, it "shall surely be put to death" or "shall not live", thus simply stating the consequence of touchiilg, it quotes the first part of an intermediate clause in the word dc@o,f?od~8q~ezar shall be stoned", and shows the mode of #it death. The other part of this clause, though found rendered from the Received Text, is not admitted into critical Editions.

-

-

Table C.II.r.a.1

2 Cor.

VI.

17.

TABLE C.1I.r.a.
2 C O ~ . VI. il. IS. LII. 11-12. jie'&%.M.4ars&si98v xai [d~b] $56Mars dx pdvov C ~ Z G V ,x l r t &qopin9rjrs &xa$i;prou (j &,u?c~E, BETE [ A 6 p ~ ~ ~ L O Sxai dra4riq- ~ ~ J * ~ E & ,uBaov ~(6~6s. X ] mu Zrn~v.M.48. x&yd '2zpozoe&anacyap np6E B W E.O @6@s. ~C Z8QOs 6p& x 6 ~ ~ o 5 . . . . iZfnbazr IICf'G nl ll:.m ",cr n n r r n > m , eEr!hore .AIt 1. \IS ...anrr,lllr ( . 1.81,l. I I p . , rl: . &I rzlb.,~l.,ll.l : ... 1 l d r . v \IS?. . , , , ., 161.11 F.I. I ~ 1 1 . r n avzwv. ~dnrpl. Ed. &ov. XVO'OF . .. K a1 Tert om. 12 moem&a. Alex. MS.
IS. m. 11-12. SCC D e n ?IKy" h.nD

..

-7)l{n ,1~.zG

qNf).3yjn

..

>I?@) OJ?&
to) =

7sA

i)

5

,x=!l5K.

.

3 K.

I)= Y l I K .

Alex. MS.

. . . xvecop

o 8roq

Iapa7l.

[Wherefore] come out from among them, and be ye separate, [saith the Lord,l and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you.

"go ye out from thence, and touch not the unclean thing; go ye out from the midst of her; 12for the Lord shall go first before you.

1lgo ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing; go ye out of the midst of her; '2for the Lord will go before you.

This Quotation malres a transposition of the clauses, putting + E i 1 8 ~ z abx &ov uirr+g first; adding z a i &rpopiut?qrs 'land be ye separate"; and placing the preceding clause xa2 &xa8dqsov p4 & ~ q u after these. I t changes the aCrFjg "of her" into a3zGu 'of 8 ~ them"; and gives all the verbs in the imperative, annexing xotyd ~ i q S i E o f i a6fiZg uand I will receive yon." Some may not regard xai ~ drpopiu4lir~ as an addition, sinoe the Sept. gives d p e i u 8 r / s a oi q i p o v z ~ gZ& m s d q xupiov "be ye separate that bear the vessels of the LORD", as the rendering of >; , 7>3 WfBl ly?;?. Now, the verb ! 1 1 1 means to separate, sever, Ez. X X . 38; hence to seprrrrrte or remove '2 ippurity, i. q. to purify, cleanse is. XLIX. 2 ; and in Niph. to purify ye c' oneself, and hence be clean, as here: '&be clean &! But the idea of separation lies at the bottom of that of purification. On the passage Dr. Davidson remarks (in Sac. Herm. p. 420) UThewords of the prophet are addressed particularly to the Levites, who went before the people in their return from the captivity a t Babylon; charging them to keep themselves separate from all uncleanness and impurity. The apostle generalizes the admonition, and applies it to Christians, warning them against communion with idolaters. I t was necessary, therefore, to depart from the words of the Old Testament, although he subjoins his favourite expression r l d p c zhpios!' The last clause appears to be additional and is neoessar]i, as being a promise consequent on the fuli?lmenh of the previous conditions, and introductory to the next quotation in verse 18.

TABLE C.II.2.0.
(1)
Matt. IV. 6. Ps.XCI. 1 , 12. 1 Ps. XC. 1 , 12. 1 [ykypanra' r d q ] s * rots ~ *ois d r r d I o ~ sadr~G q ? $ j - l , i lE~);!Y l? &r7dlo~s adz06 6m~AeAa~d m 6 k i ~ ( 1 ~ me1 vo6 .roc 07~3-5~.!':~1?77~)-$~ msp2 UOC xal id X E L P ~ V ).cacpL&<ac SE b =&SELLS 1-9 a;pa~clvu e pj xo.re mpoco, rais ;sois sou. l Z i s l XzLX + ~ S mpbsli&~v zbv n68e p6v L ; e ~ ? i ~ ~ p Z ~ Z B UC, j :7sgq) sqorn6yp n p b g li$or .rbv P) 30: $2. 1%. K. ~706. q) i+in multi K. n6da cow. [for it is written,] He For he shall give his For he shall give his shall give his angels charge angels charge concerning angels -charge over thee, concerning thee : and in thee, to keepthee in all thy to keep thee in all thy fheirhands they shall bear ways. In their hands they ways. IlThey shall bear thee up, lest at any time shall hear thee up, lest at theeup in their hands, lest thou dashihy foot against any time thou dash thy thou dash thy foot against a stone. foot against a stone. a stone. The rendering of 1 by pj nors lest ever, need not be reckoned 9

''&

+$

-leT ? $&,

a difference. Here, thin, there is only left but the last clause of ver. 11,' which makes known the charge given'to the angels, and when they were to attend to it, the next part being joined to the preceding by xak, not found in Heb. NOW,these words were addressed by Satan to Christ, during the temptation-days, when, having "set him on a pinnacle of the temple", he requested him to throw himself down, in order thereby to prove himself to be the Son' of GOD. Christ refused to comply and justified himself by quoting another passage of Scripture, with which the Tempter appeared satisfied. Wow, it may appear strange that one passage of Scripture should forbid the doing of a thimg, in the doing of which there is protection promised by another. Christ holds forth the prohibition and. Satan pronounces the promise, but, in doing so, he, still as cunning as he ever was, mutilates it for his ow~~purpose: just as he taught our first parents to believe th@t GOD could not surely be so unjust as cause their death, seeing that the eating of, the forbidden fruit would only render them more like Himself. It is seen, from the way in which he has quoted the passage, that anything could be done by Him, to watch over whom the Lord had given his angels charge: whereas the true m e a ~ n g the passage can be of gathered, only by retaining the omitted words: 5 n all thy ways". For, what would be the ways of an individual, of whom, whilst walking in them, the Lord would charge his angels to take care? Surely, none other. than GOD'S ways. And the promise amounts to this: that GOD aids those of his people who are placed by Him in trial and

Table C.II.2.01

Rom VII. 7.

75

danger; whereas Satan's interpretation would mean it to extend to those who wantonly provoke Him and trifle with the promised aid. It would not have served Satan's end, to have quoted the whole; nor wouldMatthew, in that case, have recorded faithfully, had he written more than was really cited. It is not Matt. that quotes, he only records that Satan does so.
(2)
Rom. Vn. 7. Exod. XX. 17. Exod. XX. 17.

[ 6 ~ 6 p 0 sB
dnL8ztk~8~5.

Z ~ V ]

06%

O&

~ ' 8 1 1 ~ T+Y 8 ~ ~ I Y ~ Z 5

7 ~ 1 innn

a k a x. z. 1 .

[the lav had said] Thou shalt not covet.

Dent. V. 21. Dent. V. 21. 06%$upjL7~ls Z+Y rw 7y1 n ~ ' 6 inhn rtil uixa x. z. k. Thou shalt not covet thy Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house [or wife] neighbour's wife etc. etc.

The beginning only of the tenth commandment is given here, all therest being implied. "The apostle knew that it would be understood without repeating the whole. This particular command he selected, because it was more hertinent to his purpose than the others. The others referred particularly to external actions. But his object was to show the effect of sin on the mind and conscience. He therefore chose one which referred particularly to the desires of the heart." It may be that the apostle omits the enumeration of the things not to be coveted, &s he wished the commandment to be stated in its greatest generality. It may be noted that the Sept. differs from the Heb. in Exod. in giving the particulars in a different order a t first; the latter reading: "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, etc."; whilst the former has the order: "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house etc." But in Deut. they both have the same order: "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife; neither shalt thou desire thy neighhour's house etc.", from which it may be seen how the order of the Sept. in Exod. arose. The Sept. has also an additional clause or two, which, however, does not concern us.

76

Matt. XXII. 24.

[Table C.II.l.o.2.0.3.a.

(1)
Matt. XXII. 24. Deut. XXV. 5. Deut. XXV. 5. [ M A c f s elzav] 2civ ztg 6kv 82 x a z a ~ n i i c hSz>,(~ol nm nnl om? 'i2@-'$ ~v hzo8L;r,n (i #,wr rCxva, 6nl r & air&, %rat <rro8&vli l ri")-pfi gt r;ln i g ~ 6 z ~ y n p f l p ~66 ~ ~ ~SS?.(P&E $ a&&, efs makqpa 86 p i no? ;I?.?C- &5") air-co: njv y w a i x a a h o j 5 oirrc, 06% #mat yw+ xai hvaorjlrs~uzdppa z+ zoi -r~+xdros 5 0 ~ 8 ~ 1nni?lip) W?& <Se/.q@ a6zoi. . ujyritovrc. 6 &Ssl(~bs roii 75--in;5'i7 : G $ P ~ ) i+2: iv8qbg a&?< aigel.&umac :?t???l: i @ ) l + nebs ~ G Yi j v m a c xal a6rjv s'avr@ rwarixa ral

+

- ngc;

;i?naO)

UIYDCX$DEL

~~61%
Alex.

LMSUVd rell ut vdlr omn Or.. .Ln wa rnzepwpq eDZ (vg it) ...alz xar .my. j D 33 om z yuu. auz. I FG m all0
fcre rFavaorqosc

~ n c ~ a & B q e ? r n rcBEFGHK u

zoa

MS.

m) 170 K n) 168 a p K . 0 ) = 1 2 8 K . p)=80K. 13 g) n.5~S. r) ~wxi K.

-

[Moses said,] If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.

And if brethren should dwell togother, and one of them should die, and should not have seed, the wife of the dead shall not marry without, to a man not related; her husband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to himself for wife, and dwell with her.

Ifbrethrendwelltogether, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of tire dead shall not marry Wthout unto a stranger; her Xhusband's brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother to her. * or next kmsman.

This passage presents a Quotation not agreeing with either the Heb. or LXX. which correspond. But in considering it, it should be remembered that it is given as a report by the Sadducees of wliat Moses said. In Matt. it is: 'If any one die, not having children, his brother shaU marry his wife", - which presupposes that, in that family there are more sons than one, that one of them is married - and that he dies before he has had children. Now this is what is more fully stated in Deut. XXV. 5. "If brothers dwell together, and one of them die, and offspring be not to him, the wife of the dead &c." The injunction, in such a case, is stated by Matt. thus: "his brother shall marry his wife and raise up offspring to his brother", from which it is inferrible not merely that-&be husband's brother could marry her, but that it could not be done by any other, and that the purpose was, that there might thus be children bearing the name of the deadbrother, the same ideas as are expressed in the original thus: Yhe wife of the dead shall not be forth abroad for a man, a stranger

-

-

Table C.II.l.o.2.0.3.a.]

Mark XII. 19.

77

(i. e, shall not be marriageable by a non-relative), her husband's brother shall enter in to her and take her to him for wife (or marry her) and husband-brother her (i. e. act the part of a husband's brother to her or cohabit with her). From this comparison of the Quotation with the original, it is found that the former summarily contains the latter, and keeps prominently in view the husband throughout, since it was for his good, so to speak, that the command was given; whereas Deut. in presenting the regulation, passes from the husband to the wife, as it concerned her not getting married to a stranger. The seuse, then, is given, but not the letter.
(2)
Mark XII. 19.
[Moumjc ciygayrcv epiv &L] ~ L ; YZLYOS L;dzLqb~ &?TO8kvg r a i v a z a l i n g yuvo%ar , xai p j iq,? rtxvov, &rr L&Pg b L;JeAqbs uirroi, .rjv yevaixu,xal46avaorrivg nndq-

Deut. XXY. 5.

Deut. XXV. 5.

Qdlv 68 xaro~~Ga'v idel- n)y a@i-'> 7026 z l zb aZr6, m &noa 2 -) , D;l+ 7iII\Y i .. :1 8 & ~ ,E& df abrGv, vntqp(lu 7 ;I?,;lc-g ") ,. . 62 p;i d ar6c6, oojr Svrru $ n)??:lip) 3I$r- I;?') q)h< I . ruvi roi, ze8vF6roE SEm pa r$L;Jelrp@ aho6. &vJ@ pi irri(on'' 6 &ad- j5' 73?>> $ 2 s~ Y ) ~ ~ qbs m ;&vJqbs a6rcs etasi :? p ? l : 2t+j)$ Asiwrac , n p b r a h j v , xal A+pezar arb+ s'auzc yurrxixa xorl U U Y O L X + ~ E G ad+. m) = 170 K. n) NSI 168 a xnrdcnllcB(esil)GKL(S?) z ~ & ? x . . , Alex. MS.~ZBI~UVdal pl ...AFMX al -Aicnq, A o ~ ~ ~ x o . ~ o q . p.X. o)=128K. p) = 80K. E H r a1 paue -Arcma, C all q) n h S. r) m w ~ 1 3 K. ~ i - t y , e r . . D all it 8x7 1 pq w 4 rexvau eB [-nuov dls apBch, -xvaao Btl)LAalsitcm(-rra) C all cop (raxvou et. 1 ) ...1 ; Ln z a x m pq ocplj cADEFGH K M S W X r a1 plcr I yvva&xa cBCLd a1 cop. c Ln add auzos e. ut sup. (GbO) I AC al m eEauaocqorc. LMoses wrote unto us,] If And if brethren should If brethren dwell togea man's brother die, and dwell together, and one ther, and one of tliem die, leave h z ~ wife behznd Arm, of them should die, and and h.i~e no chili, the e nnd leaveno children, that should not h a ~ seed, tho w ~ f oot the dead ahail not his brother should take wife of the dead shall not many without unto a his wdc. and raise up seed msrrr without, to a man strangor; her *husband's not related; her husband's brother shall go in nuto unto h ~ s brother. brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him her, and take her to him- to wrfe, and perform the self for wife, and dwell duty of a busbanfs brother with her. t o her. * or next Klnsman.

nm

n~;~i-nq~

-Ti-

. ,

..

This Quotation of Deut. XXV. 5 does nut a g e e verbally with Matt. XXII. 24, yet it differs like it from the original. Mark, at the outset, holds up the husband's brother, as if the injulrction primarily concerned him: doiv zrvog oic7dyds dno3dvy '5f the brother of a certain

78

Luke XX. 28.

[Table C.II.t.o.2.0.3.a.

one should die" ; but at the end he coincides with Matthew's point of view, which keeps the husband prominent. There is in this passage a curious phraseology. Mark says: daiv ZLVOS CicTcLpds d 7 ~ 0 4 d v r. . fvu d. ci8skpd.s uljroii z+v y w v i x a Uif the brother of a certain one should die, . . . that his brother should take his wife" - where the azSsoii refers to cicTsLyds in the former clause, and the 6 Ci8eLgpdg in the latter stands for zrvos. Yet, from the ambiguity in the expression, adzoi; might be referred to rrvos, and the d CiSsLpds to a third party, who is brother to both. Also, Mark gives the first part a t greater length than Matt., inserting xolt xurcrrlin?/ p m i x a Yand should leave a wife", which is found implied in the following clauses of the original, which he omits: nD;Ii-nWN i/ yvu~jzoi; re9vqx6ros =the wife of the dead" 0ccurring there; and like Matt. he ends with: xu2 E~uuam+ug o a l ~ p ar@ cidtLgprp uzizoii uand raise up seed unto his brother", which is additional to the original, but implied in the iujunction. More remarks will be found above on Matt. XXII. 24.

.

(3)
[ ~ ~

Luke XX. 28. " m l ~ 8rpuvw +piv]

Deut. XXV. 5.
d&ixv W xbzarxiiucw oi88Lq a i en1 zb air&, xai BnoBiv.7 s& TE a h i i v , ondppa E 8 6 a 2 r 6 , a& &zac yw* ro6 zr8v7x6zos 8g0 6 ~ 8 p~i 1 y y l t o n ~ 6 6 8 d d . q b roi Qr8pbs airr+jq E ~ C ~ ~ . E S U ~ Z U 'np15 aZ;zi/v xu1 ijymme a&+v bazlzG yuvaixa xal a v v o ~ u < a r a4.rlj. r o v ~ 8 t h .. t a u zezelm. cvuozo$ Alex. MS.

Deut. XW. 5 .

8 i v zrvos i88Aqbs 6 n e 4 L q EXWY y v v a b a , xal o8rog u'r~xvos n a 8 i v n , Zvu .4&& & 6 BSeApbs airo6zjv y w u i x a re1 d & r a m ~ u r / rndepa ~ o &8eLq$ u h o G .

nnv

n i p ?2?, 7 3
'

;

5

+

155-]%$, ]r
~!7

73 n?n in8 ng;?-nt@ i1>1nti?)

n???yLp) ltir~S3 )nillo) :
? ~ g ? l Gl?Pq) R=> :7 p l ?q&?j

una&vqsec cAEGHKMS FJI'dAalpler e l l go al..Ln eBLP (D vv d a L s . an arrexu. EZW y ~ all0 7" m I ) rEavasrqoq cBDGKLMSUVA a1 pl . . AEH a1 m oErrvoozqos'.

m) = liOK. n) N ~168 a I p.K. o ) = 1 2 8 K . p ) = 8 0 K . q) n95~ r) mwn5 13 K. S.

.

[Noses wrote unto usJ

If any man's brother die,
having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.

And if brethren should dwell together, and one of them should die, and should not have seed, the wife of the dead shall not marry without, to a man not related; h e r husband's brother shall go in anto her, and take her to himaelf for wife, and dwell with her.

If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without, unto a stranger; her *husband's brother shall go i n unto her, and take her to him t o wife, and perform the duty of ahushand's brother to her.

'or

next kinsman.

Natt., Mark and Luke agree in omitting the f i s t clause =if brethren

Table C.II.1 o.2.0.3.a.I

Luke XX. 28.

99

dwell together". In the next clause Mark and Luke say: foiv srvus oiS~rlydsd a o 9 . d ~ILifany one's brother die", while Matt. says gener~ ally Edu rrs ainoS.c2v?j "if any one die", leaving out the fact of brotherhood, as he leaves out the fact of marriage (though it may be implied in p) 8xjlou r6xua "not having children"), which Mark states m xu2 x u r d i q yvuaixa "and leave a wife", and Luke in &mu yuuuixa "having a wife", the childlessness being expressed by the former in xu2 pr) &?p? sixvou "and not leave a child", and by the latter in xu1 o6ros iEr~xuosoi~o9.civg "and he die childless". They all three omit the next clause which refers to the wife, and proceed to tell what the husband's brother had to do, Mark and Luke expressing it in the same words, &a AdP?j ci OiSelZyds &so3 z$v p v a i x a %hat his brother should take the wife"; all ending with the additional clause xai B~uvaur$u~ 'uaiepa r@ CiSciy@ ~ ~ 6 5 0 3 raise up seed to his hro"and ther", (Matt. using the form &uaur$uer %hall raise up", to fit into the context) as the ground of the injunction. Comp. above in Matt. and Mark for more remarks.

80

Acts 11. 17-21.

.

[Table C.III.a.2.a.

TABLE C.III.a.2.a.
Acts 11. 17-21.
(1) Joel. 11. 28-32.

Joel 111. 1 4 .

['6raCzd dm'v.zir8Lp?)/d~o" z neoq$rou] "2vza' . 6 Znxai hat pezi zaGza 6v rais d s x i r a ~ sjC$parrs, xal d q 8 6 o'nb r o t nvs6pccAdre' d 866s. &xe6 ~ i n ZOG zos (LOU dnl m i r e v u,ipx.. b nvs6pmds pow 6n2 nZrmv xari npoqrjr~6uouu~u viol oi u&pxa, xarl npo~z7jrs6uouuc~ &,u~Y X U ~ ai 8 " y a z t p e ~ o vial 6p6v .el ai Suyu: .;(lGu, nal a i npeu@&rpoc ldpes 6pGv, %nai oi vaavi- 6pGv &6nvm dvvnv'cu8~lmo~ 6pWy d p & u ~i ~ sq n a 6 , uovrah xai o i Y S ~ Y ~ ( T * O L ~ xnl oi ~ ~ E U & Z E ~ O C p 6 v 6pGv 6 ~ & ~ 8& ~s ? 9 ~~ i 6 -6~ O 2 Z a C ~ ~ Y U ? N ~ O v ~ n ~ ~ 1 1 u 3 7 j u o ~ - zahs 6oGLoug pov xai dLS 6nl Z ~ L . sxu2 ys in2 z o 4 806dni r i g J06Aug dv zeis "jp6lous pow xrri E2 z&s 6 0 - pars d x ~ i u a d q e 6 &nd2 6 n '6 ~s .Lag pow & zais $C$pa~s mvc6par6$pov. 30xal8duw h ~ l v a ' s dsx6G a'nb roc zdqnra 6" o6puv@, xxoi in1 lrve+ards pov, xai npo- zijs r j s aLpa xai nup nal w r d u o v u ~ v . 'Qxal 66uw cizpld'a xnnroii 3'6 ; i l ~ o s .rdpara 6v z@ oGQav@ &"vw w a m a q r j u n a ~ eis V Y ~ T O S nai u~piudnlri f s r+js x&rw, r a i $ ueL$vrj ELS afpa, mpb z u&a xal n6p xul izp'Pa dkaeb j v $ / ~ Q C V xvpiov xanvo5. 2006 6Los p z n r j v py&Lvv ra2 i n ~ q a i . 1rrpa9juezar d s mdros, xa2 32xal ma^ ni'g $5 Zv dmi usljrq 8;s a&, npb i naLdurpar r b L o p a xvpialr Q ~ E +@@Y ~ Y nupiou Z+Y u"Qj08za~. p q & l v v xal Bmq~llrj. ' ~ a l Kmu nis 8s d&wdmltcxarl$qzur rb 5 m p a xupiov ua,8+-

a'&

'

UGTCLC.

17. eozar eD cop sah syr Ir Hi1 AugRebapt ap C g p ...q Ln xas rs. / ev c e. qp. . . . . B sahpacaravza, C a l l arm Cyr hrs Const Thph2 prz. r a m . rr r. s qp I UPO OF eA . BCI a1 pl cop sah syr ete. Thphz DE all vg Thphi (vdtr) Ir Hi1 al rvproc . 47. mg. Chr rup. o 8 . 1 D* gr naoaq 0apw.r I "pow pr

...

.

28. Alex. MS. Compl. Ed. et mu a1 om xac antc rxxeweevunv~o rwnvmaq. Alex. L S . ... 29. rar e n r r o u ~ . . Alex. . MS. Camol. Ed. et m u a1 read xac re a . z o v ~ rcov n I deestin Compl.Ed.1 Javiaq ... Alcx.MS. et Ald. Ed. Soula? pow Iad f. many copies add.

e) 131 178 K d) iims 30 K. jpv 1 i K . el 1-126.160K. f) b 93 K. g) 72 K t in al. 'yn.

+

-

.

(om 16* et sec (om C). 0') D Hi1 Bier Rebapt ap Cyp a u r w u ; iidem (sed taeetHi1) om up. tert, item (et C'?E; sed taeent Hi1 Hier) quart I awnvzo~q SZ) cABCD'* (Gb h a1 fere30.. .F rvvnv~oc a1 cE prn cte. (om D'gr). 18. ye...D*dryw ID Rebapt ap Cyp Hier om a .r.qp.ix., item xac n~o(pqr.

..

d'wrwac Ed. Ald. d'waouor rv 0°K.. . Alex. MS. Compj. Ed. el mu a1 ev zq ovp. Some as Barb. MS. add a v w / xar en' z q y q s . .Many copies ~ as Barb. MS. read x u avpaa

xar %popqzsvoovo'. 30. 8wuw . Ed. Ram.

.. .

e' zvs yqq zarw n

31. npcv. . ad ij.

I

Table C.lII.a.2.a J
19. A a12 sah syr are om avo, (ltem xmau syr ar3 I D om a c ~ a usque ~anuov. 20. D* ,maarqepnac cB a1 ferc omn Chr a1 .. 11 am (Gbo) eACDE 13. I "),L.eav cBD .. F r q v 7. cA , ' CE a1 ut vdtr omn Chr a1 1

Acts 1 . 17-21. 1

<

.1"

.

21. oq Eav cBE a1 F Lu av eACn ai plcr Chr a1 I

. ..

D* .rev nue. [lathis is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;] 1TAnd it shall come ZaAnd it shall come to to pass in the l i s t days, pass after these things, saith GOD, I will pour *that Iwill pour out of my out of my spirit upon all spirit upon all flesh: and flesh; and your sons and gour sons and gour daughyour daughters shall pro- ters shall prophesy, and phesy, and your young your old men shall dream men shall see visions, and dreams, and your young your old men shall dream men shall see visions: dreams: IsAnd on my ser- 2gAnd on my servants and vants and on my hand- on my handmaidens in maidens ,I will pour out those days will I pour out in thoie days of my Spirit; 'of nly spirit. 3oAnd I will and they shall prophesy: shew wonders in heaven, IsAnd I will. shew wonders and upon the earth; blood, in heaven above, and signs and fire, and vapour of in the earth beneath; smoke: 3lThe sun shall hlood, and fire, and vapour be turned into darkness, of smoke: ZoThe sun shag and the moon into blood, be turned into darkness, before that greatandtnotand the moon into hlood, able day of the Lord come. before that great and not- 32And it shall come to able day of theLord come; pass, that whosoever shall 21And it shall come to call on the name of the pass, that whosoever shall Lord shall be saved. * Gr. and. t o r , glorioi~s. call on the name of the Lord shall he saved.

1And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spilit upon all flesh; and your sons and gour daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: ?8nd also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit. 3And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. 'The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood,heforc the great znd the terrible.day of the LORD come. EAnd it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered.

It may be said that this is a long Quotation from the LXX, to which, excepting a few deviations and these unimportant, it shows a wonderful* similarity. The LXX, again, is a pretty exact translation of the Hebrew, so that where the writer departs from the one, he usually does so from the other also. Let us now note these points of divergence. jJ-'lEN, in the LXX PET$ zaiiza "after these things", or "thereafter", is rendered by fu ra2s 2qdrars +p+ars "in the last days", which may he accounted the apostolic interpretation of the expression, and as explaining -the time il~lnv? ;ij;il, in thc to which the original points. Comp. Is. II. 2. @')?:;! LXX 8 s ~n a c bu ruig E G ~ ~ S U L S q,uC~)arsi(ai~d shall be in the enil f it of the dais", i. e. in thc last ditjs. h@tf 6 d . ~ 6 5"snit11 GOD" is next

82

Acts 11.

17-21,

iTable C.LU.a.2.a.

.

.

inserted, though not occurring in the ori~cnalhere, but at ch. L[. 12 is found ;; OF3 ;iQp01) "and also now saith Jehovah", in the LXX il !j z d w u L ~ ~ EE U ~ L Uii &GS v&CSw, from which it may have been 5 C c ~ borrbGed. It is a prophetic phrase found so often in Ezekiel, constantly in Jeremiah, and in Isaiah less freqnently. Acts ~OIIOWS 13eb. in having for TIOW# E~xEI;)YI willponr out", the where the LXX prefixes xu2 "and", whicb,'however, is omitted in Alex. MS. Compl., Ed. and many others; but it renders rpn-ry limy spirit" with the LXX &%d so5 wvsi;uurbs pou "of my spirit." The two last clause: of ver. 17 are transposed in the Acts, which is not found in any copy of the LXX., the Heb. order being here always followed. The original begins ver. 2 with D ! "and even", marking intensity ? and the extent of GOD'S goodness in the gift of His Spirit reaching unto men-and maid-servants, which idea is fully brought out in the xar yc of Acts, but in the LXX it is merely an additive one xal. The original says illii?L;i-$Jl. DI~?v:;;I-~P men-servants and "upon maidens", which is restricted in the LXX Bnl Jo6dous pou xa2 Eal r & g 8odAas "upon my men-servants and upon the maidens"; and in the Acts by having pou after 8ouLw also, "my maiderrs." zai npo(pqr9hsouoru 'and they shall prophesy" is read, at the end of ver. 18, as the effect of the outpouring of the Spirit in -this last case, although no corresponding expression occurs in the original; yet it is evidently to be gathered from the mention ofthe sameeffect as following the out-pouring on all flesh, in the case of-"the sons and daughters" in ver. 17. he' heaven" and "the earth" are contrasted in the New Test. by dvw 'above" being added to the former, and xazo Ybelow" to the latter. Also GOD is represented as saying Sdcw zQatu 8v z@ 06eav@ dvm xa2 ~ q p e i adL zfs yvs xdsw "I will give wonders in the s heaven above and signs on the earth below", whilst in the original ong'in "wonders" are to be exhibited in both. The next last verse. tells of the wonders to be displayed in the heaven, since it'speaks of "the sun" and "the moon", and it may be concluded llial lhe elid of the receding verse refers to the^ signs on the earth, unless these also are to be regarded as "wonders in the heaven", and tlfen, "signs on the earth" will be merely an explanatory phrase, meaning that "the wonders" visible "in tbeXeavens above" will be regarded by those 'upon the earth below" as "signs" of the times. . The expression at the end of ver. 3 jWZ nnnn, which is fomd elsewhere only in Cant. 111. 6 iqv n l ' ? written defectively 'PC in lni, many -MSS., is rendered &zpi& xamuo5 in both the LXX and Acts. The Heb. word is taken to mean 'cpillars", as coming from the root which prob. signified lo be or stunll erect. W i t h this compare the Talmudic usc of l)?Q to rise in a colum~,as smoke. The ex-

pession is poet. for the common one jW2 ?\DL!Judg. XX. 40. In the LXX of Cant. 111. 6. it is rendered G S E A ~ , ~%mvoii Utrunk~ stems) ~J (or of smoke", and of Joel, as above, &rpi& xu%voii "vapour of smoke"; and correspondingly in the Vulgate by virgulae and uaporem. x u n v d ~ and ckzpds differ in this, that the former means "smoke of burning mood", and the latter, uvaponr of boiling water'', from which comes d ~ p i c properly "steam"; so that drpiSu iccr%voii would contain a reference to both, and departs from the original only in not giving the form as that of columns or pillars, straight like the palm-tree and expanded at top.

84

.

Acts XIII. 22.

[Table C.1IIo.a.

TABLE C.1II.o.a. (1)
Acts &I. 22. Ps. LXXXVIII. 21. [; 1 e l i r e v p ~ ~ ~ q + c ~ ;~J 8 Amvia =dv J.oCa6~ . ~ ~ . E 8 p v AaviS zdv .ro6 'Ieu- pllu, rai, iv8qa xaz& zjjv ~ a g 1 Kings X T ~ . 14. CJL~VPov, 6~~ o L $ ' J & ~ S&UE~ X ~ ~ L O S Bavr& Zvzdr $eL$prn& pov. J-pwirov rar& zLjv xnqJiarv crira6. E ~ " q o v D 34 .rou vcov I xup.tau ....Compl.Ed.aBro I ~ o o a cI E om a u 8 p (om B) %UP. ( a ~ S ~ w z o u . a v 8 p .. Arm. 1 , Arm. ed., Georg. z. z. x. KOV OS. [to whom also he gave 2 1 1 havefouildDavidmv testimonv. and said.1 1 have found David the'son servant. l T h e Lord will seek for of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, whioh shall Himself a man after His own heart. fulfil all my will. Ps. LXXXIX. 21. 7 7 3 7!7 lnq? ~
1 Sam. XIII. 14. 1253vr~lig)! i p ; ;? i v

''

g)-30K.~S187; 71 ap.K.

620) I have found David my servant **TheLORUhath sought him a man after his own heart.

This verse 'presents a singular componnd of several places in the Old Testament." It begins with an extract from Ps. LXXXIX. 21 (Sept. LXXXVIII. 21.) "I have found David"; hut, instead of con tinuing with 1 7 3 tou 8oudou ,uou "my servant", and showing his relation to GOD, it turns to point out his human relationship zou sou IEUUUC son of Jesse." See 1 Sam. XVI. 11-13. Recourse is then "the had to 1 Sam. XIII. 14. where it is said 'the Lord hath sought him 132% WIN av8pwnov xaza zqu xap8~auausou Uaman after his heart"; and, as the Lord did not seek without finding, it would, by representing Him as the speaker, be =I,the Lord, have found me a man after my heart", the last part of which is copied in the Acts, as descriptive of David, to whom it was first applied. From verses 13-14, we learn that Saul had not kept the commandments, which the Lord had enjoined on him-thit, since he had done so, his authority over Israel should not continue, hut that, if he had done otherwise, it would have been estahlkhed for ever. Now let us reverse this process. Instead of Saul, the Lord made choice of David, to whom he addresses these words (11. Sam. VII. 16) "thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever"; from which it is inferrihle that he kept the colnmandments of the Lord. If the Lord were represented prospectively speaking of David, with regard to this, He might say '(who shall keep my commandments", which is the same as what is said in Acts ds ~ O L ~ C B & ~ Z Od 8~IZlj,uut& E L t C ,uou "who shall do all my wills or desires", these being expressed in his commandments. See especially 1 Kings 1 1 14. This h a 1 clause is 1. seen to be additional, yet derivable from the remaining worcls of the verse.

Table C.III.o.a.1

Rom. XI. 8.

85
Dent. XXM. 3.

(2)
Rom. XI. 8. Deut. XXLX. 4. [xa8;s k / q a n z a c ] " ~ J ~ - xal O& BSWIS *ipcos 6 y 6piv nsv a4iais 6 8 s b s nvzCprx 8 . ~ 6 ~ xtxp8iav e i i d v a ~ nazaAEsws, dq8F;lpoii;zoC x a i dq4akfiairs Oabne~u xai Pi @Ldnw~~ &a zo6 p i drcr & X O ~&~SL YC Ijpdpas lrai Z~ ~ Y O ~ E L V SW Z ~ S ,n s mjp~qow z a 6 v s . $@pas m u @ A r m Alex. MS. ... ~ ~ raru .ra oza Alex. MS. Is. XXIX. 10. iica ?candzmev 6pZs xirp~os nvzdpan aazavirkws xal r a p p 6 c a ~zoir; i r ~ 8 d p o i r s a4citv. [(According as it is writ&Yetthe Lord GOD hath ten,] GOD hathgiventhem not given you a heart to the spirit of *slumber, know, andeyes to see, and eyes that they should not ears to hear, unto this day. loFortheLordhathrnade see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto you dfink the spirit of this day. deep sleep, and he shall * V or, remorse. close their eyes.

$ )

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z)- 30 K. o'' ??p &Yetthe Lord hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to sae, and ears to hear, unto this day. 1Qor the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes.

On this Quotation Dr. Davidson remarks: (in Sac. Herm. p. 408) "This citation seems t o have been taken from two parallel passages viz. Is. XXIX. 10 and Deut. SXIX. 4 (3). Some words are taken from the one, and soDe from the other, though, properly speaking, thelatter of the two shodd be quoted. In consequence of this confusion, the ancients were accustomed to affirm, that thepassage is not a citation from the Old Testament. So Origen and many others." In both the originals to which it is referred, it is written as. addressed .to the Israelites ; but Paul, as he did not deliver it to tliem, wrote it as spoken of them, and hence the change from the second to the third person-from "you" to =them." The first clause seems to he compounded from the two. Deut. reads: "the Lord GOD gave not to you a heart to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear"; -and Isaiah: "The Lord hath poured upon you the spirit . o f deep sleep, and shut up your eyes." llThe spirit of .m deep sleep (orinsen~ibilit~)" ~ z C p a xatav6&mg is taken from Isaiah; but instead of being preceded by "the Lord hath poured upon you", (in the Sept. wez6rtxzv 6 p Z s x L e ~ o g )recourse seems to have been had to Deut., which is read affirmatively: #Jmi~mxz xfqros 6 8 c b s dpiv, .or as P~III has it tdmxzv a l j t o i g 6 9 . ~ 6 ~ "GOD gave them." The remainder in Rom. is bqn$uLpo& roC p i /?L&EIY, xu1 $ta FOG p+ ckxxolisru '<(GOD gave them) eyes for not seeing, (i. e. but not for seeing, or wherewith they could not see,) and ears for not hearing, (i. e. but not for hearing, or wherewith they could not hear)." A person, who, when awake, has the organs of seeing and hearing perfect, has these same organs as ~ e r f e c tdnring sleep. In the former state, his

86

Rom XI. 8 .

[Table C.Il1.o.a.

mind, acting through them, receives impressions from external objects, but in the latter, no impressions are generally conveyed through them, so that, in that state, it would be nearly the same thing, were these organs awanting. Ps. XCIV. 9 reads: UHethat planted the ear, shall he not hear? He that formed the eye, shall he not see?" where GOD is said to have given eyes and ears to men." - Now, let us recur to Deut., and learn what is there said. 'GOD gave not to you.. eyes to see and ears to hear", which, that it may not contradict the Psalm, can only mean, "GOD gave you eyes, but not eyes for seeing, and . ears, hut not ears for hearing", a statement precisely the same as Paul gives. Just as we saw the sleeping man's eyes and ears to be useless, so the Israelites might put themselves into a condition, where their spiritual eyes and ears, which GOD had given them, would ire useless, and mhen it could be said that GOD had given them eyes not fitted for seeing, and ears not fitted for hearing. See Is. VI. 9 ~ 1 0 and the passages where it is quoted. ,

,

TABLE D
contains the &notations in the New Testament, which differ from the Original Hebrew Text, but agree with the Septuagint Version, which of course also varies from the original. Such a Table is lound divisible into two parts D.s, containing those passages, wherein the same arrangement of words is followed in the New Testament and the Septuagint; and D.d, those wherein the words occur in a slightly difercnt order. The Difference from the Heb. may be I. in Words; or 11. in Clauses; or 1 1 in Both. Hence Table D would be divided into three parts cor1. respondingly. Table D l ; Table D.11; & Table D.III. And, as the Difference in Words may have, reference to the rendering(r); to the omission(o); and to the addition thereof (a), Table D.I. would he subdivided into corresponding parts: TableD.1.r; TableD.1.0; Table D.1.a; or combinations thereof. Also, as the Difference in Clauses may have respect to their position, as (1) introductoq; (2) intermediate; and (3) h a l , Table D.U. would also be broken up into Table D.II.1; Table D.II.2; Table D.II.3 to correspond; add the letters, r, o, & a would intimate about the rendering, omission and addition thereof. Similarly would there be subdivisions of Tahle D.III.

TABLE D.s.1.r.
(1)
Matt. Iv.7: [l?dl&v ydrqnnms] O i r
6xne~qbs~q x4pcovzbv 886s U0".

Dent. TI. 16.
6xnscpdusc~ x6prav rbv 88dr rrou,

oim

~. ~ ; ;l!;i)-nu~1(~ 2 kt5 ., i ' i .n
. . >

Deut. VL 16.

-qO ...D ou n a b p a o r r e

our

exmlpeoecs (LS a1
.

vtis written again] Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy GOD.

Thou shalt not tempt the

LOrd thy GOD.

Ye s h d not tempt the LORD your GOD.

The Eeb. reads in the plural ?DJp and D?,*F., rendered by the singular Bxn~~ed~sig rdv 8.59~ icru in the S'ept.;'vuhich Matt. also and gives. Tile next part of the verse has also the verb plural in Eeb. CnDJwhich theLXX.folloms invat. E~&z~lg&Gur& E ~ & ~ h ~ a o u o ~ e . or Alex.

88
M&tt. XIII. 14-15.

Matt. XIxI. 14-15.

[Table D.8.I.r.

(2)
Is. VI. 9-10. Is.

VI. 9-10.

['%a1 i;vawjLriqbirmra4Z O ~ S 4 ?CpOq7~8/a 'Huortov $ ~ o u o a 'Axe,? hxaburrs ] 9%o,5 i;~adorre xa2 02 xal ob puj rrwfzs, xai @I.$- 'pj vw+g %a1 @I.dnovreg - 0 ~ 1 6 s Bd@ns xal 04 p i @6yerz m i 06 Eji iJFz. @7rb. lS&azb* hi&q$ tO&a;(;p* $ xea&G

xup8La zoii Lao6 .rohov,
uav, nal .robs dq8adpobs ar&& iv~~ppvuau~wn r pj j os ~ W U C Y rois d+adpois xai zoir 6u2v ~ o 6 r r o o ~xai v zf ~ e q 8 i p ~ ~ G U L V nmi 2ncorqEyrmmv, xai iiuopac adroSs. 14. axouaers et $Aeyrnc

zoii iaoii zo6zav, aoli zois uav, nai zobg dw4crI.pabs &&ppvuav, p+ zors itmu' roS d+p4aLpoic, xai z o a iolv &no<uour,nai zf xaq8Lp i.wGur xai ~ ? C A O - Z ~ & VWUL, aai ihuopac a&oQS.

xni rois iuiv BaqBms 5 x 0 ~ - iuiv iv6zGv @?qdms +a%-

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S W W A e . .C w e r o o m k. . ' rninusc. owcorah (Gb' Sa) I c n r a z q r ~ w a r v cBCDLMSUX Td etc. . .EFGKV a1 m onsacpwouacu I 'aoapar (Gbi) cBCDEXFGLMSVrdUal pm ..:q aaawpar cE**KUXd. [LAAnd in them is fulQByhearing ye shall hear, Bled the propheoy of and not understand; and Esaias, which saith,] By seeing ye shall see, and hearing ye shall hear, and not perceiue; IoPor the shall not understand; and heart of this people is beseeing ye shall see, and come grass, and 'their shall not perceive; lsFor ears are dull of hearing, thispeople'sheartisrvaxed and their eyes they closed; gross, and their ears are lest they should see with dull of hearing, and their the* eyes, and hear with eyes they have closed; lest their ears, and understand at any time they should with theirheart, and should see with their eyes, and tbe converted, andlshould hear with their ears, and heal them. should unaerstand with their heart, and should be Gr. they heard hcavily converted and I should heal them. with their ears. t Gr. can~crt.

se 1624,1653) cBUEFGKLM

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war* [auswv] cC it awu,acv (ita et F 1550

n

...X a1 dare.

9. a r o v o v e Alex. MS. 10. o q e a ~ p avrwv Alex. . MS. et al. Ald. et Campl. Edd.

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d ~ e a r indeed, but jie understand not; and see ye tindeed, but perceive not. IoMakc the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, rnd shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and unaerstandwiththeirheart, and convert, and be healed.

.

~

* or q i n hearing &e., or, without ceasing. &e. Ileb. Hear yc in hearing &e. f or q in seeing.

Here Natt. and the LXX. agree, excepting that the latter puts
rr6s6u a'ftor doiv, whereas Matt. puts it after. 6p8rrLpods; but Lachmann brackets a6z6u after d d u ; and in theLXX. after 6gr9.011bp6g some read adt&v, all as noted above.

Table D.s.I.r.1

Matt. XIII. 14-15.

89

The LXX. also reads mvaiv~,which Tischendorf has adoptid in Ed. Sept. N. T. and, as shownabove, g ed. 1550, sC 1624,-33 Gb Ln i. e. Griesbach and Lachmann give. Also, for cauopur of the LXX. which Tisch. follows in Matt., g haicavupac; and hence t l ~ erendering: 'and I should heal them", which should be: "and I shall heal tl~em." And similarly, if $nmz~6yovarbe read, it will be translated: "aud they shall ttu.nn,.i. e. be converted. Between Matt. and the original, the variations lie in this, that what is expressed in the latter in the imperative,. is in the former changed into the future in tlie first verse, and the aorist in the next. Thus YirP lLtohear hear ye", where, the inf. standing after the finite verb, such a connection generally indicates continued action, so that here the meaning is: "hear ye on continually", Matt. renders by &xog &xoCuese @yeshall hear by hearing"; and so of the other. Again: ;; i . i l Ct';i-'b . . ntSi;i : <'make thou f a t the heart of this people", metaph. 7- ].. of the heart, as wrapped in fat, and so made dull and callous to the y~ prophet's words, is rendered by Matt. S n n ~ v . 8 & p + xae8ia zo5 Aaoi; to-irzov: "for the heart of this people is fattened", lit. thickened, i. e. metaph. rendered~stupid. And similarly of. the other two. NOW, the command being issued by GOD renders the accomplishment oertain, so that it may be aptly expressed, as in the former instances by the future, since yet, bnt surely to happen; and as in the latter by the present (properly the aorist), the effect having already, as it were, taken place, and, as preparatory to the end in view, and a'ccounting for what is said before, being suitably introduced by yac 'for." It is known that the imperative and the future are closely related. So Gesenius says in IIeh. Gr. 5 127. 1. The Imperative 5 s employed especially in strong assurances (comp. thou shalt have it, which expresses both a command and a promise;) and hence in prophetic declarations as Is. 6. 10, thou shalt make the heart of this 'people hard, for, lhou wilt make.. . In all these cases the use of the Imp. approaches very near to that of the Fut., which may either precede or follow it in the same signification." The following expressions, denoting the effect intended, read in the end of the verse, differ in the two passages. In Matt. it is said: xu2 rg xegStq W ? I Y ~ ~ G L Y ~ ~ L c ~ ~ & ~%a2 idcwpn~a2;zofig."and xu2 wcLv, understand with the heart, and return, and I shall heal them." In Is. 75 N??! >?I 113?\5 their heart understand, and return (i. e. be renewed), and he (GOD) heal them", (i. e. pardon and forgive them). But i t is noted above that many copies read l = > h , correspondingly with the two preceding clauses, which wouldalter the translation to: "and with their heart understand." I gave: uhe (GOD) heal", according .but I would incline to regard the verb to the rendering. of Qese~Lius; as uniperso~lal and translate: "and there be healing t o them", like 3) ly lit. 'it is strait to me', "I am in a .sirait", Ps. 31. 10; 15 tin Lit

?iY??e

90

Luke 1V 1 2 ; Acts 1 . 25-28. 1

[Table D.s.1.r.

is warm to him'. Lihe'ismade. warm, gets warmth. 1 Egs. 1. 1 ; get, a s the healing 'would come from Jehovah, the two forms are equivalent, the one bringing more prominently out the deed, the other, the agent, agreeably to mhich Matt. says: icioofiac: =Ishall heal." . '
(3)
Luke N . 12. Dent. VI. 16.
[Eipri'nL] i ~ n e ~ p i a e ~ s 04% & ~ B L ~ ~ D G L S xiie~ovzbv 8sdv uov. zhv 8 e 6 v m u ,

~ 2 5 ;1!;/?-n~ 5 ~
. .. ..

Dent. VI, 16.

[It is said,] Thonshalt not
tempt the Lord thy GOD.

Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy GOD.

Ye shall not tempt the LORD your GOD.

For any remarks see on Matt. IV.7, p. 88 with which Luke agrees. (4)
P . XVI. 8-1 1. s ["AUULJ y i p a d p t ELS a h d v ] npoopdp7v Z ~ V xi8 Z ~ ~ o ~ d p 7Xj~~ L O Y lmn ,..lJ2$ ;) i =by Q l ;? 8 p ~ o vk d n c d v paw S~drn a r - ' 2 v d n ~ d v &rl nands, ?J?Q??,? 265, SZL 2%8 ~ 6 pov ~ 6 dvziv, iir~ 8eE~i-u dx poii ~ D Z L YZvq fd;i u ~ ~ E v ~ 2V~dr pi ~ ~ ; l z ~ & G . ZOCZO '?I3? G . 98cdr za~ro 16Tedv87 pow r j xap7&qQ&v8rj ij X ~ Q J L U poll : liq?, ~ ~ ~ q i l &a narl $ y a U ~ & u a z o i aal ijyaUcdunzo $ y i G c u d ?t@Qg) 2~jn-hby 10 y a 6 ~ o dpov, &TI 8 %a2 7 j pow, &G 8A at A U&P: pov .i-,?Dni) ,~,+-&jh) : . c&QE p u xazcrcyvcbar na~aoqw&oec dn'c'lnlS&. Z ~ E : sF3 dint$', Z7iir~ - x ~ z H ~I-O ~ ~ O L~ ~X T % ~ Z ~ E +Y ~ E L9~p11n1~ 06% poll E* + J ~ OGM ; a?ti . . z ~ ~ E T+Y ~ FXGY ! ~ ~ E p02) Wllh E& j87v 0686 Sdwcs rbv ~ O ~ D E Li S w ;D&Y b cot4 ~ S I E ~ Y ~3 Z D L ~ uov i 8 s Z 8 ~ ~ l @ 8 o q & v :8 ' ~ t y 8 o ~ & v . i l i y v d e w & ~ Y 2 E j p ~ u &dSoi)sC~?s, ~ O 680irq CO~S. zAqPduQs ~ p ~ ~ C niriQdw~s p+ e6rpqoutb7~ pa s ~ ( P ~ po ~ ~ r~ s d zoii p~rdrroc npov&nou UOW. ngosdnov uou.
Acts

II. 25-28.

Pa. XV. 8-11.

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~ 8. n p o o p i L M i Alex. MS. for n ~ o w p . 9. elipg&+ for qvy. 10. eEc B80u Alex MS. for -Sq"

11. for

evgeomrvqu

Alex. MS.
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5 foresaw the Lord al1 ways before my-face; for He is on my right hand, thatIshould not be moved; stherefore my heart re'joiced, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest i n hope:

h a ~ e the LORD set alwaya before me: becanse He i s a t my right hand, I shallnot be moved. Wherefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh also shall *rest in hope. foFor thou wilt not

thou suffer thine Holy One the ways of life; thou shalt make me full of joy with thy countenance.

thine Holy One t o s6e
ways of life: Thon shalt make me full of joy with thy co~mtenance.

~nptia of joy.

4T Heb. dwell eonfidcnlly. The variations here from the original are the following. In ver. 8 '7131 ;!1 W)W "I set the Lord for my front", or in front of me, is 1;? rendered by m~oog&p?p rhw xliq~ou Eurjnr6v po!~"I foresaw the Lord my fronter", or in my sight; but the latter is evidently the consequent Y J '"oecause (he is) at my right hand, of the former. ~'infi-52 (therefore) I shall not be moved", where the latter is the conclusion of the former,.and describes the state of the speaker, is given as 6 c ~ Ex S E & ~ U Ear~uiua p+ aoarlsu@G, <'becausehe is at my right hand (LOU in order that I may not be moved", as if the latter were the purpose of the former. And yet there is no radical difference, the conclusion drawn readily suggesting the purpose, which is the form of expression in Acts. xat $yarlLrciaaro 4 yAGuooa (LOU Uandmy tongue prided itself", h! in ver 26, is found for >?IT ; 'and my glory exnlted", but the glory of any one is a poetical expression for the mznd, heart, as the noblest part of man; (see Gen. XLIX. 6; Ps. VII. 6) the parallelism here being 9$ "my heart"; also, as the heart is the seat of the affections, it may be taken for that which gives utterance thereto, that is, the tongue, (see Ps. X X X . 13; CVIII. 2) so that the two expressions harmonize. i'inv) "for sheol", i. e. to be a t his disposal, where sheol would be treated as a person, which is sometimes done, (see Ps. XLIX. 16; Hos. XIII. 14,) would be best rendered by sic i6ou, which is the reading adopted in S, whereax the othez ~ i c$611u regards it as a /1@ place, and so it is generally viewed. In regard to the reading '''3 we believe the singular q?'Dii to be the correct one, not only because the rendering is zdu 8ai6v uov "thy holg one", but since it is found "in 263 MSS., and all the ancient versions have the sing. form!' Davidson's Introd. to 0 T. p. 135. It is noted above "1?9Dii plurimi K. et . R. Edd. ant. Masora etiarn notat l'?'." Lastly, ndq~dcreis ~8vp-I p alivqS @sz$ zov" epouui%ov uov *thou wilt 611 me with gladness with thy face", or in thy presence, is found for 7 3 n lllil~b'Y2W %atiety 1yN of gladnesses is with thy face", the anticipatrd result being put for what could produce it, and the objective having become subjective and ~ersonal,i. e. the abundance of gladnesses, instead of being spoken of s s to their locality, is mentioned. as to be applied by one person to another, in fact transferred as far as the other can hold: "thou wilt fill me."

Acts VIII. 32-33.
-,

Acts WI. 3 2 - 3 3 . [$ Sh I ~ E ~ C xOsX rq'eaj ~ qijs i j & Y E ~ ~ V O V X E u ? ~ ~ ] ~ $Y Y

IR. LIE. 7-8.

Is. LIII. 7-8.

3 s n ~ 6 @ a r o v id U T , P ~ + ~ 6; nqd@azov id vvcryiv . 51 21 %%, m.1 6s Gpvbs h a p - k Y 7 , m i Ojs i p v b s h c ~ o))i;il~>!fi) nn$T.l ziov TOG xsiqrxvros uircbv ziov zoir xeigovros i q o v o S , a"mw~os, oiiros 0i7. iyaiyEc O ~ ; T O S O ~ X' o ~ mi n i j p a . &% ~EL : zb u r b p a a;roc. 3 3 z,ij ~ adp ~ Z ( I Z ~ ~ Y ~~i~~~ ~ ~ ~ L zane~v&uac cr6roC $ X + L ~ '?= a i T ~ C $ p 8 7-C;Iv7 ~ d l ~

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/

11:i

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zi; S ~ q ~ j j u n a a ;; Z L '

gqlk'?) 1n.ITI?') "'!n Y ~ N P

aiizoi zis 507y$vmec; bzc

aqnrr~dnci
rx;zoc,

z$s

~

i to+ ~ j

q n a c i n b zijs

76s 1) hi
7m) vnsa5 601 K. n) = SOi K. a) = 149 K. p) I = 250. 3071C. 545 a p.R. ql n -254K. r) 1-145K. 440. 596 ap.R. s) m 195 ap.K. t) nna 18i K.

uiroir.
7. euvTGov . Compl. Ed. e~lcnpooeruI xarpouzos:

Ln -povros eB al p l Or Cyr p hrs Thph I ouzwq . . . GH a1 mu ovzoq. 33. auxou pr eCEGH a1 ut vdtr fers omn vv fere omn Chr Oec Thph... Ln omcAB all vg (Ir om ev cv usque q ~ S vI ) 8a eEGH a1 ut vdtr omn to1 cap arr Chr a1 Ir.. . Ln om eABC vg sah syrP (syr act11 ef). 32. [The place o f the scripture whioh he read was this,] Be was led as a sheep to the slaughter; and like a lamb dumb beforehisshearer, so opened* he not his mouth: 33. I n his humiliation his judgment was taken away: and who shall declare his generation?t for his life is taken from the earth.

fcre 20 Ign Chr Chron . . . s

32.

nerpnoc

eACEGH al

others add avrov / in fine add aurov Alex andnumerous other MSS. and so the Compl. ct Ald. Edd. 8. cazervwosu manyMSS. add avzov ( zqv yzuear many illsert 60.

.. -eewosAlex.MS. andmany

.

,

t Or, progeny.

* Or rathor, openeth.

i. he is brought as a 7. he was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and as lamb to the slaughter, and a lamb before the shearer as a sheep before her is dumb, so Be openeth shearers is dumb, so he not Xis mouth. 8. I n Eis openeth not big month. humiliation His judgment 8 . Re wiis taken from priwas taken away; who son and from judgment; shall declare His gene- and who shall dec1s;re his ration*? for His life is generation? for he was taken from the earth: cut off out of the land of the living: ' Or, progeny.

This Quotation closely follows the LXX., differing from it' only in. adding uvsov after xczpovros, and autov after rropcc and zcmazrvwacc, which additions are found in some MSS. of the Sept., but it is seen whence they came. The following are Dr. Dadson's explanatory remarks (Sac.Herm.pp. 390-1). '(The departure from theHebrew is considerable; and it has beenaffirmed that the New Testament writer does not give the sense of the original words. Among the multitudinons interpretations of the Hebrew words, that given by Dr. Henderson is the best. LIWithout restraint, and without a sentence he was taken away", i. e. he had .not the benefit of a formal trial, in which his innocence might have appeared; neither was there the semblance of a fair hearing of his

Table D.s.f.r.1

Acts Vm. 32-33.

93

case before a judge and his accusers. On the contrary P&te offered no restraint to the violent procedure of the Jews; nor did he pronoullce a legal sentence upon the Saviour, but simnl~lydelivered him up to them to be treated as they pleased. In conformity with this interpretation is the rendering of the Septuagint Version, which Luke follows. $'In humiliation his judgment was taken away'', i. e. in the midst of oppressive treatment, he was deprived of a fair trial, -his right was taken away, no equity was shown him. That xprnrs has this signification may be proved from Matt. XXIII. 23; Luke XI. 42. D D ' ~ has the same meaning: see Deut. XXXII. 4; Gen. XVIII. 25; J&.. XXE. 15. Thus the sense of the Ilebrew and the Greek is the same, although the words do not correspond." In comparing the two clauses, while it is hut right that the Hebrew, as found in the received text, should be taken for the original, it is no less right that the Greek version of the inspired Luke should, with all ingenuousness, be regarded as correctly conveying the original idea, quoted, though the words be, from the Sept., inasmuch as, had they not rightly rendered the passage, it is but reasonable to believe that they would have been exchanged for others more appropriate, of which ha&g been done there are not want~ng examples. Confessing this at the outset, the whole aim should be so to interpret each that both may mean the same thing, or to interpret each by the other, which, however, must be done, with all caution and honesty of purpose, avoiding rashness and forcing them to a p p e by twisting any word in either from its proper sense. Now, although the words in the one may not be found to correspond exactly with those in the other, i. e. although every word of the Ifebrew may not have been rendered by its synonym in the Greek, yet the main idea presented by the two clauses may not be other than the same. And, in the present instance, use also ?s to be made of the recorded facts, whereby was made manifest the fuliilment of the prophecy, which is to be interpreted so as to harmonize with them. Or, if this be asking too much, let the prophecy be iuterpreted in any way whatever, and then let the facts, which are said to fulfil it, be see; to coincide with that meaning. But if they do not, one of two things must follow, either, the facts do not ftdfil ii, or the interpretation is incorrect. Now, if we find the same book giving, in different places, a prophecy and the account of its fulfilment, whether are we to suppose the statement of the facts or the interpretation right? And if the statement be considered incorrect, may not the prophecy cease to be a prophecy, and thus involve the interpretation in its overthrow? not to mention the presumption attributable to any one who should stzll reckon his interpretation soand. Turning, then, first to the facts, what do we find them to be? That the Jewish rulers conspiled to put Jesus to death (Matt. XXVI.

-

94

Acts VIE, 32-33.

[Ta7nle D.8.l.r.

3-5), -that Judas Iscariot, oue of his disciples, agreed with them to betmy him (vers. 14-15), - that Jesus previously told his disciples of these facts (vers. 1,2,21-25), - that the betrayal was accomplished just as had been preconcerted and foretold (vers. 47-50), - that he was thereafter brought before the Jewish rulers, apparently for the purpose of being tried, from which he did not shrink (John XVIII. 19-23), -that they, with the aim of putting him to death, sought out for witnesses, whose contradictory evidence, however, only sltowed them to be false (Niark XIV. 55, 5G), -that ali hope of his being with even a show of law condemned was vanishing, when at length two more, false witnesses laid a charge against him, which, however, was not made use of, since the sentence: "guilty of death" was pronounced against him, solely because the High Prieit considered that blasphemy had been spoken by him, when he conlessed that he was @the Christ-the Son of GOD'', whereby as he said, there was no further need of witnesses! (vers. 57-64 Matt. XXVI. 60-66), -that they, hiving in their judgment found him, on the charge of blasphemy, '@dty of death", brought him to Pilate the,Governor, before whom they accused him of quite another crime, viz, that of "perverting the people, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar" (Luke XXIII. 1,2), that Pilate declared '1, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man, touching. those things whereof ye accuse him" (ver. 14), -that he, willing to release Jesus, aft,er h a ~ i n g scourged him, was notwithstanding prevailed upon, by the clamows of the mob, instigated by the chief priests and scribes, to deliver him up to their will, before doing which he washed his hands as innocent of his blood, which they. called down on themselves and children (vers. 16 -25; Matt. XXVII. 15-25), and finally, that they crucified him (vers. 26, 35). Next, let us interpret the Greek version. But, before doing so, we would remark that the Evangelist Luke, who makes the Quotation in Acts, was well acquainted with these facts, and believed that they fumled the prophecy, so that we may expect them to cosespond with his interpretation, and sice versL saaEdvoorG means properly made low", i. e. "an act, whereby any one is brought to the ground humiliation, and hence, it is used to denote that "such is one's condition", i. e. lowliness. xpaors also refers to *an act, viz. that of separating", and specially applies to that of a.judge separating the one kind of evidence from the other, in order, by weighing them, to see whether it prepondekates on the side of inuoceuce or guilt; thus it denotes 'the act of judging", i. e. trial, and hence "the judgment itselP1,i. e. sentence, especially, punishment; also 'Ccight, or justice': since to the judge was bound to do what was just or confor~nahle law.. ccipw primarily means 'o raise in the air, to lift up", and hence, with the t idea of carrying, "to take away, to remove." The clause will therefore

-

-

Acts VIII. 3%-33.

95

be interpreted: ILln humiliatioll his trial (or right) was taken awq." his It was found that thcre was apparently a trial, - that there were judges before wholn Jesus was arraigned, and wituesses to aclvance charges, -but the witnesses were false-proved not one charge,-and the judges were unjust -.passed sentence of condemnation, although he was proved not guilty, so that there may be said to have been no trial, properly so called-only a mock one, and thus !(mas his trial taken away." Again, "his right was taken away." By the lams of the Jews two witnesses were necessary t o make good ally charge, but not so many could be found. It was on his own confession of being the Messiah that he was condenmod, which would have been justly clone, had he not been such, and the question, whether or not he had ,given evidence that he mas the Messiah, we should expect to have engaged their attention, as it was the only point to be settled. Instead, however, of doing this, we iind them instantly assuming that he could no1 he such, and was therefore "guilty of death", so that, the proof of his claim being passed over unexamined, it could be said that "his right was taken away." Moreover, according to Jewish law, he should, for his alleged crime, have been punished with stoning (see Lev. XXIV. 10-161, as they did to Stephen (Acts,W. 59), but it was found that he was crucified, and hence the inference, that it could not have been for that crime; -that he was crucified under the authority of the Roman name, and hence the inference, that it must have been declared 'LI find for some treasonable desigus, whereas Pilate rel~eatedly no fault in him." Whilst his claim remained undisproved,-- whilst he was declared not guilty, yet, for the former was he punishcd by the mode of the latter. From the beginning of their plotting for his death, on to his crucifixion was a series of acts of ,violence, so that "his humiliation", which consisted therein, became synonpous with "oppression", - "unjustifiable violation of personal liberty and life." "In his 'humiliation", i. e. whilst they were using every foul endeavour to bring him down from his present to the lowest condition, viz of death, "his trial or right was taken away", i. e. affairs came to climax, their violence was rendered ungovernable, - no equity was shown him, and thereby was their eild gained. Having now seen the agreement between the facts and Lube's version of the prophecy, we come, lastly, to consider the original in the same way. The primary idea of the verb, from which ?'+tic is derived, lying in surrounding, enclosing, such as, with a fence or wall, it means, to close, to shut up; hence to hold back, hinder, restrain; and thus, the noun is applied to a shutting up, a closure: see Prov. ~ X X .16. also, to a hindrance, ?estrai~it,oppression: see Ps. CVII. 39. 'D?Wn. like x&mh refers not ody to the act of judging. (Jer. XXX. 15), and g 1 2 especially of a seutence the sentence of a judge (1 i

96

Acts VIII. 32-33.

[Tablc D.s.1.1:

by which punzshment is infllctecl (Deut. XXL 22), but also to right or justice, whatis just and lawfnl (Jer. XXII. 15), especially what belongs to one by law, his right and privilege. The idea of taking with the hand -laying hold of - lies a t the root of irpi, and thus it means simply to take, either what is uffered, i. e. to receive (1 Sam. XII. 3.), or what is not, whether without force or violence (Gen. 1 . 15), or 1 therewith, i. e. seize upon, capture (Numb. XXI. 251, and, with the idea of carrying, to take away (Gen. XIV. 12; Ps. =I. 14). The person, place, or thing from whom or which any thing or person is taken, is put with in (Gen. XXJII. 13; XLV. 19; Job. XXVIII. 2; 2 Kings II. 10). The clause will thus be translated: LLFrom restraint and from judgment (or justice) was he taken away." Although jn put without a preceding verb ~mpliesdistance, or absence from any place or thing, i. e. far from - away from and hence i. q. withont (see Job XI. 15), yet I prefer giving to it its usual signification when connected with a verb denoting removing, i. e. that of recedmg or departing from. 'From judgment (or justice) was he taken away." When one is taken away from a thing which beneiits him, he may he said to be deprived of its benefit, so that, as a fair hearing, in which justice might have been done, wonld have been beneficialto Jesus, his being taken away thexefrom may be regarded as synonymous with his being deprived of its benefits. Such is the meaning I attach to tYis part of the prophecy, with which the facts are found to correspond. Also, as it comes to the same thing whether one is taken from (or deprived of) a thing, or a thing is taken from one, the result being the same, viz. that it is no longer in his power,-is beyond his reach, it is seen that the original and the version agree. Again, 'From restraint was he taken away", i. e. he was deprived of restraint. What shonld have acted ~nhis favour as a check on their proceedi'ngs was rendered by them of none effect. What should have prevented them from getting possession of him was in violence disregarded and overthrown. Although surrounded by a defence, yet was he seized and dragged therefrom. This I believe to be a correct meaning of the original. Let us now appeal to the facts, a few of which have been reserved for this' place. When the Jewish rulers conspired against him to kill him, they wished to take him, but said they: ILnotin the feast-day, lest there be an uproar among the people" (Matt. XXVI. 4 5,), "for they feared the people" (adds Luke XXII. 2). That was one of the restrants upon them. When he was seized by their emissaries with Judas at their head, it was in a retired spot, He appeals to them, if they and during night (John XVIII. 1-3). dared have done it by day and in public (Luke=. 52-53). When he was being tried, the witnesses proved nothing against him @ark XIV. 55-59), and his own claim to the Messiahship ought to have been clisproved, before he was declared @guilty death" (Matt. XXVI. of

-

Table D.s.I.r.1

Acts XXVIU. 26-27.

97

63-66). In justice to him these should have restrained them. When Pilate announced his verdict of not guilly (chap. XXVII. 24j, they sl~ouldhave forthwith let him go. But no. "From restraint was he taken" had to be fulfilled, as were all the others' (John XTX. 28). The sentence would appear to rise: =From restraint was he talten away, even from judg~nent", making the latter, what in reality it was, the crown of the rest. The whole procedure clearly showing marks of violence could be appropriately termed "his hnmiliatiou" or oppression. Thns then have we found not only the prophecy and the version to agree with the facts, but also and consequently with one another. [I would throw out as a suggestion that the original may have read np> D?Vp;It l l y y n . Admitting that the pointing goes for little, as the 9 b e ~ n n i n gD?$pq is transferred to l y i l ~ its ending, and becomes a pronoun. Next, the O beginningDell%))? gives place for l ; , i. e. the prep. j? ufrorn" is supplanted by the article ;i "the", 1 whereby D?n$ becomes the nom. to the verb tl& which is unchanged, DnWn being a masc. noun. By this alteration of the orig+l, it is made translatable by the Sept. version or Luke's: Ew z?j ZCLZELV~)GEL
dsoii

4

X Q ~ G C G$pi+q.]

The next clause, hilllrji ,? nh-il?! %nd (as for) his generation, who 'shall make (one) hear (it)?" which is given in the version r l j u 82 ~ V E & U a6zofi zls ~ ~ ~ Y ~ G "and his generation who shall thorS ~ C L L oughly describe?" .means "Who shall describe the men of his age his contemporaries-so as to make one hear of (i. e. comprehend) the extent of wickedness exxibited in their conduct toward him? d (Answer. No one.) ~ n then follows the concluiling clause, giving the reason for putting such a question, n?n Y75n ll?>'3 "For he was cut off from the land of the living", or as Luke renders oli'pszaz dmd z+jsyijg ljCm1j uiizoii T o r his life is taken awayfrom tbo earth!' Between these two forms of expression there is no difference, inasmuch as he couliP be cut off from the land of tlie living only by the taking away of his life; but, whenever that was done, he would cease to be there. Nor need it, then, be called incorrect' to translate as Luke has done, or, as it had been done in the Sept. followed by Luke.

-

Acts XXTIII. 26-27.
[ ~ b c p a zb Z r ~ o v m 2LOiAv~sv8hdr 'Heeiou zo;

Is. TI. 9-10

Is. VI. 9-10.

mgolpjrou ;. 2 " 6 T ~ ~ ] ilopc68~cr ainbv 2xai I l o , o s < S p mpbr rbv l a b v zo<rovrai~im6vAzojj ~ 0 6 - Lajj zo6zy Ax05 ax06vne 6 onc nal 06 ,p$ VIIY)IZE, xal nai 04 p i mv+, xrri @L6 ,BLEnovrzs @ L i q ~ ~ ~ ~ a i o iZ i Op ~+E S @ L $ ~ E T Ea 06 p i ~ i tavzs. 2~iEmX.j,.g7 i~v.s. i0~zaXiu97, Tdre

.

13+Pit)-$N,;)'y113.qj

?!;? a y PlnN] ~

9y)3W.
3IN?lL')

: r . j ~ ~ - ~ &" ?IN? !"

+

+

?l,?z) nv?)-$?)

pw?

98
n a p a h zoa' IwoC zoirau, rrxl rois &air Qap6ws ?souuav, xal zobs dp5mLpobs a4r;v ixLppelrcrv' pjnara ~ S ~ U~CoY s6~3.aLpoisral i . zois 6 c l v ixoirooo~v, xal z,?j napSLp U L I ~ I Y ~ U ~ dmlral V m p ~ o u m , ~ iioopar mial

Acts XXVIII. 26-27.

[Table D.s.1.r.

xapalu roG zohov, YW? I*%: im~la) xn2 zois 6 o i v rr4ri-v @arpkos ixavuav, nai z o i s drpBak pois &ijppuuav, El;i "0'" tSmm zois d@aLpai~, xai zois i u i v &o&owu<, xai z,? %aQ&p V W ~ ~ V %a? 6%'L , s z ~ h y w o xxal iLioopa~ ~, air%0ii<. ~06s. 9. m o u a ~ Alex. MS. ~ . 26. ~iirovcABEGIl long@al 8) -5 80. 109 K. pl Chr ...$ (= Gb) e m . c nlin 10. oip*aLnau~add. avzuiv t) = 109 K. u) I X , , ~ 4 K. non mu Tl~ph Oce/vxovoeze Alex. et a1 MSS. et Ald. et 7) 1 = 109 K. X) = 72 K. (et FI Bas) et PLewnr eR (e Cornpl. Edd. y) +yln 10iK. z) =224K. sil) G a1 ut vdtr pl Chr ' 5 1 SOK. 1 = 109K. b) '5)

ir l l;

+

ThphzOec ...AEalmThphl - o ~ c e -V~JZE I q a s ) lG et (ct Thphi svvews, al auvceze. 27. worv pr ...A alto w m Thphz IlierZ ( 1 o 1 ) Vig add GI5 137.al plus 3O Thph s Ln ~ a o w w a1 pm C h CE Oec. 26. [Saying,] Go unto this people, and say, Hearing yc shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive: 27. For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dun of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with thew ears, and understandwith thew heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

76- 80. 93. 96. 107. 150. 180. 184.223.245.294.384; 95.177 ap.X. 1A. 248.26fi. 562.592.594.715; lintcrlu; '20. 230.419.656. 737 np.R. c) ,w S K. O

%.

..

9. Go and say to this peoplc, By hearing ye shall hoar, and notunderstand; and sccing ye shall see and not perceive; lo. For the heart of this people is becomegross, and *their ears are dull of hearing, eyes they cloloued; and tlre~r lest they should see with thetr eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with thezr heart, and should t b e converted, andIshould heal them.

9. Go ana tell this people. Hear ye 'indeed, but understand not, andsee ye tindeed, but perceive not 10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears h e a v , and shut their eyes; lyst they sec with their eyos, and hear with their ears, and understandw~ththeirheart, and convert, and bc healed.

* Gr. they heard heavily with their cars. i Gr. convert. ~
~~

* Or in hearing he., or, without ceasing &e. Hch. .Hear v e i n hcarine &c. t 0;l in seeing. J

For remarks on this Quotation, see Matth. XTU. 14--15, p. 89, which is the same as the present, from Ax05 & x o ~ m r ~ In Matt. there . is no introductory clause mo~sv8ljsr m ~ rou ~ o Ahov rourov xar ~ ~ m o u UGo unto this people and say", which differs from the Sept. aopv&zr XUL E L ~ O Vr p L a p r o v q "Go and say to t.his people", in form I ;D?) UGo and thou shalt only, while the original has ; ! ? t p e l say to this people", where the iormer 'Lgo", being imperative in form, turns the latter in the fnt. "thou shalt s a y into an imperative likewise. See Ges. Neb. Gr. 5 127. 2. b.

Table D.s.I.r.1

Rom. 1Y. 7-8; Rom. X. 18.

99
Ps. XXXZI. 1-2.

(7)
Rom.

IV.7-8.

Ps. XXXI. 1-2.

Tsx&ineo nai davld Ik&] ...711%nl;pcoL GV :YL;9S ~ v c r v at ivopLnr, rai dv keva~hrpaqvav spa?ziac. Bpaxiecos &v+p <5 04 p i loyia?ra' ~ h q ~ o s dpaerirrv.
~~~ ~

MCLXOI~LOC ;Y r;(Pt411va~ -Yyal ral dv dzsxaraz;~aVvav air;paqziaL. 2pa~1~-'??8~) xlipcos &v+p 06 p i Lori- 117 15 U ~ Z X~~ L L O S ~ C;paqzia~.
ai cbo$as

>!$)

' 3Npn YD? ~ 5 ' ).

7. a a e D q c m ~ . a13 (item . rnulti ap Mill) ormr~+qoau

.

(itcm ddd"' in LXX). e) >DN 405; 596 a 8. 6 cACDS**FKLa1 pl d f) = 4 K. e i g vg. . . BD(E?)G 67. "* o I K a1 Aovcnerar. : 'T.Irl~~s?..Iarctl~~~y wli ;e 1. I I i . ~ s ~ ~ . 1 n ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ R l cg ~ ~ ~l. .i i~ ~ r n R o r e f r a n s l~~ ~ r rh c i ii I J 1 i i i: n I dt.z.,ion i r fvmir. 11. t r h t ~ s ? "

1 . a w e @ . in a1 arpca@. 2. L X X C ex edd plcr $ ~ s e a AB a1 pauc 0;.

.

b) 3 41 K. I7 K. p. R.

a f. = 3i3 K. c) *IDA d) 255 K. 9 a f. =

+

-

whose sins are covered. 8. Blessed zs the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.

whose sins are covered. 2. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin,

-

sin is covered. %Blessed is the man unto whom tho Loldimputethnotiniquity,

The original reads literally: '0 the happinesses of (one) forgiven of transgression, covered (i. e. pardoned) of sin': for which we have plural forms in Romans thus: "Blessed (are they) whose transgressions are remitted, and whose sins are covered over." The next verse of the Web. is literally: "0 the happincsses of (such a) man. Jehovah will not count to him iniquity", which Paul gives as: Ya blessed man (is he), to whom tho Lord would not count sin"; from all which i t appears that there is only a slight idiomatic difference in expressing the same ideas.
Rom. X. 18. ps. XVIII. 5.
y?jv 8s" 6 q 8 6 y y o s a h o w , xal sir 7; zdpmcr r j s oixoup d q ~ #$paza n h G v . %dl
Z+Y

Ps.
,

m. 5.
5ib73y5+)

Ek
8sv

?riolxv 6 9 yrjv 6€$-

~ i *CC(IY g

6 pY6ryos a b r h , xai

.~!p NIJ?") Y?N;I-

ek

D$$c

d g a z c t r i g oQovp'w s z i $$mza arirr6v. m a o m . . . D'd* add yap
Z&

,

.

a . . This Quotation, being i n the words of the Sept., which gives d y46yyos d z G v "their sound or note" as the rendering of the Hcb. D?p "their line or chord", has givnn ~ i s eto the supposition that the latter was not Dip but nil? or D>>, it being supported by the parallel D;?$n "their words", and by its occurring in verse 4, as also by the resemblance of the forms 1 and 5. This conjecture ma:y be deemed c nite sn ~erfluous, >:?meanin!; as -3rimarilr a measur-

their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.

h) = 74. 9i. K. i) !?a, 131 K. 1 170.681 K. Their *sound went into Their 'line is gone out all the earth, and $their through all the earth, and words unto the ends of their words to the end of tthe world. the world. * Or, voice. 1. The habit* Or, rule, or dircclion. able morld; . .

-

100

1 Cor.

1X.

9; 1 Cor. XV. 32.

[Table D.s.1.r.

ing zinc, denotes also the cord or string of a lyre or other musical instrument; and then, by an easy transition, the note or sound thereby emitted, so that they both come to the same thing. It may be added that p8oyyos means also an instrument of sounding, such as a cord, or a hole in a pipe, and that probably our tongue comes from it. To this solution Hengstenberg objects by affirming that %he only legitimate translation is: their measuring-line goes out over the whole earth; and the only legitimate exposition: the whole earth is their portion and territory. In what respect is evident from the whole context, according to which the heavens can come into consideration merely as the heralds of the Divine glory; and all doubt is removed by the second member, which serves to explain the first; expressly pointing to this reference, their proclamation of the Divine glory limits itself not to some one region, but reaches as far as the earth itself!' Now, how do the heavens herald or proclaim the Divine glory? as he admits they do. Just like other heralds, one may suppose, that is, by letting their woice be heard. So that the two opinions are really the same in the end; only, different personifications are made use of.
(9)
1 Cor. IX. 9.

Deut. XXV. 4.

Deut. XXV. 4.

p.rpootsccABL'CD'%ICLal ut vdtr omn (02 Chr Thdrt al) ..GhQvqfioaers (sic nemo in LXX) c B T * F G Hes lot
(w dl) praem m p r . F o r it is written in the law of Moses,] Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth oat the corn.
al6

Compl. Ed. (pww.~

Thou shalt not muzzle an ox treading out the eon.

Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he Yreadeth out the corn. * g Heh. thresheth.

The Heb. says Itthi,?? his treading", Paul says dLo6vsa *treading", which are the same thing, since the ox in his treading, i. e. during the time when he is treading, can certainly be called "a treading ox."
(10)
1 Cor. XV. 32. ~LYWELSY rriwsv.
arGg'or ydrq i ; n o # ~ l r x o p l s v .

Is. XXII. 13.

@&Y~ELZ~

*iwav,

Is. XXII. 13. nln? ~;i? 5135 r? lntfii Let us eat and drink, for to morrow weshall die.

aGprov y i p ~nathjmopw.

Let us eat and drink, for to morrow we die.

Let us eat and drink, for t o morrow we die.

This Quotation might have been assigned to Table A.s, only Uwe shall die" has been rendered by &no8v$~~opcav "we are dying", which of course is made future by cc6erov "to morrow."

Table D.s.I.r.1

Gal. IT. 2 i ; Reb. 11. 13.

101
Is. LIV. I.

(11)
Gal. IV. 27. Is. LrV. 1. [y6Tpa%zacyke] E4me&E4yp&v41jn vrazpa $06 8?rc nreipa ri 06 zixzovuu, zimowoa, $itovgrui Bdljmov @f$ov *a2 @6ljlrov $ 04% $ 0th dJivouua, &r aoiA& uj~ivouna, Zzc moLld; CL z& zdwa z& iqfpouFIZov zbv z b w n zfs dpfpov fidAov ; ; r$s 6~0irmls ;ivJpa i i z f s &oiro/q rdv i;vSqa. ou ... D E F G W ~ . Rejoice, thou barren that [Foritis written,jRejoice, thou barren that bearest bearest not; break forth not : break forth and cry, and cry, thou that travailthou that travailest not: . est not: for more are the for the desolate hath many .children of the desolate more children than she than of her that hath the husband. which hath an husband.

>?>)

g:3

;~?RJLr??,

-g>3 r);i?i,;;)qqy? ; i

;Ina.w-q a??p? .. ; i > l ~ ? rn g

-

a) 3 '109 K. ~k 145 K. 2 b)i= 196K. c)lnli =145K. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear; break forth into singing, andcry aloud, thou chat didst not travail with child: for more are the childrqnof the desolate than the children of the married wife.

+

This Quotation varies from the Hebrew in expressing by the article and present participle, what is expressed by the third person of the praeter, and which, according to our idiom, the, relative and indicative are used to denote. They are, thus, rather idiomatic differences than anything else. &lov Ubreak out" is for '?fyTYbreak a shoutout .ing", where the manner is stated. The last. clause of each might be brought nearer thns: Heb;. Ufor many are the sons of the solitary from (or above) the sons of the married." Greek "for many are the children of the desolate rather than of her having the husband." Indeed, this Quotation might, and perhaps ought to have been put down in Table A.s. (12)
Heb. 11. 13. xal nXlcv]'IJo& i y d xarl .r& n u J i ~ar par 8801~s~ ,i ri 3 ~ 6 ~ . [And again,] Behold I and the children which GOD hath given me.

Is. VIII. 18.
lJo& dyd xaJ zb narJLa ,iar pon 88mnsv 6 4eis

Is. VIII. 18.

y@l. .

r*

R?;l

+-yn$)

Behold I and the children which GOD hath given me

I) j Bit K. m) n,nin 1. m 93.590 K. $1,~ K. 249 Behold, I and the children whom the Lorahath given me

The Sept. and New Test. differ from the Heb. here in reading 6 8x0s for ;iln?.

Acts VII. 35.

[Table D.s.1.o.

TABLE D.s.1.0.
(1)
Exod. LT. 14. TLs ua zar6onjvw ZqZis w m z f m u w ZQX O ~ " xal Saam+v; ~ 0 1 z a x a i J ~ m u z E''P'~p&~; +r Smaozqv CAB(e sil) H a1 Zq' +GF in Ald. &Compl. ut vdtr plv<(n.ontoljThph~ Edd. ... CDE a1 pm vv longe pl (sgrP 6 Chr ThphZ add 3 eq ljwv (CDj s. e9 q ~ a r ( EI) xar a q ~ (A a1 Chranqxljyov) . cBDE alj syrP . $ om rraa eACR nl pl vg a1 pl Chr al. Who made thee a ruler Who mide thee a n1er and a judge over us? and a judge? Acts W. 35. Exod. 11. 14.
~ .. k 1~ ~ . i i ,

t@e\ ? @ i n
9>$~

..

Who made thc 'a prince and a judge over us?. OrVHeb. aman, aprinec?.

The words C$ ijfi6v <'of us" are left out here, the Quotation being otherwise the same as found at ver. 27, so that they must have been omitted here because they were unnecessary; and no lnisunderstanding would arise, as they had been read shortly before, where also, as well as here, ~ 7 6 ) "for a man" is untranslated.

Table D.s.I.r.o.]

Rom. XV, 1%; Neb. XI. 21.

103

TABLE D.s.1.r.o.

(1)
Rom. XV. 12. ha1 %&Lw %Iuai"asLd7~']
Zrrarc
xal

Is. XI. 10.
&i(~ivgi

Is. XI. 10.

i

@i[a zoii ' l e c u a i

6$Y&, id a6z4 $(tT QL. ~LO~OLV. ,

d

& Y L L I Z ~ ~ E Y O E ? ~ , ~ L' C Y

$ , ~ 6 ~ c j W?:E~ N?il> Dl32 206 ' I ~ L T O I I xa2 6 d.YLur&pvos i;QxELy ' .) '@') ? 889.~6~ eolirq7 $ 8 $2.8%' ~ ?iCtTl!~ l S 3 ~ ) ) ; $ '
& r a ~ 29 zjj
XLO~:~'.

nal

'"

a!?!'
'I @) ?

D')?Y_

en avzou M. MS.

t)

3

r) -384K. s) nin.196K. 10i K. nm9 151 K.

[And again,Esaias saith,] There s l r d be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles tmst. .
,

And there shall be inthat day a root ofjesse, and he that shall rise L rule over o the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles iiost.

And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the, Gentiles seek:

This Quotation is piaced here, as it evidently follows the LXX., bv r$ + / A $ Q ~ Exsivg "in that day" being omitted, as unnecessary. Both differ from the Heb. in the next clause, rendering D$ in9 1WC . ., D w y "who standing (= shall stand) for a n ensign of the peoples" by x d d d v ~ c z d p ~ vB Q ~ E LE@u&u o~ V (or, even) he who stands up (i. e. rises) to rule nations", where the variation consists in giving &e,yerv hglr6u "to be ruler of nations" for a q D f o r a standard of peoples." ! ) Yet as, in those days, the king led forth his people to war, and his tent, where the standard was planted, was the rallying point, the two expressions may be seen to .be equivalent, only it must be borne in mind that the original retains the figurative fdrm throughout, whereas Paul changes it for the personal. And hence the ending 6d ads@ $~u~BllacoC~w"upon the nations shallhope" for?wl?? O!id i l )<'unto him ~ it the nations shall seek" or repair, which would only be because of the likelihood of deriving good, so that Paul points outthe prior state of trust, whence follows the repairing to it. And thus it may be seen that they both harmonize.
(2)
Xeb. XI. 21. Gen. XLVII. 31. Gen. XLVTI. 31. 'Iaudfl. ...xai ~ ~ o o r n & ~ , - xal ~ C Q O E E H ~ ~ ~'Io- W&Y_ E Y 5@@, \anW?l osv dm1 zb &pov r j @fliq pa+b i n 2 z l &q:xeov zijs &I@" fiwtiilh)
80% a4ro.i;. 80%n6ra6.

-

-

-.-

Jacob andworshipped,
lenniny upon the top of

...

his staff.

And Israel worshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff.

h) namn 69 K. ~ And Israel bowed himself upon the bed's head.

This Quotation omits "Israel", but since %cob" occurs at the

104

Eeb. XI. 21.

[Table D.s.1.r.o.

'

beginning of the verse, and it was said of him who was also named "Israel", the omission, as it were, vanishes. It must be noticed, however, that whilst the New Test. and Sept.' agree, they differ from the Bebrew, as at present pointed: they having 2772 td dzgdv t+s PdPdou a7jsou" "upon the top of his staff'-and it ;i@;! w~l-52"upon the head of the bed." I t is to be remembered that the Masoretic pointing is of no binding authority; and, if iiDn were rendered QUPSOVby the Sept., and the writer of this epistle (Paul, we believe) adopted that meaning, as correct, and if, when it so signifies, it is pointed n Q should we not expect it so in the W, Eebrev text? But the pointing is ZYD, and it must therefore be concluded either that the pointing is incorrect, or that t11e rendering is unfaithful. Now, that the latter is not the case, may be made probable froIjl considering that the Sept. gives xLurjv as a rendering of ilDn when pointed il)?? (mittah), when it occurs in Chap. XLVIII. 2. that is to say, in the second verse thereafter, and if they had regarded them as having the same signification, would they not have acted accordingly? Seeing, then, that to two words, so closely situated, and alike in form when unpointed, they have assigned different meanings, they must have regarded them as different, and the error is thus more likely to have fallen out by the Masoretes, who might consider them from their proximity as. the same. It should; therefore, be npp meaning primarily "a branch, bough"; and then, "a rod, staff," which, besides, gives a more intelligible meaning than "bowing upon his bed's head." Yet, Dr. Davidson does not think so, for he writes in Iutrod. to Old Test. p. 170 "the LXX. pronounced the Hebrew word ;ipg;! a s t a r or seeptre instead of ;lpp;? a hed, as it is pointed in thk Hebrew. We believe that the true reading is in the Masoretic punctuation, for it agrees best with Gen. XLVIII. 2, and 1 Kings I. 47; Randolph takes the opposite view, because he thinks that Jacob was not confined to his bed then, contrary to the context; and because it is not easy to understand what can be meant by ruorshipping or owing himself on the head of his bed, contrary t o 1 Kings I. 47." However Dr. Davidson once held Randolph's view, for in his Sac. Berm. p. 439 he. wrote, 'This,, is exactly from the Seventy. The ISebrew' should therefore be pointed ;)?gn not ?I@." And his earlier opinion I think right, for reasons assigned above.
'

.

Table D.s.1.a.l

Matt. XXI. 42; Mark XII. 10-11.

I05

TABLE D.s.1.a.

(1)
Matt. XXI. 42. [OiSdffora L i r d y r z &
iiv &%edoxipaucu oi oixodop o i r ~ s ,o5ros 6yw+S? 6iS z q a L $ ~ o v i a r nap& xuy elov+6vero a g r ~ xal Surcv , $aruparz$ nilv drp8aLpois

Ps. CXYLI. 22-23.

Ps. CXVIII. 22-23.

rais ypamais] Ai8ov

[Did ye never read in the Scriptures,) The st0110 which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lorcl'l's doinp, -. and it ismarvellous in onr eyes?

22The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner. 23*This was the Lord's doing, and it is manellous in our eyes. * or'Gr. This was from the Lord.

22The stone which thc bnilders refused is become the head stone of the corner. 23This is the LOItU's doing; i t i s marvellous i n our eyes. .' or Heb. This is from the Lord.
'

Matt. here exactly corresponds with, the' LXX., which miy be literally rendered: "[as for] the stone which the builders despised, this is hcgun to be for the head of the corner; beside the Lord was this [thing], (i. e. by the Lord was this performed), and is wonderful in our eyes." The original reads thus: "The stone have the builders refused; it is begun to be for the head of the corner; from with Jehovah mas this [thing]; it (is) wonderful in our eyes." The former is seen to be more connected, the latter more sententious; a n d a beautiful antithesis is displayed between the two clauses of ver 22: "Although the builders have rehsed the stone,' yet it is become for the corner's head." But, alter all, this passage mtght have been inserted in Table .A, since the differences are idiomatic more than anythiug else, &8ov being in the acc., and o6sos added as nom. to By&v@q. (2)
Mark XII. 10-11.
[ l o 068i zrjv y p z ( P i ~ zai-

Pa. CXVLI. 22-23.

Ps. CXYIII. 22-23.

zqY ~ Y ~ ~ Y O E]$UY 8v Z ~ ] oias8odpauerv oi oixo80poGvrs, o9ros dyev+$q 61s XE$BL+Uyoria< "nap& x u ~ i o v @vsro aZnl ral Bm~v 5a.uparr.ri) & d ( ~ 4 a A pols ,jp& ; ~VZW (al mu r o q ) : ita cdd. ant. ut KMr habere solent,

1 2 A i 8 ~ zv &*880~ipm- a : s ?; ! unv oi o i u 0 8 0 ~ 0 6 v ~ s s , ~ o ~i s ;l ! ; o I d r 6 v ~ 8 7 EL'S X S ( P C ( ~ + ; / Y 7 0 w i n s 43anq&~ v p l a u d y B ~ s r o a&?, xal ~ U T L c u P a a $ 5 de 6980rLpoi~+ p i s .

nNqk)23

D1212J >@$? 123

:;I?BfLfisj$

nn>?!"')

KYJ') n ~ i i

:3l':'vz

nun

porr.

k ) t . c . = 1 7 6 K . I)=2i4K. ni 36 K. wrn 602 3 p. K. rn) n ~ i a 35. 36. 43. 2 i 4 K. l

106
[loAnd have ye not read this soripture;] The stone which the builders rejectcd is become the head of the corner: t d h i s was the Lord's doing, and i t is n marvellous i our eyes?

Luke XX. 17; John

X I 38. I.

[Table D.s.I.a. 22The stone mdiela the builders refused is beoome the head stone of the cornsr. 2SXThisis theLOJlIl'~ doing; it is marvellous in our eyes. * or Hcb. This is iram the Lord.

a2The stone which the builders rejected, the same is beoome the head of the comer. 1S'This was the Lord's doing, and i t is marvelious in our eyes. * orGr. This was from the Lor&.

Mark here cxactly corresponds with Matt. XXI. 42., which see above for any needed observations.
(3)
Luke XX. 15. Ps. CXVII. 22. Ps. CXVIII. 22.
[2? 04"irrlu zb r q p a p ~ s a u z o ~ ~ l ]8 o u 8 v m a a U 4 o v 8v ,inzSoxlpauirv 8wipcnr1au o i o i x a S o p o G ~ s ~ , o i O ~ X O S O ~ O G Wo&og BE, $.or &svjS7 sic X E ( ~ ~ L +6rav+Sq~tE e ( p a L + z , p ~ i a q Y x rwxia~;

&?p2 7

~ 5 ~ :a?? WHY\

[What is this then that is written,] The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?

Tlie stone mhichthe builders refused is become the hcad stone of the corner.

The stone which the builders rejected, tho same is become the head of the comer.

The whole passage, as found in Matt. XXI. 42, and Mark XII. 10 is not given here, only the first part, so that this passage might have been set down in Table D.s.1I.o. For any remarks see Matt. XXI. 42.
-11,
John 38. Is. LID. 1. [%a 6 L@os'Hcar'ov roi npogrizoo 9zA7po&f 5~ e b w,] R ~ ~ I E ~ ~ l r n 6 1 1 ~ ~ ~ Z ~ S , IG~cF,inimc110-~ T? zf &of $ ~ O Y xoi 6 !pa; ixo,ij C G v ; *a1 6 @paxiov ~ i w vxvpiov r i v ~ hnsxa- xvpiov r i v ~ 6maaiiiyn87i;

XI^

(4)
Is. LIII. 1.

'

~ j y i unty>jrpF;! )

:anh20) I".
n)
93

vp-ji .ap?

,an)

i<&;
[That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake,] Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed.

280 K. ja 524 K. o) mix 96. 156 K.

Lord, who bath believed our report'? and to whom bath the arm of tbe Lord been revealed?

Who hath believed our 'report? and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed? * o r 7 doetrine,IIeb.hexing.

Both John and the LXX agree in beginning with l c v e c ~"0 Lord", for which there is no corresponcle~ltword in the Ilebrew text; yet it is easily borrowed from the verse itself n!a? . Yh; I & c q i w u xupiou . %he arm of the Lord."

Table D.s.lt.a.'J

Rom. X. 16; Rom. XiT. 20; kom. XV. l o .

107
Is. LIII. 1.

(5)
Rom. 9. 16. ['Huatas ydry l h p ] K l i p , d m0 ; [For Esaias saith,] Lord, who hath believed 'our treport? * TGr. the hearing n i us. t l[ preaching. or Is. LIII. 1. K6p5 z i ~ bZh182106
&a$ ipo^v;

uqn4

7nn)

n) '? 250 K. jn 524 K.

Lord, who hath believed our reoort?

Who hath believed our "renort? *or ~doctrinc,Hcb. hcnr. ing.

For a remark see above N. 4 John XII. 38.
(6)
Rom. XII. 20. Prov. XXV. 21-22. Prov. XXV. 21-22. "ddrv .%FLY$d dx8y65 ?~;l>~~;? d&v OGY % ~ L Y $ d 6~4q65 qE2~2vl-hv2 I T O ~ aGz6~.6&v E ~ $ ~ ~ &vp, oou, ~ & p c T a O L & ~ Y , B r dv 7;izv""a Uiii ~ i l ) n6rcce ~ i r b u zocro rdre JqG, "6ztb aiirdv. "zo6ro " 8 . D$$I 732\:0@") n o ~ i ~ ~ ~ 8 ~ a n ~ ~ ny v i~n~ ~ Gou'r4~oxnq b ~ u w e - nu~bg o ~i-+>-jp anh 8i ~ 6 0 8 ‘B~Z Z$Y KE(PCLJI/Y~ 6 - u~pe-jufilsz Z+Y I E ( P ~ L + Y ~
zo&

ahoi
ouv

cD"'EL a1 ut vdtr longe p i . . . G P O ouv cD*FG dl ... 1.n alLn r e v CAB alp vg d* . Did Aug eav yap svr a1 ef si h: m z l i ~ e w ' n
tau
~~

..

~~~

z age pro y l w p c t Aleu.blS. ~ l d i .d .Compl. Edd. 1-ape. z - o . nuro. .. Alcx. MS. zuo. ~,~ , -4.

a)

+ in 30 K.

Cornpl. hd. cvq xr(paA7ir.

'ouy. I =?* XYEPCC~.? .

:.

a " .

Therefore if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink : for ,Mso doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head.
ymprce auto;

llIf thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, givehimdrink: 2 for,doing this, thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head.

21If thine enemy be huugry,give him breadla eat; and if he be thirsty, give him water to drink: ZlFor thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head.

The comparison of this Quotation with the original is aas follows: 'lfeed him, or make him food, 'lfor n?>'i;i>yyn "make Ium eat bread": n6szce m t o v "make him drink", for D?p ? l "make i@ ! ; him drink water": the words toi;ro %ozorw"v "doing this" are not found in the Hebrew; yet they seem involved in the v? "for then": -lastly, ~$v@~a%,gg mupiis ompchoccs 8m2 T ~ U xeyaA4v ahso5 "thou shall heap live-coals of fire upon his head", for I W N ~ - ~ )iici? ;lee :0$iJz Uburning ! coals art thou takingup upon his head", an instance of the construclio praegnans for Utaki~lg and heaping"; meaning, thou wilt overwhelm up him with shame and remorse for his enmity towards thee.
Rom. ST. 10. [xai a & i ~ 2+'] v E&qg&y8 " S&.yrl 7 roc Lao6
e&oG.

(7) Dent. XXXII. 43. E ~ ( P ~ & Y ~ V 64") pa=& E
zo6 laoG aho6.

Dent; XXXII. 43.

. . .

lnpq) n ? ?w!?i ~

[ a h again he saith,] REjoico, ye Gentiles, with his people.

in Ald. Ed. dcsunt. Rejoicc, ye nations, with his people.

a) + n ~ 146. et f. 5OiK.

*Rejoice, 0 ye nations, ye natlons; or Sing ye.
ni6h his people. * q.0. Praise his people,

108

Rom XV. 21.

[Table D.s.1.a.

This Quotation is taken from the beginning of Deut. XXXII. 43, (as indicated above) which our Authorized Version renders: 'Rejoice, 0 ye nations, mith his people." By this may the Quotation also be correctly translated. The same part of the Sept. begins with: ~Crppdu&re oCgauo2 &pa aCs@ 'Rejoice, 0 ye heavens, along with him", and the next clause is the same as the Quotation in Heb. I. 6, both which are considered interpolations of the Sept. The verse then gives our present Quotation literally. Thus, then, the New Test. and Sept. agree, varying from the Heb. by adding "with." It may, however, be seen from the following circumstances, that the Hebrew is correct. Indeed Dr. Davidson says ( introcl. to 0. T. p. 154), "This is from i n Deut. XXXII. 43, exactly according to the LXX. The Hebrew has Ilejolce, ye tribes, his people; but the Septuagint, in which two different trar~slationsare combined, one being a gloss i. e. la)! psrd and lop d duds a d s o t , have mith his people. The Masoretic punctuation is right; and the Septuagint incorrect", and of course the New Testament also. Yet, I hope to show that they all harmonize. The l a p "his people" cannot be in apposition with the D?U "0 nations", because by the former title the Hebrews were designated and distinguished from all others, to whom was given the latter appellation. Neither could the copula be used, because either it would be D?B *0 his nations and preferring the Gentiles to the Israelites people", (or "0 nations and his p.eople"); or-the in)! *his people" would be merely expletive of the Q1 "0r~atious",thus excluding the Israelites !> altogether, "0 ye gentiles-even (i. e. equivalent to, who are) his people." Nor would the preposition Dv denoting conjunction, accompaniment be used, inasmuch as it would produce a cacophony I D p O y , nor would its synonym ily, though that is found in MSS. 146. et f. 507 K., since, then, an ambiguity would arise, as it might be supposed to be the sign of the accus. case, and rendered: I'O nations, make ye glad his people"; or, as in the margin: "Praise his people, ye nations"; or might be taken, to denote properly the neighbouriug nations, thus: URejoice, 0 ye nations, near his people." The solution may' seem to be as follows. It is a bold dramatic incident. His people may be supposed to bt, making a joyful noise, during which the gentiles are addressed: '0 nations, rejoice ye", and then, his people are, as it were, pointed to: "(see) his people".
.
e

Rom. XV. 21.
[&Ai;
z, &
xa$&

(8) Is. LII. 15.
i;n 04ohx &~?yydA? ncpl u&oC 8 ~ 0 v r a c , nai oi 04% rixqx6aac ovvjuovur.
aurov

Is. LII. 15.

r6ygyeama"j

OR oirx L ~ y d =pi ~ a&l 8 v o ~ a r r , xai oZ 06x &qir6jndarmv, mwjaawmv.

laD')-&

-25
'N3

,@ik))?i)

iN< Q25

C (al?) owqyye>.q 1 oyrovccrc...B 3 i . cop anle ocs pon.

...C a m p l . E d . a u ~ ~ v .

ryizn;! qyn?)
i) = 116K. k) =91.96K.

154K. 1) 183?211.305 a p. R. I ) 249 K. Iya

IGlit as It i b uniit.'ii,l To ~ v l r o ~ i l i i ; ~ sn o t spobz.ii lit, oi: Ihojr sir;~li3 + i , : iiasi idivy : ili;ut l i a v c !lo1 !i:,iird sh:ill ~~uiIt~r~i,:i~~~l.

fnr to w h o m *lin i?:si for fhnt which li:id sI~:~ll tlwy 13oi c p o ! ~of. ~ ~ ~I!;~ll 1~w.wtol'l t,!,w~t~ ~ i1ii.y s : : I I 1 I --.*.:;ILIII iiltirli i,lii.y lhiil riot !~i,;~nl s!la!i liad,.r- 11:wi IN:+. 1 1 ~ ~ ,~It.~ll 1 0 ' ~ :~~~i 11
st.alr4.

cor~si~i*,r,

Tliis Quotation begins wit11 oTi 06% dvvpl'?.v mni uzirofi, o'ap(,urric " ~ I I I ~ vto mliom i t rvas not atlnounced conci:rnin:: him, s l ~ i l lS V I " , , Sir tllu 1L.11. is? 035 783-85 T i & "what was not anuonnccd to ll~:,rn, .. . . vli:l!l t1u.y s~?c." Both passagcs represent tllen~ a s being ;~boiit i,i! set:: only the former lays t l ~ cstn:ss on tire sows, tlli latti,r on tli!! iililig si?on. xcll oi oljn &xliz6crmv,~ c v + ~ o u mYancl tl~i!y mlio 1r;irc iiot v Iic.:r,i.il sll;tll understand", for the IIvb. u!l'>n;! ?t'~q-gi 1c;M '.;!nil ~vl,:~,t ihi,y lu~vt;not hoard, shall they rn:tke tlmn$elves i;litrk3', !.l~iitis? dc.>irl~t: it:ss, "unil(:~.stanrl" by mentally diseernini;. On tlrk 1:tiit.r i:l:in,\c :a .;iu~il:lr remark nlay be m:i<lt.. In thc allove rt~~itli:ri~l?,~ 11;~rolijlw , lowcil thr? .hutl~r)rjzed Vicrsioo, ml,ji;l> makes thc: . . "wlr:l!.l l.~.fclto tilt! ohjcct of si:nse. If, l~o~vcver, were roferred to t!~cs ~ I I I J !TvII~!;!~ ~ it ~~~ unilool~t.e~lly may, seoiu; t,llat, in forming thc olilique ~ x s v sof t.111: it relative l)ronouli, the IJeli!.ews won111use for the (1:~tivi:i:;r.sc "lo wlrom" sncll :rir ci;pr.ossion a s the tcxt furnishes, (set! Gcs. Hi.1,. Or. 5. 121, I), t.11o11,ti>(:two would bnl.~liolliz~, only tho Si:pt. 1i;t.s ar1ili:il %+pi d r o i i "connr:rniiig I~inl"t o rleiiuc the olijcct of the sti.~ten~cnt, l'aul li:~.:i auil borrorvad it.
.7..

(9)
1 Cor. PI. 16. "Enlvmi. ~ Q [, q t j O i ~ , ] a t Y 840 c ; ~ ~ ; ~ X ( < U w'av.

Gen. 11. 24.
xal Cvovra' oE 660 sis o ~ i ~ xpiar. c: nna they twain shall be one flesh.

G s s . 11. 33.

7n& l@& . . ..

????:

for two; [ssitli he,] s h d l

h~ one flesh.

and thvy shall be un4i flesh.

Piiul fi>llo~vs Sryt., mhicl~ has of Gtio "the two'' not t'oui~il i n tho t,ho original. For rem:ark.: thereon see in Table E.I.a.o.(X) ~!nM;ttt. XiXI 5.

C ' l i . aid r v g e o p s y r d
llil, 7G'.

,

-.

,

~~

-

i) t. e. bis 50K. I<) .;m 130 K. 1) =s 81; h . rn) =a 630 K.

+

Thg, Lei-d is my helper,
:rn$t 1 will n o t Ecar what nlerl shell d o unto me.

The Lord is my helper, and I will n o t fear what man shall do unto me.

Thcl,OR!) is 'oil irby sbt.;

I will not fear : %vha,l can
m;m i l c unto irri.'! 71 l l ~ l ! .S,>II , , , , .
A

Ccjm11:wing this Quotation wit11 the original, wc find it. L ~ I I I S t o vary. xicg~ogEpo2 fio@65 "the Lord is to me n, hi.ll~cr", for n!l ;'

'5

110

1 Pet.

I . 7. I

[Table D.8.I.a.

#the Lord is for me", i. e. either mine, or preferably, on my side, as in the version, the word po@os "a helpern being in the New Test., as in the Sept. supplemental and explanatory. In the Heb. the last clause is interrogative: L'What can man do to me?'In the Received Text of the New Test., as appears in the version, it is not interrogative but the object of the verb. Now, the former is more emphatic than the latter, which is thus enfeebled by the received pointing, whereas it should be, as in TisohenclorPs text, like the original. The Heb. pointing states that he wllo is defended by Jehovah can never be hurt, so that he need never fear, whilst the Grcek says he may be hurt, but need not fear the consequence. It may be added that the words will bear either pointing.
(11)
1 Pet. 11. 7. Ps. CXVII. 22. li8ov b &na80%ipnuav Liaov & i n ~ 8 o ~ l p a c n r oi oiKo8opo&z~s,o6rog i y ~ - oolo2xoJopoU~ras, oSrog ireF ~ S~aqnlijv y ~ v i r r ~7%sis xsqaLiu yovilrs, nal ii8os npoo~6pp~c~~azos nod ndzqa nxrxv&iAov, A 6 9 0 9 cCU (vdtr) GX a1 ut vdtr 1ong.e pl Thph.. I,n ArDo? eABCe(vdtr) all Occ.

Ps. CXVIU. 22. Dl;l=;? )@Nn ]>N

i! itih.7> l?

The stone which the bnilders disallowed, the same is made the head of the oorner,

The stone which the builders rejected, thc dame is become the head of the corner:

The stone rvliich the bullders rejcoted is become the head stonc of the colner:

For remarks on this Quotation see Matt. XXI. 42. No. (1) in this Table. The ending of this verse in 1Pet. may be considered taken from Is. VIII. 14, where is found ilii'?p l ? ~ $ 132 ]X>l "and for a stone o l f stumbling and for a rock of offence", which the ~ & trenders very differ. ently, as may be seen by referring to Rom. IX. 33 in Table E.III.r.2.a.o. Peter's words are the same as Paul's there.

Table D.s.I.r&.]

'

Rom. IV, 3; Rom. IX. 29.

111

TABLE D.s.1.r.a.
(1)
Rom. IV. 3. Gen. XV. 6. Gen. XV. 6.

8 ...D'RG a1 d e f g Cgp 6 a1 vg ~ta1 Chr om.

xaa am.

.8zirxaunea? two

MSS Compl.hd.,lren. Clem. Just. M. et al.

[For what saith the scriptnre?] Abraham believed GOD, and it was oounteduuto himforrighteousness.

And Abram believed And he belicved i n t h e GOD, and i t was counted LORD,; and he counted it unto him for righteous- t o him for righteousness. ness. Paul, following the Sept., has added A,5'pocap, and reads s~3 instead of xuprp, as the rendering of lLin Jehovah", or "the 1,ORD". Like it, he gives zu2 ba0yi&1] adz@ &is ~ ~ z a r o ~ d v ? ~ was 'and it counted to him for righteousness7', the passive form, for ?,WVJ

;il;l'>

15

7 "and He counted it to him (as) righteou~ness"; where we have tho subject of thc thought as well as the thought itself, which alone is expressed in the former, leaving the subject to be supplied.
(2)
Rom. 1X. 29.
[nai xa9.6~ ngosi~xn,
Bratas] ~i p+ nl(i(elos ~ a -

Is. I. 9.
m i
&rxcrrElm.rsv $$v

Is. I. 9.

@a&@ +xnrt%~nav $pis vadppa, 6s ZdJopa ;v drcvrj9.ip.w v.czi 6s r i p -

p x6p~og~a@ar68 j -pnla n j ~ 2 y 217; onbqpa, D ~ D uyn3 6s Z6Jopa & +ev+S?pv, :.
a y x ~ e i e c z w . eyryy?@q-

$\$

?,?

x a i 6s 1'6po$#i gv 6pa~6-

&a

2;

6io;&7pv.

:?>lnfh$~pk).v>?q

371~~.

O C ~ E Y ( S o ~ o ~ u.9). i p . e A p r y . . o p o ~ u r 4 7 ~ wAlex. I. YX . FGLete. (Or)..< L n w ~ o r w 4 . MS. et s . l

AD'*'(E?)FGKL aleynazek-

c~(Mai~~)DE~"bl pl.

_

.

..

[And as Esaias said before,] Except the Lord of Sabaotl~ left us aseed, had wo had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

u) '51 17.18. 30.56.72.76. 93.95.96.109.126.130.136. 145. 150.151.158.160.182. 187.196.198. 223. 224. 228. 294.384.602; 154.295.375. a p . K. 6. 20. 174. 230. 419. 440. 547. 562.592.665.71 5. 722; 2. 16. 200. 211. 226. 262. 305. 345.380.443.486. 543. 596. 663. 721. 825 a p. 594 ex e R. Except theLORD of hosts had left unto us a vcry small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrha.

And except the Lord of Sabaoth hadleft us aseed, we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

This Quotation, word for word as in the Sept., differs only very

112

James I1. 23.

[Table D.s.1.r.a.

(i. e. offspring)" for slightly from the original, in having m c ~ ~ p u l ? ' 'Lremnaut, (i. e. survivors)" which, besides, is modified by Den? ! 'very small, or few"; and r j s i b P o Q p ZU dPo~d8~]peu Gomorrha "as we should have been made like" for 13W2 ?'l;i?ne> Gomorrha had '(to
we become like...", thus, departing from the fork of the original, but assimilating it to the+ecediug dg, ds ...dg for ?

...5.

(3)
James 11. 23.
[xai d*iqedt?~ reerpi ifrovua] 'Eniursuuw 84 . xal &ziurevwv '%@pup '4 9 e @ , %el$, Az@ $66, ~ m $Aoric9? a2r4 i riu87a6r@sis ir~xuronirv~v. ~ i g ~ ~ a ~ o n i y ~ ~ . i G.69. vv fete om" om SE. ~ ~ L U Z E V O2~ two MSS. 8 Compl. Ed. Iren. Clem. Just.

+

.+

Gen. XV. 6.
?:en31

Gen. XV. 6.

,: .

::

--

] g, @l

?pi%.& ,
-:

M. et al.

[And the scripture was ful6lledwhichsaith,]Abraham believed GOD, and ~t was imputed unto him for righteousness

And Ahram believed GOD, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

And he believed in the LORD, and he counted it t o h ~ m righteousness. for

This Quotation is precisely the same as is found in Rom IT. 3, which see for any remarks.

Table D.d.1.r.o.l

Rom. XI. 34; 1 Tim. V. 18.

113

TABLE D.d.1.r.o.

(1)
Rom. XI. 34. Is. XL. 13. Is. XL. 13.

i

rk y i p &yyw

voGvivxuqio~;

z i ~ ~ 6 ~ @ o u A o sairroG 6~6vero : xuq'ou.. D*dS ZenoSeou.

.ris6yvo vo6v n u ~ i o v xal ; ris adz06 uhp@avAo~ Wvs-

n!illf)

;I;n-nx pi.,-rn . ...
WS'z

935257173)

ro i ; ~ rrvfi+h@@ L r b ; a ovpp. m. Alcx MS. ct 0 = i 2 K . g) IN il 153K h) Campl.Ed.~mrp~~pans~Alcx. nynm 226 a p. R. MS. Ald. ct Comnl. Edd.

For who hath knownthe mind of the Lord 'f or who hath beell his counsellor?

Whohathknownthemind of thelord? and who hath been his oounsellor, that hath taught hlm?

. .

Who hath directed the Spirit of the LORD, or, 6cing *his counsellor hath taught him? *qHcb.rnanof hls caunscl

The Heb. says 'LWhohath weighed (i. e. proved) the mind of Jehovah?; equivalent to "who hath known the mind of Jehovah?', (as in the Sept. which Paul follows), the latter being the result of the former. It continues with: "And (what) man of his counsel" (or rather " a d (who, as) his man of counsel i. e. counsellor) hath taught him?", which the Sept. renders by: 'and who became his counsellor that taught him?', of which Paul omits the last part, giving only: "and who became his cou~lsellor?". Paul, then, gives an abbreviated expression of the original, wherein the counsellor's duty is mentioned, and that specially. (2)
1 Tim. V. 18fp. [l.6ys~ydlp j ypaq$] B O G ;Ao6zwn ah mrudmrc. Bovv ai. ow rpw (D xwonrrq) eDFGKL a1 ut vdlr longc pld g it go syr utr a1 m JIamTelt LnOv mc* P. aA. eAC 311 f V$ cop arm. Chr. Thdrt al. [For the scripture s%ith,] Thou shalt not rnuzzle the ox that treadeth out the

..

Deut. XXP. 4. Dent. XXV. 4. ahppojus~~@o~rrllo61~~1. IViSIJ 1 ) W Db3n
rp~poqs Compl

&

Ed.

...

Thou shalt not muzzle the ox, that tresdeth out the corn.

Thou shalt not muzrle the ox, when he 'treatleth out the corn. 9r Heb. tlircshcil~

If the reading of Lachmann's text be taken instead, this Quotation will be placed in Table D.s.I.r.o., or D.s.1.r. where see 1 Cor. IX. 9.

TABLE D.d.1.r.a.
(1)
Rom. X. 20-21. Is. LXV. 1-2. Is. LXV. 1-2. [20~Hcai"as &noroAp@ "Ep(puu+C67wysvj87v zors x a l Ad78c] Eirqd4rp zais d$d cirqC4rju p i & T O ~ U L 6p(pm& 6 7 ~ - ?@ pCC;i fnsqorrja~u, V, ,a$ < ~ T O ~ V ' . . V. ~ 6 p ? ~ 6pd pj 6nnqw- Z O ~ S zois ZGFCV. 'nqbg d'h rbv 'L- Z6Bndzrruaz i s y ~ ; q r l s p o v emin ~ ~ . ' ] " O A ~ V $pi- i;Aqv Z+Y $,u6qmv nebs Aabv A T+Y (inv B : ~ n h a n a zck X E ~ ~ & nC ~ B o i v r u rai &nJC ~ a pov neb$ Aabr &nsl.3.oCvra yovrrr. xn2 rlvrddyolzor. Many MSS. 2,g.rce allo20. aupe+ cACD** el*" EL a1 ut vdtr om d e vg cop gctlicr or partidig wit11 the el sgr a1 Clcm. Chr. Thdrt a l ordcr of the New T s . D~EY~D~Y...B~IYO~~~AICX, llil a1 . . . Ln add [zv] cRD* FG f g sah go (afio) Amb MS. / r z r p w r o o r u ... i ~ z o u (sed d e A~ubrste w . EYLY. o m Alex. I S . Ald ct Comlil. pro evgeB., item postea rup. Edd. / t7x.. . .enrp,or. Alcn. pro epg. ry.) jeywopqv ...RD* M S . Aid. el Compl. Edd. Ruf add w (d e vide ante). 21. n g Aaov~. . DE Just ~ Clem s r la., all LIS Aa. I n r a ~ a y z A. (D% x. Iryovza).).. c FG P g Hil om. [ZOBut Esaias is very bold,andsaith,]Iwasfound 3 1 became manifest t o 1 am sought of them 1 of them t h a t sought me them t h a t asked not after that asked not for me; I not; I was n ~ a d e manifest. Me, I was found of them am found of them thnt unto them t h a t asked not t h a t sought Me not.. . 3 1 sought me not. .. 11 have after me. [zlBut t o Israel have stretched out My aspread out my hands all b e saith,] AU, day long I hands all t h e day unto a t h e day unto a rebellions have stretched forth my disobedient and gainsay- people. hands unto a disobedient i n g people. and gainsaying people.

I2

.

~irstly',the New Test. and the Sept. differ in one word, the former having eyevopp, the latter E Y ~ D V S Vsecondly, they differ in transY; posing the first clauses; and lastly, they differ in the order of the words in the last part. Yet these differences are so slight that, they may be said to harmonize. They both differ from the original as follows: (Sept.) 'Eprpcrvrjs 6yevfjSqv c o i ~ p4 p? E ~ F Q ~ Z ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 &E\ ~prj < 7 z ~ i i & UI 8. eZj~69.q~ , 2 U ~ became manifest to those not asking. (or who asked not) me; I was found by those not seeking (or who sought not) me"; Heb. hy91! 'Tgranted access to - they asked not, v"? . . TNYn? l \ ~ t $ (i. e. I listened to those who asked not); I was found of they sought me not, (i. e. I was found of those who sought me not)." I t is seen that the former supplies the elliptical expressions of the latter;

~$5

-

Table D.d.T.r.a.1

Gal. Ilf. 6.

115

or' rather, the idiomatic difference of the two languages produces the variance. 1TD ~ p - 5 3 'unto a people rebellions (or intractable)" of the original, is lengthened into zeds iudu Otl~~~Qoiiur~ u r z ~ ~ ~ ~ v r a ~ u~ i "unto a people disobedient (or unbelieving) and gainsaying", which epithets may be taken as explanatory of 'rebellious".
(2)
Gal. III. 6: Gen. XV. 6. [xa3ds]'A@ga~~6'~i~~ll-xpi Znim~llwv ' ~ B P rq? &@ xai ZAoyiu87 a6rG OW zq? 9 . ~ @ ~ &oris87 ~ t 2
ad,+ E ~ S &XULO&V?Y. S ~ EGXULOLT~~V. ~ x i mcm. ...dninr~voedd a mcm. (FG f g fir a1 Amhrst-al e . a@ ) FG f in twoMSS.Campl.Ed.lrcn. n g v,y a m ~ m b r s t $ e i p r a e ~ Clem. Just. M. et al.
yayqancorr.

~ p@p> lne?l] P . . 2]7?>

Gen; XV. 6.

;1ii,$'6

[Even as1 Abraham belimed GOD, and it was *accounted to him for riehteousness. u * ¶ Or, imputed.

And Abram believed GOD, and it was oounted unto him for righteousness.

And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness.

This Quotation is the same as occurs in Rom. IV. 3, which sea for any remarks. It would have been given in Table D.s.I.r.a., like Rom. i ~3,. only the two &st words are transposed.

TABLE D.d.1.r.o.a.
Heb. X. 37-38. ' tp~bpvos 0 $$L xrrl oi ~ g o v c s i . 386 8i &dm65 pow
h n i a e o q 4 j o w a ~ xu2 &lrv , inanrea7rarc, 08% E ; ~ O X G ~ I emni uou b air,;. ;, , 37. D* ~ e o u r o r c . 38. pou CAN* f vg arm Clem Thd~? D* vv aliqpp .... aliq add post ncoc. F om oD**'EKI.N" a1 pler cop a1 Chr a1 n 1 D'& pov 7 p v ~ q . l

(1) Hab, 11. 3-4. KTL B Q , ~ ~ P E Y O S x a l oi ;iEe~
pi ~ q o v i r , ~ . %B; &inom~ii r j r , ~ ~ , eir3ox~ouai$ vopj oaGx poll b aGr$ 8 8i 8iz)iyam5

Hab. 11. 3-4.

. -.

6%

~ i 0 ~ 6 POW 6 ~, 5

C~OETLIL.

~.

ri:,?: . ~ . Inkli2~2~)
i) = 89K. 1 ) ~Si,perrnuiti ; K. ef R. Edd. x=, x> 182 K. 1) 'nl 474. 494 K. nl) ?D)IY 461 K. neiy 531 a p. K. n) ~ $ 150. 155. 309 K. ~ 5 = 1 206 K. o) *mil; 17 a p. K. n = 17 K. 0 ) >h+x,t K. l ?If;

..

3. Add695.130.185.3111 x a c 03+qoucei 42. 4. rmv ex nrorrux Cqa. A a1 m vv aliq. Ald. Ed.

r)

~;IUN>

vdtr 328 K.

sland he that sball come will come, and will not tarry. 38Nowthe just shall 1ivebyfaith:butif anymax draw back, my soul sball have no pleasure in him.

3for he that cometh will come, and will not tarry. 4If any man draw back, my soul hat11 no pleasurc in him: but the just shall llve by my faith.

3because i t will surely oome, i t will not tarry. &Behold, his soul N A I C ~ s i lifted up i s not uprlght in him: but the just shall live by his falth.

The original seems to speak in the third verse of the vision: "because it will surely come, it will not tarry"; yet it need not be restricted thereto, but may be considered as spoken of a person, whom the vision (or prophecy, which ]lip here means) concerns. And so the Sept. has regarded it, reading: 616rr i n 8punrs ers xureuv Uhecause yet for a season (is) the vision"; and then giving Edv 6ote&ng, irs6~ E I V O Y d t 6 v (lif he tarry, wait for him", not ujlmjv 4'her'' i. e. t q v 8puurv "the vision", after which come the words quoted above. The writer of the epistle to the Hebrews follows the Sept. in this view, giving it more distinctly by saying 6 dp,y6pevos $&I xui ozi ,ypwrai "the coming (one) will come and will not tarry", while the Sept. only says B q ~ 6 p f v o;;&I xui oir pq ,yymriag "coming he will come, ~ h (i. e. he will certainly come pike the Heb. N3: t to come he will oome, i. e. he will surely come]) and may not tarry'', which rendering the Heb. will bear. In the next verse, the writer of Hebrews follows the Sept., but transposes the clauses. He says first: 6 6 6 I x a r 6 ~pow Ex i l i ~ t e o ~ d [~~CJESUI "But my just (man) shall live by faith", which differs from the Sept. by qualifying Gixuios by pow, whereas there it is ntnsemg, reading 6 6c' 6L%ixuros f x ilLusews pow C+OESUL %ut the just (man) shall live by my faith", neither of which readings agrees with the original ; ; 1n;rnp ?lB1 "hut the just (man) shall live by his faith", as if I? ! the Sept. had read T2lnR2 which seems to be met with in MS. 328K.

Table D.d.I.r.O.a.]

Heb. X 37-38. .

117

The last clause in Hebrews, like the second last in the Sept., which it copies, differs considerably from the original, and hence the charge of corruption brought agalnst the latter. It is evident that the Sept. read jWB! 'my soul", and not IWQ! @hissoul"; and it has been conjectured that they read ;iD>Y found in 531 a p K, for >$DY i. e. instead of reading, Itbeing inflated i. e. proud, lofty-minded", they read, "being languid or faint-hearted". So Grotius, Hammond, Capel and others. Rut Pococlce argues, from the use of the word in Arabic, that it will bear the sense put upon it by the Sept. and Paul; and the Arabic version agrees in sense with the apostle. The original is rendered by Gesenius: 'So, the lofty-minded, his be even, soul is not tranquil within him", >?W: here meaning level"; and used metaphorically of the mind, as "tranquil, composed", in opposition to "being inflated, proud" The contrasted parallel to this is expressed in the next lime: "but a just man by his faith shall live", where inFDU referring primarily to "his firmness, stability", comes to mean Uhis fidelity, faithfulness."

.

Eeb. Y. 6-8.

[Table D.s.1I.r.o.

T O L E D.s.1I.r.o.
(1)
P8. VIII. 5-7.
'ri $ 0 7 ~ ~ (:~4@0110~ &L p ~ k l r TOG, f iL65 CY~ ! ~ 3qd%ov 8z1 6n6vn6nq airzdv; 6 j l i r r o u a s rrtirbv
TL

Ps. VIU. 5-7.

n.6

iyyB1ovs,

6. T . Ln zw c C all d c e to1 cop Dam. 7. D elorzzwaacq 1s (-Gb ' Sz) add in f.xoc xwsoznoac
lrvzov
en6

..

ddS?Iaai zcp,? dmsq&vwuas acirr6u, 'xrrl x a z d ~ u aiia~ zbv 6zi r r $pya z a i ~ ~ ~ ~ p a i v d sou' n&rmCn6zorEas ;no*air" zaiv no8& a&,,<.
5. zc

mu.

...n g Alex. MS. a1 6 . $acyyaAAou~..rcpvy. .

z r apyo zwv Xera

Ln [xac usque oov] cACD'EM a1 mud c f vg a1 mu Thdrt Sedul al; om eB D*"KL al-longe pl syrCdd
ewv oou ef~dd ahq.

01 ~il~v~yil K. p) ;l&n> 73 pcrmulti K. et R. et Edd. q) 171 39. 137. 182. 225 K. r) = 76 K.

ra%ut one i n a certain plaoe testified, saying,] What is man. that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitesthim'? 'Vhournadest him *a little lower than the angels; thon crownedst him with glorg and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands: 8Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. " a Or, a little while inferior to.

5What isman. that thou art mindful of him9?or the son of man, that tbou visitest him? 6Thou madest him *a little lower than the angels ; thou hast orowned him w ~ t h glory and honour, 7and hast set him over the works of thy hands: Thou hast put all things under his feet.
* Or, ltss than the angels for a short ttme.

W h a t is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou v~sitesthlm? #For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, ancl hsst crowned him with glory and honour. ?Thou madest hzm to have dominion over the works of thy hands: thou hast put all thzngs under his feet.

Tischendorf's text, omitting the olause xwl x n i n r v n a s d r b v "Elt2 zd t q y a 16% XXEL@V nov "and hast set him over the works of thy hands", necessitates the placing of the Quotation in this Table. Otherwise it would be assigned to Table D.s.1.~. The variations from the original are few. In ver. 5 131 is rendered by $ uld$ for lcui 6rds "and the son." Ver. 6 $Adzzwuas aztrdu zr %up dyywous "Thou hast lessened him some little (thing) among the angels", i. e. compared with angels he mas made somewhat less in dignity, a rendering which is preferable to Uhewas made for some

Table U.s.iI.r.o.1

neb. X. 5-7.

I19

Little time lower", is given for the Heb, q " 8 n rpn i;i?pnY! "and thou hast made him lack a little from angels", i. he is scarcely yet nearly equal to angels. Gesenius translates thus: (seeLex.lIeb. s.v. lp?) "tl~ou hast caused him to want but little of G O D , i. e. thou hnst made him but little lower than GOD." B u t in the original there is no word for $'but". D ? $ M ~ Dpn "a little of GOD" is the meaning according to his interpretition. And under the word c T ~ be K ~ says in a "Note, Many interpreters, both ancient and modern, assign also to D,;iiy the signif. angels,~ Ps. 8. 6. ibiquc Sept. et Cisald. 62, 1. 97, 7: see 138, 1; and also judges Exotl. 21, 6. 22, 7. 8. For an examination and refutation of this opinion see Thesaur. Ling. Ileb. p. 95." In reply I would merely add that so the oldcst inte~preters have rendered it-that so thc writer of the epistle t o the Rebrews (nnquestionably Paul) understood it to mean, and moreover, that, unless it bad so signified, it would not have been Iound, in the inspired writings of the New Test., tranglated by 'such a word.
(2)
Beb. X. 5-1. [LL7e'] Qvuiav X U ? n q o r q o p i r 06% +%Lr/cas, u i p a J i xurr/qriuw pas 6 6 1 0 n m zd@azcrr a i ntql ipnqrios o i r 77i8dx70us %dra Elnov ' 'I(toi quo,- iv x~qcc~i(tc B ~C Uov r 6 ~ p a n m rnepi SpoC, zoc nocjvac d $a& & 86Iqpri 00%. 5. ompa ...SyrP mgorca. 6. 11E d (itcm e?) oioxauz~,pa[liuSoz.eACD*Efrngm uct ap Mt a1 ... ewJon. eD"' KL nl pier pp m (el. &?=?"as leg). 7. r 8 o u . . D it syr add ' rye, / o ~ E O C(et add p o w ; el tramp.) K a13 harl'om., [she saith,] Sacrifice aqd offeringthou wouldest not, but a body *hast thou prepared me: ~ I I I u d b offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no plcawro. T h e n said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is writ,ten of me,) to do tliy will, O GOD. "Tor tl~ou fitted me. hnst Ps. XXXIX. 7-9. Ps.XL. 7-9. 7 ~ u i a xai n.$osqoq& : nEc6) x3 ;i?$liJ i'l3' 06% $481qvas, o O p i d ,\ij n,l?h) D?jlr?l xarqqriuo POL. dLoxaljro,uu :n : ~ w ' ) i ;~~anl'~j, xai nsqi Lparqrirrsoix ;r77 -Y rag. Ezdrs el?lov 'libi irg, . '"1' ~ v x E ~ ~ p ~ i o u~ L p ~ L rdrqaw~ 7" -nb.?p 3 z a nee1 Spo6, l z a i norijua~ -nl.iJ$' zc :$7 31n3 9) zb 8dlqpri nm, d $zdg pov r173bnv,3iK4) W~LJ, . : , 7 . : +goulija?~v. I. oioxaurrupona Alex. = t 99 K. g) mrsn 252; MS. ct Ald et Cornpl. Edd. 1 17 a p K. h) nm 4 1 K. *n% .;jz7jnas...A!cr.MS. etAlde1 80K.:iiri>231K. i ) = 157K. k) >Nan1 35 K. h.5 Cornpi. Edd. read d<+~;injn~~.l B i K. 76 N 9. Thl-ec MSS. qmit &LOU j 1) ~ n i w K. n ~ I) 4; 125 n) * a f 240 K. p i o v n, a' 9. cd S ~ ~oov a n i K. ~ o) a f = 267 K. d,7iloul?jBy. p) 255 K. q) 41.76. 142 K. n,nl73.121K. r) , a f=3iK. 7Saorifice and offering 7 SacriGoc and offering thou desiredst not, but a th'ou didat not desire; mine body hast thou prepared ears lrast thou *opened: me: whoIe burnt-offering burnt-offering an2 sinand sacrflce for sin thou offering hast thou not red i d s t not require. 6Then quired. RThen said I, Lo, I said, Lo. I come; in the I come: i n the volume of volume of the boo! it is the book it i.s written of irritten of me, I desired me, a cdelight to do tlly to do thy will, 0 my GOD. will, O my GOD.

iiily

2

'T??in)

7

. ...

9

-

-

*qjIIeb. dig~edExod.21, 6 [or picpnrcdj.

This Qiloti~tiionis takcn rorn the Scpt. wilh a few slight parintioils, such as o?.oxcnrsc6parcc for b3.oxui.ro,u, by which ;I?TY is

120

Heb. X. 5-7.

[Table D:s.II.r.o.

rendered: &bxqnug for $zqmzs, the rendering of @&t$: the omission a t the close. In these respects of pou after ~ E O S ,also of +@'ouiqiPqv it differs also from the original, from which both the Sept. and the New Test. differ in the clause 9 5 A, DVIN rendered by a 6 p a 82 ?? xuzq~zLuw pol. Considerable difficulty is connected with the explanation of this variation, and several solutions have been proposed. Some think that the words of the original refer to the Hebrew custom of boring through with an awl the ear of a servant, who after six years' semice is willing to continue with his master for life-a custom mentioned inExod.XX1. 2, 5, 6; Deut. XV. 12, 16, 17. This being the reference, the words are rendered: %ine ears hast thou bored", and the sense is : "Thou hast made me thy servant for life"";r, . reversing the order 01the persons, but keeping the same thought: "I am willing to be subject to thee during my life!' But, to this reference and explanation there are two 'objections. First, the verb i n the Ps. is ; Vbut in Exod. it is YS?, i e. the verb, used to express i , the boring of the ear in the custom alluded to, is ys? andnot the verb n?? used in the Ps.; and hence, the'different words would suggest that the actions were different. Second, in Exod. the noun is 131N-tlV iLhisear1', showing that onlyone ear was bored, whereas in the Ps. it is D?2? "the two ears". In consequence of these two objections, the conclusion may be drawn that the passage in the Ps. makes no reference to such a custom. Others find a suitable sense by a different rendering and explanation. Going back to the radical meaning, it is seen that a?? means to dig, (as the Chald. N?? and the Arab. If) i. q, in Gen. XXVI. 25 IF? ?QY? ll.;p DV-91!?? "And Isaac's servants dug a well there". Gen.' L. 5 ,j 'R'l? lW5 >?I?? "in my pit (or grave) which I dug for me"; and taking this sense the clause is rendered Isthe two ears to me (i. e. mine ears). hast thou bored", and explained, as a bold poetical figure for the more common $> ph? jik "my ear hast thou opened", i. e. Uthou hast revealed (this) to me"; (see Ges. Heb. Lex. s. v.) to open or uncover the ear being supposed to have been a customary expression among the Hebrews for revealing a thing to one, including the idea of attention thereto and ready obedience on the hearels part. To support this view reference is made to such passages as Is. L. 5 mi?? Nj ?1.31 jik +-n?? ;ij;l,l: '8%"the Lord GOD hath opened mine ear and I ;as not rebellious", &here the verb n?? <(to open" is used, and tho meaning attached to opening the ear of one is revealing something to him. 1 Sam. XX. 2 "Behold my father will do nothing either great or small U!$-tlN ;i>h: h'i! but that he will uncover mine ear", where another verb "to uncover, make bare" is found, and the phrase 'Lo make bare the ear" refers to removing the overhanging locks, as would be done in whispering a secret to one, and hence it comes to mean "to tell to", "to disclose"-and, when

Table D.s.1I.r.o.l

Keb.

X. 5-7.

121

spoken of GOD, as ih Job. XXXYI. 10 'lip5 O 5l "and he openeth ! i : N their ear to discipline" or instruction, i. e. makes them hear, it means, "to cause to hear". The phrase is thus interpreted to mean: %hou bast macle me hear, and-I am obedient." But the same root 372, or another root with tile same raclical letters, means to 'Lpnrchase"or "provide", as in Deut. II. 6 ?l?? @:i?-Elj '&andalso water shall ye buy", where n>? parallel with 3 1 5 ~ Hos. is ~: 1 1 2 '$ ;il;Y! <<And bought her for 'me". And this sense -of Lpro1. I viding", the Sept. seems to have adopted, since it renders p'?? by xas?j~rio~ "thou hast fitted" or prepared. D?!lF "two ears" (if that translatecl,) would was the reading.in the copy from which the ~ e p t . thus be understoo' to refer to the human body which has two ears, and hence the rendering owpa "body3',- a two-ease& vessel being, as may be supposed, that which suggested the idea, and with which things doubtless they were familiar. We said just now, if @,xK was the reading in the copy from which the Sept. transl'ated, s i n k a solution has been proposcd, which goes on the assumption that the Hebrew text is corrupt, and which would change it to make. it conformable to the Sept. version and Paul's Quotation. We refer to Dr. Kennicott's most ingenious conjecture that D?Jl$was originally the two words tK cLthen"and '&a body";. the being the same as the first syllable of!O !! ! add tlle letters former i$ of 3!:! being not very unlike to the ending DV, i gimel resembling 2 nun, 1 vau. ' yoc3, and i he D mim final. According to this supl position the clause would read pl? ili$ ,l; "then a body hast thou provided for me", in the Sept.. and Hebrews u c a c\azr/@rf'ao poc. But it does not seem needful, as the former solutions show, to have recourse to, this charge-against the present Hebrew text, viz. that it is here corrupt; and besides, in all the MSS. collated by Kermicott and de Rossi, there do not appear to be any various readings of the place. The present text may be allowed, then, to remain undisturbed. Others have -maintained that. the Sept. once had a literal rendering of the Hebrew, a?.rl~ being translated by d r i z , which was changed into c 6 p a to render it the same as the epistle to the Hebrews-a conjecture not supported by the circumstance that some of Holmes' MSS. have rjrla, since it is found there by 'correction,-- a conjecture too, of no service in the present question, as, though it were settled that the Sept. once read &ria, which was changed for, c*c found in the epistle, still it would have to be accounted for, how o 6 p a had found its way into the epistle. For, though Dr. Davidson says (in Sac. Herm. p. 462) "Stuart has well remarked, that nothing is dependent on the clause in question-"a body hast thou prepared me"no substantial part of the argument is built on it, aud there was therefore no need of literal quotation, the phrase being rather incidental than essential to the writer's purpose. The apostle's object in

,>

122

Heb. X. 5-7.

[Table D.a.1Lr.o.

the whole passage is to show, that the ritual sacrifices were insufficient for spiritual purposes, and to establish the fact that this very thing is expressed in the Old Testament. In the St" and 9" verses the argument is stated for which the Quotation was made. "Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and oferzng for sin thou woulclest not, neither hadst l~lcasure therein; which are offered by the law: then said he, Lo I come to do thy will, O GOD. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second." Doing the mill of GOD, in the ninth verse, is coiltrasted with the sucrificcs under the Eum; and tbe clause, 'la body hast thou prepared me" mentions incidentally the manner in which the will of GOD was done, viz., by offeriug up the Saviour's body unto deat11. Ohedience to the will of GOD is opposed to the sacrifices of the Mosaic law. The manner of the obedience is not insisted on, but the obedience itself. It was not necemary to the writer's purpose to mention in what tho obedience consisted. But in the phrase "a body hast thou prepared me", the attention is turned in passing to the great sacrificial death of Jesus." Still, it must be maintained that the clause is made use of by tho wiiter, which wonld have been shown had Dr. D. quoted tbe 10"" wrse as well as the 8'" and 9'": "By the which will we are sancti6ed through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." I t is true that obedzrnce lo the mzll of COD: "Lo, I come to do thy will, O GOD", is contrasted with the sacrifices offered under the Mosaic law. But yet, the Ssn of GOD, in order to obey [or man, must appear in human form, as the -writer had said already in 1 ch. 11. 14--17, and he was obedient even unto death, Phil. 1 . 7-43, offering up himself as a sacrifice upon tile cross (which the saciifices under the Old Testament dispensation were meant to foreshadow), and hence the need of a body sul~jectto death to do so. Hence also, the use of the clause "a bocly hast thou prepared me" In the words of ver. 10. 'By the which will we are sanctified through the oj'e~wrg of the body of Jesus Christ once fo? all."

Table D.s.1I.r 0.1
James

James IV. 5.
Y E Y ~ S rj

IV. 5.
Kt

[?

&YS~ZE

rqnq+ A i p c ; ] nebs @ C o v Zncnde4Ei zb n w i p a b nazqix?,cm & $pis, q (eans.Ln49) liym~ l7qbs - + ~ i v ; Gb Sz l a y e r ; n OF scd etlaln rv V p r v ; ...A ~8ce I (m eomm i j ng. 9 0 . ) a?. mr'ov. eleyrceonjg. (nonitem G cte.); h ~ n e 104 per8 ozc ~ L Z O ~ ' . 40 m'nor' , Se 1 xa.roxqorveGI< slut vdtt f u e amn vv omnThph ..Ln .a
ZWYLW

.

A ( - x e ~ u e v )B a1 ahq.

P o ye think that the
Scripture snith in vain,] The spirit that dwclleth in us lusteth* to envy? 01, enviously.

"

L

The view to be taken of the second clause of this passage will depend on the view taken of the first clause. The verse may be variously pointed, and so a variety of meanings may be got of it. If th~ first clause ends with ?dyer, and is interrogative, reading thus: 8 Joxsite. e r r xcv6g 4 ijpagmj ddycr; "Do ye think that the Scripture speaketh in vain?" the second clause need not be considered as a Quotation, and may be read either interrogatively also, or otherwise, thns: zeds 401Y6vov E%lnoS.si t o nusijpa 6 x a t ~ x . r l o e vEv + p i v ; "Does the spirit which dwellcth in us lust to envy?" or, L'The spirit which h e l l e t h in us lusteth to envy." But the first clause may be continued to rp86uov, and regarded as interrogative, reading thus: 4 SOXEZ~E XEVG?~ yea& Adyet c ~ d g 8 6 v o y ; "Do ye think that the St' jj q Scripture speaks in vain against envy?', and then the second clause reads affirmatively: 8zmotYei t d n v e i p a 8 xarq5xqocv bv +piv 'LThe spirit which dwelleth in us lusteth", and so the various readings o"ti Eclll08'ci and EaczoScZ SE. Tho verse, however, is commonly pointed jl thus: 4 (2oxeirs 6 ' t ~ X E V ~ S yparpjl &ye< I I p d g 40<?6vov bnino8st t d nveijpa 6 X D I T $ X ~ O E Y E jlpiv; "Do ye think that the Scripture says u in vain, 'The spirit which dwelleth in ns lusteth to envy'?", where the latter clause is regarded as a Quotation. Now, it has been found difficult to determine whence the citation is made. Various passages of the Old Testament have been referred to, such as: Gen, VI. 5, 1 1 ; Numb. XI. 29; Ezek. XXIII. 25; Prov. XXI. 10; Cant. VIU. 6; and Eccl. IV. 4, all which have little or no similarity to it. Wetstein supposcs that the allusion is to Wisdom TI. 11, 23, "wherefore set your affection upon my words: desire them (noS.ljnatc), and ye shall be instructcd." "Neitlrcr will I go with consuming envy (rp96vp zcsq~c6rr), for such a man shall have no fellowship with wisdom (oorpip)", taking nveiipu as the same as oorpia

124

James IV. 5.

[Table D.s.1I.r.o.

%isdom", and making the clause mean: 'the spirit of wisdom is desirable." But the introductoly formula, 4 yeapl).Uyez '<theScripture says", is against such a reference, and against the view of Semler and others, that James quotes some apocrypl~alhook. Restricting the words 4 yearpd h i p to mean, <'theScripture says", it may be allowed to inquire whether the formula is limited to the citation of one passage only, or may be extended to include several, that is, may introduce a passage containing the sense of several passages of the Old Testament, without quoting any one in particular. Now, there are many passages to show that this formula ~ntro~luces a single passage from the Old Testament, such as, Rom. IT. 3 r i ySe yp~cp?j Xiyet; @for what saith the Scripture?", and then follows Gen. XV. 6 ' E n i o r s u ~ ~ v Jd'Af@a&,ur @ ,YE@,xu; Uoyioi?? a h @ &is Sixaroahv?p "And Abraam believed GOD, and it was countcd unto him for 1 righteousness", a passage cited in this same epistle, (James 1 . 23) with $he formula 'EnA:li~d,Yq yyearp?j ?j Afyouoa 'Ithe Scripture was fultj filled which saith", a formula met with in Mark XV. 28, before Kaci ,par& ciudpa~vbiloyi~,Yq "and he was numbered with transgressors", a citation of Is. LIII. 12. For the formula ?j yeaplj Xfyer see also Rom. X. 1 1 ; XI. 3; Gal. IV. 30; 1 Tim. V. 18, where it introduces a single Quotation, i. e. a passage fonnd in a special part of the Old Testament. But it must be admitted that this is not the use of the formula here, inasmuch as there is no passage in the Old Testament which contains the statement nqds rp86wov 6m~no,YsZ d nveC,ua 8 xari$xqocv r Ev 4prv "the spirit which dwelleth in us lusteth to envy!' Is the formula, then, ever used to introduce the substance of several passages?, and should it be so regarded here? Now in John W. 33 it is written 6 nzur&6wv eIs S f i t , xai+dg e?nev yearp?j, norap02 Cx rFj$ xocaiocs d r o C pchaoualv 5Jaros CGvros "He that believeth in me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water': where it may be supposed that "as thc Scripture hath said" refers to the clause followiug: "out of his belly shall flow rlvers of living water",-a passage, however, which is not found anywhere in the Old Testament, though the thought it conveys is expressed in several. See remarks thereon in Table E. And why may not our present passage be similarly regarded? Indeed, some think that it contains a general reference to the doctrine of Scripture, and that it is not a direct Quotation. Ancl we have just now seen that the introductory formula would be no obstacle to such a view. Compare in support heroof the wolds in Matt. 1 . 23 Znos n).7i.pw<?j rd q:lii+dv 1 Sr$ z6v npoplqrfiiw "that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets" not, by the prophet, as of one, but as 01 seve~,al, "the prophets", Zrl Na&opaio~ xlL@+usrar "Be shall be called a Nazareue", a passage not occurrn~gin any one prophet, of course, as the introductory formula would lead one to anticipate, but found, for sub-

+

.

Table D.s.1l.r.o.J

James 1%'.5.

125

I

'

stance, in the writings of the prophets. See remarks thereon in Table C.1.o.a. Aud why should not 4 y ~ u q q"the Scripture" be taken as extensively? Others think that it is a paraphrastic application of the tent11 commandment. Says Dr. Davidson (who adopted this view in his Sac. Herm. pp. 442-3): "The apostle is speaking of lust as the cause of wars and murders, and addresses, in the fourth verse, spiritual adulterers and adulteresses, telling them that such a fondness for the world as they exhibit, is opposed to the will of GOD. In the fifth verse, he adds, "Or think you that the Scripture saith in vain, the spirit which dwells in us lusts to envy?" By yo46vos is here meant covetousness, - an excessive attachment to earthly things, producing envy towards all who have more than the covetous themselves. The writer then subjoins "but it (the Scripture) gives a greater favour" in the promise "GOD resisteth the ~ r o u d ,but giveth grace to the humble." So far from the Scripture remonstrating in vain against covetousness, pride and envy, without presenting any effectual means {or their eradication, it contains a direct promise, in the believiug reception of which, will be found grace superior to inward corruption, viz. that although GOD opposes the ambitious and haughty, he imparts grace to such as have no coddence in themselves, but place their wholc happiness in GOD, without admitting adulterously any rival in their hearts: "GOD resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble." If therefore, says the sacred writer, you be conscious of your inability to overcome such corrupt desires, and pray to GOD, he will give you grace and strength to resist them. The seventh and eighth verses agree with this exposition. If i t be correct, then the words in question are nothing but a paraphrastic application of the tenth commandment." To this exposition, he admits, there is the objection that t c j an~5,o.a is taken to designate the seat of evil lusts and propensities in man, and that the proper word should havc been y u ~ $ xuq3La; but he adds in reply that ' a v r 5 p a signifies dispoor sttzon, feelzng, temper of mind, which disposition may have a bad tendency." The verb &zimoE0460 he takes to signify, lo l o w for or deszre zntensely; and with m ~ o sgoverning an acc. of person or object, it denotes an zntense longzng iolvards the particular person or object specified. Hence mgds p8bvov EaiaotYtZ zd aveGpu means: 'the spirit lusts (or longs intensely) towards envy (or covetousness)". And hence, too, the grouud of the prohibition against oovetousuess, contained in the tenth commandment. If the objection to this explanation, founded on the meaning of rd sve5p;ua, be reckoned valid, then, rd nveijpa 8 xas$xrpsv EY lljpiv "the spirit which dwells in us" w ~ l l taken to mean the D~vine be Spirit; and the clause will be understood interrogatively: "Does the Spirit lust to envy?" requiring a negative answer: "By no means."

-

126

James IT. 5.

[Table D.s.II.r.o.

And hence is got the meaning given to Enrno8eZv neig viz. be contrary to and to resist", when this clause is read affirmatively: "The Spirit etc. is coutrary to envy". (See Schleusner's Lex. Nov. Test. s. v.). Preferring the former view, there follows as the counterpart the clause: pci5ova Sc' 8i8ma~ d g w ~ "On the other hand he giveth more grace"; and then comes the Quotation to confirm this: &d Ltys6 '0&dS dn~eq~ & U O L ~ &vtrsduu~zar, ~ant~wois Ji80u~ ~cigrv 'Wherefore it (the 8 2 Scripture) says: GOD arrays himself against the proud, but giveth grace to the humble." Some think that i, ypup+ Adys~refers to this Quotation, and that the clauses between proceed from James; the words npds gp46vov etc. not referring to any passage or passages of the Old Testament. But to this it is replied that whenever such a phrase occurs, some part or parts of the Old Test. are immediately quoted or aSluded to, (for which see references given); and that the Quotation in ver. 6 is adduced to prove the statement in that verse, and not the words of ver. 5. There are other explanations of this passage, which, however, are open to greater objections than those given above, and need not be adduced here.

TABLE E
contains the Quotations in the New Testament, which differ from both the Hebrew and the Septuagint, which are also themselves at variance. This D~fferencemay be I. in Words; or 1 . in Clanscs; or 1 1 in 1 1. Both. Hcnce Table E mill be divided into three parts aorrespond~ngly. Table E.I., Table E.II., and Table E.111. And, as the Difference in Words mag have reference to the rendering (r); to the omission (0); and to the addition (a) thereof, Table E.I. will be subdivided into corresponding parts. Table E.1.r.; Tahlc E.1.o.; Table E.1.a.; or combinations thereof. Also, as tho Difference in Clauses may have respcct to their position, as 1 introductory; 2 intermediate; and 3 final, Table E.11. will also be broken np into Table E.II.1; Table E.II.2; Table E.II.3 to correspond; and the letters r, o, and a, will intimate about the rendering, omission and addition thereof. Similarly will there be subdivisions of Table E.111.

TABLE E.1.r.
(1)
Katt. I. 23.
%oCro 82 8Lov yeovsv Eva n X ~ q w 3 5 $,lli3bv .tab tljrb nvqiov 8 ~ i ;zoC nqoqjrou L&ovros] "18oir $ narqt9.4vog dv rnurqi i t ~ xni rd$c T C C vidv, 1111 XUMITOUULY zb iivopa adz06 'Eppnvavjl, 23. naleoavon~ cBCEKLM SUVZd etc. D aln Ens Eplph Vlg -nnp . . (aln pp' uocabzt, -hitts, -btfzr).

18. VII. 1 . 4 ["&& r o k o Jw'o~' xziqcog a4rbs 6piv qpaiov.1 is04 9 *oq86vos dv yaurpt y v m a ~x2 r d E a a ~ viiv, . rai xaLQue~g 6vopa a& zb
.roc %pprrvov;ii.

Is. VII. 14.

.

dcsunt

MS. I

rEer

pio A ~ ~ w cml Alcx a xar r e f . ~n Ald Ed

[ZZNow all this was done, that it might be fulfilled whioh was spoken of the Lord b y thr prophet, saying,] 23Boholrl, a virgiu

[IrTherefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign:] Behold, a virgin

[?'Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign;] Behold, a vngln

la8
shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and 'they shall call his name Emmanuel. ' or 7 his name shall be eaZZod.

Watt. I. 23; Matt. It.. 13.
shall conceive in t h e womb, and shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Emmanuel.

[Table E.1.r. shali conceive, and bear a I son, and *shall call his name Immanuel.

' or 8 thou, 0 virgin, shalt call.

rendered l j ncr@~vos the virgin, is an adj. meaning pregnant, mill1 child; which the Vat. LXX. renders Ev y a o t e l A&csur, shall conceiz,e in the momb, with respect to the act, whereas Matt. has Zv y u o r e l EL shall have in the momb, marking the stnte, and more nearly expressing the Heb., which reading, &, is fonnd in Alex. LXX. and others. I'lX?i),) is rendered in the LXX. xcr2.l.anc(s, and in Matt. xdtoouor. To me there appears to be here no discrepancy. The name of the child is Immanuel, which the Eleb. represents as being bestowed on it by its mother: She shall cnll. But as other individuals would call it by the same name as its mother gave it, they too would call it Immanuel; and hence could it be said with Matt. xaLiuovar they shall call. Nor is it difficult to account for this change. The original makes the virgin t h c subject of each predicate; but as the last verb nN?? (for the usual form ;INlz [See Ges. EIeb. Gr. 44. Rem. 2 , s 73 Rem. 1 ;I$lz; nm?; n, ng Ges. Heb. Lex., Lee's Heb. Lex. sub' v. N?l]) appears to have the forin of the 2"d per. sing. praet., and is pointed as fem. with schva under n, or, as masc. with Kametz under it,, 5 , as noted above, it might , be rendered with the LXX. x c t L a ~ ~ r s(the former being given as the marginal reading: thou, 0 virgin, shalt call) which is read in Matt., as noted above. A very slight change in this irregular form n N l ? would make it represent tho 3. per. pl. lKlj), which Matt. may possibly have read, and so rendered, as is done in several MSS. of the LXX. a& the Fathers.
not, a virgin.

The Hebrew

; $ ~ correctly i ? is ; !

(2)
Blatt. IX. 13. Hos.

VI. 6.

Hos.

VI. 6.

rlrog

d r o v cc-*&CKLi\lsuvxd

(Gb' cBCaD a1

..F

alroq Inan7 coplcs elaou..
. . x m oui\,ex. 8 s Compl. 1. hd. and many alhcrs. I will have mercy rather than sacrifice.

7

ete. [learn what thatmeaneth] I will have mercy and not sacrifice.

I desired mercy an11not sacrifice.

Matt. has rendered the Heb. y r q which means: to incline, to be favowably disposed; and, if to doing any thing, then: to please, .o desire, will, by @ d , to will as in the LXX. Yet they differ slightly, 9CYD9 being: 1 desired", I inclined to or delighted in, and 8~2.0 ' being: "I will", I wish, rendered incorrectly by: 'I1 will have", i. e. I am determined to have. cdJox6 Ev would probably come more nearly to the original.

Table E.Lr.1

x a t t . XII. 7; watt. XDP. 35.

129

The IIeb. ~ii1'Matt.follows in xa2 o+, which the' LXX. replaces 4 : Itrather than". It is seen that this Quotation varies so slightly from the Heb. that it might have been placed in Table B.s. with
(3)
Matt. XIS. 7. Hos. VI. G. [ ~ $4 + V ~ Y E C T S ridm~v] i 3 = E L ~ a&w 04 ~ U V L ~ V , 8 ~ 8 0 s i l w i avclau, D ~ %at oleor many eopics rirov I rlcor e ( B 1 eE9, 13.)CD a1 Orl. .s ~ i r o r cEGKLMSUVd 7 . . xac otr Alex. RiS. Compl. cte. Ed. and many others. [But if ye had known I will have mercy rather what this meancth,] I will hare mercy, and not saori- than sacrifice. fice, Hos. VI. 6.

n?i-~$> . muon ipn
. : - 7
. ?

I desired mercy, and not sacrifice.

See the foregoing No. 2 for.any remarks.
(4)
Matt. XIII. 35.

Pa. LXXVIL 2.

Ps. LXXVIII. 2.

[8nws zLlpm8f rb &84v $ 6 ; z o i zeo(pjroz) I e ' 7 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ ] %oi€m 4- znqrrflalnis 26 i r o l 5 m dv naenflolnis 26 V Z ~ PPO*, J p ~ K o ~ XE-l ~ a U Z ~ POW, ~ 4 8 7 k ' v a l P ~ npoxquppdva i; dxazaflalts. zn fjkjpma &m3 ,Ce&. s in f. add raafiou eCDE FGKLMSUVXI'A ete.. om cB 1. 22. e k Or.

tg

:ql?~i y x g ) nnrll; ;
f) 'a5 220 K.
c) 7af.-1.2.145.224K.

$en;') ;lc?:yo)

.

6) n-222K.

[l'hat it might be fnlfilled which was spokenby the prophet, saying,] I will open my mouth in parsbles; I will utter things which have been kept secrct from the foundation of the world.

I will open my mouth in parables; I will uttor things which have been hidden from the beginning.

I will open my mouth in parable: I a ill utter dark sagiugs of old:

It may be said that this passage has been partly taken from the LXX., since the first clause in each literally agrees. Yet, why did
Matt. depart therefrom in the other? Was it because he thought it was not exactly rendered? The LXX. gives: gn96yEopar n~o@+,uara? dn' dqxlic "I will utter problems from the beginning"', i. e. (as I understand it) things which have all along from the beginning been proposed to be considered, whereas Matt. renders: igez;Eopac xcx~uppdva und xara,9oLfc <'I will belch out (or pour forth copiously) things hidden from the foundation", in which rendering he agrees wit11 the Heb. '(in The Heb. irtia~? a parable", they both render by the plural: Cv nagaoLaiq; and the corre~~~onding in the next parallel word M71n "hidden things" is better translated by Matthew's xcx~uppdva than by the nqopAfjparu 'iriddles" of the LXX. The root from which
7 7 :

130

Enah XIV. 2 1 ; Luke 11. 21.

[Table E.Lr.

it comes may be compared with our word 'Ito hide". The date, from "from which the hiding is reckoned, is given in the Ps. as Olg-l-'::p of old," or ancient times; rendered by the LXX. dli &e,y+s "from the beginning", and by Matt. dsd xasa,5'oLfs 'Lfrom the foundation': (roafiou "of the world" heing read in g as noted above) which is only a more definite wag of expressing the original 'lfrom the fore", equivalent to LLfrom time past", which pust time is considered to be before one, in Hebrem thought, (comp. the Greek me600 xui 6niaw "before and behind", of time past and future); and, as no part of that past time is specified, it mg point to its commencement. a.
(5)
Mark XIV. 27. Cy$qazzae] IIaz&Sordv no~p'v(ldva,xu1 rri nq6@ara
'&auxoenro~~oavrac.
ran op &aox. cBCDL a15 Alex.l\lS. ctAld. ct Compl. g) l m 180K. h) lynn69 K. i k q S a % . . ~ ( ~ .8Ganx.zang. n) Edd. zar&Car .rb z o ~ ~ t u I , i) ni,xlsm multi K. a cAEFGElKMSUVXl'd a1 pl re6 & a n r o g m o r l q o o r ~ a r r o vg cop a1 I -oourarcACDFG nq. .rqr Z O L I L Y ~ F Alex. MS. KLB a1 m ...r -orcan cBEH Other eopics have - 4 q n e r a ~ . MSUVXr a1 pl 1 EFKM a1 Ald. el Comlil. Edd. -@qcplur2o a c add .rqr PZOLPY~C. ~ ~ ~ ~ v . M o s t o m i l ~ q ~ z ~ ~ ~ ~ q r . smite t h e shepherd, and [it i s m i t t e n , ] I will smite smite ge the shepherds, t h e shepherd, aud t h e and draw out the sheep. t h e ' sheep shall be scat-. tered. sheep s h a l l b e scattered.

Zech. XIII. 7. narL;Enrs roirr naspkvas, x a l ixrmdrars zir n&4urn.

Zech. XIII. 7.

a$l-i;?h)-nij
1 ~ 3i 2 3 n j i ) y

Mark differs kom Matt.. in not having sqs nolpvvs "of the fold", though that is read in some MSS.; otherwise they agree. For further remarks, then, see Matt. XXVI. 31, where the change of the verbal form is accounted for. I t may be added here, that jig;? being a collective noun "flock, flocks" i. e. of small cattle, "sheep and goats", and rightly rendered by r u spopurcr, has the verb in the pl. 3 per. f. JFDn illre dispergentur, "they shall be scattered or shall disperse themselves."
(6)
Luke U. 24. Lev.

XII. 8.

Lev. XU. 8 ,

orspGv.
uooo. (Gb') cBEFrGHSVd alW fere r Ln vraoo. eAUK LMRUXrd a1 pl. [according t o t h a t which i s said i n the law of t h e Lord,] A pair of turtledoves, or two youngpigeons.

..

r~oon. Alex.

MS.

q) 3 136 K.

two turtledoves, or two young pigeons.

two turtles, or two young pigeons.

In the law of the trespass-offering, as given in Lev. V. 11, we r J w IN nqn-'Qw rendered in the find in the original, as here, as !r LXX. &iiyos S ~ U Y ~ V W W Jhq voaaodg ~ C ~ L U ~ E which ,is Luke's q QGV translation, so that the LXX. has departed from itself in rendering

Table E.I.r.1

John

XIX. 37.

131

differently, farther on, viz. in Lev. XII. 8. But the original is more explicit than either the LXX. or Luke. To express the Heb. accurately in English, it should be translated: '%wo female tu-tledoves or two sons of a pigeon", i. e. two male young-pigeons, where the respective genders are distinctly stated, the former female, the latter male. Luke points out the male in: a60 vocwoi~s~ € Q r o t & Q ~"two male young of v pigeons", (as does the LXX.) but he leaves 'the brace" Csiyos undecided in gender, unless it be that it must take its gender from r ~ u y d v w v"of turtledoves", and be feminine.
(7)
John XIX. 37. [&&a reacp$ pi+e~]"Oyovzar

5v dEmSqlrau.

Zeoh. XII. 10. aai dnrPUydvrac nebg (18 6~8.' XUTW~&CYTO. 2"
240. 1 auB wv a. Many MSS. read

T& nEIij >$lfh)lD??Q] t
' '

Zech.

XII. 10.

mcp1.

. . oqovzuc

>1pj?

n ov rnEexe~njouv. Ald. s

Ed.

h) >hn plurimi K. et R. Edd. i) nnl 494; 206 K. k) i l p l 355 K. and thev shall look U O Dn mewhom\heyhavepie&ed.

adds that clause.

[another scriptare saith,] Thev shall look on Him whom they pierced.

and thevshalllook to me. instead o I thethingsrvherelvzfir they have mocked me.

,

It is admitted that John quotes Zech., which, as it stands in the received text, is correctly rendered above; and, since, during the crucifixion, a soldier speared Christ's side, John regards that bircumstance as the literal accomplishment of the prophecy. Hence, in applying it to the event, he records: 6vourac cis 69 bzezdvzljuav "they shall look unto whom they have pierced." It is well known that in Greek the relative often includes the antecedent, like what in English; and it is so here. Thus it may read either '&unto(me) whom", or "unto (him) whom"; and if the former be adopted, it will agree with the received reading of the Hebrew. But, if the latter, we shall endeavour to reconcile them. By attending to the speakers in the two passages, there will be seen to be no discrepancy whatever; for in Zech. Christ is represented speaking himselfto the prophet, whereas in the gospel John is writing of him, and naturally woald use the third person. "Some think, as do Randolph and Newcome, that the evangelist read l$kj ILnntohim", instead of '>K 'Luntome", which is favoured by various ancient MSS. (above fifty) and a few old editions. But the reading is a mere correction", and I am disposed to regard the present text as correct, the LXX. giving a corresponding version, with which Aquila and Theodotion agree. But, that the citation under notice mas not copied from the LXX. is certain, there being an observable difference between them. "It is not easy" says Uavidson, "to make sense of the Septuagint rendering. The literal meaning of it is ILthey shall look at me, instead of the things, concerning which (or against which) they have contemptuously

132

Acts VD. 49-60,

[Table E.1.f.

danced (or rejoiced)." The whole difficulty lies in rendering the last clause. Now, the prep. n8 means primarily in front of, and hence, over against, and the verb 8lty "they have danced down, trampled under foot, regarded as vile and treated with contempt." The meaning will therefore be "they shall look on toward me, over against (i. e. having in view, since what is over against is in view) the things which they have contemned" (i. e. the offer of salvation through Jesus, the Messiah, made first by himself aqcl afterwards by his delegates, and all its consequences). This explanation accounts well for what follows: "and they shall beat (upon their breasts) for him a lament, as for a beloved one &c." I shall next attempt to account for such a version. The LXX. appears to have regarded "the piercing" as being said, not literally, like John, hut metaphorically; just as we hold that mentioned in Luke 11. 35 to be so. And, as, to pierce a thing may he said for, to despise and reject it, the LXX. may have resolved the figure, and adopted the latter idea. Yet, they themselves have, in this case, used a figurative expression of that idea, since they give x a s w ~ ~ ~ ~ u u s ohave danced down." *ping "they in mind that victors were wont to tread on the necks of their conquered foes, as a mark of subjugation; and of their contempt for them, it is seen that the two metaphors are synonymous, that "the piercing" in the sense of "to consider vile" is expressed by "they danced down" or trode upon. Also the relative >We is not referred to ? > N as its antecedent, so that nij must have been regarded as, not properly the sign of the acc. h u t the prep. From this rendering by the LXX. has probably arisen the various reading l l p l , meaning "they skipped, danced", formed by transposing the first and last letters of the root.
Acts VII. 49-50.

18.

(8) LXVI. 1-2.

IS.

LXVI.

1-2.

[& %' i s
"0 '

6 nqopfpir~s ~ ~ E L ] L
~ Q ~ Y O S ,

j 86 f i irmondbov z6v noJ r j , pow noiav o&ov d m 8 0 p j u d Po', I6yzc xbqros, ; zls zdnos ~5 xazanabi w d s pow; "06x2 i ~ ~ pow &ot~ummima % a k a ;
49. pol ...D* (d meus, item vv al) PO* et D add a u a v I q 8e ( a l i n ) rq...B vv pi (non vg syrp) x a r 7j y7j I nocov. al Chr pracm xar I B all
orxo8opqoarre
oq

O ~ Q & Y ~p S'

' o6qauds poV 8 ~ 6 ~ 0 5 Dh/;/F!;I! 0 , 78p3 Kl:c@g --' xa2 j f i irnond&ovziv no- -1w5 n13 ;if?t33 86v pro*. noiov O ~ O YO ~ X O cbpjuezd (10' ; ~ a noios Dl?? iI!-yia)l > - ? n m i zdnos ris xarama6usds . . :lnn~>6~) ipow; %&ma y i p racz-ca q ;i$@iy dnaiqvsv r j X ~ pow. Q 1. pow Bpovos.. .fie& Alex. a) nr * N " mulli K. b) 'a1 MS. A l d el Compl. Edd. 1 113.154. 294 K. e) I 56.

?>i?

;~\e-i?-nh:!i

..

1 raq... D no+ I D a1 vv m Thdrt add in

zar 7 j ~ 7 j _ . . l$8 y? Alex. MS. j Ald. rt Campl. Edd. I r' a zo'os .. .? nocos Alex. MS. Compl. Ed. . .. q r ~ 16. 86. s
2. Mnnv vnr. but none agreeing with N. T .

150. 153. 208.309.380.598; 294 a p. K.

-

f. eazw. 50. nwr. .ram. cACDE a1 ... E ZLIM. ZEYC. cBH a1 pler v; ut vdtr omn pp.

[as ssith the prophet,]

Table El.r.1 AsHeaven is my throne, and earth is "my footstool: twhat house will ye build me? saith the Lord: or, what is the place of my rest? SOHath not my hand made all these things? . 'Gr. thc footstoolof myfcct. i-Or, what sort of.

Rom. 111. 14. lReaven is my throne, and the earth <s %myfootstool: twhat house d l ye build me? and twhat is the place of my rest? %For all these things hath mine hand made. 'Gr.thefootstoo1 ofmy fcet. t o r , what sort of, *Theheaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where zr the house that ye build unto me? and where rs the plaoe of my rcst? 2For all those thznys hath mine hand made.

That this Quotation has been cited from the LXX. .may be admitted, since, with a few exceptions, they agree almost word for word. The following are the variations. The Ileb. '&p? D @ ! <'the heavens l; are my throne" is rightly given in the LXX. 6 ozjpcvirs pou 8@vos, for which in Acts is read: por 9.govoi. '<isa throne for me", i. e. = I have heaven as a throne. Yl.y;?I in tho LXX. mi 6 ylj, in Acts 6 2 yij. Acts next agrees with the LXX. in noiou oTxov o&dop+cTass por "what sort of house will ye build for me", as the rendering of 3 - 5 17 l> 1 ' 3?p 1WN ill> I'what is the house which ye will build for me", where the former drop the relative, and of course make the antecedent the object, rendering n?=3 y : by zoiov oTxou. In Acts, there is here bF inserted, dayar uupcog lcsaiththe Lord", which may have been borrowed from the beginning, 3]3' yt22 75, in the LXX. oBsoi diyai xup~oi. "thus saith the Lord", and is thus not a pure addition on the part what is the place" departs of the citer. The next 7 j & t6nog LLor from the LXX. xed noiog z6nos lLandwhat sort of place", the corresponding rendering of Dlpg ;i!-lF:! "and what is the place", the LXX. again giving aoios for 3176. he next clause is simply added in the original: %nd all those my hand made", but in the LXX. it is introduced by ykp "for", as assigning the reason for the previous inquiries. In Acts it is put interrogatively, o w "hath not my hand made all these?" which requires an affirmative answer, and is thus a very appropride subsequent of the preceding, and presents only a different form from the original, the question in Acts finding its answer in the Heh. form: "hath not my hand made?" = "my hand hath made".

+

'

Rom. 111. 14.

(9) Ps.IX. 28.
xai
z o ydpa ~

(X. 7.)
a &

Sv zb m6pa
z c x q l a s 78pi.

06 i g t s s.6 cr6pa
G62.a~.

mnlvb)Ni! 93??')
'

Ps. X.

7.

~ n mxpiag xai t

yn!

Ln wr zo u .[aurwv] cB 17. z

a) l$m 245 K. b) i praef. = 37. 39 et all&. .

Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness.

Whose mouth is full of oursing and bitterness and deceit.

His mouth is full of cursing and 'deceit and fraud. B Hob. deceits.
+ +

The pl. 6v is used for the sing. ozi, since Paul is writing of the wicked collcctively, whereas the Psalmist describes them individually; yet, what is true in the latter case must be true in the former also.

134

l Cor, XV. 54. '

[Table E.1.r.

The Sept. has the relative 06 and also a possessive pronoun adso5, 'his limiting grbpa, the latter alone of which occurs in the Heb. mouth", and the former in the New Test., which appears to be used in preference, to give a connectehess between the Qnotations taken from different parts of Scripture, a practice the admissibility of which no one would question. The New Test., along with the Sept., varies from the Heb. in rendering n l D l n LLdeceits" the pl. by smcpias L'bitterness" in the in sing., and seems to derive it from 11p "to be bitter" instead of, from il?? Pie1 ;la? "to deceive".
(10) 6 6
1 Cor. XV. 54. Is. XXV. 8. [zhrs rev$razac 6 A6yas r q p a p p c 8 ~ o s ]K u ~ e n d 8 ~ * a z i z ~ e v6 8 & v a r oi~ b q 8oivazas 6;s v i u o ~ . -as

Is. XXV. 8.

~ .9n].pq,Y!?~) ) ..
s) 'ln 72.96.150. 153.187; 4 a p. K.

ucuos . habent (ut tali* s;epc)~ewrorBD'I; incontentione Ten. Cgp Hi1 Hier.

..

lthen shall be broueht topass the saymg. thar is written.1 Death isswallowed np in victory.

Death having vrevailed He willswallow uo death hath swalIowed up. in victory. Here we have xaseabi+f.li@dvatos cis vixos '2eath was swallowed i,
v .

up unto victory." By turning to the original, we find that the words, as they are pointed in the received text, must be translated "he (i. e. Jehovah) swallows up (or destroys) death for ever." The Sept. appears to have used the verb in the same form, as the passage is there rendered xasCstev 6 Sdvaros iu,&ra$ %eath being strong swallowed up." As this translation, however, does not convey the idea of the original, but rather its opposite, its support of the received pointing must be considered very small. Tho same f&m seems to have been used by Aquila who gives xaranovaiac~z v 8dvatov ds vixos "he d will drown death unto victory". Nor is Paul without countenance in his reading, for Theodotion translates as he does. "But perhaps" says Dr. Davidson (in Sac. Hem. p. 418) 'Ithe verb should be pointed as Pud, and then the sense will be "death shall be destroyed for ever." Doubtless, since the pointing is not authoritative, the very slight change of 952 into $3 is not inadmissible. Yet we should prefer keeping it as it is, since the Hebrew, in all the other clauses, makes the Lord of Hosts the actor, and the present one also could not but be said of Him; and since the New Test. states the main idea, viz., the destruction of death-which was all that was needed, without addlng the actor as in the original. The closing expression would seem to be different. The Heb. ilS:> is usually rendered Ufor ever". The verb, with which the noun is connected, viz. nS2 means primarily to shine, be zllustrious, said of

Table EJ.r.1

1 Cor.

XY. 55.

135

one who has done splendid deeds, which presupposes his being pomerful, valiant. In Chald. the same word nx? means to excel, to overcome (see Dan. VI. 4. W J q n ill;! 7;; 5 ~ 3 2 2 <&this Daniel was preferred"), as , , it does in Syr. also (-> to conquer, hut pp. to shine; whence b$ illustrious). From this Aramaan usage, then, it is easily seen why the victory"; and his meaning is, Apostle rendered it by €is vixos LLunto
%

that death was being swallowed up (or destroyed) until a victory mas gained over it, 'which could never be said so long as death had the least power,-in other words, which would be only when death was utterly destroyed, so as never after to be able to display.any powerwhich is tantamount to its extinction -L'forever". From the idea of strength may come also that of being firm, enduring, eternal; and hence the meaning of perpetuily, everlasting, attached to the noun, by which the expression in the text is usually rendered. "Some assnme also the idea of perfection, completeness, and make the phrase mean, mholly, entirely; but in all the passages, where this meaning is assigned, the idea of perpetuity may, perhaps, better be retained. We have seen, then, that whether it be rendered d s uixos "to victory" as does the Apostle, with others; or "for ever" ="utterly" which is met with among good translators,. the meaning is not altered. It may he added that, instead of translating -€is uixos literally .. "to victory", it may be rendered .for ever", since thereby nsfi is xaray&yetac 4 p o l ~ y a i a ; rendered, e. g. 2 Sam. 11. 26 ,u$ EL'S v i x o ~ num in perpetnum devorabit gladius? Will the sword devour for ever? See also Job. XXXVI. 7; Thren. V. 20; Amos I. 11.
(11)
1 Car. XV. 55. ROC CDZ) 8&vmra ib x&.rqov; a06 oov 8civars zb Hosea XIII. 14. mil rj Jdx7 uov, 8 0 ; v a ~ a ; no6 r b zQvzqor oov, c67; Hosea XIII. 14.

? i l ~ P/)?7 1 7 3 ) *)
5 i

1;1,~

7:cP ~

~

rt syr utr

eBCl li.64.71.vg. cop acthi 9 ~ - r bls eBCDEFGI 39. 67 COD aeth ...c ante zo vm. bibebei +J7 c p (vide ante) KL a1 p l vv m Or Athi Euther a1 pm. 0 death, where is thy sting? 0 *grave, where 2 s thy victory? ' q or, hell.

...Ln

WX.

et x n n e .

- -

Where a thy cause, 0 death? Where zs thy sting, 0 hades?

0 death, I will be thy plagues: 0 grave, I will be thy destructzon.

no6 o m 8&uure r b v i m $ ; "Where,

According to this text, Paul says noD oou ;f&vare rb xcvryov; 0 death, is thy sting? Where, 0 death, is thy victory?'Another text transposes xCur~ou and vixos,

136

1 Pet. I. 24-25.

[Table E.1.r.

reading noii sou, @oivar~,r6 ~ i x o s ;no; o o ~ 8oivuzo; zd x i v z ~ o v ; , "where, 0 death, is thy victory? Where, 0 death, i s thy sting?" Still another text reads, 4&j IiO hades" instead of thk second Bbvara '0 death", being otherwise as the latter text, whereby it approaches the Sept. no; i dizq sou 9.civuze; nbG r d ' z t m ~ o oou $87; '(Where is thy v penalty, 0 death? where is thy sting, 0 hades?' The original, as now pointed 5 ? ~ $q ! ';Ti$ nm q m l rj;i "I will be thy destructions, 0 g z death; I will be thy contagions, 0 s6iol (or grave)" differs from both. Instead of 7;iE it has been proposed to read ;I?.e"where?" and thus . it would be brought nearer the versions. The 10" verse begins with q?)n '7% '9 will be thy king"; but another reading is "where i s thy king?'and if such a change be admissible there, why not here? "Those who think", says Dr. Davidson (in Introd. to 0. T. p. 157) "that the Hebrew should be corrected by the New Testament here, proposing to change ';iij Zwill 6e into iN where, are altogether : mistaken." He remarks (ut kp.) that "this is a free citation from the LXX., who have not rendered the Hebrew closely, or correctly, for they have ~ o for ,;TiF as if it were i $6 Z x v oov for 7'1;l, u l , and r 6 xCvrpov ~ o for ??QE.') Yet he allows (in Sac. Herm. p. 419) u that "the sense is the'same in all, .though the words are different", and suoh will be readily admitted to b e the case.
1 Pet. I. 24-25. Is. XL. 6--8. n i u a uhpS &E x i p o c , niua uipS x i ~ r o s ,xnal xai ngua 865a adrjs 6 s ngva M5a b ~ 8 ~ 6 n o v 6s h 8 o s x 6 p o u . &eiv% 6 i v a a s x o e o v '6@I5rieiv311 6 ~ 6 ~ r oxal, zb Zva'~9.o~ 5 ah06 ~ d p r a ~ zb i'v:YS.a~ xai d<id68es. 55nuv J pipa xu- S ~ U E , 8; @jpa ZOG a ~ 0 6 ; 6 ‘! @iov~ 8 ~ ~ 6 1 4 O L ~ ~ Y I I .~ 6 &ZL €15 Z ~ ) Y C L ~ ~ Y S . i v 24. wq pr eBCGK a1 ut 6. praem. wq ante ~ o q 46. . vdtr longe pl vg cap syrp ... 49. Gbo Ln omcA als am* I au8. Many oopies have(I+pr. ~ 7 cABCGK h a17 vg syr xvqiou w'wa. s .q (- Gb Sz) av4gonov ( b ) c rninusc arr I kvzov G' cCGK a1 ut vdtz lonsepl vg ...GbOOLnomcAB a18 am al.

.

,

Is. XL. 6-43,

53) Vy;! ~$3;11-5?~ :;,; lk! y;ijiij13?1Y,y y?z170111 4?; ,,,jF
~ 1 ' 8

..

.

o)rv)

047:

..

25 xuqrou.. .syr aelh Did Thph r o v 9-rov 1 All flesh i s as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the Bowertbereoffall~thaway. XsBut the word oftheLord endureth for ever.

All flssh is grass, and all the glory of man as the flower 8f grass. EThe grass withereth, and the Bower falleth away; but the word of our GOD endureth for ever.

All flesh

is

grass, and

all the goodliness thereof r as the flower of the s

ficld: 7The grass wthereth, the flower faaeth; 8 ... but the word of our GOD shall stand for ever.

This Quotation varies from the original in prefixir,g oSg ILas"to Xoeros 'Lgrass", reading '<all flesh is as grass" for &'allflesh is grass", and so the Sept.: in affixing uzhoG to &viv9.0G making "and its flower

Table E.1.r.l

1 Pet. 11. 24fp.; 1 Pet.

I . 8. T

137

falleth" for ILfadeth flower", like the Sept.: lastly, in reading xuerou the =of the Lord" for zoC 8coC q@Gv "of our GOD", as in the Sept. for the Heb. $>';i58. These additions and alterations would put it in Table E.1.r.a. according to Tischendorf's text. Both Sept. and New Test. vaiy slightly from the Eeb. in reading y'y? "as the flower ds 2;vaos x 6 p r o v L'asthe flower of grass" for of the field." The 7th verse of the Heb. has been omitted, but. it may be borne in mind that it is not found in some MSS. nor in the Sept.
(12)
1 Pet. II. 24fp. 8s = i s dpaprias $pow n6rbc &v$vsyx8v. ~ p w u .B u p o v .

Is. LLII. 4.

Is. LIII. 4.

..

oSros r i g liPaqrias Gp6v @b) ~9;l qkp~c. o&og. ..o;rmg 6 2 . et ed. a) i ~ q x i n 150. 154. 198. Alex.1 a p a e z ~ c r ~ . . . a a 9 e v ~ L a g 309 K. In singulari 4 . 20.
93.
3134. 380. 545. 548; 2. 3 : 0. 519. a p. R. b) Inpa'tic~plo (nose) 304 R.

Who his own self bare our sins.

H; beareth our sins.
IS. L ~ I : 11. wal zlrg &pmeriag a&6v a4rbs r;voivs~.

Surely he hath borne our griefs.
,
IS. LIII. 11.

$2?? Mil DQI??!

And himself .will bear their sins. Is. LIE. 12:
xai nlicbs r;pupciw nol-

for he shall bear their iniquities. Is. LIII. 12.

IGv ir;vrjveyx.ns.

N$!3

x)-

D)z>-Upn Nlil!
130 K .

i

And himself bare the sins of many.

and he bare the sin O f many.

These words in 1 Pet. are, properly speaking, not a Quotation, though bearing an evident reference to these verses in Is. Whether it be ?ll?& "our sicknesses", DQjli) catheir iniquities", or N@nLLsiu'', the Sept. renders by ripolprius '<sins", the word that Peter uses. Again ~ $ 2 ver. 4, the Sept. renders by r p s e ~'the bears", but in ver. 12 in ~ by dvqucyxa <'he carried up", which Peter gives, %p? of ver. 11being rendered by Juoimc "he will carry up." The verb wLich Peter employs shows a constructio praeynans, meaning "he carried" our sins. in his own body (when offered) "up" on the tree.
(13)
1 Pet. IT. 8. &Tcimj %a).bz66 cA+?-o~ i,uaprr&v. a y a n q eABGK a1 ferelo ClcmXhhr2 Oee .ce (itcnf Sz. non F ; Gboo) pracm 1 1 e inin mu Thph 1 x a i v n z s '

Prov. X. 12.
n&Ytas a zmk p i d o d vzcxo.ivras ruA4nzec ~ J i a . xalvnrrc yrrr, in alMSS.

Prov. X. 12.

ilQn D'~~$-I? 352) . . %

~

..

138
(Gb") cABK al plur40 vg cop . . F -we' eG a1 mu syrPOee.
charity 'shall cover the multitude of sins. ' or, will.

2 Pet. U. 22fp; Rev. 1 . 27. 1

[Table E.1.r.

but love eovereth all that are not contentious.

but love covereth all sins.

, '

It is easily seen that this is a Quotation from Prov. X. 12, which reads "over all transgressions will love cover." The Sept. could not have been used here at all, since it renders: c'All who love not strife does friendship cover", which yields a quite different meaning. Peter has adhered to the Hebrew, but reads m 9 . o ~ ILamultitude" for 52 'all': the same thing still, since there could not be a "full number", if one were omitted.
(14)
2 Pet.

II. 22fp.

Prov. XXVI. 11.
&nee %&wv 8rav dndL8,q dn1 rdv dorvrot Kpzov.

Po. r!

XXVI. if.
...

[uvp@df17%6v eiToi5 zb $5 il78o.irs nupo~tdcs] K6ev 6z'urqi~asdm1 ri,i&ov dEdeapa. tFs a ~ (a1 m phopa, K o -p e w 7 ... 137. pp [ m u 16.1

l q k k )59 33: $5>

k

Alex. MS.

zor e m . ep.

...r. ep.av.rov

kk) alp plures K. et R.

6,'ln.rOV.

[But it is happened unto them according to the true proverb,] The Jogisturned to his own vomit again.

As a dog, when he returneth to his own vomit.

As a dog retumeth t o his vomit.

The first part of this verse, quoted from Prov., agrees closely with the Hebrew, from which the Sept. departs. By the Heb. K p "vomit" is meant 'lwhat has been-vomited", and so Peter's r t ~ q a p u , but the Sept. renders it by EfiEsOV 'Lwhat causes to vomit", an emetic. From the last clause of the verse not being found in the book of Proverbs, it might be concluded that P e t e r refers here, as also in 1 Pet. IV. 8, to proverbs that were then current. So Dr. Davidson thinks in regard to the last named. He says, in Introd. to Old Test. pi 174 LLPerhaps apostle refers to a proverb which was then cnrthe rent, and not to the passage in the book of Proverbs." And if so there; much more so here, where he adds a clause not found in Proverbs, and yet introduced by him with uuppdpixrv uuro?~i-d ses drlq80% naqo~pius "that of the true proverb hath happened to them."
(15)
Rev.

II. 27.

nut norpavsi uirohs i u

$&@cSv ucJ7e+, &sz& uxe67
r&x e p a w i r vuvr~iiYnac. ourrp'gma~cAC a1 eerle prn Gb' -&orcar CB a138 vv

icre omn.

And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; ss the

Ps. 1 . 9. 1 Ps. 1 . 9. 1 norprrvzFq c&irolsb @& 51.12 D?@? Dglnz) .. 8~ m*$, 6 s u&oq xaqai3!$!hb) 191'3 . . p6mg U Z I Y Z ~ ~ ~ V E L E a610Sq. Alex MS. prwn uar 1 69 z) ayn~~pcxmulli a) 'x K. o n t q in Alex. MS. Ald. et 121. 150 K. b) naun 19 K. Comnl. Edd. Thou shalt 'rule them Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou with a rod of iron; thou

h?

Table E.I.r.1 vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers.

Rev. J. 27. I shalt dash them in pieces as a potter's vessel. * Prrmarily to tend as a
shepherd.

139
shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.

This passage is evidently quoted from Ps. 11. 9. There is however a difference of persons, the third being put for the second. The Heb. DY>n "tliou shalt break them" is rendered both in the Sept. and in the New Test. by norpaveis L ' t h oshalt feed", "act toward them ~ as a shepherd", a meaning to be got from Dyln by a different pointing and referring it to ;ivy to feed, and tropically: to rule, cure for, as a shepherd, whose duty images that of a king. The remaining d~fferencemay be thus exhibited. The Rev. may he rendered thus: "As the pottery vessels are dashed to'pieces, (so shall he dash them)"; and the Hebrew thus: "As a potteiJs vessel (is dashed to pieoes, so) shalt thou dash them."

140

Rom. I. 17.

[Table E.1.o.

TABLE E.1.o.
(1)
Rom. I. 17.
[XU$&

7 d r q a m o ~ ] 0ad '

Hab. 11. 4. 6 ~i $ix)ixa~os niursds 6%
fiov t j v ~ z a ~ .

Hab. LT. 4.

~ ~ ~ ( I L Od O Z 6 0 ~ ?x E

C+UGT~C.

;iln! m!m,ur)

pqq)

.- [as i t is written,] The just shall live by faith.
&UET~L

. . .

nnem cd. 1 .

6

3n;raw

videtur 328 R.

but the just shall live by my faith.

but the just shaU live by his faith.

Rom. I. 17 closes with the Quotation 6 62 Sixucos Ex a i m ~ w s "and the just man shall live by faith1', where faith is represented as the source of his life. Now, there never can be a faith, unless it have both a subject and an object, i. e. a person by whom and a something about which it is exercised. By turning to the original, we are infonned of the subject of tbe faith, for it says, as above, 'cAnd the just [man] shall live by his faith" i. e. by tbe faith, which he, as possessor, 'directs to and centres in some object. The . Sept. differs from the Hebrew in reading Umy faith" nlorewg pov for "his faith". Now, the prophet records the words as uttered by the Lord, so that my faith, if interpreted, as we have done "his faith", would mean the faith with which the Lord, its possessor, trusted in some object,- and this object is, from the context, found to be the just man. But, that this is the meaning, no one, I imagine, will assert. However, it is well known that, when in a sentence two nouns come together, bearing to one another the relation of property and possessor, such a relation may be regarded as conveying sometimes both an active and a passive sense, and sometimes either one or other only. Thus, "the love of GOD" may mean either, actively, the love which GOD shews towards us, or passively, the love which we bear to GODshortly, either GOD'S love, or love to GOD.-Again, the providence of GOD can only mean, the oversight which GOD has of creationthe active sense-and the fear of GOD, only the fear which persons have of GOD-the passive sense. And in this last sense, undoubtedly, are to be taken the words 'Imy faith", meaning, the faith of which GOD is the object, and of which the context leads us to infer that the just man is the possessor. We see, then, that after all, whilst the EIeb. states the subject, and the Sept. the object, the New Test. differs from neither, by stating it absolutely, and that nothing is lost by having the different readings, but rather that the exact meaning is more readily obtained. Many MSS. of the Sept., by omitting eou, bring it into agreement with the New Test.; yet, (as the omission is

easily accounted for in this reading of t h e Sept.
~ ~ n1. 11. 1 .

way) it must b e regarded as t h e right
(2)
Hah. 11. 4. Hah. 11. 4. q) + , i i ~ u ~ i K. pllul usq. 96 ad ,> 7s. 5=497K. r)m;lnN> vdtr 328 K. m D N 3 cd. 1 . but the just shall live by his faith.

,.," -.--.
FG g yeyeascar yaq, item pr;em~ssoSVi. U*E d e al.

.

for, The just shall live

by faith.
This Quotation i s

t70. Alcx. MS. et Ald. Ed. Many MSS. omit re". but the just shall live by my faith.
pou ex scoz.

-.

the

same

as the

preceding,

Rom. I. 17,

where

see remarks.

Xatt. VIII. 19.

[Table B.1.r.o.

TABLE E.1.r.o.
Matt. VIII. 17.
Zmwr nl7,qw$? ri,

(1) I s LIII. 4.
dpolqrlas $pGv
$,UCCW^Y A&JYOL-

Is. LIII. 4.

8th 'Huol'ov roi eqoqjrav A6rovras] A;lrds r h 6uBe~ Y E L jP& iyAa@m ~ ~ %el rdir rduovr d@&rnausv. q f l ~LX*npwIeIapev K all Chr ausrlcr@.

o&oc rig
( P ~ Q E Lm
z-6,

i

me>

N??~) ~l;i,?3?,~~") j?U

o>?gC) q & ~ n i u
a) 1~9xin150. 154. 198. 304. 380. 545. 548; 2. 305. 5 i 9 a p. R. b) In participio (nose) 304 R. c) a12 30. 72. 149. 246. 252. 254. 295. 297. 330. 351.576.557.606; 560 a p. 224. 228, 403 rng 35i Keri K. 1. 2 0 . 1 8 i ; 91 c d a p R. Edd. pl.

...

...

Alex.jdFeezia~ do@rueiap 309 K. In singulari 4. 20. ...
93.

O&OF

...

D&W(

62 et id.

+

[That it might be falfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,] Himself took our infirmities, and hare our sicknesses.

He heareth oar sins and is pained for us.

Surely He hath borne our griefs, and carried onr
SOIIOWS.

Here not a word of the LXX. is found in Matt. The first clause of^ the Heb. means lit. "our sicknesses he lifted up." But, as %ckness" is attended by Uweakness", or, rather, as weakness is an evidence of sickness, and as, often one "lifts up" a thing in order to take it either away or simply to himself, it comes to mean with Matt. z& Eiot%v~ius +@v ~ O I @ E Y L L ~weaknesses he took [on himself]." : ur The LXX. renders by scSs cipaQnbcs+p6v yf'eir "our sins he bears", which we should not consider incorrect, inasmuch as, sickness being a consequence of sin, he who takes the former upon himself must be regarded as bearing the latter; otherwise there would be one suffering effects, when the cause, from which they resulted, did not operate on him. See 1 Pet. 11. 24fp. The last clause in Matt. reads: zds vboovs Z@dtlnruo~v "[our] diseases he carried" for the Heb. meaning: I'[as for] our sorrows he bore them", where they are more minutely described and seen to be liainful: "our pains". Also, "to carry or bear another's pains" means to bear patiently the punishment for another, which his sins have entailed. In the LXX. it is thus rendered: irtQ2 Gprjv dJz~vZsur "he is grieved about us", which properly would mean, that the knowledge of our snffering affects. him with grief, from which it is seen that it could also mean: =he beqr grief for us". But as, whilst we are the objects of his grief, we are also the cause of it, it at length signifies: 'he bears oour grief", so that the real difference between the two seems to be this-that the LXX. ascribes mental pain t o him arising from our bodily, whereas the Heb. has ascribed them both. I t is seen that the Heb. differs from Matt. in the construction

Table E.1.r.o.l

Luke VIIl. 10; Acts VII. 37.

143

of the last clause, and hence his omissions of +rZv and u6sus. The latter is not needed, rug vlaovg being made the object of E,8dusaoeu; and GpGv is readily supplied from the former clause.
(2)
Luke VIg. 10. %a @J.~ZOYTES @Adpi nworv, xal Bxoiiorrss p i
~ V C ~ U L V .

DL a1 @ k e z . pq cSworuRj3.
xar p. a.

ouvsGum u l KLMr w o w EGLVA ete.

IA

axovoaura5

etc. ovvC By hearing ye shall hear, and *not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and "not perceive. l i t . may you not.

1

Is. VI. 9. 2 x o . j ?;xo6wrsxol oG p; o t f v f z ~xu1 @ A ~ Z O Y T E E , @kk~ E I E%el 04 (;/ t J q ~ ~ . a x a u ~ Alex. MS. e

Is. VI. 9. y ? ~ ~ ) - ip q i qyp) ~f)
1)
3

:7y?g-ig!~~9NjI~)
t =

v)

I09 K. 109 K.

U) INVn 4 K.

that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.

"Hear ye 'indeed, but understand not; and see ye tindeed, but perceive not. "Tor,without ceasingetc. Heb. Ilcar ye i n hearingete. $qBeb. in secing.

I t may be noticed here, first, that Luke has quoted, (if this be a Quotation,) only the first part, and has inverted the order .of the clauses. Next, that he has changed the form, in order to bring it into his text, using the third person and subjunctive for the second persoli of address and the future. But t+ese two-future and subjunctive-are closely connected, as is seen in many languages, both ancient and modern, both eastern and western. Instead of CMj flA$nwnru "they may not see", one should prefer the reading p+ uljSwarv 'they may not perceive", found in DL al, as noted above, whereby i t is brought to conform with the other passages where the Quotation is found; yet, doubtless, pq ,8A9rlsnwulv .is the true reading.
(3)
Acts VII. 31. Deut. XVIII. 15. Deut. XVIII. 15, fl~oqjzrjvi p i v h r a o n j o ~ ~ npoqjrrjv & r 6 r &&A- ~ n 3 ~ p 3 K1J; 3 n 6 8eb5 6x r 6 v a'JElq6v jv6v sou i $pi d v a o r j o a a! ! c ? ) Dp") b , ips.. 6 s Sp8. roc x6prog 6 3r65 oov, a& :]?YFVF1 ? > ~ $ t $ ~ ) ~ roi hxo6osu8~. F add avrov arovoro@e a) isni =?pa S. b)^. 109 K. (D* a z o u e ~ a e. . c* p e m c) ap' 69 a p. K. d) = 157 audislis) cCDE a1 pm. K. iiii 109 K. e) 199K. d@r. (om alzSyrPChr?eA BD vg sah acth . .q (LTbo) praem xve~oq eCEH a1 pl vv pm ign (ms 1 om o Be) Chr0.n al, praete~.eaque (=GbSz) F post8.o~addvpwv c. min mu contra ABCU a1 m vv pl ign Eus Chr Chron (EH al mu 7pw3. Aprophet shall the Lord TheLORU thy GOD will The Lord thy GOD will your GOD raise up unto raise up unto thee a pro- raise up unto thee a proyou of your brethren, *like phet from among thy p h e t from the midst of unto me; him shall ye brethren, like unto me; thee, of thy brethren, like hear. him shall ye hear. unto me;unto him ye shall hearken. * or ¶ as myself,

qj

.

-

[Table E1.r.o.

This Quotation expresses the addressed plurally dpiu, dprju, which in the original is done singularly, 7; the former viewing the individuals in their collected capacity, the latter, the collected in their individual capacity; the one, all as a people, the other, each as a person. The Heb. has q q n "from the midst of thee", which is not found translated in either the LXX. or Acts. I t would seem as if q'iivn "from thy brethren" which follows, were added as explanatory, making it mean '<one of yourselves", and hence it mattered little, whether it were retained or omitted. and Tischendorfs text omits also x t ~ ~ o s aou, giving only 6 @ E ~ S for F J I ; I ~ ~ "Jehovah thy G O D , where aov would have been changed 2131 into dpGu. The last words also udroij d.xota~a9.c <'himshall ye hear", are not given in his text, though found in s as noted above.
(4)
Acts XIII. 47.
[2~zdzdruAra~ jw-v 6 n&T d 8 6 t x i we els 9 6 s 6 8 ~ roc ~~fvc~al 8 OW4 06 ; s .rqelav 50s 6O,y&rov r<$f i g .

Is. XLIX. 6.
18ov 8iGwxi us 81s 8 ~ ~ 8 4 nqv yivovs, E ~ S 4 s $ & J ~ v , 9

Is. XLIX. 6.

pod

l o 6 dvai w aig uwrrjqiuv 5wg 80xizo* %is yjs.

n~;i'/o?T)yclf, ??nn?r ~ 7 . 57 ~ ~ >npw$) ; 1 %
p) iyim* 224 ex.
c.

8'7) r e @ . oe

Aug a1 zarg

D* Cyp (Au6) -)pol7 (sine 1 D am demld
&vrow.

MSS. read many more re Brc~ac,and so the Alex.MS. and Compl. Ed. 1 n g &a@. yev. Om. Alex. and several other MSS.
zcB7jxa, and

Srdpol n . .some l.

K.

[hath the Lord oommanded us, saying,] I have set thee to he a light of the Gendles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth.

lo, I have given thee for the covenant of a race, for a light of the Gentiles, that Thou mightest be for salvation unto the end of the earth.

I will also give thoe for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest he my salvation unto the end of the earth.

The last part of this Quotation is the same as in the Sept., which begins with S E S ~ X E C BLS J ~ & p v u YEYOUS YI have given thee for a UE covenant of the race", whereas the Hebrew reads only q'ppl '? have given thee", an expression the same as I L I have put or set thee", found in the New Test. and evidently rendered anew from the original (see Sept. in Gen. IX. 13). The addition of the Sept. ccs StatY+pwp y ~ u o v ~ may have been drawn from ver. 8 Dz nI17i q?nN! '<and I will give thee for a covenant of the people"; see espec. ch. XLII. 6 where the whole expression occurs. The two versions differ from the Hebrew in giving rov ccuar ue 61s a o t q Q l u u "on account of thy being", or LLthat thou mayest be for salvation", as the rentering of 'nqiw: nb;i? "for being" or "in order to be my salvation". The Hebrew has the pron. my which is not found in the Sept. or New Test., and "two Hebrew MSS, with the

Tsble E.I.r.o.1

Rom. IX. 9.

145

Arabic version also drop it." It is not, however, to be inferred that the Hebrew is in error. In Isaiah, GOD is represented addressing Christ as His deliverance, or (if the abstract be taken for the concrete) as His deliverer, i. e. the person whom alone and in Bis own stead He appoints to deliver, so that it may be called the salvation of GOD. (See Acts XXVIII. 25 which probably alludes to Is.). Christ is represented on earth by His church, every true Christian forming a member of His body, so that what is specially applicable to Christ, supposing Him to be on earth, may be relatively applied to one of His members. And thus does Paul in the present instance refer a prophecy primarily belonging to Chlist, to preachers of the gospel. And in this may lie the reason for not limiting "the salvation" by "my", besides its being Christ who is represented speaking. (5)
Rom. IX. 9.
liar&zbu r o ~ ~ bo k a v r v iLEiruofiar xai #czar z j

Gen. X W I . 10.
'Eznvalrrqbqwv & C Q ~ S u xardr rdv xrrcebv z o ~ r o r d S ~ SzQe5, %el ZEL, dblib~ Z&$+ y w j UOV. rj

Gen. WIII. 10.

2&WF ~26s.
At this time will I come, and Sarah shaU have a son.

;: np?'j>ih" 3 ) ~ Ig ,)me qnw8 ;l?qi i3-aq1
I will certainly return unto thee, according to the time of life ; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son.

Returning I will come unto thee, accordingtothis time seasonably, andSarah t h wife shall have a son. ~

The original thus: LLReturning will return (i. e. I mill certainly I return) unto thee according to (or, about, at) the reviving time (season, i. e. the corning sprzng when the winter shall be passed, and nature revives) and behold! a son for Sarah, thy wife:' Here, I have followed Gesenius' rendering of ;;! nV? "with the reviving year"; li but I doubt much whether there be any necessity for this irietaphorical meaning. In our Authorized Version, the passages, where this phrase occurs, are rendered "according to the time of life", which I havo not yet been able to embody in an idea. I t seems to me more than likely that ; ; (rendered "reviving") meaning properly livIg ing", "alive", is, when modifying time, to be translated "being". The verb, with which it is connected, bas for its primary idea, that of breathing, as the manifestation of animal life, which lies at the root of the verb of existence; and is applied metaphorically even to in.animate things. The phrase thus means 'Laccordingto the time boing", which, interpreted by our own phrase, "for the time being", is, 'the present time" or "this time". Now this is oxactly what is found quoted by Paul xar& sdv x a r ~ d vroCrou "according to this time" (or "season"). On this Quotation Dr. Davidson remarks (in Introd. to Old Test. p. 146) "This is a free quotation of Gen. XVIII. 10 after the LXX. Instead of the fuller form xar& rdv xuredv roCrov &is &pas the Apostle omits the last two words, and that is the representative

-

146

Rom.

X. 15.

[Table 7 . . . . 3110

of ;i:2 n p ; mhen the time shall have lived again i. e. in another year." And he adds "There is no reason for supposing that ;l:g was ? ; Ithis, ? or that Pan1 used any other version than the LXX. as ~andolpll conjectures!' The noun np being usually fem. (though sometimes masc.) would have had the demonst. n&i;? (as in Josh. XI. 6 n&3;! ily? 199 "tomorrow about this t i m e , so that ;i:g is not likely to have been I? taken as ;T. Besides, the latter refers to a person or thing present, that one can as it mere point at with the finger, and hence, also to present time; but the former conveys the idea that whatever season is, the same shull be, when he returns: the one contradistinguishes the time from all other; the other directs the attention particularly to the time itself. [Why is the article omitted before the adjective? Does it thereby point to the time which will be, and not to the present ?] The first and last words of the original are omitted, viz. >IW "to return", and TnVN "thy wife": the one used to add an expressioll of intensiq to thk 'finite verb; the other describing Sarah in her relationship. Paul leaves out also 7 ( i lce6g OE %nto thee", which ~ ; is of course implied in EileGaopr UI will come", and >>.! LloP' which is not given in the Sept.
7. Is. ZII. 7. [ n a a d s r&eamar] 2 s &E spa dm2 .r&v 8pgbw, ?jno?~;l;l-jenn?s)-;in d p a i o ~ n6ies .r& iv6boy- 6 s ~ 6 6 ~ 6s~ 7 y e ~ ~ ~ o p k ~ 0 1 1 oZ ~ ~ L L ~ O ~ipjmp, z&v ~ X O + Ye i q $ v ~ ~ , ~ ~ Y W Y oiSe4aryeA~c& a r 7 ~ k ~ ~ o p ( Z& ~ Zr'~ Y d . b p v 0 s i r c 8 & , SZL& x w h v ,~ & p'pwr?x) no~Ti(10 . ( ~ ~ m o isow. nv ;ipW? . . ri)v , .rwv evuyy. rrqlj*.'zwr CD Many MSS. (disconnects) = 72 K. 1) 'rn 'a 'a EFG(FG o m .rev set.) K 31 ing zaqecws at end of "el.. 6 598 K. u) l 'n 'w ,D L o 80.

Rom. X. 15.

18.

(6) LII.

$$qr?") ,&=n')

..

''

lei?

fere oLon v g it syr utr am arm eo sl Chr Thdrt T h ~ h Oee (evanq. bona, evaig. paeern, item Tertl Hill) Ted3 al. .. Ln om cABC a14 cop sah aeth Clem Or I =a eD'* et ***KL a1 fe% amn

Clem Chr Thdrt T h ~ h Oee..

whiehbe1ongsherc)read'fZ~ 145 K. r) n*aun 4. 72. 107. 6aaior I, 6 e m r E e c . . at 22. 109. 111. HRi K , . ~. ...~ Othcrs om 6 c I e u u y y e i ~ t o pwou . . . Ald. Ed. -fievov, Compl. Ed., -+war I rvayyeA I ~ O ~ W .O. ~. Compl. Ed. -pwov 1 nor?ow Ald. Ed.
-mL.

--

...

Or Dam. [as it is written,] How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gaspel of peace, and bring gladtidingsofgoodthings!

.

as the dawn upon the mountsins, as the feet of *him that preaeheth good tidings of peace, as one +that preacheth good tidings of good things; for I will make thy salvation hearti. * Gr. one evangelizing a report of peace. t Gr. cvangelizing good things.

How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peaLe; that bringeth goad tidings of good, that publisheth salvation.

This Quotation seems not to have been taken from the Sept.,

Table E.I.I.o.]

i Cor. 1 19. .

147

where it is presented under a comparison-form. The apostle omits of the original O??;l;i-5~ T O ~ V 6qfmv '"upon the mountains", as they Bni 'lid not suit his purpose, and joining l@n with Olj? he passes over p g l n The Heb. runs thus: "How beautiful are upon the mountains the 'ij. feet of the glad-tidings-bringer; of the announcer (lit. him who mabet11 one hear) of peace: of the glad-tidings-bringer of good; of the announcer of deliverance." There appears t.o be here a parallelism, and each verse composing it seems to have a corresponding synonymous or inter-. p r ~ t i n gverse. The first line is: "him who bringeth glad tidings", which is explained by "him who maketh one hear of peace", which peace is the glad tidings; but the next line of the parallelism enlarges the former'idea into "him who bringeth glad tidings of good", which is pointed out as consisting in deliverance, for it is succeeded by "him who maketh one hear of deliverance." The apostle has retained the parallelism-form; but, while quoting the second line as in the original, only making the persons plural 'of them who &c.", he has changed the first, by adopting the explanation as part of it. Thus, while he has altered the first line by adding its explanation, r 6 v €73uyycAr<oP~&u siqliyqv, he has used the second only, omitting its exj planation. r e v E ~ u ~ ~ ~ ? . I < o ~ ~dE u 8 w.v r& y % d In Nahum I. 15 (in the I-Ieb. 11. 1) there occurs the first part 5 ;?!o ! on I ;l of what is here quoted, ~ 1 !?piLip ~l i i 2 n ,>I? the mountains the feet of the glad-tidings-bringer, of the announcer of peace"; i n the Sept. i$od E 2 rh o"pq ol mb8cg ~ziayyrLr~o,uiuou, a i n z

D,?I;I-~~

&nuyyiLAovrof

E~Q+VV.

(7)
1 Cor. I. 19. Is. XXIX. 14. [r&dye=~ra~ rig] a n 0 2 6 ino.46 .r:jv uorpiuv r+v U O @ ~ Y zdv VO(P~P,m i . r 6 v o o 9 6 v , xui 7:jv U ~ D ~ U L Y . h iiraoaw lr& O ~ I Y E Z ~ ~ Y -TGV U W Y F T ~ YXOWW. r r;8~00. npvqo or4enjoolMS 301 ... FG a o w i c a v (F aom). lta egit Just. Marl.Cyp.Eus.

Is. XXIX. 14.

r~??) nqg>mt1: vp??

..

l n n @1 p i7 l
for the wisdom of their wise m e t shall pensh, and the undershndmg of theil prudent m m shall be hid

[For it is written,] I will destroy the wisdom of the Nlse, and will bring t o nothing the understanding of the prudent.

and I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will hide the understanding of the prudent.

This passage agrees nearly verbally with the Sept., which doubtless was so followed. 'She latter, however, ends with x q t y w ' I 1 will hide", where the New Test. reads a8cs+ua? "I will set aside". Yet, this expression does not much differ, since what one sets aside he may be said to make disappear, to hidc away; although doubtless, it properly signifies "to render futile or worthless", and thus conveys a stronger meaning, and one nearly parallel to 'LIwill destroy." The Hebrew is considerably d~fferentfrom both. I t states merely the fact that something would take place, without mentioning the

148

1 Car.

II. 16.

[Table E.1.r.o.

actor by whom it would be brought about. It says: 'the wisdom of their wise shall perish; and the discernment of their discerners shall hide itself", i. e. disappear,-vanish away. Now, the question may arise, Will those results follow of themselves, just as, from the constitution of things, we find punishment inflicted upon one who violates the natural laws? or will there be an immediate agency to produce them? The answer is found in both the Sept. and New Test., which bring prominently out the efficient cause, viz. the Lord Himself. But in the original, the Lord is represented as speaking, and the preceding words are: "I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people", which work is none other than what is stated in the citation, and hence, it could, by making the speaker state it as his action, be properly quoted under the form &noA6 UJwill destroy &c."--Also, in the Hebrew, "the persons" spoken of are pointed out by '%heir", Imp "their wise", and are known to have been the Jews. But tho apostle wishes, it would seem, to make a more general application, and therefore omits "their" d r o " ~ . And that he was at liberty to do so is evident from this, that, wherever peoples were found in the same condition as were the Israelites, when they first heard the words, to them also could the same expressions be addressed, so that the wise would mean not Y,heir wise", i. e. of the Israelites, but 'the wise", i. e. in general,--anywhere.

() 5
1 Cor. 1 . 16. 1
~ ~

Is. XL. 13.
tic 87rw yo% xuelov, xa2

Is. XL. 13.

.ric y i p 8yvw Y O nuplov, ~ EE cu,u$~@&(~Si% ; ah

o6p@ouLos dy. 4 vsro; EE mp@'$*: air6v; I j cis Compl.Ed. ete. 1 rmpp. auz. Alex. MS. Compl. Ed. ete. I Alcx. et M. MSS: el Ald. el Comol. Edd. read
.rig a&o6
cvp@panac

aIn? pll-ile pC,-,n
' '

uq711; 1nyy Wfil:

For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he *may instruct him?

*

Gr. shall.

Who hat6 known the mind of the Lord? And who hath been hls counsellor, that hath taught him?

Who hath directed the Splrit of the LORD, or beiny 'his connsellor hath taught him? *qHeb manof his counsel.

This Quotation agrees with the Sept., excepting that it omits the clause xcc2 sic etsoO n6p,!?ouLo~Eylw~ro i'aud who became his counsellor?'. Tlie words in the original corresponding thereto need not consequently be looked for in the New Test. The Heb. runs thus: "Who hath weighed (considered, and thereby arrived at a knowledge of, and hence known) the mind (i. e. intention) of Jehovah; and (as) his man of counsel (i. e. adviser) hath acquainted him?' Now, this omission is not ol?jectionable, inasmuch as the idea is involved in the verb, for when one makes another see what he should do, he can be saicl to have given his opinion thereanent, or to have acted as an

Table E.I.r.o.1

Eph. VI. 2-3.

149

adviser. They differ in another respect also. The original presents first the idea of the howledge, and then, the communication arising therefrom; whereas Paul, although he, no doubt, states first the same idea, yet presupposes that he, in reference to whom it is said, has in view the giving of counsel. He writes: "For who knoweth the mind of the Lord, that shall instruct him?" i. e. what person, that shall instruct Jehovah, knoweth his intentions? as much as to say, how presumptuous must he he, who shall pretend to instruct Jehovah, when he knows not at all what He designs to do! The interrogation is expressive of strong negation. Precisely such does the Hebrew also express. (. . 6)
Eph. VI. 2-3. Deut. V. 16. Dent. V. 16.
Zzipa z b ~ a ~ i q a0 . o ~ z zips Z ~ martqc uovnal Y xoi z;jv p)izBqc, [ ~ Z C Si u ~ l v Z ~ Y pqriqa uou 8v zqdzov e'wroii n q d ~ k 2 z a y y d i n , ] dvsraaard. oor ~ i l q ~ o Wds i) s el: UOL ~ ~ W / Y Ii J T ~ ' uou, Eva 4 UOL y6u?rur, *ad * m 8ug Eva paxqo~qdv~os ytvg ini p C L x Q ~ X Qdzl ~ ~ yfs. & ~ re$

~ 7 i $ ~ hla?YYlq#31) ~ j

q'?e-ny -m?

12n\3u)t) ]$lE? lie\ Tin! ZElE;! 59 73 3' g!

2 pvrapo .. FG a1 uv m pp allq add oou. 3. ooc FG om.

..

x w iva a1 deest cvcr paxp y e ~ g . . Ox. MS. pax-

nis ris.

. .

.

I

POX~OVY?-

Exod. XX. 12. . .zips zbv naripu vow xori
uor riqra', xai &a paxqo~qdr cos yBrg dn1 rfs yijs
6:

r) IN 'h, 'Y ' ~ > - l 4 . 84. 191 K. sine punetis 1 K. s) 167K. t) f~ D ' I N ~ 346K. 5% U) '?*'1051-65S. 99.189K. 'r ran = 9 K. 1 14 K. Enod. XX. 12.

-

mjv p)iziqa sou, Zva

~py-nu, yqe-ne -I?? 5 ]?J?E! j9135

a???;!

2Hononr thy father and mother (which is the first commandment with promise); 3That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.

om oov ma rv aor y r y r a r roc Alex. MS. 'BEonour thy father and thy mother (as the Lord thy GOD commandedthee); that it may be welfwith thee, andthat thoumayest live long upon the land faHonour thy father and thy mother, that i t may be well with thee, and that thon mayest hve long upon the land

16Eononr thy father and thy mother (as the LORD thy GOD hath commanded thee); that thy days may he prolonged, and that it may go well with thee in the land 12Ronour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land

The first part of this Quotation differs from both the Heb. and Sept. in omitting the latter aou, agreeing herein wih Mark X. 19. The repeated iia! "in order that1' is omitted; and Fr2 f i a ~ q o ~ p 6 u ~ o s "thou mayest be longlived", is read for p a x q o ~ q b u i o s y&?l "thou mayest become long-lived", whereby is rendered Tn! ]r"?E;' Yl~y days may be prolonged". It would seem, that the Quotation is made from Deut. V. 16, inasmuch as it has the clause rendered by iicc ~8 nor y i u q s a ~%hat it

]e?$

150

Heb. XU. 26.

[Table E.1.r.o.

:p! jpg?; though Paul transposes the may be well for thee", viz. which has inserted this clause two clauses, as is done in the Sept. a~sd, in Exod. XX. 12, in the same place, where it is not found in the Heb.-But Deut. looks back to Exod. in the words ILasthe Lord thy GOD hath commanded thee"-words inserted after the commandment and before the blessing, in which place Paul has ;jns Emiv iuzoL+ n~dmjEv bcryy~Li9"whicl is the first commandment with promise". Did Paul quote from the Heb. of Exod. XX 12, it would not he easy to account for his inserting iba EVT UOL y&m/zaz; but such a supposition is not required, since the Heb. has the words, so rendered, in Deut. V. 16 to answer Paul's purpose. But were we certain that Paul used the Sept., it would he a matter of indifference to which place the Quotation is assigned. However, it cannot be inferred from this passage that Paul did so, though it contains in Exod. the additional clause, which however would be iuferrible, were this clause wanting in the I-Ieb. of Deut. But its appearance there will account for its appearance in Exod. in the Sept., from which if is easier to suppose it to have been copied, than that it has vanished from the Heb. text.
(10)
Heb. XII. 26. Hae. 11. 6.
Hae. IL 6.

cACM a1 fereto vg cop sah sgr a1...F (= Sz) cerw cDKL a1 longe pl d.; Chr Thdrl al.

D*a

ryw amafl aeraw(Gb")

o r ~ o o vat. sed a1 m ct cd. Ed. Comp. or'w.

t) 4 % K. nxi 201 K. -ax 251K:nn~ 574K. u) N I 17.89. l i 8 . 224.475K. sup. ras. 225 K. v) 11m1153 K. x) 11 in 3 17 K.
a

-

(...Ti

-

~

[saying,] Yet once more I shake.not the earth only, but also heaven.

Yet once more 1 wl il shake the heaven and the esrtB.

Yet once. it is a little while, and I will shake the hea~ens,and the earth.
N';?

This Quotation omits, (as does the Sept.)

EZn Ualit,tle while

is it", and varies the order of the objects. The original is rendered:

"and I shaking the heavens and the earth". There the moving of the heavens is, not regarded as a greater phenomenon than that of the earth, but in Hebrews, which says "I will move not only the earth, but also the heaven': the apostle makes a distinction between them, and lays emphasis on the fact that the latter will display somethi@ more wonderful, more godlike than t.he former.

Matt. IT. 10; Luke IV, 8.

.
TaBLE E.1.a.
'

.

(1)
Dent. VI. 1 3 .

Deut. T . 13. I Matt. IV. 10. [ r d ~ g a m a s y & q ]KGgrov xbg~ov-zbv 8~611 qovow m v oov nqomuwjm~s fIq&jgri rai a6r- pdvq Aai ask
irai

a d * pdvp irrrqsirurss. rr LP a1 nqooruuqqs, item L a1 iazgstlo?~.
'

resdva~s. n p o o x w 7 j o r ~ ~ qop?. et pro ia~pcvo.qs. inAlex.11S.jOm.

KTn ??$!E fila:-nV l = ~ me! n
Thou shalt fear theLORD thy GOD, and serve him.

The Heb. NTn is rendered in the LXX. by gno,5'7i+ri9.ljog, wherear, in Matt. it is n@ooxuu+mtg, a change which may have hnen made in order to convey more accurately the sense of the original: "t,hou shalt fear", .. 1. e. honour or reverence, as in Matt., not be frightened from or dread, as in the LXX. It may also have been used because Satan said: 8dv ncooiv n g o o x v u + ~ pPOL The reading of Alex. MS. is w~ooxuv. gnopv. s~ for hut it appears to have been changed to agree with the New Testament. Next,, the Heb. reads lne!, hut in the. LXX. and Matt. it is: xa2 adz@ fi6vp, from which it is evident that the LXX. has been attended to in quoting. And this is confirmed by the circumstance that, where precisely the same form of expression again occurs (in Deut. X. 20), the LXX. omits pbvq (in the Vat. MS., though a u r q fiwq is found in the Alex. MS. but see above); and had it been. omitted by Matt. also, we should have referred the quotation to that place. Moses at verse 13 tells the people to fear Jehovah, and, in the next verse, he forbids them to follow other gods, so that his order amounts to this: that Jehovah alone was to be worshipped, as LXX. and Matt. have it.
Luke IV. 8. [ r . + p z ~ a ~Rpooxvvj]

[for it is written,] Thou shalt worship theLord thy GOD, and Rim only shalt thou seme.

l. X. et al. l Thou shalt fear the Lord thy GOD, and Him only shalt thou serve.
@dyC

x6qrov zbr 4 ~ d uov qwv p 7 8 i i ~ U ; a i ~ 6 ~ 6 A=- 1 X~ ~q r8LS X ~ ~ ~ LT O~Y Y aebv TO" m i adz6 p l v q i a r g ~ i r m ~ r q.e 6 u ~ ~ s . ~ ngovx. xuq. z. 9. o. cAEG npooxvvqorrc pro mop. et HKMSUVrA a1 longe pl sah iacprunljs p1.o -sacs in Alex. al.. .Ln xvp z. 9. a. npoox. MS. I Om #dvq 11. X. al. cRDFL a135 fere itvg go cop syr al.

.

(2)
Deut. TI. 13.

~ 7 73 $ ~ fip-nu ~
:~ 3 p n vie)..

Deut. VI. 13.

[it is written,] Thou shalt worship thcLordthgGOD, and Him only shalt thou serve.

Thou shalt fear the Lord thy GOD, and Him only shalt thou serve.

~ h o n s h a l t f e a rh e L 0 R D t tlry GOD, and serve him.

In this Quotation Luke agrees with Matt. IV. 10 which see above.

Dlatt. XXVI. 31; Acts IV. 11.

[Table E.1.r.a.

TABLE E.1.r.a.
(1)
Matt. XXVI. 31. [7&eanra~ norr&5m
zbv nocpdvu, xai icemop-

Zech. XIU. 7.
nnr&Ears zoirs norpivas, xui dwz&rro;rs .r& np6flmza.

Zeoh. XIU. i.,

7pqh)-n$ 7 g g )
]Ng 71y?nS) . .
g) p 180K. h ) ,pii?89K. r i) namnt mulli K.

ncrr&jrroman z& np6/?ara z f s ?Zoip*qs. 8woxoqn'a;B~aovzacCAB CH'ILM a135 ferc Or1 s -owor eDEFGH*KSUVd a1 pl Chr.

...

et Compl.Edd. resdmmdFov

Alcx. ol B. MSS. cl Ald.

z& noc&n; 1 SmoroqmoS~novrazcinp6~~~az~~

[for it is writt~n,]Iwill smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the Book shall be scattered abroad.

moifivqe Alcx. MS. Ald. el Compl. Edd. -BTOCW. B. MS. - 9 q r o . A1 -04oerac. I Most omit zljs Z O L ~ V ~ ~ . -Smite ye the shepherds, and draw cut the sheep.

smite the shepherd, and the sheep shaU be scattered.

Matt. here says: nazhco rdu nocpCvac "I will smite the shepherd", ! : for the Heb. ilyi;?-nb ? "smite thou the shepherd". Now, the leading idea in the passage is the scattering of the sheep, (see vers. 31 fp 33) which both express; and the qnestion, Bow is it to be brought about? is answered absolutily in the Heb., viz. by the smiting of the shepherd, whilst Matt. adds the idea of the agent, "I will smite". Whilst, then, the prophecy tells of the means to be used in obtaining such an end, the gospel besides points us to the hand of the Lord in the application thereof,-tells that the smiting of Jesus was the doing of the Lord,-that it entered into and formed part of the scene in man's redemption, and hence may be said of .him. Says Dr. Davidson: =The imperative 73 rendered narrci~arrs the LSX. is changed in into the fature, because Jehovah commands. There is no reason for supposing with Owen and Randolph that the Hebrew was at first ?if"' The LXX. reads plurally: nccrri&re rods notpEvar& xa2 E6nciaarre zd q6,9azar %mite ye the shepherds and draw out the sheep", which could not have been quoted, not only because it does not give the true meaning of the Heb., but, as, by reading itorpcLyas for ?I$%; it could not be applicable to Christ alone. Matt. has added noipuqs Uof the fold".
(2)
Acts IV. 11.
a6rds iorcv 6 ii8os 6 iSov8~v78~25 i p 6 v Z ~ im' o l ~ 8 6 p w v ,d y ~ v d p v o s sis x~qakju ywuias.
Y

l i 8 a v ZY I ~ Z ~ ~ O K ~ ~ il$:;aq2i? CO-a" o i ( l h o 8 o p 0 6 v z ~0 ~ ~~ i0 e~ 16 , r v$Sq6$ x s q a i j u youiag.

Ps. CXVII. 22.

Ps. CXVIII. 22.

\O%p

:a;? w.415

Table E.1.r.a ]

Rom. IX. 17.

153

.aEav4w7fferq(ThdrtThphl) ..a1 aliq Or Chr Did Oec Thph2 -Brvw4erc s. -SEYO1 ocnoSopov(Gb") CABD. a1 prn Or Did ...s -povnov CEa1 pl.
4.~5

This is the storre which was set a t nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner.

- The stone which the buildersrejectzd, the same is become the head of the corner.

The stone mhich the builders rejected is hecoma the head stone of wrner.

In the fow other places, viz. Matt. XXI. 42; Mark XI. 10-11 ; Luke XX. 17; and 1 Pet. 11. 7; where occurs the Quotation to which this passage is referred, we find that they verbally agree with the LXX., which cannot be said of our present one also. Now, why should Luke haxre varied here from what he gave in his gospel? Peter applies the prophetic announcement of the Psalm to his audience, and from this circumstance have originated the several variations, which Luke faithfully records. DlJl>q 'ioi$n 'The stone have the builders refuseif' he changes into 0 6 ~ 6 sd&rv 6 U 8 o s 6 ~ ~ o u ~ & U q 8 &r 's 6 p 7 u oi~oS6pwu'Ithis is the stone which was set at di p nought by you the builders". He thus tells them who is meant by the stone, viz., Jesus of Nazareth, and who the builders are, vie., themselves; also, that Jesus had met with the same treatment from them, as had been foretold under the figure of the stone and its builders, viz., had been counted as nothing or despised, and hence rejected. From this arise the additions 0 6 ~ 6 s Ecru "this is", and 6rp' 6yGv "by you". The Psalmist declares that the result would nevertheless be 7 7 7 Uit is become for the head of the corner", and so does Peter d yevbpeuos cis xepaA$u youias, with this difference between them, that the former would seem to lay the stress on the result, as that was the aim of his prophecy, whilst the latter would rather draw our attention to-the stone, as, the prophecy having been fulfilled, it served more his purpose to point that out.
(3)
Rom.

IX. 17.

@ z q ~ &]; siq a&rd roi;ro ~ $&ys~~O; ZEOS dv8sL5wO-E, pa' Qv o o l njv J6va@ pw, kml iinw~ J~ayyrA5 iivop& zb ~ O 6" nO;q V r$ ZWF ...FG add a u I FL a1

ady ye^ yElq i yqaq+

;ic

Exod. IX. 16.

Exod.

IX. 16.

a

Chr' edl ap Mt. ~Se'FopacI L d Grayyeirr.

r o v yuv I 6o;yvu...Alex. MS. and many copics read 8uuaPL*.

xai 5v~xavaoinov &61")nril ~ 2 D)~N! p q+%g Eva 2 ~ 8 e i 5 0 ~ 0 1 ~ b plga) 39223)TpDlll, u o i mjv i n , & pa", Y U ~ anwg J~ayyc2.5 zb iivoy& l?pq) . lp-ri* dv 75 yl~;?-b?Y ~ W n) 1 18. 75. 181. 155 a s S~ecvq Ald.Ed.adds rws ....

a

]vn\ip)

p. K. o ) y i l ~ 7 n S .15%K. p) 1 = 15. 150. 181.264 K. q) ,soil 199 K.

[For the scripture saith uutoPh'haraoh.lErenforthis same purpose have I raised thee up, that Imight shew

And 'for this cause hast thou been preserved, that I might shew in thee my

And in very deed for this cnusc have I 'raised thee up, for to shew tn

154
Power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.

Rom. IX. 26. strength, and that my name might he declared in all the earth. * Gf. on account of this.

[Table E.1.r.a. thee my power; and that my name may he declared throughout all the earth. * gHeb. made thee stand.

This Quotation differs from the Original by rendering '/pH?;! ViXT 'n3-nK 'for the sake of making thee see (or shewing thee) m i strenGh", by 6nws Ev88i~wpur t v noi r d v Gdvapiu pov l1in order that I might shew in thee my power", wherein it agrees with the Sept. in having
E a02 "in (or by) thee", as denoting the instrnment nsed, whereas the v

Beb. expresses the remote object <&to thee" (as the dative case in Latin &c.), or the causative object "make thee see". It agrees with the Sept. also in the last clause, in making the verb passive with the object in the nom.; the Heb. being literally "in order to declare (or celebrate, i. e. declare with praise) my name". It thus a,grees more nearly with the Sept., from which it differs by giving the Heb. ?'DlnY.T "I have made thee stand"-"have set thee up" as EE+EL@ n~ 1 h&k ' raised thee", and not as 61srqllp&g L'thou hast been closely watched" (i. e. preserved), which is found in the Sept.-The Sept. makes a distinction between A3pl and jpn? rendering the former by ria and the latter by e"nms, whereas Paul hses 5aws for both.

() 4
Hos. 11. 1 . *a1 ~ U T C i v Z@ ~ 6 08 ~ L % -p)--)t@,yDli)q?;C;/lE) dP4i89.7 alirok Ob la6.s pov ',F~~t)~N~,t?p-g~ D;i$ Gpcis, 2 ~ e i x ~ r i 8 ~ u ouio2a ~ GWis xlrj$$uovrac xai a<vr 8806 5 6 ~ ~ 0 5 . Z O ~i01 ~ $ED; &zo~. !'? ep@@ aur.jeAR'ULK al s) aha 109. 1 i 0 K. x i ~... manyasAleu.MS. e m Thdrt Thph ... F e g p l l e prcfix e'nri I xai adz. ... x a r 80 K. t) xir 4 . 159K. u) 03 a w . eBm*D*'*L ai pi Oee.. om in Alex. MS. Compl.Ed. 30 K. FG d" g Ambrst av ( a y non and many others. exprimunt d* gAmbrst) %Alirtqrwcau (item Lr in loco libernta(?)inpo vocadahc~). Ln P Q ~ [aur,] .

Rom. E.26. i xai &nab z b rqi r6-w o+ Jt66971 airois 06 la6s p m

Hos. I. 10.

+

;?+

allu)

-

And it shaU come to pass,ihafintheplacewhere it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children ofthe livingG0D.

and it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was ~ ~ nntoa i them,Yearenotmypeople, even they shall ,be called the sons of the living GOD.

and i t shall come to pass, that' in the place where it was said unto them,Yearenotmypeople, tilere~itshall be said unto them, Ye ore the sons of the l i e n g GOD. * 7 Or, instead of that.

This Quotation closely corresponds with the Sept., so closely indeed that iit might have been put in Table I).s.I.r., only it lays the stress upon the place Ezai 'there", whereas the Sept. lays it upon the persons xai ccilroi "even they". As both differ from the Reb., it cannot decide which is the correct, yet it seems that the Neb., reading <'And it shall be-in the place where it was said to them, Not my people (are) ye, s h d it be said to them, Sons of the living GOD

Table E.1.r.a.l

Rom. X. 11; Rom. XII. 19.

155

(are ye)", suggests both ideas, and that Paul added Ex&i"there" to express that of place, ,the persons being involved in that different verbal form (xXq8q~ovzaa"they shall be called", a ~ersonal passive, for D;)> ?pN! I L i t shall be said to them", the unipersonal passive with the remote object). They both differ from the Hebrew also in expressing the name as spoken of, whereas the Hebrew represents it. as spoken to, a form occurring in the previous clause, and which is followed in the others: =where it was said unto them; Not my people (are) ye", the OF& "(are) ye" being suppliable to the latter clause of the original.
Rom. X. 11.
[GYFF rdrg

6

nrmeirov i s

+

;vpem$]l 7 i r

(5) Is. XXVUI 16. xat 6 ~ ~ o r e 6 o v p+ xa04
racqv&,fj.
oncrnruo~ wavru, in Alex. MS. m avrar in B. MS. ct Ald. et Compl. Edd.

Is. XXVIII. 16.

a l r - 04

tti.?:]

~5

j7q2;!

x ~ z ~ L ~ ~ w ~ ; ~ " s c ~ L

naF (h. 1. nemo orn)..E(?) DG) Ruf Sedul praem a z l PEFG ovpvxaz.
a1 (sed "on

o ) a n - L 530 K.

[For thoscripture saith,] Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

Andhe thatbelievethshdl in no ways be ashamed.

he that believeth shall not make haste.

This Quotation is found a t the end of Chap. IX., where aais is omitted, unless the reading be adopted there, which shows the unlimitedness of the objects of the promise. For additional remarks see Table E.III.r.2.a.o.(5) a t the end.
(6)
Rom. XII. 18.
[riyqenza~ rig] 'Epol dx8lwp~s,&6 d n a n o J d r m ,

Deut. XBXII. 35.
0v ip+rr i ~ ~ w i o e 0 5r ( i rrano9dco ilm* rvd,F 6 nois aitrGv. & na. 0, icau xn Alex BlS

Deut. XXXII. 35.

nyio$il '~2'7 'mifi .. ci),, i m )
:

Iiyer~~6 p 1 0 6 . ~

FGavzamodo(go reirrhuo). [for it is written,] Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

AH. et R0mpl. EM. ' ' In the day of vengeance I will recompense, when their foot totters.

m) 016 S.

The passage quaked reads thus in the original n$J>!i).t4i2 Dz: 3 ch7 nmn "Mine [lit. to me] (are) vengeance and recompense, nt a tiwe (when) their foot shall totter." The Yrecompense"here stated.is "vengeance", which is said to belong to the Lord; and its manifestation is expressed by 'their foot shall totter". The time when that happens can appropriately be called a time of vengeance, and then it is that the Lord recompenses. Such is the view in which the Sept. presents the idea, giving: E + p d ~ p2x81mjozwq dvrnno8w~w v the day of vengeance will I repay". The New Test. quotes the first clause only, and agreeing partly with the Web., partly with the Sept. reads: Epo2 Edixqmg, (as in IIeb. Dz? ,?) By$ civrarao8dvw (as in Sept.). An attri-

To me beZon~eth Tengeance, and reoompence; their foot shaU slide in due time.

156

1 Cor.

XIV. 21.

[Table E.1.r.a.

bute should not be claimed by an individual unless he possesses it; and, when claimed, we know whether or not he possesses it, by his manifesting it or otherwise. Hence the possession of an attribute and its manifestation are inseparable, and the latter vouches for the former, so much so that, when an attribute is laid claim to, we naturany look for its being displayed. In the original the Lord is represented claiming the attribute, L'mine is recompense", and in the New Test. promising to show it forth, LTwill recompense". We thus see that the two convey the same idea in two different ways. Dr. Davidson (in Sac. Hem. pp. 409-410) remaaks: "Some have supposecl that the Hebrew formerly was D$WK;022 but this is a mere coujecture, for which there is neither fdnndation nor necessity. The passage is similarly quoted in Heb. X. 30, and the addition Lzyzc xv~ros,which occurs there also,manifestly points to the Pauline origin of that epistle. The opponents of the Pauline origin are ,perplexed by the agreement of the two quotations, as also by the appended L~ycr xuqlos, and assume that the writer of the epistle to the Hebrews got the latter from Paul, whose disciple he was." The Liycl xzip~os "saith theLord" was doubtless primarily added to point out the speaker; bat we have just now seen of what further use it may be.

'5,

(7)
1 Cor. XIV. 21. Is. XXVIII. 11-12. Is. X X W I . 11-12. [dv z@ d p m r@eazzcc~] 5,' dv &~qnyrl6aaors xai "8ui mavrltapbv~zdlwv, ' 1 ;~DW ... 9 ;. :-: 7 " 3 ev X E ~ ~ k 6L ~V 1 s ' ~ . 0 laL6am rAdomis d r d ~ u s , ; tl ~; 731! r@ Aa@roljr", ral o&Y oi; Anl$uovar r @ La4 raljc w... r o s s i n w x o i . ~ o q z a i ~ o v , ~L y 2 ~~ u i ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ i ~ p7nV) ~ ( ; ~ ~ l ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ a n.jyros. q N a I = fere omnes K. ) , errpoyAmoaorc... FGezeparc n e e - ... al. akloaw. yloooaa~ ereqoss eDEFGKL I r) IUZ 96 K. a1 longc pl vv ut vdtr amn Or Chr Dam Oee pp'at...Ln ecrpweAB a181 ovbovz-wc FG avSono I FG a1 acoaxov

I~v$- ,lyh

q;;i-iN

n)nr

&yq)

...

caw.

@ the law it is written,] With men of other tongues an6 other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord.

llou aeconnt of the eontempt of their lips, by means of another tongue; for they shall speak to this people. 12 andthey *wo~~Ifi hear. not ~'Or, did not wish to hear.

...
~

War with 'stammering lips and another tongue twill he speak to this people. I2...get theywould not hear.
* 7 Hcb. stammerings of lips. "Tor, He hdhspoken.

~~

This Quotation is, by the annexed words, Leer z6p~os%aith the Lord", represented as uttered by Jehovah, whence the use of the haL+aw 1 will speali' for 131; "he will speak" of the prophet, who ' gives it as descriptive of what the Lord would do,, not as communicated by GOD through him. For the original n?? 'JY>; "with stammer-

Table E.1.r.a.J

2 Cor. iX. 7.

i57
C ~

ings of the lip", i. e. speaking in a barbarous or foreign language, using alangnage other than tho native one, Paul gives 2v X E ~ ~ E c'rdpocs "with other lips"; and for ill;lih. jl~)?) uand with another tongue", be gives Ev B z ~ ~ o y A r j m r o'with other-tonped", transposing ~s the order of the clauses also; yet the sense is the same, in as much as the latter may be regarded as explanatory of the former-the "other tongue", of "stammerings of lip", which order Paul reverses. The Heb. ends with MnW Nay tij! "and they were not willing(not inclined) to bear", which is strongly expressed in the New Test. by xai odS' ov"t.ws ~ i o u x o d v o u t a ipou <land not even so will they hearken unto me", where the speaker and the addressed are made prominent. On this Quotation Dr. Davidson remarks (in Sac. llerm. p. 417) "This citation verbally coincides neither with the Septuagint nor the Hebrew, though the sentiment corresponds to both. It comes nearer the latter, the Greek being. somewhat incorrect." He adds (in Introd. to 0. T. p. 156) uRandolph asserts incorrectly that it is not taken Gom the LXX., but either from the Iiebrew, or some other translation." Certainly it is not taken from the Sept.; and it may be worthy of note, that Aquila's version agrees with Paul's.

() 8
2 Cor. IX. 7. aapciv Sirrliv $yea@ d 886s.

Prov. XXII. 8. E ~ 8 ~ ca b y mi 8 6 z ~ v a e s i l o r e i 6 9.86s. euioys' ...many copies and Ald et Compl Edd. read
&an+.

Prov. XXII. 9. 1727 ~ 1 j7: p ~ l ~

MS. 23 omds the

clause.

for GOD loveth a cheerful giver.

GOD blesseth a oheerful and liheral man.

He that bath a. bountiful eye shall be blessed.

Nearly the same words as occur in this passage are found in the Sept. at Prov. XXII. 8, the difference being that adLoyai "blesseth" "man" is omitted. is exchanged for ciyaz(i 4oveth3', and & v J ~ a "It is remarkable", says Dr. Davidson (in Sac. Hem. p. 421) %hat theso words are wanting in the Iiebrew. They seem to be a paraphrastic cluotation of Prov. XXII. 8 in the Septuagint, with which the Vulgate agrees:' Nl;i j'Y 3lt" At the part of the Hebrew text is found ver 9 '(Good of eye he (or, as we would say, he of a good eye) shall be blessed (or prospered i. e. of GOD)"; or, as it might he said-GOD shall bless or prosper him (who is) of a good eye. Now, as, to the eye are ascribed various affections and emotions, 'him who is of a good eye" could be used to denote an individual who looks with pleasure on the succ~ssof others, and especially who sees with compassion those struggling with adversities and does not fail to lend them a helping hand; just as, contrariwise, one's eye is said to be

158

Gel. 111.

10.

[Table E.1.r.a.

evil towards any one, when one does not take pity upon and help hi111 in distress, (see Deut. XV. 9 ; XXVIII. 54, 56). Bearing this i view, n then; I do not think that the words of the Sept. 'GOD blesseth a cheerful man and a giver" are additional, but only that they contain the figurative language of the original resolved. As GOD never really blesses any one but whom He loves, the change in the New Test. is quite allowable, and the more so, as the loving is the antecedent of^ the blessing. Verse 9 of the LXX. begins with the remaining idea 6 Eb6u i v w ~ h v"he who pitieth a poor man", contrasting which with the other clause of the verse, it adds ccdrbs 8zur~orrp{acrar#he shall be well fed". I t is seen, then, that the source, from which the Quotation is taken, is clearly grounded upon the language. Yet, notwithstanding, if it he maintained that it is not, it will he noticed that in the New Test. the words are not preceded by any quotation-formula whatever, and so, necd not he considered as cited, but as merely giving the substance of several passaggs, such as Exod. XXV. 2 ; Deut. XV. 7-11. (9) GBI. III. 10. Dent. XXVII. 26. Dent. XXVII. 26.
ly@qnnza~

xmciy,rz.s

ncrs

iizc 2 n c iis x hpa ;

pbzr 2v noimv roc* TzTqapU ~ V O L sv 2qj ~ L ~ ZOG L ~ A vdpov zo6 noLjuw a 6 r L or' cABCDEFG a1 fereto it a1 Cyr Dam s (= Gb Sz) om eKL a1 pl vv pm pp m I H 17. 67 *"$l ("on Or) Dan, om ~ p r Rl e7YeyqappW~IF.

*cis u ' ~ 9 p 3s 0 6 ~ .~ , U @ Y E L sv W;CL Z O ~ SL ~ O G o i vbp011 mi" zE
~ Z L X ~ Z I ~ Q ~ ~ O S

nos

-nT ~pj-~ii q >ne l ~ n~1gg);i?m* ' ~ ? ! . 1 3
+

~

ZOL~D(IL (1dr06s.

n?m n l ~ $ ~ 3

...

[for it i s written,] Cursed isevery onethatcontinueth nqt in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

n&sau9. Alex. MS. n. o f) 5) S. 84. 538. 581. av4.1 as ... Alex. et OxMSS. 651 ; 464 rnarg. K. 6. 274. et Ald. etCompl.Edd.a~rrs( 699 a p. R. g) = 9 K. vopov . p'cp'2'ou 7 1 ( cow 11) mlwyi S. 1. C O V . ..TOU add Alex. et rn a1 MSS; also Ald Conlp1:Edd. Cursed is every man that Cursed be he that concoitinueth not in dl the flrmeth not all the words

.

words of this law to do them.

of this law to do them.

This Quotation differs From both the Hebrew and the Sept. The IIebrew begins with l.ilF 'cursed be he who", which the Sept. expands to bmrxccsirquroe mcle Zv4qwlcog 6s "cursed is every man that", u r g followed by Paul in his ~ ~ ~ x u r ~ m2s oZe "cursed is every one whon.-Again, the Hebrew has nNlg ;i?lR;? ll.?? "the wordi of this law", which the Sept. adds to by mZnc "all", wherein Paul follows it, but u with more definiteness, writing mclnr roig yryqcrpp6vorg E T @ @r@lrirg505 u6pou, "all things which are written in the book of the law". Lastly, D,~:-xL) 7q5 %ho will not confirm the the Hebrew says >?3?-nh. words", which the Sept. renders by 6s odx E p p i v ~ev .n&cc roig idyocs ~ "who remaineth not in all the words", Paul giving for the last words rois y~yqupp6uors%hings which are written". Now, these changes do not affect the sense. The addition of "all" does not change the mean-

lee

Table J3,I.r.a.l

Hcb. I. G.

159

ing but renders it more definite. Compare: "Cursed be he who will not confirm the words kc." wit11 'cursed is every one mlto remaineth not in all (things) which are written &c." This comparison will suggest also that the "confirming" i. e. fulfilling, (see Deut. IX. 5; 1 Sam. XV. 11) of the original is the same as the "remaining in" .(or abiding by--conforming to) of the citation. The other variat,ion will be found to convey the same idea with this difference in the. expression, that the original speaks of the law as present "tllis law,", a11d as the chief object of discourse; whereas Paul, speaking of tlre same object, yet directs them, as it were, where to fiud what they are'required to obey, by saying 'written in the b o o k o f the lu~v."
(10)
Neb. 1. 6. [ k k / E b ] Err1 n q o a u v q c & zooav adz@ n&vres

Ps. XCVI.
ZES

7.

n p o s x v i o a r e u&G n i v -

Ps. XCVII. 7. D>?$F-jz j - 7 1 ~ n ~ ~ ' ~
. .

Errs-

lor

860%

~"~~EIoL rrdroir. n w r . or ayy Alex. MS.

[he saith,] And l e t all t h e angols of GOD worship him.

worship him,

all ye his

1) 2 1 i a p. 156 fK. 'Wr 139 K . mckship him, all ye gods.

angels.

A passage corresponding to this Quotation is found in the Sept. at Deut. XXXII. 43. But, that lhal reading is spurious, there is cause to believe from t h e following reasons. First, there is nothing corresponding to it in the Hebrew text, at the same place. ,Second, none of the other ancient versions exhibits that clause. Third, nor is it found 4 all copies of the Sept., the codex Alex. reading vioi @so6 'sons of GOD" f o r iiyydor @so6 %ng'els of GOD"; and one MS. at least, viz. the Oxford, wholly omitting the clause. Fourthly and conclusively, the Messiah is not spoken of nor alluded t,o in that song. We must look, then, for its original in no other place than as a b o ~ e viz. Ps. XCVII. 7. (Sept. Ps. XCVI. 7.) . Our passage differs therefrom in giving the command intermediately p C Q instead of directly, for ?lcDV;! ' L ~ o r s h iye1' % Q O ~ X V Y ~ ~ ~ S "Let~ ~ worshipn,-thus exhibiting less of the sovereignty of the,Deity, hut more of His condescension. Instead of BYy30z uziro6 "his angels" of the Sept., Paul gives ByycLo~ 8 ~ o i i"GOD'S angels", which interpretation of the "his" is not incorrect, in as far as Christ being one of angels" could then be called L'GOIYs the persons of the GODYED, L1his angels". But, in the Hebrew text we read DX+N-~? <all elohirn", which word, u, ' ; ? ' ! has been rendered by the Sept.in several places, besides the present, by uyyzim - (see Ps. VIII. 6; CXXXVIII. i ;) a meaning which nee+ not be denied to it, when it is admitted that the word may denote kings and magistrates, because of their rank and dignity (Ps. LXXXII. 1 espec. v. 6. See Ges. Heb. Lex. suh voce A. 2). And why may it not,for a similar reason, be given to angels also? Dr. Davidson (in Sac. Herm. p. 427) says: "Geseuius, in his

U

-

160

Hcb.

X. 30.

[Table E.1.r.a.

Thesaurus (p. 95), as also in his smaller Lexicon, denies that ~ 7 3 6 5 signifies angels; but the authority of an inspired author is directly opposed to this sentiment." However, in his Introd. to Old Test. p. 163 he afterwards wrote: "The Alexandrine recension of the LXX. which the apostle used (How does Dr. D. know that?) has there (in Deut.) viol QsoG instead of 6yyrAor Qcoir." Dr. D. continues with "The Hebrew word elohim never denotes angels, as Gesenius and Hengstenberg both allow; so that the New Testament writer must have had both passages of the-LXX. (i. e. Deut. XXXII. 43 and Ps. XCVI. 7) in his mind, (though he had said it is taken from~Ps.in the Sept. and not from Deut.) and mixed them up together." He says <Ithe Heb. word elohim never denotes angels, as Ges. and I-Iengst. both ~ allow". But what of that? Ges. in his Lex. s. v. B. 5 writes ~ ~ 7 ; iisi put for a godlike shape, apparition, spirit, 1 Sam. XXVIII. 13"; and why, then, may not the Sept. interpretation 6yycho~be admitted, more especially as it is adopted by an inspired writer, (as Dr. D. once allowed,) who is certainly a greater authority than either Ges. or IIengst.? The only question that now remains is, Was the Messiah the person to whom the Uhim"refers? Was it said in regard to the Messiah? That such is the case may be seen from the following reasons. First, the fact that Paul uses i t thus may be regarded as a proof that the Jews, of his time would admit the propriety of such an application, and hence, that they probably so applied it. Second, it was and is the opinion of the Jews that this Ps. refers to the Messiah. And lastly, there is nothing in 'the Psalm itself which forbids such a reference, but everything to favour such an interpretation. (11)
Heb. X. 30.
[ a t s u p

Deut. XXXII. 35-36.

Deut. XXXII: 35-36.

r i ~ z eb z ~ ~ r a ] i l ''dv + ~ . E l e ~ ~ &JU(+OEOE 'EE"oiix8Lq,in~,d~& i v r m a 6vrtmo8drrw "&a XQLYE~ Jmrro, A.Elep~ 6 p o s [mi n&- ~ 6 ~ c r bs l a b v a6roG. n a v ACT] Kqcvei Y ~ ~ L O lEu b v~ Y ~ auzoir.

...

D $ D~l $) ~ i !"~ ; '5 3

myP) ; ! 1 1 ; 1
m) m.5 S. 111.681 K.

p;

1?30

p)

+ nx 109.
Y?

~AD"*EKL pler syrp a pp a1 ! rn I nqrrrc h. 1. eADEK 31. 55.71. 73. vg it syr ulr ncth (sedDFXal2vg it pracm aza) s post xup. eL a1 plcr cop al. [For we know him that bath said,] Vengeance beImpth nnto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord. LAnd again,] The Lord shall judge his people.

c . w a z o S o ~ ~cD* 17. 23.' o 6 i ' vg it cop syr aeth . . c (Gbon)Ln add *qr6

.

P . 134. s
iir~ X

14.

Ps. 135.
))?y_~)

~ L Y E ~ X ~ ~ l aU v Z ~ Y L b ~

14. ; !10 1; ; )

o) u,x 131 K. y ) fn~ 38. 40.76. 156. 157 K.

35In the day of Tengeance I will recompense... >#For the Lord shall judge his people.

35To me 6elongefh vengeance, and recompense ; '38For the Lord shall judge his people,

For remarks on the first part of this Quotation see Rom. XII. 19, where the same occurs. In TischendorPs text of 1849 the ending U y t r

Table E.I.r.s.1

,

Heb. XU. 5-6.

161

x6e~os Usaith the Lord" was left out, which if adopted would place this

Quotation in Table E.I.r, as these words are an addition to the original. The next part of the Quotation, if taken by itself, is assignable to Table A.s.
(12)
Prov. III. 11-12. "vi6, p+ 6 ~ u p i q ~ ~ -58 >J> %aymnir Jeias nvpiov, p7Ji & L ~ ~ O V - y?n'hl: aynp o si,ii a6coC a z y x 6 ( ~ ~ ~"80s . . g i 2 :lnpin3') yyd?~ hranj x4qros ~ A S ~ X ~ ~ X E L , >?B~-T$& p a n ~ p 8 i n&ma V ~ A Y 8" i n4~mJ6xszuc. ": 1 vrr..pauci add wv. 1) nnma i 4 K . m)= 125K. 12. Z A ~ Y ~ B . % - c d l i V e ~ in n) 113 133 K. L. Alcx. ct nm MSS. et pp. M son, despise not thou y My son, despise not t h e t h e chastening of t h e Lord, chastening of the LORD; nor h i n t when thou a r t neither be weary of his rebuked of him : 1lFor correction: 12Forwhomthe whom the Lord loveth he LORDlovethhecorrecteth; teneth,andscourgethepery rebuketh, and scourgeth even as 'a father t h e son, ' s o n whom h e receiveth. every son, whom he re- in whom he deligheth. ceiveth. Heh. XU. 5-6. yid pov, 6 ~ ~ 7 6 nm,pc JAG n~piou, MJ& &LA16ou 6%' aGzo6 ~ L E ~ ~ ~ B68vo Y &yanF ~ v q l o nncJ&e~, s pamqoi J i ndvza VMY ZY napaJ6,yezaa. ' pou...D'al~deClcm~omI AD*L al. &mJ&ar eAevxIDE vn. avc. My son, despise n o t thou t h e chastening of t h e l o r d , por fsint when thou a r t rebulredof him: 6For whom the Lord loveth he.ohas-

Prov. 1 1 11-12. 1.

n'??' z!>?

nc;"')

l?")-n&>$*

This Quotation is according to the sept., with this slight alteration, that it says utE you "0 my son" for uic, "0 son", and ~atSc6cr '&hechasteneth" for 6 1 2 8 '(he ~ ~ ~ ~ rebuketh", agreeing in the former with the Hebrew, which the Sept. follows in the latter. koth however, differ more widely from the original. The verbal form in the Hebrew D K ? ~ - ~ E S"mayest thou not reject" or LLcontemn" exhibited more is imperatively y+ uii12~ydyer "do no lightly regard": also int???n? Ypn-jij~ "and mayest thou not f&l disgust a t his reproof" is given as pqcY$ Ex126m dn' d t o C rlcyx6pcvog 31n01. grow faink being rebuked by him"; disgust at" implies the bearing for some time, but where L'feeling, afterwards the finding troublesome and wishing to be freed from it, and "growing faint" means the enduring at first, but then becoming tired of and ceasing to bear patiently. The result of both is the same. "His reproof" is the reproof, not, which he receives, but which he gives, and the individual receives, as the New Test. says "being rebuked by him". The last clause differs widely. The New Test. thns runs: "For whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth", or, to form a parallel, "whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth; and every son whom he receiveth, he scourgeth", while the Hebrew gives: ILI?orwhom. Jehovah loveth, he reproveth, even as a father delighteth in a son" i. e. loves him.- So Gesenius renders. But it is better: "even as a father (reproveth) a son (whom) lie delighteth in" (or loves). Jehovah is represented as bearing, to him whom he loves, the relation of father to his son, which relationship

162

James IV. 6; James V. 20.

[Table E.1.r.a.

the Quotation also suggests. 3y3 <'as a father'' seems to be omitted and p a ~ t c y o i 8 ndvra "scourgeth every" put in its place. But it 4 may be worth enquiring whether the word may not by a different pnnctuation be regarded as a verb, and renclered "make be sore", Ywound","afflict", as Hiphil of 3N?, see Ezek. XIII. 22; Job V. 18.
James IV. 6. (13) Prov. ID. 34. Prov. 111. 34.

[&b ) . ~ 4 ~ 6 ~ ] e b ~ E ~ v - ~ @ o E6n8y?q&vors iu%) 8 L % ~ & V O L S ~ ~ C Z ~ U U ~ ~ C , Z TLTUUUEZLIC, E C V OSz ( X ~ E L Z~Z G vois S i SlSmu~v y i p . , S ~ ~ O V,yUiO~v. '
o Sios

~ ' 5 :"r;i

h-p? I.. . o'ayiie)
.?.:-:

o,$~>-DN

... all1 arrn sled o

c) m~~yiKeri, mu1liR. ctR.

ruqms.
.

[Whereforehesaith,]GOD resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.

The Lord rasistoth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.

Surely he scorneth the scorners: but he giveth grace unto the lowly.

This Quotation differs from the Sept. in reading 6 8 ~ 0 " G O D for s de~oq "the Lord", neither of which is found in the original, where the first clause is: 'Lsurelyto the scorners he will act-as-a-scorner", i. e. simply "he will scorn", whereas the Sept. and James give zinee~rpdvors & v t e - c d c ~ z r a ~ arranges himself against the arrogant"-the "he meaning of which, however, is not different.
Janles V. 20. [7rvwun6zo RCL d in'(14) Prov. X. 12. n U I v ~ a s i ZOLS& S

LAO-

ocqitpasi;papwibv& rcdriusrro<vl-us vaA6msr qdia. v i s 6806a . j r o ~ u o i u s c ~ , y + ~ 8% Aavcizov] xal xnAziy~r niV8or 6porpnrjv. xadzi~e'clu al.

Prov. X. 12.. r;iDJn ~ l p y - i ?$2)

;i?ilK

[Let him know, that he wh~chconverteth the smner from the enor of his way shall save a soul from death,] and shall hide a multitke of sins.

hutlove covereth allthat are not contentious.

-

but love covereth all sms.

The part of this verse to be noticed here is xai x a k f i y z ~ a r j 8 0 ~ ~ d ~ a ~ t c r j , shall hide a multitude of sins (errors)." In Prov. X. 12 o:ccurs the expression "over all sins (defections) .love will cover", which is found quoted'in 1 Pet. IV., under the form dydnq xakzlzin8 szc nk+80s dpaqseGv "love bides a multitude of sins". Considering it also in the present instance as a Quotation, (though not formally introduced as such, yet from the similarity between the two places in the New Test. apt t o be so regarded) let us compare it with the original. "All the sins" of an individual, it will be at once confessed, amount to and therefore may be termed "a multitude", so that herein they correspond. The difference between them in presentiiig the same idea

appears to be this: that the original states that "all the sins"-every one and any one of them-would be coveled- that there was not a sin such as could not be covered, by love, while James looks to the nnmber of them and says, that however many they be-even a multitude-yet they can all be covered. Still, however, the idea of "all" lies a t the bottom, and neither does %very one" exclude the notion of "multitude", nor, on the other hand, does Ymultitude" not comprehend that of "everg one". When one does for another what he believes to be for good, it cannot be supposed that it originated in any evil intention,-that hc did it from the hatred he bore to him, but rather, that, actuated by love toward him, he wished to give palpable evidence thereof, and henco the deed. Now, we have here stated the acting principle love", and its manifestation "the deed", and therein consists the remaining difference between the Quotation and the original, the latter g ~ v ~ n g out generally that L'lovewill cowr over all sins", the former, partzcularly, that in the instance when one's love is shown by his bringlng back to the right path another astray, it will then "hide a multit~de of sins." And the application of a general truth in a particular case is quite admissible. But if any one be not satisfied with this mode of harmonizing; there is no nked of his regarding it as a Quotation at all, but merely as an unintentional coincidence of language and partly of idea, inasmuch as no formula occnrs strictly binding one to take it as a T Quotation. See, however, in Table E.1.r. (12) for 1 Pet. I .8, to which James could here be supposed to refer; and the remarks thereon.

Matt. IT. 4; Matt. XTIII. 16.

[Table E.1.a.o.

TABLE E. La. o.
(1)
Natt. IV. 4. Dent. WI. 3. [rdypanznc] O h dz' zd Zpw pdvo &us+zq p6vV G j v n a ~ EY- z n ~ Zv8qonos, &AX dm2 d 8 Bqonos, &AX 8s nami @$- navri @+paz'r @&napsvop a hnopwop'vp JL&ord- p'vp J'ir ccrjtlaras $mi ~ ~
[ J ~ V ~ T I I L ?90%0~. & .

Deut. VIE. 3.

a'? IT$ on!;?-ip N$ xirn-i?'j-ii ': DYE(;? , D?$?~') >;,n?7 p 9~
1) = 69 K.
111) =

6

[It is written,] Man shall not live by bread alone, b u t b y everywordthatproeeedeth out of the month of GOD.

0m.dIV. rt a1 m E X ' . . . eu in mss et pp mu ant] Alex. MS. pqwacr rxnop. 1 ho. a av4. Onc MS. om. man shall not live by bread alone, hut by every word that proce6deth out of t h e month of GOD shall man live.

16 K.

man dotb not live by bread only, b n t by every mord that proceedeth out of t h e mouth of the LORD doth man live.

Here ,Matt. may be said to follow the LXX. as,, like it, he has
acoi;, whereas the Heb. gives ;! l Also- the LXX. renders ~ ~ 1 n - 5 2 i ;? . by wevs2 pljuarr (t@) ~ x n o ~ s u o ~ i vwhich is also read i 'Matt., the i, n word PjL ~being supplied, as mord is i n the Autlr. Vers. But Matt. ll m omits the conclusion S ~ ~ G E b ~ L S iv@pm%og, which the LXX. has, after

the Eeb. This, however, is of.no moment, since it may, and would, be supplied from the end of the first clause. Thus, excepting in giving QEOG for ;ij;i!, the IIeb. may be said to be rightly rendered by the LXX.,whosetext is found in Matt., save the last words; and so, this passage might have been put in Tab1eA.s.
(2)
Matt. XVIII. 16.
Eva dnl a6paGs 860

Dent. XIX. 15. in2 rn6pazos Giro pap-

Dent. XIX. 15.

paqz6pov $ zBc6v vza8f ngv @?pi.

D. 435. om pa .rv wv et Iransp. ante & r o t afct pbst cprov 1. a1 e ff 1 Or I ma47 cHDEFGE1KLSVXcte. Cyr ... IMUd a1 m (e iT) Or m&qCBZOi'.

T ~ P O Y ~ a iSzi rn6paros zp~6v p~apirpmv ~~mjonac n& #?pa. '77 o.r&+barar in Alex. Ox. h)a,>m18.69.109.111.129. ct m. al. MSS. also Ald. 152. 153; 3. 4. 107 a p K. et Compl. Edd. i) =.3n-iy 16. 69. 109 K: ' 8TS;529. 656a p. R.

D>~Y ,?qh) 'p-5~ D ; nny ;t? rp-ipi) " i&

that i n the mouth of two or three witnesses cvery word may be established.

At the mouth of two witnesses, and a t the mouth of three witnesses, shall every word be established.

a t the mouth of two witnesses, or a t the mouth of three witnesses, shall t h e matter be established.

This bassage carries with it an evident reference to the Mosaic law, found in Deut., wherein we read, more fully, ILorat the mouth of three witnesses", for "and of three" xa2 zpdrjv, which, however, is easily supplied from the beginning of the verse. He adds, like the Sept.,

Table E.I.a.o.1

Matt. XIX. 5; Matt. XXI. 131p.

165

m&v, and translates DIP; "shall stand", i. e. stand good or be valid, by azcit78 "may stand", the Sept. being asqmra6 "shall stablish itself", the same as ora8qaeru~,which is read in Alex. Ox. et mu a1 MSS. See 2 Cor. XIII. 1.
(3)
Matt. XIX. 5.
[#a2sZnau]'Ev~rcnav roirrov z a z a l e i y e ~ Zv8qwnos zhv nazdqrr xal z j prjrdra zai ~
~

Gen. I . 24. I
;vnrsv

z a k o v xaralei-

x o ~ i ~ a j o n zfj~ yuya~xl u abzo6, *a2 8covrar oi ddo eis uipxa piav.
~ ~ X eCDEFGHKMSUVd E V a1 pler ...eBLZ Or evrxa/CErd a1 pm vv m Tit a1 nareq. mtmou ct E a1 vv m Alh a1 p ~ z ~ auzou ( zoM. cBDEF q. GIiISUV also fcre s nqoaxoiA.eDKLMZdetc./Zomo~. [And said] For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and tho7 twain shall be one flesh.

S L;vaP~nog ~ Y mdpa L T n adro; %a2 z+v ppdqol, xal ~ ~ O E X O nedsz+r ~ ~ ~ ywaixa a&oG sari Xuovzar oi 840 E ~ SU C ; ~ X C Lp i w . For wrxev one MS. and many fathers give auzr / ply

11>~-nyi 3:g:: p-ip wly i mwe? ~271 r~e-nyl
U ~

Gen. 11. 24.

i~g. g . L

v & )

VJ~)
1

1) m;ii S. u) w,iwa S.

ceca add au.rovplurMSS. ...I
Compl. Ed. r a
~ W ~ X A .

...

neos z. p v . Cat. Ox. MSS. et Ald. Ed. ....Alex. MS. et

Therefore shsU a man leave his father and his mother; and shall he*joinedunto his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh. * Gr. cemented.

Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

It may first be observed that Matthew's text., as given above, differs from the LXX. in omitting cdroC, and reading %oAh+Ij~zrac'5 ywarzl for z@o~xoLA~t?+jozrac ~z+v yuva?%a. Yet the two texts zpd could be brouhht nearer, a s seen in S. Matt., however, would still vary in omission and having t g y. for %QOS r . y . But s?] y. is read in Alex. MS. et Compl. Ed., and if adopted, they would agree more. The Heb. says: IDN-nN1 13;K-ne "his father and his 'mother", while the LXX. leaves out the latter pronoun, and Matt. both. Also, while both the LXX. and Matt. read L(oovrac oi 80, Heb. has only the 9171 "and they shall be", but the Samaritan has D;i?Yfl~ ;'I, whicli I;l addition appears also in the Syr. Vulg. and Arab. versions. We are not, however, to suppose in consequence, that the Heb. had originally uthe two". They are not independent witnesses, the reading being referable for its origin to either the Samaritan or the Septuagint; nor would their testimony prove its existence in the original, where the same idea is expressed, only with less cleiiniteness, as may be gathered from what precedes. () 4
Matt. XXI. 131p. Jer. YII. 11. . i p ~ i s 8 a k b v n a ~ ~ h s (ci a+iarov i ~ a r 6 ~ 2 rrmjia~ov z u z 6 v . l 0b65 pov 0 dmmdxi?rac : z;, ovopa; pou 3 ' ca;z@& ~ i % dvdn'ov iJp6v; ocxoq rcav sevcral MSS. 9roLicTe cBL 124. cop Or2 add eyarrca. ti:e!;. .,. ~noc~naz~cDEl?GHK r !)Ih :ll.rVX rd a1 pl 1. Or2 Jer. VII. 11.

;j?) i;'

imp.] 1 ~ 3i;i n!l;! 5 ,O?'?V? I$JT"?~
s) =

niy?? n171;13
168 K.

,..,.,,:,,,,>:.,,

..

166
but y h h a v e made it a den of thieves.

Matt. XXII. 37. I s n o t my house, whereon my name is called, s den of robbers i n your eyes ?

[Table E.1.a.o.

Is this house, which is called b y my name, become a den of robbers i n your eyes 9 The LXX. varies kom the Heb. in omitting ;ij;;i, unless cyiveso~

be read with several MSS., in rendering ;il? n!?;! "this house" by 6 o&6s ,uov "my house", and adding h i "there", variations so slight that the Quotation might have been placed in Table C. But the only part that Matt.. has in common is mz$Laluv /;?jnt6vjv, the rendering of D p ' ? n?y;n "a den of thieves". AnJ adsdv iro~nthe former clause is seen to refer to 6 02x0s pov "my house", given in Jer. thus: l l ) y ; - V ~ ~N ! ~ ! - l W ~ t7?2;?'this house, (as to) which my name is called uion it" (or, 'this house, upon which n ~ yname is called", i. e. which is called by my name). Now, mhilst in Jer. the question is asked: "Is this house, which is called by n ~ y name, become a den of robbers, in your eyes?" (in the LXX. "Is it not &c."), in Matt. it is answered, when he says: "but ye are making it a den of ? i 'to i thieves". The I-Leb. expression 'D 'ZJi:? i j ; ' be in the eyes of any one", i. e. to he in his sight, is a phrase denoting the sense of the verb uideri , to seem; so that Jer. asks: "Does my house seem a den of robbers?" and Matt. answers: I L I t has actually become one"-uYe are making it so". There is thus, then, ultimately no difference, except in the form of expression, between the two passages in Jer. and Matt. (5)

;la;?

Matt. XXII. 37. 'Ayarn+jrre~~i i ~ i o v z l v x 8 e 6 v vow dY(62.2 z,j xagJiy uou xui 69 :kg zjj p x f vo" nai dv 62.7 J‘avoirr aou.
.rq zaq8. eDKLMSZ ctc. ... HEFGBUVl'dolplus~oClem om .rq (Gboo) j '1 qux. cBD 7 KLMSZ cte. Clem... EFGIIU V l i l a130 fere om 2 1 (Gbo)l 7 c7j (minusc paue om) &ov. oov 13.69.124 a12 syr nelb add r a w o i q 27 LQVC govi. ~

Thou shalt love theLord t b G 0 D w i t h dl thyheart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.

Deut. VI. 5. xnt L ; r a n j v e ~ ~ nijqcov Z ~ Y &&v w- QS i;i7s rijq &avoiss oou v* 6d7g 6 s ii d< q t ~ f i s "0% m i t< iil.7~z f s 8uu,ipadc oou. 8'wocas ... x a q S ~ a s Alex. in and many other MSS.;: also Ald. et Compl.Edd. y t u x ~ r.. . ' q u o s in some MSS. / o o v . . two MSS. add xai 1 S l l q 5 .njr lozJos oou. anathcr xaq8'as I r?uvcLe;irros..8 ~ a u o a a r in some MSS. Two MSS. add ns above x a c rF o. z. r u ~ o .. at the end. And thou shalt love-thc Lora thy GOD with all thy mind, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength.

Deut. TI. 5.

F

q > ~ $>l;i?n*
/ -5

F/>27

e,?;?!~ - 532

: F/l?n-b~$l

And thou shalt love the LORD thy GOD with a11 thine heart, and w t all ih thy soul, and with all thy might.

:

If in the LXX. tho reading x q S m g be adopted for S~avoras, it will then agree with the Neb., and the passage would be placed in Table C.1.r. Matttt. renders ql.kn "thy might" by S~uvoiq~ "thy mind", when aov

Table E.I.a.o.1

Mark X. 7-8.

167

one expects S w v a p ~COW, which causes the placing of it here. Yet ~ there would be a sufficient reconciling of the two, if Dr. Davidson's remark be approved, who says: "It has been thonght strange that he translates ?&n by S~avoLa,and Doepke affirms that it never has such a signification. The Ilebrew term, however, signifies strength, and in rendering it 8 ~ u v o r a , the apostle referred it to strength of mind." It is true that means might, vehemence; and as the love here commanded respects not the body -is not a bodily power, but must be spoken of the inner principle, the might must belong thereto. This Xatt. expresses by Stavora, which refers to the 'VOWS, %he intellect", and means: "turning in one's thoughts and resolving"; 'Lresolut.ion after deliberation", "considerate determination". The word, by which the LXX. renders it, is S u v a p ~ w i ,which expresses potency in general, and is used o f the body (i. e. vigour), or of the mind (i. e. ability, talent), or of anything else. The LXX. puts Sumoras Itstrength of mind" for x a ~ S L a g"heart"; but where part of this command is repeated, as in Dent. X. 12; XXX. 6, it reads 6E 8dqs zcs xae8Lac GO?] xui 8E 6Avs z+s y w ~ i j scow, according to the Neb. *From the relation expressed by the preposition 7 in the Heb., "the heart &c." may be regarded as the instrument ised in loving Jehovah, (comp. Is. LVIII. 1 ; Josh. X. 11). More properly, however, it may denote the relation of being in a place, which is its special meaning; and then '&theheart &c." will be viewed as the seat of the love. Such is the idea conveyed by t v in Matt. And, as it is in the fountain. the water is, and, the fountain being considered as the source, from it also it flows, %heheart &c." may be loolred upon as the source whence the love proceeds. And such is the form given to the idea by the LXX.

i&n

(6)
Mark X. 7-8. Gen. 1. 24. 1 Gen. 11. 24. ' ~ " C X C V ~ 0 h 0 2 XUZOIkdv~i 1 #UEICY m6~011 l ~ z a k e / v e ~I?$-@ - ~ j Y ]]?-ij! i( Wje a ; ~ a . ~ w rdv ~ n o nazCqor ai- &li(ewnos zbv nozdea ail i ? ~ -~ ? ps?? l ~ e -: n ~ zoG nni +v pvrdyrr, alrl zoti xui z j v fqzbqa, xal .: n e o s n o l i 7 8 ~ u c z a i n p b s j v nqasxolk~3tjuecac z npbs njv :mN . Vcf) ywaixa airoi. 8nai 8 ~ 0 ~ ywaina aZroG nai t v o v c a ~ piav. z' OL' 640 ti< s & q ~ a a (U~ULY. 02 860 cEE C&PKOI ?DM* r. n a ~ r g .(M" add For m r x i u one MS. nild t) S. u) an,>ma S. many fathers pivc a m . . I U V ~ O V r. z. *?<. (D ea2irow ) M avrov, h. 1. arucov add cl pqrrpar add aurouplurMSS. n oq .r. y , Cot. 0x.MSS. vv) / F Ln in f add r a %pop. ~ ~~ii. ze.=. y. (Ln Z 7 j y. eA ~d . .... Alex. MS. et LA al vv ... C yvvarxr) oru- Compl. Ed. r g yvvacrc. ros eACDEFGBKLDlSUVX1' d sl Cere omn vv ferc otnn. . om eD evg 48. po. Thererore shall a man Therefore shall a man ~ F O this &use shall a F D leave his father and his man leave his father and leave his father and A mother, and cleave t o his mother, an& shall be mothcr, and shall cleave

l

limp)

ci A d

168

Xark XI. 171p.j Luke XIX. 4 lp. G

[Table E.1.a o .

wife; sAnd theytwainshall bo one flesh.

*joined unto his wife; and they twaln shall be one flesh. * Gr. cerncnted.

unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

According to Tischendorf's text of 1849, Xark omits the middle clause: xu2 nqoixoAAvr%jrizsal23 pvumst (or nedg z+v yuvuixu) ad2073 iLand shall be attache6 towards (Ilt. glued to) his wife", which would transfer the quotation to Table E.III.a.o.2.o.; but we prefer Lachmam's text, whlch keeps this clausc, and which Tlsch. has aclmitted in Ed. 1859. Like Matt., Mark drops the uurov after ,uvrCqa, though he keeps it alter nasf'pa, and he has followed the LXX. in reading oi Siro "the two". For additional remarks see Matt. XIX. 5 in this Table.
(7)
Mark XI. 17 lp.
;pig 8; n e n o ~ $ x a r aa626" ( T + ~ L I L U Y i ? l m 6 v .

Jer. W. 11.
' o n j i n c a u Agoz&v jv o b 6 g pov a: $ n ~ i & i ~ z cz b~ c hop& pov 2%' ainQ d u i hdncov &pw^u; or.. wou severalMSS. add eyevaxa.

;i;11;17 DlTlg n p ; i

Jer. VII. 11.

~ p - l t?I.? & i;l?>;?
D?lq? l $ p 2 ~
s) =

V X r a1 fere omn IAM 1.33. a115 fcre ante enoqa. pon.
OLVTOY.

nenoc7jx. eBLA Or s Ln e n o n i m e eACDEGHKMSU

...

168 K.

but ye haye made it a den of thieves.

is not my house, whereon my namc is called, a den of robbers, in your eycs?

Is this house, which is called by my name, become a. den of robbers in your eyes ?

Mark, differs from Matt. only in 'the verb, the former h a v i ~ g
nz%onvxsre' "ye have made1', (or with s Ln zmo~ljmzz($yemade",) whilst the latter reads noreire 'Lye are waking", (or with, s &rnol~uuse Uge

made").

See additional rcmarks on Matt. XXI. 131p. above.
(8)
Jer. VII. 11.
p'j a n j i a ~ o v k g m 6 v 6
,

Luke XIX. 461p.
ainbvdm~$uaze w.-iia~& i g m 6 v .

ipis

Jer. VII. 11. >?;is) Dl??? nlyp;?

,uou o d n ~ ~ d x k ~ n a ~ z b : hop& 110" dz' ai,,g & e i
~ ~ Z A O V ~~

obds

~ ? p ~ - i % n n??;? ;; nl
D
s) = 166 K.

T7

auz. a n o q o (L no'emr) I a1 aliq Or m o ' . auz. I

...

ii";

'i;?v-ln~

ovx. p. several rywrzo.

MSS. add

.

bat ye have made it a den of thieves.

Is not my house, %hereon my name is called, ;a den of robbers, in your eyes?

I s this house, which is called by my name, become a den of robbers in your eyes?

Matt. Mark and Luke differ in the form of the verb, Luke having
Ernoqaarz 'ye made", while Mark has zcnoiljxarc, "ye have made", (g Ln however hcoci)care, as Luke) and Matt. noreire 'pe are making'), (s, ~ i o r ~ ~ a rSee. remarks on Matt XXI. 131p. above. z)

Tablo E.I.a.o.1

Acts 3'11. 3; 42-43.

169
Gen. XII. 1.

(9)
Acts VII. 3. [rai s l n w xebs a6r6;) ' ~ < E A ~7% y j s U.02) dx E z j s m,yyaveias oov, xai ieGQo is T;IY yjv ?Y Z p uoc 8el:w.

-

Gen. XII. 1. [Kal elzz X ~ ~ L O ~6 E '%@PEL] E ~ E L * ~ *S 7% " dx uou %a2 68 njs uuyyevclus ~ 0 2 1m i dx ZO< ohou ZOG narq6s uov, xai &<p0 zis zjv l j v & UOL 8alb. ex... D* ano (dde)jxarrcqs xac &VQO OX.MS. et Ald. cBD* sah Thpht ...s x a r ru et Compl. Edd. . Alex. ct %qscACD*%Hetc.vvpl(sed Cat. M S S . am IMany MSS. d syr neth n [antca de s. ex]) et Ald. Ed. om cqv. Thph2 Ir Aug I auyy. (CUE -mac>oov ...E a1 sl Aur add rcrc m zo?J O a x o v zou ?ZaZQOF oov ~ l j eABCDE a1 . . s y (= b t ) om eH a1 pl Thph. [And the Lord said t o [And said unto him,] Get thee out of thy country, Abram,] Get thee out of and from thy 'kindred, and thy country, and ont of thy come into the land which kindred, and oat of thy I shall shew thee. father's house; and come into the land t h a t I will shew thee.

L ~ 7 3 - 5 ~ 7&1t+]]

TcT>iDpi ?,Gp $\-7j ~ m :.- 5~ ~n nlpy y
-r :

-

:2$1# li$z

..

.

[Now theLORD had said untoAbram,l Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I wiE shew thee:

This passage verbally agrees with the LXX. except that it omits the clause xai Cx roii oZxov soi; aatp6s oou, which is the translation of 7)3? n12- 'land from the house of thy father". Again the Heb. reads ~1.?;;1-5~(. ? Y ? N ~ "Go for thee from thy land.. .unto the ++ 7i-7) Sand" &c., which latter the LXX. (and the New Test. foSSows it) has joined as a clause xcci S~iieox. 5. A. <lComeout from thyland and hither (come) into the land &c?, the LXX. merely expressing the idea more fully than the Keb, with which it entirely accords. It may be assigned also to Table E.III.a.2.o.

...

(10).
Acts VII. 42-43. [xa9&s r d y ~ a n r a i h plp'Aq 1G1 nroqqr6v] M+ uq&yba wrrl &aLas zqop?vdpard POL ZEUITE~&hovzar B z t d&iw, u alms , 'lvpa+A, 433xu1 .rjv uxvvjv COG M o l h ~ ,xcl 26 Zlrrqov 706 AsoG'Peqa'v, zoAs z6nous 04s dno~joara zqonnzlveiv a&ois; xai p e zaa~G 6picBndx~wa BCPZIIGvivos. 42. zsooep. ( A a<. reoo. past bop...variatal) ...s Ln rrooaq. c f Pro1 1 C in f. add
ieyrc rverop.

Amos V.25-27.
um&y~a Avulas xal n ~ o ~ u d ~ x apol, ohas rd 'IoQE$, Z E O ( T ~ ~ ~ ~ K$zqY O dv zc dQ~jPY;26xa1 &EL&PETE T+Y

Amos V. 25-27.
7

nai zb irpGv ' P c ~ q i v , rob< z6novs a h G v airs dnrro~$vacs Bauzoir a7nu2 ~ , Z T O L K & 6pL;E Bndxsva dapaonoir.

2i13n9') 0%7>7il~~:. D,y_?Hy~n3 ,>-&jql? T ~ '-. : - n)? n g :%?? V * I J ~ ~ M D ~ ~ , nWS) ns DCNWJ?" ZOG . <urpav zoG $so6 ~?ln@)iu)~"> nNlCl3?>)?')

'.

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?.:

7& r
1nS3;i127' ' '. '

D ? l ; i i ~ ~ )33S33

I~

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:

~ 3 )c

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~

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25. There are mangvariations of order, but no copy appears to agree with thcN. T. Alcx. MS. q o q q v . PO' ev

r) = 145 K. s) hl38 per Kibbulz et Cholem 196 a p. R. t) ~ 2 5 0575K. 440 a p.R. U) n:nix 89. 128.150.li5K.

170
43. 4eov c R D ~ a lsyrsah arm Or Ir Philast . . s add vlcw cACEH al pl vg cop syr a1 Chr a1 I pamav ( b ) G' e (A a1 pcqaru) CE ( e refbm, itern neth) al rn (a1 f e r e l W c e g ~ p p a v ) syr utr cap sah nrr Or ms CyrThdri Thph' Hier ...H a p a w s. 1 - q p a ... a1 Just paqas?. . 1) a1 vg Ir p s ~ p c z ~ . .a1 ? o r m a B s ~ e p p a ve min paueis ut vdtr Thdor Chr Thphz . diB xl. [(fds it is m i t t e n in the book of the uroahets,lO Te .. house of Ik.el, have yc offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by thespace of forty y e a ~ s t h e wili~ deuness? raYea, ye took up the tabernacle of Nolooh, and the star of your god Remphan: figures which ye m a d e t o worship them; and I will c a ~ r y you away beyond Babylon.

Acts VJI. 4 2 4 3 .

[Table E.1.a.o.
X) '>>I3

.

c?

ep. ocr. sop. zeon~p.ET?,

.

AEYEL X U Q ~ O ~ . Compl-Ed. zto. EZ? I I Q O O ~ V et om W Z E?. . ~ 26. P a r p a v .. t ~ ~ XI!. v a ete. qrnpary 95. 185. 239 Compl. Ed. 1 a v z o v lur. et R. MSS. et Ald.Ed. a1 am I OZOL. 1 2 adds II on x~iverv. / e a u r . Compl.

$59'3

'SN 612 K.

6 0 i K . y) = 3 5 5 K .

.

ES. k

amahs.

..

.

27. ~ o r i a N a o r 26reads o ~ pn,hiwros.

~

2 5 0 house of Israel, have ye offered t o me siaill 6eost.y and sacrifices, forty years i n the wilderness'2 XBYea, ye took up the tabernacle of Noloch, and the star of your god Raephan, their iiguscs which ye made for them; 2Tand 1 will carry you away beyond Damascus.
'

2jHavc ye offered unto m e sacrifices a n t offerings in the wilde~ncss forty years, 0 house of Israel? aegut ye have borne the' tabcmacle of your Moloch and Chion 'your images, the star of your god, ~ v K ~ e h ye made t o yourselves. Z'Therefore will I cause you t o go into c a p t i ~ i t y beyond Damascus, * Or, Sieeuth your king..

Excepting that the first verse has the words in a different order, and that, in the next, hpGv is dropped after $&o5, -and a d t 6 v after zdnous, though s retains the apGv, this Quotation is the same as the LXX., until we come to the next last clause, where, for 06s D%o~ljaut& fuvso?s "which ye made for them", is given ods Gwo~ljtius~ sqonxuve2v u6so2s; Uwhich ye made to worship them", thereby showing tho purpose and interpreting the original 03) "for yourselves". Also, at the end, for AapahxoG as in the original, is read @d@ukGvos. We sliall now see how far it agrees with the Heb. The first difference is presented in the middle verse, ver. 26, where the original says: "and ye took up (or bore) the tent (or tabernacle) of your king (or idol, see Is. VIII. 21) and the burners, your images,-the star of your god, which ye made for you." In the New Test., it runs: "and ye took up the tent ofMoloch, and the star of the god (LXX. yourgod) Rephan, the images (LXX. their images) which ye made to worship them." Here D X ? n n?3D i?N becomes s$v ~ ~ I J ~ COG V V $ Mohix. NOW,as the title of "icing" is applied to Jehovah, since he is king not only of each individual, but also and specially so, of the wl%olenation of Israel, so would it be applicable to idols in the language of their worshippers. And thus, whilst speaking of the idolatry of the Israelites, "the tent of king" will mean: "the tabernacle, which the idolatrousIsraelites constructed in the desert in honour of some idol, like t l ~ e tabernacle of the covenant in,honour of Jehovah", (seeGes.Heb. Lex.) and not Jehovah's. Were D?@n Uyourking" pointed o-,$n (and who can say that . ..

our

Table %.I.a.o.]

Acts TIT; 42--43.

171

'

it may not.?) it wodd then be rendered "your Molech", which would account for the occurrence of Mohox in both the LXX. and Acts. Taking it., however, as it is, the idol, which the idolatrous Israelites called,"their king", instead of so calling Jehovah, will, as the LXX. interprets, be Moloch. Now, Molecli was an $01 of the Ammonites, as we learn from 1 Kings XI. 7, called also 133>n Milcom (vers. 5 and 33,and-2 Kings XXIII. 13) and o??r ~ a l c a m ;(Jer. XLIX. 1, 3, acas cording to the LXX., wk.ch there reads M~rl;(oh a pr. name aud not as an appellative: "their king"). The 5 h and7th verses of 1 (LXX.3)Kiilgs L XI. appear to be run together in the LXX. Molech in ver. 7 is omitted, and Milcom of ver. 5 is read, which, however, is taken as an appellative and rendercd r@ @ccoO,ei azisu3v "their King", and so in ver. 33; but in 2 (LXX. 4) Kings XXIII. 13, where the same word .. .: : occurs, we find the LXX. reading MoLdjl, and in our passage 033>1? ( L y ~ ~ r is given as 'MoLdx''. king" In 2 Kings XXIII. 10 we read of a rite observed in the worship of Moloch, viz. one's making his son or daughter pass through the fire to Molech (LXX. Molo~)."Its statue was of brass with the members of the human body, but the head of an ox; it was hollow mlthin, was heated from below, and the children to be immolated were placed in its arms, while drums were beaten to drown their cries". See Ges. Heb. Lex. The Rabbins desiring to free their ai~cestors froin the opprobrium of a superstition so atrocious, have feigned that the children were only made pass through fire as a rite d lustration, and the same sentiment' is also expressed by the LXX. (2 Kings XVI. 3); but that children, thus offered to Moloch, were really burned, the following passages hardly leave a doubt. Jer. XXXII. 35; XIX. 5; VII. 31; 2 Chron. XXVIII. 3; Eeek. XXIII. 37. That it was not unknown in Moses" time is inferrible from its being prohibited in Lev. XVIII. 21 ; XX. 2 seq., where the LXX., regarding the name. as an appellative, translates it &p,yovst <'the rulel?. See also PL CVI. 36-38. "From the langnage of Jeremiah, (ch. XXXII. 35 comp. with XIX. 5) it would seem to follow, that the idol ~ o f e c h no other than Baal, to whom was also in the region of Carthage and Numidia childreri vere immolated". See Ges. Heb. Lex. Again, a passage in Uiodorus Siculus (20. 14) mentions that human sacrifices were offered by the ~arthaginians-a Phenician colony -to xpovos, i. e. Saturn; and 'hence it has. been commonly held, that the idol, called in tho 0. T. Molech, was also called Suhcrn, and was indeed the planet Saturn, which the ancients regaxded as a mxo8aipwv to, be appeased by human sacrifices." =It may, at all events, be supposed that Molech was an epithel of Baal, in cwrrent use among.the Ammonites, but not among them only, [or, among the.Phenicians, a customary epithet of his was C ~ lh2 melech V 'olam, king eternul, and also sjmply l b melech, king; and by the T ~ r i a u she was also called n?&n malqereth king of the city".
:

- ,

'

172

Acts VII. 42-43.

[Table E.1.a.o.

Our attention, then, must now be turned to Baal, which was "the name given to a chief domestic and tutelary god of the Phenicians, and particularly of the Tyrians." "Of the currency and extent of this worship amoug the Phenlcians and Carthaginians we have one proof among others in the frequency of the name Baal in compound proper names of Phenician men, as jplnh. Ethbaal, jp27! Jerubbaal; and also of Carthaginians, as ~YJ!;! Hannibaal, (grace of Baal) ip2llip IIasdrubaaZ (help of Baal) &c. Among the Tyrians the full name of this divinity appears to have been 1s n7i)itJ Malqereth Baal Zor, illalqereth, Lord of Tyre, where again Malqereth is for: king of the czly. The Greeks, on account perhaps of some similarity of emblems, constantly gave him the name of Hercules, Hercules Qrius, and compared him with Jupiter." "The same god, called in the Aramaean manner Bel, was the chief domestic god of the Babylonians, and was worshipped in the celebrated tower of Babylon. Is. XLVI. 1; Jer. L. 2; LI. 44. Greek and Roman writers compare him with Jupiter. Here, however, we are not to understand Jupiter, as the father of the gods, of whom the Orientals were ignorant; but, in accordance with the peculiar mythology of the Babylonians, which was solely connected with the worship of the stars, it stands for the planet Jupzter, stella Jovis. This planet was regarded as a good genius, the author and guardian of all good fortune and felicity." Nor did the Hebrews keep themselves free from falling into this idolatry, for they with great pomp worshipped him along with Astarte, especially at Samaria. See We find consta6tly recurring, in the history of 2 Kings X. 18-28. the Israelitish nation, the mention of Baal's images (Judg. 11. 11) altars, temple, groves (1 Kings XVI. 32-33) high places (Jer. XIX. 5 ) priests, prophets and worshippers (2 Kings X. 19). It is Gesenius's opinion that the planet Jupiter, stella Jovis, as the guardian and giver of good fortune, was the object of this worship; but there are other as .able writers, who suppose that, under this name, the sun was worshipped; and indeed he would not deny that Baal with certain attributes, such as EIhammon, is to be referred to the, sun. Stephen says, at the beginniug of the verse, "GOD turned and gave them up to worship the host of heaven", which had been strictly prohibited, as read in Deut. IV. 15. '<Take ye therefore good heed unto yourgelves, ... (ver. 19) lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them." From this, it may be inferred that, after lapsing from the worship of the One True GOD, they would fall into the worship of the heavenly bodiesparticularly of the sun and moon: and it is, not without reason, the opinion of some, that this was the earliest form of idolatry. In the preceding verses (in Deut.), they are warned against corrupting themselves by making a graven image in the likeness of any thing what-

Table E 1.a.o.J

a

Acts VII. 42-43.

173

ever and wherever, i. e. with the intent of worshipping it. And it has been supposed that the elements and powers of nature were the next, added to "the host of heaven", and that they were first worshipped in their palpable and visible manifestations, without symbol, image or temple. In process of time, however, a new corruption arose, by man's dedicating to each particular deity some living creature, before and throug-h which the deity was worshipped. He did so, because he may have thought, that certain animals displayed qnalities, which aptly symbolized those attributed to a particular deity, or that the gods had made these Iiving creatures more or less partakers of their divimty and perfections, that they might be instrumental in conveying a knowledge of themselves to men. However it may have been, still such was the case. Nor was that all; for the material figurations of the power and attributes of the deity were in time considered, by the mass of the people at least, as distinct deities, and worshipped not as symboizcal of a deity, but as the deity itself. As there was no halting in thei$ sinking in the dark deep of idolatry, they began to pay divine honours to men, who after death were elevated to the rank of gods. It was not concealed that they had been men, but it was confessed, that they were become gods, and in order that the simple aspect of such a doctrine might not be too evidently revolting, it was !alleged that their spirits had passed into, and were become the animating principle of, some hcavenly body, whose anterior mythological history became part of that of the deified mortal. And hence the strange discrepancies everywhere met with in mythology. Moreover, as the heavenly body had had its symbol, the deified mortal-its occupantwould not be without his; whereby may bc explained the fact that most of the Egyptian gods had two symbolical characters. As the Hebrews, previous to their wilderness-wanderings, had been residents in Egypt, it might be anticipatdd that, when they forsook Jehovah's wolship, they would resort to and imitate the Egyptian idolatry. It is seen (Exod. XXXIT.), that, when Moses did not return to the people so soon as they expected, they constrained Aaron to make for them a golden calf, doubtless as representative of Jehovah, since (ver. 4) "they said, These be thy gods, 0 Islael, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt", and Aaron proclaimed "a feast .to Jehovah" ver. 5. Thls is only explainable on the supposition of Egyptian influence, which cannot reasonably be questioned, and stands in connection with, as is very generally a ~ e e d , worthe ship of Apis, or, according to some, of Mnevis of 13eliopohs. I t 1s not quite determined whether Apis was merely a living and visible representation of some deity, or was himself one; and probably he was practically the latter, but theoretically the former, being regarded as a symbol of their chief god Oslris-the sun-which was reverenced

174

Acts VII. 42-43.

['l'able E.1 a. o.

in the homage paid to him. This opinion is the more probable, as the worship of Apis would seem to have been, not confined, like that of most of the animal gods, to a particular part of Ebypt, but general throughout the country. In allusion to this event we read in Ps. CVI. 19, "They made a calf in Horeb, and worshippecl the molten image. (20) Thus they changed their glory (i. e. the invisible Jehovah, their GOD, in whom they should have gloried, Jer. 1 . 11) into the 1 similitude of an ox that eateth grass." We have now to see if there be any other passages in the Pentateuch, which state the celebration of rites similar to those observed in Moloch's worship. It must, however, be recollected that it narrates the history of Israel only so far as it was the people of GOD, it being no longer an object of Sacred History to trace the conduct and proceedings of that rejected generation, doomed to die; to record their expressions of unbelief and their superstitions; and hence, the great chasm, between the second and fortieth years of their march through the desert, follows as a necessary consequence. An account, then, of such rites in detail we could not venture to anticipate, and we should be content, if we met with only some passing notices bearing thereupon. In Lev. XVII. it is commanded that every one who slew an animal for sacrifice should bring it to the tabernacle, that it might be there presented to the Lord; otherwise Yhat person would be cut off from among his people." To the offerings at the tabernacle are opposed (ver. 5) those '<whichthey offer in the open field"; and what was the peculiarity of those sacrifices offered in the field, we are told in ver. 7 '<And they ishall no more offer their sacrifices unto Sei~im, after whom they have gone a whoring." That Seirim here is to be taken in its usual acceptation-"goats"-is unquestionable; and although there be a contrast between "a goat" and "a god", yet it was removed in the Egyptian religion and in that only; 1 and hence here again we find Egyptian influence. Herodotus 1 . 46 says "Both the he-goat and Pan are, in the language of Egypt, named MendesY, and almost all the Greeks follow him. His meaning is that the Egyptian god, to whom the Greeks, disregarding the other great differences, thought their Pan, on account of the goat's Iorm and salacity corresponded, was called Mendes, a name given to the goat also; so that, as the god and the animal bore the same name, by whatever name the latter was called, by the same could the former, i. e. if the animal mendes was called goat, the god mendes also might be called goat. Nor was the goat a mere symbol of the god, but rather an appearance - an incarnation- of him, and hence was held sacred, and received divine honours. The service of this goatgod or sod-goat was of high antiquity among the Egyptians, for Herodotus 1 . 46 says: L L T h ~ 1 Mendesians reckon Pun to be one of the eight deities, and say that these eight cleities were prior to the twelve

.

Table E.1.a.o.l

Acts VII. 42-43.

175

deities." And again 146: "Among the Egyptians Pan is the most ancient of even the eight gods which are reckoned first." The worship extended over all Egypt, though its principal seat was the Menclesian nome or district in Lower Egypt, in the capital of which viz. Thmuis, was erected to Neiidss a splendid and renowned temple, the 1,emains of which are still in existence. So, we have here "the king." oEAmos. But the agreement will be shown to be more complete, if we can detect a Sabaan element in the representation and worship of Mendes. Be was, first of all, a perso~~ification the masculine principle in of nature, the activo and fructifying power; hence the goat was sacred to him, and females were prostituted in his honour. But, since the sun was regarcled as the chief organ of tho active fructiij.ing principle in nature, Mendes a t tlre same time became the snn-god, was the sun-god with a peculiar and important reference. As the sungod, the Egyptiau Pan appears in a piece of sculpture dedicated to him in Pgnopolis. We have already referred to the prohibitory laws given in Lev. XVIII. 21; XX. 2 seq. Now, with regard to Sab~anism,or the worship of the heavenly bodies, if any one were asked which should be called king? the answer would be, the sun; and which queen? the moon. To sum up the whole on t h i s part. We have seen that the a~?$n Uyour king" was interpreted by. the LXX. and Acts to be Moloch; which, worshipped chiefly by the Ammonites, appears to be no other than Baal of Phenician and Babylonish idolatry, ancl probably a representation of the sun. Again, by examining thk Pentateuch itself, we read the warning given to the Israelites about falling into idolatry by worshipping either the heavenly bodies or images of any, ibjects whatever, as symbols of the attributes of Deity, whereby they would be led to pantheism. Also, the calf and goat worships were detailed, showing the influence which their dwelling in Egypt had exerted on them, and the connection in which these stood to the same worships in Egypt, whereby dipine honours were paid to Osiris or the sun. By bearing Sabzeanism in mind, too, we saw that 'Lyour king" meant something more than merely "an idol", and that the sun would be thereby designated. Thus, then, by going in different directions, we have arrived at the same conclusion, and I wouldonly add, that Baal-the sun-of tlre Babylonians was regarded by the Greeks as their ~uhiter-the planet.-probably because each was the chief god of his worshippers. The first clause: &'yebore the tent of your king" will therefore allude to the tent of the sun, the king of heaven, which they substituted for their true king Jehovah. It is said: "By Chiun is certainly to be understood the planet Saturn, to whom the ancient Arabians presented offerings on the seventh day, and who also appears in the Sabzan religion as an awful power. The worship of Saturn appears to have spread univers-

176

Acts VII. 42-43.

[Table E.1.a.o.

ally among the Israelites; the words imply that no offerings were presented to Jehovah, hut that the worship of Saturn had the ascendancy; that this fact is mentioned as a well-known circumstance, that the tradition respecting it must have run parallel with the Mosaic legend of the Pentateuch, which exactly contradicts it, and indeed spread much wider than that. Amos extends the worship of Saturn over the whole period of their march through the wilderness; the Israelites took Saturn with thcm as their king in the wilderness, whlch contradicts the accounts in the Pentateuch of the patriarchs and their pure knowledge of Jehovah." After reading such a statement one has a right to demand the grounds on which it is maclc, or why Chiun is to be regarded as a proper name, and a designation of Saturn, since that evidently lies at the root of the whole matter. The proofs are as follow: 1. An appeal is made to the Sept., which translates Chiun by 'Ponqvv, 'Pqyxm~or 'Pzfiqav, and the latter being, as is allcged, a name of Saturn, must prove that tho Alexandrians had a tradition according to which the formcr 1 2 designated the same object. This proof is 1 ' most easily set aside if with some we assert that Tolcyav does not correspond to I??, but was a gloss of the interpreters, which was afterward interpolated. But "the supposition" (it has been characteiized) 5 s as groundless as any can be. It assumes that the Seventy always numbered the words of the Hebrew text, and treated them in the manner of Aquila. How came they to think of addlng ' o c p v de suo, without any further occasion?" Seeing that in Acts Plta, the language of the LXX. is adopted after this supposed interpolation, I should reckon it a depreciation of, nay more, a covert insinuation against, inspiration, were I to use this reply. Fully admitting, therefore, that Rhaiphan corresponds to Chiun, it is seen that the proof depends on Rhaiphan's being a name of Saturn, and if this is not proved, it follows that Satnrn is not intended by Chiun. "The older critics appeal, with great confidence, to a Coptic catalogue of the Planets published by a r c h e r , in which Rhaiphan appears as a name of Saturn; but Vitringa thought that it was not of much account, and Jablonsky in his ~ s s Rhemphah Egyptzorurn Beus, has exposed a ~ so completely what sort of thing this Planelarum &gyptiorurn Catalogus is, that it is hardly conceivable how J. D. Michaelis could venture to contradict him, and repeat the old assertion that Rhaiphan was a name of Saturn among the Copts, independently of the passage in Amos. Jablonsky, indeed, endeavours to give new support$ to a view which he had deprived of its only support. But however skilfully he conceaIs the want of special proofs for maintaining that Rhemphah was an original Egyptian name of a deity, it is clear that all is founded on etymologies which amount to nothing." The more recent lexicographers of the Coptic tongue have been able to find

Table E.I.a.o.1

Acts YII. 42-23.

177

no other examples, and none of the classical writers Lnow anything of an E~yptiangod of this name. The assertion being therefore without proof, it must be allowed that the LXX. translators knew nothing of a tradition stating that Chiun was Saturn. 2. An appeal is made with great confidence to the Arabic, in which it is said .uli"j lrivin is a name of Saturn. Gesenius says "The Syriac translator gives a diiferent exl~lanation (Gom his which ji5J u , kevon J6 :\ 6 ' we shall soon 'notice) translating ~ l l D h by , tsali~LkGn, Suturn your idol, pronouncing the I-Ieb. 1\32 prob. as

I?,

and regarding it as i. q. Syr. Gd Arab. ui9S i. e. the planet Saturn, which the Semitic nations worshipped along with Mars as an evil demon to be propitiated withsacrifices." "But" replies Hengstenberg, "it would be ~vell to copy Vitringa's discretion, who remarks that, though it is indeed maintained by Aben Esra and David Kimchi that Kevan among the Arabians and Persians denotes Saturn, little weight is to be attached to their authority, since the evidence [or Kevan, as an Arabic name of Saturn, has received no confirmation since their time. No native writer knows anything of such a name, hut the Arabic name for Saturn, which occurs continually among eokhal." them, is ) . 3. As a t h ~ r dresource, an appeal is made lo the Zabians. Now, according to Norberg, Chiun denotes among that people, S a t u n u s septemstellaris. "But" again says EIengstenberg, "if we examine the only place, in which this word occurs, it appears that it can as little be a pledge of Chiun's being the original oriental denomination of Saturn, as the Coptic catalogue for the originality of the Egyptian Ithemphan. The passage proves nothing more than that the Zabians considered Chiun here as a proper name. But if this is thought to prove anything; then must IT-?? in Amos be also made a proper name, since the Chaldie Paraphrast, Kimchi, Sal. B. Melcch, and other Jewish expositors have taken it for the proper name of an idol." 11aviig thus, I hope, shown what Chiun is not, viz., Saturn; and as, to give a negative interpretation, by depriving another opinion of its support, and substituting no other in its stead, would be of little advantage, it is but one's duty in tuin to determine what it really is. It is long ago since Ch. B. Michaelis, remarking on the interpretation of Chiun as Saturn, said:. "Itepugnat sequens tsalmechem, cui cum praecedente singulari chiun haud convenit. Unde , colligimus 1. Appellativum esse. 2. Constructurn. Videlicet eodem modo se habet ut tsalmechem ao siccuth et cocab." '<This reason is no doubt decisive" adds Hengstenberg, who. states his own opinion as follows: "Let it be adn~itteclthat Chiun is an appcllative, 1. because the connection requires it; and 2. because to assert that it is a proper name is a violation of all sound philology, then a question arises

3 !

, C-

s.

:

12

178

Acts VII. 45-43.

[Table E.I.a.0.

about its meaning. We are led to the meaning foundation, framemork by comparing it with ]? which is found in this sense in Exod. X m . 18. 28; XXXI. 9 ; Lev. VIII. 11; and also with This meaning is quite suited to the connection. In the former clause we read: "ye bore the tent of your king". Every one may perceive how well the expression "the stand of your images!' corresponds to ''the tent of your king". Taking his reasons in the reverse order, I too fully admit that Chiun is an appellative, hut cannot a s s i p the meaning to it. Regarding "the stand of your images" as repeating the same thing as "the tent of your king", it would no doubt do very well; but I imagine that another access07 idea is furnished, that something more is added, that it is said they "bore the tent of their Icing" and something more. Now Hengstenherg's interpretation does not, so far as I can see, imply that; and it is to determine what is this something additional that we now proceed. By recurring to Michaelis' statement: "eodem modo se habet ut tsalmechem ac siccuth et cocab", i. e. that Chiun stands in the same relation to tsalmechem as siccuth does to malqechem and cocab to elohechem, we might suppose ourselves greatly aided. In the two latter cases the relation expressed is one of property or possession, or the .ne substantive stands to the other connected with it in the rc - ~f property to its possessor, and such would we find it to he, accohing to Michaelis, in the former. But as I do not find such a relation expressed in the language of the Acts, which is copied from the LXX., I am withheld from assenting to its existence. IIeugstenberg would appear td have got very easily over this, (if he ever thought of it), for he says of the seventy what must be applicable to their copyist, %iuce they took Chiun as a proper name, they could not tell what to do with tsalmechem. Without hesitation they separated or joined the words at pleasure, as is commonly done in a dilemma, without any pretence of making a various reading. They translated as if it stood thus in the original DJT~~?: jl? It would appear that "the star of your god" is to bk regarded as explanatory of the preceding word "Chiun", since it runs thus in the New Test. r4v G%~v?)v roc M O ~ O X rd ~ U ~ Q Oroc 8.~0CItthe tent of Moloch, and XU; V the star of (your) god". I think also that "your king" and "your god" are used of the same idol, for Acts r e a d s as if it were "the tent and the star of Moloch, your god", thus making Rhaiphar~be either another name for Moloch, or not the name of any idol at all. It is already admitted that Rhaiphan corresponds to Chiun, so that, as all support has already been taken away from the opinion that Chiun is the name of a god, it is inferrible that its correspondent Rhaiphan cannot be a god's name. Again, since "the star of your god" is explanatory of Chiun, it follows that it is so of Rhaiphan also, which receives support from the conclusion just now reached;

;l!J-n.

..-.

Table E.La.o.1

.Acts VII. 4 2 3 3 .

179

and hence there has been only. a transposition of parts. From the position, however, in which Rhaiphan stands in the sentence, it is generally taken as a proper name, as that of the "your god"; yet its being so mistaken does not make it a proper name. In theHebrew, the words "the star of your god", occw~ringafter "your images", show its form, so that by "the star of your gocl" must be meant the image made in likeness of tho star, over which they deemed the god of their idolatry to preside: and hence "ye bore the s t a r of your god Rhempl~an" signifies <'ye bore the image which ye called Rhemphan, and which was made in likeness of the star of your god." Thus one is led to infer that Chiun was the 11ame of the image, and so the Vulg. has it, imuginem idoloram uestrorum. Keeping this conclusion in view, we must now look out for its ,etymology. The one who appears to me to have come nearest the true etymological meaning is Gesenius who writes '?%?&aE I.r'y6p. prob. a stalue, image, from r. p3 Pi. p J , after the form jzl?;l, i'iifj etc. So the prophet says 0f the bore the tabernacle of your Israelites in the desert, Amos 5, 26 king (idol), and the statue (or statues, Heb. Gram. fj 106. 3) of your idols,' the star of your god, which ye made lo yourselves; so Vulg. imaginem idolorzlm veslrorum; comp. Acts W. 43. According to this interpretation, the only one which the received vowels well admit, tho name of the idol so worshipped is not given; and it can only be in, ferred from the mention of a star, that some planet is to be understood, yhich ,Jerome conjectures to have been Lucifer or Venus." When O?L(is used with reference to idol-worship, it means the shadow, likeness, 'image of the god, whom they through it worship, and not the god himself who is thereby shadowed forth. See 2 kings XI.18; Ezek. VII. 20. Gesenius makes j'i'? also mean, image, slutue, so that theexpression is the same as "the irnage of your images", which he has changed into "the statue (or statues) of your idols", thus diverting the last word from its correct meaning, in order to furnish some attachable ides of the former. It is granted that the meaning givcn to tho words may be the only ono which the vowels well admit, but wore we to adopt it, a different turn would be giv& to the interpretation, as may be afterwards inferred. Gesenius writes of the Syriac translator's "pronouncing the Heb. 13 prob. as 9,;j) 1 ' and regarding it as i. 4 Syr. \ . ;Arab.. ui%(: And we know that the LXX. trans;F. lators, althougll changing 3 into 1, wrote it Pqgnav, Paiyuv. And hence the question arises: Is the word pointed with its proper vowels? It may be worth noticing, at the outset, that it is pointed the same as n m ; and if, when the punctuation was aclopted, the true pronuuciation was lost, no moilder that, for enphony's sake, it was thus pointed. the At all eve~~ts, different reading in the LXX. and Syr. excites doubts on this head, and we shall now see to what purpose they may be turned.
. .

,<',

180

Acts VII. 42-43.

[Table E.1.a.o.

It is but a frigid idea to attach to the expression "statue of likeness" - LLpillar images". I suspect that "the star of your of god" is not added superfluously, but is calculated to show that Chiuil is somehow connected with and descriptive of the object of worship, which we found to be probably the sun. From the verb Wp lo be marm, we have ; i ! n f. 1. heat, of the sun Ps. XIX. 7; 2. Poet. for the sun itself. Cant. VI. 10. And then ]Fn, only in the pl. D p ? images, idols of some kind for idolatrous worship. Lev. XXVI. 30; 2 Chron. XXXIV. 4, 7. in which passage it is found joined with statues of Astarte, and from ver. 4 it appears further that the DCg? stood upon the altars of Baal. <&Arabs Erpen. and Kimch? says Gesenius 'long ago explained the word by suns, images of the sun; and both this interpretation and the thing itself arc now clearly illustrated by ten 2 Punic cippi.with inscriptions, cbnsecrated to inn 5 ~ (103 593) i. e. to Baal the solar, Baal the sun." So jp3 (see Ges. Ileb. Gr. 5 8. 5. 1.) or = ]l !J : formed 83. 15) from il!l:J f. 1 3 m. derived (§ 84. 1 V. 11) from 112 written ; ! . shall now search after the meaning i? We

(a

of 2 . There is found in the Syr. I& Arab. , $ signifying to burn in, to brand, with which may be compared the Gr. xaco (xuvw) to consume qith fire, so that the meaning to burn may b e assigned to it; and hence its derivatives ;i:!Q, a burning, a brand, i. e. a part of burnt spot on the body, Lev. XIII. the body burnt, Exod. XXI. 25; 24. 25. 28. Also the present one 1 which will mean the burner, 1 ' 3 scorcher. This meaning does not appear to be an inappropriate one,

;is?

when it is coilsidered as the name of an image, whether it be of the sun, the manifest fountain of both heat and light, and which could in southern climes be called "the burner", just as we have seen hirn called "the warmer"; or even of Molech, that is, Baal the sun, as descriptive of the rites observed in the celebration of his orgies, of his buming the children tliat were offered alive to him. Its construction will be tlie next thing to be attended to. Michaelis, we have already seen, says that it is of the construct state, in which case it can only be taken as placed partitively iu regard to "your images", meaning "ye bore the burner, (one) of your images". This form of construction is fomd in our own language, nor is it unusual in the Latin. It states that the thing spoken of, being included in the number of similar things, is taken out from among them and presented separately, yet so as to show that it stands connected with them, and forms part of the mhole. Thus Is. XXII. 7 Yhe choice of thy valleys", i. e. thy choicest (most beautiful) valleys. Gen. IX. 25 Ua servant of servants", i. e. "a lowest servant". The same view can be taken of the Quotation, wbich reads: "and (ye bore) the star of your god, Rhemphan (or the burner) as regards the ilnages which etc." where attention is first directed to the images in general, and then fixed upon a particular one, the burner. But it is evident from the

Table E.l.a.o.1

Aots VII. 4 2 4 3 .

181

analysis that this idea of relation may be expressed in another form, and hence we find Cicero saying LLAcerrimus omnibus nostris senex sibus est sensus videndi." The Heb. here uses the prep. ID. SeeGes. Heb. Gr. # 151. 3. C . Ovid e e s an example of both in "3 quis I Phaethusa sororum maxima!' Met. Lib. 11. Fab. 1 . 1. 22. 23. It cannot 1 be taken as expressive of the relation subsisting between it and the images, which implies that it belongs to each of them, is applicable to, and may be said of, each of them, unless they be considered in apposition, which is another, but the only other, mode of construction it may be brought under. Although the same meaning is not assigned by all interpreters to Chiun, yet, whatever explanation may be given of "your images", and one must be given, it will be found not much, if a t all, different from any other. Hengstenberg renders by: "the carriage of your images, the star of your god which, &c." where "the star of your god" must refer to '<your images" and not to '&thecarriage". On the other hand I have given: "the burner, (one) of your images, (or the burner, your images) the star of your god which $0." where it refers to Yhe burner': which is viewed either as one of, or the same as, 'Iyour images." If the former view be adopted, nothing more need be stated than that it intimates their having a number of deities, but regarding the sun, their king, as principal, whom they expressly worshipped; and, if the latter, we may find an analogy for it in the worship of the golden calf, where it is read Exod. XXXII. 4. "These be thy gods, 0 Israel &c." The LXX., instead of translating the word 1 7 , merely transferred 13 it, and, in so doing, wrote it, by changing 3 into 7 from a mere oversight, as Vitringa says, 'Pv~$Y iPatgidw, which by the further or L corruption of transcribers, (thus a , ow, op, sp) became IPspyacv or IPspp?. This, however, it is to be remembered, is not the o~llyinstance of the interchange of 3 And ? and the like, in the LXX. . But it may be asked, Why did not Luke correct i t ? The LXX. had long been used in the synagogue; they might know that Paccyaw was for ]1,3; knowing that, they let it remain unchanged, as no clearer idea of the image wodd be gained by changing it; and Lnke quoting from the LXX. as is evident, needed not to deviate therefrom. He has, however, added the purpose for which 'they made them for themselves", viz. aposxuvsiw adrois "to worship them", and changed "Damascus" into L'Babylon", inasmuch as the prophet only points out "the place far beyond which", whereas in Acts is marked 'Ithat to which", they were to be removed. I cannot close my remarks on this passage without stating that the deductions from it against the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch arc totally unwarrantable. In the first place, they have originated in an incorrect view of its connexion with the context. Secondly, they have been supported by an inaccurate interpretation of the

182

Acts VII. 42-93.

[Table E.1.a.o.

9

'

passage itself. And lastly, they have been aided by, a prejudice against the Mosaic origin, which is clearly the cause of the whole. Keeping these three things in view, the statement will be easily repelled. The Israelites were not allowed to enter Canaan, till the end of their sentence to wander forty years in the wilderness. Now, by whom were they so sentenced? Who so punished them? Jehovah, says the Pentateuch. Whcrcfore did Jehovah do so? Becauso of tlieir -want of faith in Him, replies the same record. But Jehovah was not then their GOD, assert the Rationalists, for '<they took Saturn as their king in the wilderness", and "his 'worship extends over the whole period of the march". So, then, they regarded Saturn as their god! for. which Jehovah punished them. But here comes a question. How could Jehovah punish them, when, because they worshipped Saturn,. they must have had him as a protector? This can be answcred only by saying that Saturn was not able to cope with Jehovah; that his faithful worshippers were prohibited from entering the Promised Land by a, more powerful, GOD, whose authority they disowned. Now, to any reflecting individual they must appear to have been an infatuated race, for, why did they not a t once throw off allegiance to the weaker god, and proclaim themselves the. subjects of a superior king? And would not their wanderings !have then ceased? But, after all, seeing that they commenced the march with Saturn at their head, and that it was sometime after that, when Jehovah threatened to punish them, as the Pentateuch says, for not believing inHim, the question recurs: Why were they so punished? Surely not from want of faith in Jehovah, for they from the outset had it not. And why was it not rather pronounced a t the beginning? Thus it turns out that it did not probably proceed from Jehovah! Who then uttered it? Surely not Saturn, whom the Rationalists believe they served so well. Yet, if he did, it could not be but for serving him too well.. But what a contradiction that wodd be. And next, a snspicion arises whether it was ever given forth at-all. The Pentateuch, no doubt, says so. But Amos contradicts the statement. He says, indeed, that they were in the wilderness forty years; but,iE they did not wander there as a punishment, it must have been to reward them. We are thus to look upon it as a reward conferred by Saturn for their faithful services. Well, cousider their condition. They had lately left Egypt, and were journeying onward to the land of Promise, to which they were not to go.at once. No, no, they had forty years of enjoyment! to speud before they entered it. They were to wander in a barren desert, in s waste, howling wilderness, for many a day, before their foot would bc planted in the land flowing with milk and honey. Oft, oft, do we hear the sound thou brought breaking forth: "Would we were back in Egypt!" or, ILHast forth this people, that they might die in this wildcrness?'or again, tnese from those "We will go in and possess the land." Strange so~ulds

b

Table E.1.a.o.l

Acts XIII. 41.

183

a t a period of enjoyment. "Punishment presupposes the antecedent communication of truth and knowledge. Exclusion from the Holy Land, the possession of which would have been insured by fidelity, presupposes the apostacy of the peopIe from the true GOD. Therefore, the worship of the true GOD appears as the prius, and idolatry as t h e posterius. The exclusion from the Promised Land that followed, on account of the apostacy, implies that, a t the beginning of the forty years,. the people were devoted to the service of Jehovah. But the prophet could now readily speak of forty years, since the germ of the apostacy already existed in the great mass, while they outwardly maintained fidelity to the GOD of Israel."
(11)
Acts XIII. 41. [rb E ~ Q ~ ) ~ ~h Z Y ? ~ V O O ?GPOq~jza~s] 4'18er~,02 %a6(1rpqovljrrri, xarl 8avpL;uars nui arqnvi&rjzf, Zrc 3qyov dqr&Topald r i dv z a ? ~ $piqa'c i p i v , S ~ O On 06 (i Y l n~ors.jrrrjrs u s dd&riyjd&v . e 6piv. r' xac #aurcanazs.. .E a1 m Bedbnslsddxau(omEBedg'i mapAaaazr, eadeln pracm I a17 syrP Chr (sedl cppL.) Thphl I epyort. rye, cABD a1 vg (et am fu al) sah arm ... F sy. (Thphl ante rpyov pon.) e p y . eCEGI a1 plervv m pp I epyor sac cABCl a1 pm vg c o p , sah . . Gbo cDEG a1 ferobo 1 8 (Gb'') eABCDEGI also Chr Thph ...F (= Sz) 6 e 1 a1 mu 1 AG al rn&qyrma~ D* al -y?oezcw. [whioh is spoken of in the prophets;] Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for Iwork a work in your days, a. workwhich ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you.

Hab. I 5. .
"I8eze oi %azaqIpo~?zai, nai dz~@kEvaze, r 8au~ l piom& ~9au@&uca &qanai uiu@ra. &6rc 8qyov dyd dgyi5opac PY zaic jw'qa~s 4piv 5 06 p i n~as6rnjrs 8&v . c c s ' d ~ J ~ ~ ~ ~ o ? c .

Hab. I. 5.

-3 9h?133 ?>pp$)q)
g.9) D @ ! ??) ~YD
l?~;")-'? j 11w

mn;?!

DlJQP)

+N?

6'avrcaaare. ..Compl. Ed. Barb. MS. 9 m p . naz LJ. 1 ~ ~ 8 6Alen.Rarb cl al 7 ~ . MSS. add vow.
r8ers

p) 11 = 93.150. 227. 309 ; 206 ex c. K. bur 545 a p R . q) I = 30 K. n o m i i n 96 K. l-) 'n?30 X. s) 89 K. 1) bis 17 K. u) h.\i 69. 150. 198.224 marg K. x) $ NS . 226 K.

-

.

Behold, ye despisers, and look, and wonder *marvel& ously, and tperish: for I work a work in your days, which ye shall by nomeans believe,though one declare i6 unto yon. * Gr. wonderful 1hing.s. +Or, vanish.

Behold ye among the heathen, and regard, and wonder rnarrellously: for Twill work a work in your days, mhich ye will not beliwe, though it be told yon.

This Quotation agrees so closely with the Sept., as to favour the opinion that it was used in making it. They differ thus only. Tlle New Test. omits x a i EZL@LEYJ~SE 8 a u p u o r a , for & o t ~reads g r r , and transposes &YO 5qya5 according to our text, prefixes ~ g y o vto 6, and ends with i.Ec~v. For Oi'lQ "among the heathen", the Sept. seems to have read ='!I? "despising oncs2'=ye despisers, which is followed in the Acts. +;1@B;1!' . . 'and look at, and astonish yourselves,

184

Rom. TI. 24.

[Table E.1.a.o.

be struck with fear" is rendered in Acts by xui 8avp&guze xai ripuvig8qrc <'andview with wonder, and be madc disappear'' (or vanish away). Yet, it will be found tbat they are alike, since "look at and astonish yourselves" is the same as %ew with astonishment", and when one is "struck with fear3'-is in consternation, the expedient had recourse to is to take himself off, to withdraw; so that, loolcing t o the result, it may be said, as in Acts, "vanish away!' -The last clause ends thus in the Hebrew lp?D1-'? u'eh'i? ~5 shall not believe that it is related." Now, this rnay'convey two meanings, either, that they woulcl not believe they were hearing it,-would be so filled with amazement as not to trust their own ears, (comp. Exod. I .5, Job IX. 16 for a similar use o l?),or that they would T f not believe it, at what time (i. e. when) it is related. This use of ,? as a particle of time is not infrequent, (see Gen. IV. 12; Is. XLIU. 2), and sometimes it approaches near to a con&tional power, as in Eng. when for if; so 2 Kings IV. 29 <%hen thou meetest, i. e. if thon meet, any man, salute him not", wherE. the Sept. has Euv. See also Geu. XLVI. 33. It would appear, however, always to inclu.de the idea of time along with that of supposition, and to be synonymous in these cases with our word: whenever,= when if ever, or at what time snpposing that at some time. The latter meaning of the final clause has been adopted in Acts, '2 being rendered by Em; and, to give emphasis to the expression, C~yuvanddprv have been added, making it thus: "a work, which ye would not believe, if (nearly, although) any one should recount (it) to you!' As noted above, there is a material deviation from the Hebrew text, in D!1g, which properly means L'amongthe heathen", being apparently rendered by 02 xaruyeovqsar "ye despisers". "Hence Capellus conjectured that the Greek translator found either D71312 or Dl>>> in his Hebrew copy. It is highly probable", continues D;. Davidson, "that the former word stood in the Hebrew, because the same Greek translator has given xaiapeovouvrag as the rendering of D'lJ13 in the 13ihverse of this same Pt chap. of Hab., and x a s a ~ ~ o u q r q ~ as that of ,213 in chap. 11. verse 5. The same word is found so translated in Prov. XIII. 15 also. Comp. Zeph. EI. 4 and Nos. VI..7." .It is not difficult to trace how such a change may have taken place. D'?)lt! may have been written shortly D'1$2, and then came O?11?, the 1 being exchanged for 1 , when the text was unpointed. Dr. Davidson, however, does not think that D'l?'iS! is the genuine reading. See Introd. b 0 T. p. 142. o . (12) Rom. I . 24. I Is. LII. 5. Is. LII. 5.
rb iivopn zoC SFOC 8; ;pis 8'; n a ~ z b s zb 6pts @uo'p?p~izac8" rois dvop& fiov @Aacrrp?peirrr~ ~ ~ ~ 1 r c v , [ ~ u 8 d s ~ d ~ 2v ~ 1 ~8~ ~ s1 c .1 ~ zois S a n .

?qt$ ~j22-5~ ..: -pnn? yej~
and my name continu-

For the name of GOD

Through you my name

Table E.1.a.o.l

Ram. XI. 4. is blasphemed among the Gentiles continuaUy.

185
ally every dag is blasphemed.

is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, [as i t is writtenl.

The original passage, from which this Quotation is made, reads thus: "Continually, all the day (i. e. either, every day, or at all times) my name is despised", pp. exposed to contempt. The Sept. renders it: =through you is my name continually blasphemed among the beatl~en", thus omitting ~!r;ll-i? "all the clay", since it may be rega.rded-as merely synonymous with l n 'Lcontinually"'; but adding JL' lipas Uthrougl~ '? you" and Ev TO?$ ~ ~ V E B L , Oamong the heathen", in which it is followed by the apostle, who writes: 'Ltlie name of GOD is through you blasphelned among the heathen", where it is seen that he omits all mention of time, and, as Isaiah represents it as spoken by GOD, who says "my name" 'G?, but Paul, as of GOD, so he changes it into sd 6 v o p a s o i i 8 c o i i "the name of GOD". Owing to the close resemblance between the New Test. and the Sept,, it is inferrible that the latter was used in quoting; but seeing they differ so much from the Heb., a question arises a s to the accuracy of the idea presented by them. Now, by turning to Ezek. XXXVI. 20-23, we find the same idea fully expressed in each of the verses, more especially in the 22nd and 23'd where we read: 'for mine holy name which ye have profaned among the heathen"; also, umy great name, which was profaned among the heathen, which ye profaned in their midst." Undoubtedly these passages convey the same idea, and, although we should not say that the apostle had not them in view, yet, from the difference between his language and that of the Sept. here, it -seems preferable to refer the Quotation to Isaiah.
(13)
Rom. XI. 4.
3 Eings

XIX. 18.

1 Kings XIX. d8.

xorralrnov eBDE etc. . . . ACPGL etc. x a z c l r n o v I

~v..F.roG~w.

[What saith the answer of GOD unto him?] I have reserved to mjsili' seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to thc .image of Baal.

Edd. et mu. MSS.

c) '*P149 K. n a c l r n o u One MS. xarairrywrFCompl.Ed.lrraw~yav 70 K. '51 109 K. in Ald. et Compl. Edd. ct aliq MSS: I yovv Alex. MS. om.. I ~7 in Ald. et Compl.

d)

'S

'>

-

And thou shalt leave in Israel seven thousand men, all the lmees nhich have not bowed a knee unto Baal.

Yet 'I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal,

'

Or, I will Leave.

On comparing this Quotation with the original, a few slight differences are noticeable. For the Heb. vnl&V;! "I have made be left

186

2 Cor. XIJI. 1.

[Table E.1.a.o.

or remain", whence it is inferrible that GOD alone was the cause of there being some individuals at least, who were not carried awayby the tide of general corruption, the apostle gives simply: X ~ S O . ~ L % O I I "I have left down", meaning I have let remaill just as they are. But, in order to convey thetrue idea more certainly, he has added, fpaur@ "for myself", so that it altogether states that EIe had not made them change, and that they had not been induced to do so, tacitly imply: ing, however, that. if they had been so inclined, GOD would have prevented them, and also, that they were steadfast adherents, faithful worshippers of GOD. The two ideas are thus seen to harmonize. The Sept. reads xaruA1~lysrs"thou shalt leave down." Paul omits to quote 58??? v Icgavi ILinIsrael", which follows next. The Ileb. then reads: ~??IIN flp2V ('a seven of tl~ousands"-5; $22 VJl?-h'i 7@&C i ? g ? : ! Lcall pairs-of-knees, which have not bent the to Baal". ?'he expression =pair of lmees" seems to be used to denote "a11 individual", so that "all the pairs of knees which" would mean "all the individuals who". comparing this with what Paul writes we find that he-only omits the "all"; and since he had substituted av8pas "men" -for 'pairs of knees", he, in order to keep up the expression for the form of worship, adds yovu "knee", to the bending of which the verb Y?? of the original specially refers; so that it may be said to be implied therein. By the W" of the Heb. it would seem to be stated that there were not more than, whilst, by &s omission, Paul would leave it to be inferred that there were at least, seven thousand. The original could also he translated: 'Lall the pairs-of-knees which they have not bent to Baal", and thus would he opened up another rnoae' of harmonizing; yet the one given appears t o he the preferable.
(14)
2 Car. XIII. 1. S i oz6pazos 860 flapz

Deut. XI%. 15.
Z

Deut. XIX. 15;

z h p w ~~ 1 l 2Z ~ r a nZv $$pa. ~

L ma8;/(T6~ Y

in2 m6paros 840 pcq3~ ~ ~ O %a2 &i Y (TC~~IUUZOS

i$ly

O1?Y-$iq 73-W)
7=?

?2qh) e - b ~ 9

zp6i-v prrqzirgwv omjusrab
z z v dfpe. ocarrl?jonaa i n Alex. Ox. et m. sl. MSS. also Ald: et Compl. Edd.

h) o m 18.69.109.111.129. 152. 153; 1 . 4. 107 a p. K. i) = w i y 16.69. 10OK. 8i2, 52.9, 656 a p. R. At the mouth of two witnesses, or a t the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.
'

I n the mouth of two or three witnesses shall ever7 word be established.

At t h e mouth of two +tituosses,andatthemouth of three witnesses, shall every word be established.

Paul follows the Sept. in reading nZv @fia "every word", as the rendering of the Webrew l 'Lmattel", where aclv is additional; and = ? renders IN "or" by %a2 Uand",as is done in the Sept. But he leaves out dni u ~ b p a s o ~ ficrqrfiywv which the Sept. has after the original, and tilough these words are easily supplied from the beginning of the

Table E.I.a.o.1

Gal. III. 1 3 ; Eph. V. 31.

187

verse. Also for uz;jncrar "shall stablish itself" he has umt't.+ucral ushall be established", the rendering of D? "shall stand", i. e. stand l: good or be. valid. This Quotation might have been set down, like John VIII. 17, in Table C.1.r.o. (15)
Gal. 111. 33. [ZZL r6rpanza~] Em~xaDeut. XXI. 23.
b . c ~ xsxr*ypa@vo5

6%;

>?$?D T ~ InSj)-)3 ~*P ). . .
p) = 611 K.

Deut. XXI. 23.

nris npzp&pvos e'%i ~iquzos nZs 6 xq&pL;p~vos ~ E O C izi t;aov. razqq. i n sevcral MSS. I zar d rqi*. in XI. el aliq MSS. Lfor it is written,] Cursed for every one t h a t is is every one t h a t hangeth hanged upon a tree is acon a tree: cursed of GOD.

&,aav,

is 'accursed

for he t h a t is hanged of GOD. 'fllicb. thceursc ofCO?.

The Heb. of this Quotation means: "the curse of GOD (i. e. the concrete being expressed abstractly, the accursed of GOD) is a hanged onen.= every hanged person. The Sept; unfolds the idea of' hanging in the words x ~ c f i o i p ~Bm2 ifidow L1llauged o~ upon a tree", (which is found in ver. 22 at end ~ p - 5 ~ piel xa2 xpcpduqlis~a d d v Bmi lilh &Lou "and thou (Sept. ye) hilug him upon a tree (or stake)", in which Pauls follows it, though he omits h i , 9.toC "of G O D -the source whence the curse is issued, and uses the intensive adjective-form for the participle passive, -denoting the effect of the suspension the being accursed.
(16)

-

Eph. V. 31. Gen. 11. 24. Fen. 11. 24. i v z i ~ 0 6 ~ a0 a~b i y e ~ ~ V S X S Y IU~COII x - z ~ F L ~ z 13-$j! EL ~ ~ 4 p 0 i ~ bo*~ ~ d p a s a &*qwnos n m d q a xai pvjnqy? ??-,, >~y~i-,ej a h o G nal R ~ Y? ~ d q a ~ a i p rdqa nai nqonxaLL$hjrrsliy nqogxo$k78~junu~ T$Y nqos rar nebs T+Y rvvaira aGro6, xoriSuovcnr 02 840 82s r&p%n yvvaixa adro6. x u i Suovz a i oi 860 E ~ S i q x a ~ ' a v . u piw.

J)?N-~K~ ~ ~ - = ~ Y ~

-w;)Lt) q q f j

9 zou eAD***EKL a1 ul vdtr Far rverrv onc MS. and many fzthcrs give a v r ~ I w omn et 01.. Melh Tit a1 m; om eED*FG I%=.a v r o v cA zrqa add avzou Alex. MS. D***EKL a1 pl ct. Meth Tit and many others . I mqos 81; om eBD*FG a1 vg. it sgrP z. y. Col. ct0x. MSS.Comp1. a1 I naa zv q e ae pro zov Ed. ... cg rvvarxu Alex. MS. ante st. Or a1 pm; oil, cBD* a1 m u pp mu ALd. Ed. PG I p7f. a1 paw. vv m pp m add avzovl xa' noooxoil. (UFGxodl.) xbos r. (nqoc ele. eRU""EKL sl ut vdtr fere omn . . Ln z q y v v a ~ ~ r e A D * F F G all) avzou. F o r this cause shall a Therefore shall a Inan i~isnleave his father and leavehisfati~erandmother, and shall he joined unto ~nother,andshall be joinod imto his wife, and they his wife; and they twain shall he one flcsh. two shall be one flesh.

.

t) nsnl S. u) on,lwa S.

.

>.

Therefore shall a man leave his father and his n~other, a n d sllall cleave unto his wife: and they slrall be one flesh.

188

Eph. V. 31.

LTabla E.1.a.o.

Paul differs from the Sept. by Siving auti ro6tov as the rendering of 13-52 for Eusxrv zoutov. The Heb. lDF-nN) .gy-nN uhis father and his mother", in the Sept. rdu a u s f ~ u alroi; xu2 z i v fiqrd~ac "his father and mother", Paul quotes as nariqa xu2 pqrdqa "father and mother". The next clause is as in the Sept., and the last clause also, in which there is the addition ol 6uo. For this see the Remarks on Matt. XIX. 5. in Table E.1.a.o. (3).

Table E.1.r.a.o.l

Matt.

II. 6.

.
Mio. V. 1.

189

TABLE E.1.r.a.o. (1)
Matt. 1 . 6 . 1 [Jo&os yLp y&qnmar a'& TOG mYo(PIIzol;l 6Kai T (; B74As6p, yrj 'IoGJcc, a6dnP6s B ~ X ~ O T8~ Z O ~ E J $ y ~ p d u ~' 1 0 3 ~dn ooli v y;q EEE&S~BT(XLy o d p ~ o s , $ $ 0 1 Z~O~C ~ ~ ~ Y E ~ Z ~ Y la60 POW rdv ' I o q a i i . yq Iou. (vg tcrra iuda . D all it a1 .rqs rovrfaraq, d m . rl vv.1 avrfepaq.. D pq, it (ff to1 numpuid) alTert a1 nonl CK a1 rn ormThdrt yap poc.1 D n o w w r r (d regat). Nic. V. 2.
'xai vb BrlSAehp (LDXOE GI$*) 7~5: 'Erpqa$&, ; L y a r r i s EL zoir I VY? n p ~ EZVU~h XLAL&(ILY 'IOW~W 3% Tpn n??!') ?,E>N?<) uoir por BSeAeirrnzn~ zoir ~@SD AS>??N!+) elflrx~ ais ~ ~ X O Y Z z o i ' I v (L

-n??

>5 .

~ )

'

.

e&,. .
Compl.Ed. arxosrovpqB. Eq. I ror eqa8a AAx. MS. I Bal.b.MS.pq olry. item Tert. Cyp. I e t r i e u o . ?youpevaq zov. Alex.MS. 1 w .ro iopaql Alcr. Bnrb. MSS. ct Compl. Ed.
.rev

5 &, 2 ~ 3 ) . .

..

a) = 161 K. b) rnlm 20 a p. R. e) ' ~ 150 K. 5 d) ? u w l 392 K. e ) lsr, :< a p. K. f) -201 K. ;l?i.tr= 4 i B K.

+

[Jfor thus it is written by the prophet,] EAnd thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, a r t not the least among the prinoes ofJuda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall *rule my people Israel. ' or l feed. J

2And thou, Bethleem, house ofEyhratI~a,artfewin-number t o be reckoned among t h e thousands of Judn; yet out of thee shall one come forth t o me, t o be for a "ruler of Israel. * or, prince.

But thou, Beth-lehem Ephratha, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come fgrth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel.

This Quotation does. not agree.with either the Heb. or the LXX., which latter differs, yet slightly, rrom the Heb., the variations arising chiefly from idiomatic differences. In the Heb. the place is called ; l p S mi-na, which latter appellative is given to it, ILsince Ephratha was anciently the name not only of the city itself, (Gen. 35, 19) but also apparently of the circumjacent region", (Ges. Heb.'Lex.) and may have been added here to distinguish it from another Bethlehem in the tribe of Zebulun, (Josh. XIX. 15) from which it is also distinguished when cdled by the name ??;1? ~i$-il'z, (Judg. XVII. 7.9. Iluth 1, 1.2) wherein the tribe to which it 'belonged is specially mentioned. The -LXX. renders it Bv8Aecp oixo~Fqpu4a, inserting 02x0s; unless it be that oixos Eypaacc is given as = B ~ I ~ ) . n'=E meaning oixos, E ~; house,, and ~ni=;i??Qy E ~ ~ Y instead , of which Matt. gives ye ~ c L IoLSu, probald;. because it was better known by that name in his time than by any other; and also because thereby would be better designated the city where dwelt the ancestors of David, from whom the Saviour was to descend, and thus the fact be stated that he was born at ,his ancestral seat. nP?> l@ lit. little for being, is rendered in the LXX. d t y o o r d ~ ' EZ TOG E&m. In Matt. the reading is: oLSupms f).u~iurql a p t BY NO EZ

190
MEANS

Matt. 11. 6.

[Table E.1 r.a.0.

ileast, where it is seen that a negative occurs, which is not found in the I-Ieb. or LXX. Now, some think that a negative particle originally belonged to the L a . , Origen givrng o h th~yonzo$,Cypr. 7zon ezzguu, and many copies reading prj. Such an assumption prepares the way for a corresponding one in regard to the Heb., viz. that the particle ~5 originally bclonged to it, whlch when dropped from it, the negative paiticle was erased from the LXX. But it is y u ~ t earbitrary to so assume, since it may all be traced to Matthew's having oziSc~fi6s. As it would thus still remain to he accounted for, how he should have used a negative, others think that ?V$ meanc great as well as litlle. Now, that a word, which is properly used as expressive of a particular idea, shonld also be employed to denote its opposite, and that too, when another word existed, whereby thul is properly designated, will appear to any one quite improbable. I believe that the diirerent texts are reconciliable, just as they stand, and that no other than the natural meaning need be given to the words, the reconcilement depending on the way the passage is r-cad. Let it be borne in mind that the punctuation, although, so to spcak, inherent in the language, is not so in MSS., and that, being a modern addition, it may be altered, when deemed requisite. Now, the Syriac vcrsion reads the passage interrogat~vely; and so, I think, should the Heb. and LXX. he read. The Eeb. will then he rendered: "And urt thou, Bethlehem Ephratha, little for being [an expression equivalent to: so little as not to he] among the thousands of Joda? Out of thee shall he come forth unto me for being [and, as this denotes end or purpose, it is the same as: who shall be] ruler in Israel." The qucstion would seem to be proposed with a look, and in a tone, of astonishment, and a contrast tacitly drawn betwcon the estimation in which it was held by men and by GOD. As if it were: Have men really so humble an opinion of you, as not to reckon you worthy of being put among the thousands of Judah? Do men think so? for GOD thinks otherwise, when He promises that: Out of thee shall he come forth, whose it shall be to rule in Israel. To this question proposed by the prophet, Matthew responds in a very strong negative affirmation: 068upo5S 6hcgyiuzq aZ "Thou art by no means least." For odJupw"~,D reads p4 which may be taken as interrogative, ff to1 rendering by numyuzd, as noted above, where also it is said many copies of the LXX. have p4. Thus it is seen that, although the expressions are different, and give prominence t o different points, there is yet fundamentally the same idea. Dr. S. Davidson in hls Sacred Hermeneutics 1843 pp. 338-9 bays: "We read the passage interrogatively, after the Syriac Version. The Hebrew will then be translated: 'And art thou, Bethlehem-Ephratha, little among the thousands of Jndah? out of thee shall come forth to me one who is to be ruler in Israel.' The question proposed by the prophet is

Table fi1.r.a.o.j

Mitt. 1 . 6. 1

191

answered by the ~ v a n ~ e l i int the negative." But, in his Introduction s to the Old Testament 1856 p. 113 he writes: UThe discrepancy, caused by the insertion of the negative o6cLapGs in Matthew, between the Gospel ancl the Hebrew as well as the LXX., is best removed by inserting though in the Hebrew, as our translators have clone. This is preferable to the method of Grotins, who reads the Hebrew ancl LXX. interrogatively, art thou loo little &c.; an expeclient favoured byathc Syriac Version, and by D in Matthew, which has p+ i11terrogati;"e instead of ozjJmprjq." The Heb. reads ? $ : ? the LXX. renders E ~ ~ I Z i u m v l8 ? which . u IoLJu, and Matt. EY 107; +yephmv 1 0 4 8 ~ . Now, tlm ward rigl~tly rendered "thousands" by t h e LXX. has the secondary meaning of family, as the subdivision of a tribe. So Judg. VI. 15. where Gideon says to the Lord: 'my family (lit. thousand) is poor in ~ a n a s s e h ' ; and 1 Sam. X. 19. where Samuel addresses the people, assemble~l at Mispeh to elect a king, in these words: 'Now therefore present yourselvei before the Lord by your tribes, and by your thousands' i. e. families. See also 1 Sam. XXIII. 23. Hence it may be used to signify a lomn or city, as being the seat or abode of a family, so that "among the thousands (or, families) of Judah" would thus mean: i'among the towns of J u d a h . Now, the word used by Matt. means primarily a leader, a prince; but, as Bethlehem could not be stylel a chief person, it must mean the residence of a leader, the ubode ol his family; and hence, a chief-lomn; and so Schleusner explains it by: praecipua'e ciuitates. ,Thus, the two designations mean the same thing, only viewed from different points. Matt. next reads: 8% no; yaQ, where yap is ,idded; but it is seen Q above, in our reconcilemernt of the previous clause, how the ~ U is needed. And the text does not give pot, though it is found in CK. a1 m arm Thdri., as noted above. The Heb. ends with: j~??? j@ln nlq;i>, which the LXX. rigllWy renders by roc zhac E ~ S ~ Q X O V T O ?TOG ~c@av,k. It will he noted that v the var. readings are 4youpevos so; or E r@ I ~ e a g L . Novr Matt. gives qiyoiipawoc, Znscs nocpave? rdv Aaiiv pow sdu 'ln~a+L, where Israel is styled sov Aaov pow, an epithet not found in the others, but know11 by every one to be their peculiar title. The words 8nscs nocpavcvc? s i v ha6u pow may be regarded as explanatory of l j ,taken in connecsince the Ileb. could mean: "out of thee shall one tion with. i ~ l n , come forth for me, (i. e. a fit person whom I shall employ) for beiui ruler (i. e. for the purpose of being ruler) in Israel;" and, as GOD'S purposes are all fixed, and the ideaof ruling,-having dominiou over -may embrace those of leading and feeding, it woulcl mean: "out of thee shall one come forth as leader, who shall feed Israel." And thus Matt. woulcl be seen only to have exl~andectthe idea expressed by Ygm, a ruler, one who has dominion over, by adding the accessory

192

Matt. 11. 6.

rfable E.1.r.a.o.

one of feeding; just as 7g? to feed, means trop. to leud, rule, see Mic. V . 3; VII. 14. IIe may also have had in view 2 Sam: V. 2, where to David, who was typical of Christ, it is said -nF 3l 39s ;n -ny 'ap.in LXX. 2 no~,u,~ucigd u iuiiv pou rdu 'IUQ.&. % s In conclusion, it is learnt that I have rendered ,the Heb. very differently from the Auth. Vers. In it words have been supplied ill order to make out a sense, whereas I have needed none. There iB is admitted that Bethlehem is a little place: "though thou be little"; an idea also expressed by p$ interrog. "art not thou little?" but my version: =art thou little?"! adopts the opposite idea: "Lhou art by no nzeuns little", and thus agrees with Matt. from whom the Auth. Vers. differs. There the littleness is supposed to mean a small place, so far as extent and population are concerned; with me it refers to the estimation in which it is heId, from the honour conferred upon it by something to be colmected with it; and this idea best coincides with what follows, more especially as, in the New Test., it forms the reason for the statement. And thus, one is disposed to consider Barnes' note on the passage as a rather lame one; and that the erroneous translation very probably contributed to make it what it is. He says: "It will be observed that there is a considerable difference between the passage as quoted by the Sanhedrim and as it stands in Micah. The muin point, however, is retained- the place of his birth. We are not concerned, therefore, in showing how .these passages can be reconciled. Matthew' is not responsible for the correctness of the quotation. He affinns only that they gave this unsmer to Herod, and that Herod was satisfied. Admitting that they did not quote th,e passage correctly, it does not prove that Matthew has not reported their answer, as they gave it; and this is all that he pretended to give." But it may be a question whether'Matt. gives the Quotation as for himself or for the Sanhedrim. I the lormer, f then a reconcilement must be attempted. If the latter, it would have to be determined, whether they would give it in the original Hebrew, or in a translation, say into the vernacular, or into Greek. Now, il the former, Matthew's would be a rendering thereof; and hence a reconcilement again must be tried, since one should suppose they would give the correct originaI. And, if the latter, - a translation into the vernacular - Matthew must translate that if not Greek, as some suppose, into Greek; or, if a translation at once into Greek, Matthew gives that; but, as there is no reason to thiilk that the Sanhedrim would furvisb an incorrect version, .and as Matt. gives it as a Quotation from the prophet, without hinting of error, if there were irreconcilement, the, blame would be ascribed to Matt.; and so, we are concerned in showing there is none.
*.

Table E.I.r.a.o.1

Matt. II. 18.

193

(2)
Jerem. XXXI. 15. B*ir7e647 2 b $ 7 3 8 ~ ~ ~ L ' I s ~roGzqo-v 8 ~~lo q$pjravddTovros] '8'l,ov+6v mwvi &J 'Pcryci ina.irv#1/ >;if) ynILi) h ~ ? ? 'Papa^4 x 0 6 ~ 8 7 ,rlai78fibg 3.qjvou na2 zLnv8po6 xrri q? ml 6duppbr nol6r. 'PaX$& d8vqfio<. ' a $ d=oxlaroP, ) 22tn 5:3-5$ rlaiovua i d r z&va dl-js p ' y q 04%i 8 e i e zaiuau.Sac UI>K: y *a2 o?n ~ S E A E Y l p m ~ ~ f i - gzi Z O ~ Eviais a i q zo & j , &L 06% i;uiv. vnc, &L 06x E ~ O ~ Y . 'Ps~apB . Alex. MS. h .. i) = 196 K. k) i = 60. nAav%m~(Gb") eBZ 1.22. vv fere om11 Just Iiil ai . . s ZP; dys7/Alj I OQ?~,. x A ~ v S : 72.115.191. 384; 201 inarg. 8. Opqvos xac z A a u . 9 ~ 0eCDE x. 08.. .. Campl. Ed. Sp+pos ~ 182 ex e. K. . KLMSUVActc. 1 q4sAw eRC r. -peg x. -&OF 1 unoxA. . . EKLMSUVA ete ....DZ al AIen.FAlllSS. - / ~ P V FAlex. I aAvve'i~ (Ln). MS. Ald. et Compl.Edd. e m Matt. 11. 18.
["zlze

Jerem. XXXPLII. 15.

51~ ;ij>~5p nqnnn
ni12??

$i$-5~

.

["Then was fulfilled t h a t which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying,] '8InRama wds there avoice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and nould not b e comforted, because they are not.

~ " Y u ~ WG=VF Y
, SliYac,

*a&our 118-

Aev

(Ald. q@cAljor)zaeaxA+-

Avoioe washeardinRama, of lamentation and weeping and wailing; Rachel would not cease weeping for her children, because they are not.

A voice was heard i n Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping ; Rahel weeping for her children refused to ba comforted for her children, because they were not.

Matthew begins the Quotation with: Qwvq E P ~ p c iqxovo8.11, the v same as the LXX. The Heb. has next Oqnnn??? 19) "a lament,, a weeping, bitternesses': which two last oxpressions are generally regarded as "a weeping of bitternesses", i. e. very bitter weeping; but as in , that case we should require to account for the introduction of xar o3zcppou in the LXX. (which has: ~ Q ~ V OXUL XIZCCUQ;UOU 08u~fiou U xccc g o v q n gen. by rpwvq), it will be preferable to regard it as in apposition with, and descriptive too of, !?lp pwvq, so that it would mean: "grievings or great sorrow" as proceeding from an embittered soul. Comp. 1 Sam. XXX.. 6 ; Zech. XII. 10. Our text of Matt. leaves out the word for q;13 viz. @pqvos, wh'ich, however, is the reading in Steph. 1550, in Elzev. or tcx.1. recepi. 1624, in Mi11 1707, in Gries. by Schulz 1827; so that, taking that reading, Matt. does not depart from the Heb., whose construction he follows by puttingthe nouns in apposition with qwvq. He seems lo add aoIZvg to the last; yet., the Umuch'' denotes not the duration, but the quantity - not the extent, but the degree - the how much? not the how long? and thus expresses what is done by the plural form of the original. In the next part Matt. agrees with the Heb., rendering -% ;i?2n in? ;1'3? by PapjL ~sIZuiououT& Z ~ X V Guiiz+s, which last the Vat. LXX. omits, giving anowLurop~vqonly, whilst the Alex. L&. has anoxIZacofievqs, ~ a r cmv uiwv m r q g , evidently showing that,Matt. has not copied the LXX. The Heb. next has: ;?>I;-~Y-DR?;?> ;i!yn siven in the Vat. LXX. ' by oiix qt7cIZs naiioao4ac Slsi rois uiois cciirijg, herea as Matt. leaves

194

Matt, 111. 3.

LTahle E.1.r.a.o.

out the last mords, having only xul oijx $t?.eLtv zupcr~Iq8l;sm. The insertion of xa2: "and", may be sliomn by rearling thus: "(It was) Rachel weeping over (or b.eweeping) her children, and she refused &c." Davidson says: "Here the evaugelist appears to have had recourse both to the Septuagint and the Hebrew, although be is nearer the latter. The ovx+.3.~L~a&v reading given inLachmann's ed. which he uses) (tile shews that the Greek mas followed ill part"; yet we suppose Matt. could render for himself ;l!en by;oijx + ~ E I Z E "was unwilling", refused (se6 Ges. Lex. Heb.). It wou~ldallnost seem as if Davidson took ;i!Kp The Heb. mcans: "she refuseil to console herfor a part. like self coucerning lier children", whore the 1ame.1it concerned, or was on account of, tlie chilclren; that is: she refused to desist from rno~vnlng over the children (as the LXX. has it), and to be coliiforted by any one so inclined (as Matt. renders it). Tlie Heb. ~?I?;li to lament for: or console oneself,, be comforted, is rightly rendered by Matt. mapax>.@+uc, which is the 1.eading in Alex. LXX., yet the Vat. LXX. nuuauor7ar to make lierself cease, to give over, is preferable, thus makiug the meaning be: "Rachel bewailing did not wish to desist (from bewailing) over her chilclren." Randolph's supposition that this Qaotation "might possibly be taken from anotl~er Greek translation than the LXX." is both improbable and unnecessary. Let the other Creek translation be shown, and the necessity ihr having recourse thereto be proved-for, in my view, Matt. has followed the IIeb. for himself, from ~vhichhe can hardly be said to have varied.
Matt.:
[o&os

m. 3.
iciircv

(3)
Is. XL. 3.

Is. XL. 3.

d $7-

asis 86; ~Hru?o:ou npozoG ~jrov2iyovzos]@wv:)@oGvm r w i @oW'vros i v ~5 $ 3 , ~ > y ~ x l , ze zos i u -r!jdeijPo 2ro~~tcinoie dpj,uw' l i r o ~ ~ 4 o uZ+Y &Jb> n@i ;? ;! i 7-11 z j v 66bv XZIP~OV, E ; ~ ~ B ~ c ( s xugiou, ~ 6 S s i u s o ~ l j r ~~ S n Z xo~ehs r,;~ 7gi@0ll~ S L & ~ D Z ~ . - Z P L ~ O U S 202; ~ Z O G li(c6-u. d) =- I09 K. Alex. MS. c v 8 ~ l a q %oh-

q2z?dj
, .

5

;iStjn

,

ECZE..

.

rFor this is he t h a t was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying,] The voice of one c ~ n i g the wlln derness.. P r e. a r e" the ~ ve way of the Lord, make his oaths straieht. "

bd.

: p ~ P n u c a u ~ a v 2 0 9Compl. .

The voiceof one olyingin the wilderness, Prepare ye the wav of the L o ~ d make . straigb"t the paths of our GOD.

The voice of him that crieth i n the wilderness, Prepare ye the wag of the LORD, make straight i n the desert hiqhwsy for our GOD.

This Quotation omits one expression found in the Heb. viz. ii??y? a s does also the LXX., for which we may thus account. The original 'should probably be read as follows: 'The voice of one crying 'In the w~lderness prepare ye the way of Jehovah - Straighten ye 1n the desert a path for our GOD", where we have an instance of parallelism,

Table E.I.r.a.o.1

Matt. XV. 8-9.

195

each line stating what was to be done, and by and for whom, also where, it-was to be dono. The last, i. e. where, is in Matt. connected not with the uct, but with the crier: "The voice of one crying in the wilderness", y o v 6 flo~?vsosEv 2s EQ@~, and, as he would deliver his message only among those whom it concerned, the place is from that easily inferred, and seen to be the same. And hence the omission in the second clause. The Sing. Heb. noun ;I\D~ is rendered both in the LXX. and in. g,'c Matt. by sds z i 5 w , in the pl.; and while the WI. translates ~>,;ih+>: GOD, (wherein is stated for whom it is to be done), for our by ro5 8zoG 4pGv of our GOD, (showing whose they are), Matt.' rends only: crziroz7 his, meaning, ihe Lord's, as is gathered from the end of the preceding clause; yet as the Heb. "our G O D means none other than Jehovah, who was peculiarly Israel's GOD, the substitution has induced no change whatever of meaning. And it may not be without reason that Matt. has not quoted the words: "for our GOD, as the following may show. Jehovah was the GOD of the Israelites, so that Isaiah, in speaking. to them of Him, could say: Jehovah- our GOD. WhateverGOD is now, He was then; and, as we believe in His Triunity, He was triune then. We do not settle the question whether they of those days believed in His triunity, or whether it was revealed in tho Old Testament. That i s just as it may be settled. But, Christ is He of whom this is spoken, and to whom'is therefore given the narne Jehovah. And we knowthat the Jews as a nation rejected Christ, and dence would not call Him "our GOD"; so that John, in anuouncing Jesus as Jehovah, proclaimed his divinity, whilst, by omitting 'lour GOD", he wonld speak, by anticipation, o their rejecliug Him-their f GOD, and condemn them for so doing.

Matt XV.' 8-9.
[ 7 % a l G s dzqognjrsvocv nsp2 6pi-u 'Iloatzrs i d p v ] ' 0l a b s o%osrois*aaarriv ' p zcp& $ Jd xuyJiu alircv ni$$o ;nExe~ &?c' $poi. gpcinl~ Jh ud@ovrr*ip ~ 86, 8i;oxovrss 8tJanrrzAias &z,iA,ucm & ~ 8 ~ d z m v .

1s.XXIX. 13.

Is. XXIX. 13.

. Zrrib~

pot 6,lnbs

06-

o Laos ovrog cie. cGDL3,'I. 124. vg. it (cxe f) al m PLol Clem Or Bas Chr CypTcl.la1 .. E.(-Gbi , T, Y L.~ G . O L ol.aor Y L U 0°C. =a (iropac' *VCWY %a" roc< 2 p. 2 cCEFGK3lSUV . . XdO cto. ,
\

.

zzos i v z&i 076p(121 alizoC, 91i=ipP) I'Q?W? 11p3 %irk BY rois X E ~ ~ C D L Y r b ai 1;mf) )2?lqj . ,?~n z'pGvi p, I;'& zuqJie adr i v zn6$#w i n d x s ~ im' "Y 'Wt) DQN?? !n 6,uoC. phznv 84 v860mei ; i l M ?: 1 3 !2W>NU) "> .'. p a J ~ 8 < i ~ x o v~ V Z & ~ , U C L Z U re~ iv~adzmv xn18~8aunaliorq EY cq, O T O ~ G ~ Z U DLVZOV. Om w ~ q Canrpl. Ed. I for au, zou.. crvcov / raa PY ra'< O m Cornp1.Ed. I hler.XS. am PY .r. or. mu. xa' w. 1 MS. 106 for 8daor. a. - 4 xac 8a8. s 9. reads 8. $. Z. a. 25 Matt.

>!,J') ~ 2 WJ?') i>=) 1 ; p

196
[iwell did Esaias prophesyof you,saging,] "his people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with lheir lips; hnt t h e i ~heart is far from me. sRut invain they doworship me,teaching for dootrines tho oommandrnents of men.

Matt. XI'. e-9. This ~ e o p l edraw nigh untome with their mouth, and honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me; hut in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and dootrines of men.

[Table E.1.r.a.o. [For asmuohas]thispeople draw near me with their mouth, and with their,lips do honour me, but have removed their heart Ear from me, and their fear toward m e is taught h y ~ the precept of men:

If the reading in g, as noted above, be followed, it will be found that Matt. departs from the LXX. scarcely at all; ouly in omitting CV, and &uswu; changing uurou into uvrwv, and rzpwac ps into pc rzpql; and altering the order of the last words, with xu6 dropped. In this way it may be said to come nearer the original, which is thus rendered: "This people chaw near, with their mouth and with their lips they honour me, and their heart they remove fromme, and their fegringme is a taught precept of men." The two f i ~ s tclauses of Matt. are differently pointed, thus: "This people make near to me with their mouth, and with tlre lips honour me"; but it is easily seen that they could bc pointed alike. "This people make near to me, with their mouth and lips they honour me", Eyyikc poc d hadg odsos, r$ nsi,uan adsoiv xcci soig ~ ~ i hp~ ~L,I.L@. While Matt. has added poz c ~ i in the first clause, he has. omitted udsGv in the second. If, then, on the one hand, it be said that the adding of por shows that Matthew's first clause must, be as it is, and the comma placed after auswu, it may be replied, on the other hand, that the omission of adrw"u after ' ~ c ~ L a may indicate that "mouth and lips" are to be taken together. le That, however, the arrangement in Matt. is not incorrect, may be inferred ffom the alltithesis between the clauses: Eyyikc fioc rcj ar6pet6 airtw"v and SE xupSicc. udrGv j?lb@o> &j?lt(Xtc dz' EpoG.

-

+

This latter clause is differently expressed in the original. The verb

pn? in the Piel form means, to remove; but were it pointed pn? in
the Kal, it would signify: to go far away, to recede; 11> would then .be nom. to ?n? 'their heart recedes", and,not the acc. to pm "they remove their heart": the forn~ergiviilg according to the translation in the LXX. and Matt..; and so probably was it read. Then, there is a marked difference in expressing the last clause. It is thus found in Matt. pdrvv 3 adflovrai pa, SiSkaxovsag S~Suoxa. 4 hias Evrdiparu &v8poij?lou ILAndin yain do they worship me, teaching lessons (or things to be learnt3 the injunctions of men": And so in the LXX., except that it ends with: EvtdiLpazudv8pdj?lwv xccl draua~ur2ius: "the injunctions of men and (i. e. viz. or as) lessons. The original, then, at the time when the LXX. was. written, must have begun with ?ah! and not ';I31 as now, .since it gives pkrvv 8.4 "but ill vain", or a t least the translator must have read it so. Instead then of

Table E.1.r.a.o.l

Mark I. 3.

197

reading it: "and their rearing me or fear toward me is" they would writc: "and their fear toward me (is) emphess, (worthless or in vain)" d or, as the LXX. has it: "and they fear or worship me in vain" pdzqv 8 odflovrai pc. Hut there still remains of tlre original ; I ? Q ~@ F nl?;n F & I "a taught precept of men." Now, this may mean, either a precept bf men, which they are made to learn- which is inculcated on them, or a precept of men, which is made to be learnt-which they inculcate; so that it conld, in the latter case, be said of them, inculcating a precept of men. And this. the LXX. appears to have chosen in its: 8l8doxourcs Evr&L,urn~rndvt9e&madl*)wX O ~ Ld~JaoxczLiag, 'Lteachingthe injunctions of men as doctrines", or things to be taught. Uy this we see that there is no need to supply any word to correspond with 8~8armcovrcsof the LXX. and Matt. Taking the Heb. as it a t present stands, and comparing it with Matt., we .find that hc furnishes three additional ideas- first, that they maintained the regulations of men to be the all-essential; seeond, that worshipping GOD in accordance with these only, is nothing but forn~alism-the body without the soul; and third, that it will be productive of no benefit to ita practisers. All these are true and do not contradict the simple description of their worship as lip-service, no farther than which, do the mere injunctions of men reach. In fine, we have also seen how, what Matt. gives may be found in the Heb., i! by reading m ? for qn! "and emptiness", i. e. in vain, for "and is". And thns may the variations be accountcd for.

Nark I. 3.

Is. XL. 3.

Is. XL. 3.

cI~wv$ @oi-vcor e'v z5 aovi '6or3vros Bv zi dq$py % z o ~ p & o a m z j v 6 t h ~ P F ~ p u % z o ~ , u u l ~ n rv ddbv rj ~ nvqiou,,s.ir8aias zorsizs z & ~ nuqiou, ~ 6 8 a L a s o r f z ~ n r&s

1?,93@ 7?1)?2N-1113 5 7 ~ ;I'@nam?$) ?-I@! a!?
1j3rji~'j
d) = 109 R.

.rpi,?ois a4ra6. zqiBovs roc 8 e o G jp6v. D 3 4 W a b c f ff2 g2 mt Alex: MS. a v D e ~ a s mozgo sgrp rns inn's zov ~ E O V E L Z ~ - . T ~ U @ O V Favzov 209. upmu (vv citatae qwov) pro Compl. Ed. avzoli L?ABEFG***HKLMPS UVrd d fere omn vv pler.

.

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, makc his paths straight.

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, maka straight the paths of our GOD.

The voice of him that cricth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the wag of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our GOD.

For remarks on this Quotation, seeMatt. 111. 3, with which Mark entirely corresponds. Instead of msou, by reading sou @mu qpmv (as noted above of the w cit.), Mark is brought nearer the original. Yet the text is the best.

198
Mark VD. 6-1.

E a r k VII. 6-1;

John TI. 45.

[Table E.1.r.a.o.

(6)
Is. XXM. 13.
m v

Is. XXIX. 13.

[liran;~ ~ ~ q o ~ z w ' H u a h s nspl$p& zuiv 6noX ~ L T ~ V , 7 i T P a m a ~ 066s ] zos 6 Labs zois ~ e i l r ~ rp~ iv z ~ p ( i ,i 82 xae81d shiv ndp#o ( ; Z . ~ ~ E L is' Spoil. 'piqv C ~ ~ O V ZLIL- ~ 86 re ~ SLrrxonss 8 ~ 8 a v ~ a l $9- ~ ia zr;Lpaza r i ~ 8 ~ d n w v .
ovcos a La. cAEFGHKLIll SUVXrAai ut vdtr omn cop go ete. .. L n o La. ovz. eBD vg it ( a f f l om ovz.)l D (no11d) a b c~ue ayana(aeth et v a n e cl ~ - c p a ) [ a n e ~.Dr .aqeol-7r xw (perg aq> L a n r m w . . A a n r m q . .vg (emm mt ing ndeso it edd pl est. LsWell hath Esaias prophesied of you hypoorites, a s i t i s written,]Thispeople honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. ?,Howbeit i n vain dotheyaorship me, teaching for doctrines t h e comlnandments of men.

ZyyiCec pot 6 Aebs o k o s ZG vr6parc ai(-coi, rrr? dv .rois ~ E ~ L F O - ' , ~ ~ i a2z& p6ui p ~ 6 82 naq8ia a i r i v , &

'

mi#^ M EXE EL

0;~'

1 lT?@> ';in .j") 'qpp i7nlr) I>>+) n!gn aht) DQNl?

319') DY; a ~ 52m) ) ? ~p!

...

p&zIIv82 O ~ @ O Y ,us 8 ~ 8 6 T ~ ~ : 3 1\ ~ h ~ 2 5 : ~ mixovres dm6Lperu ( ; ~ 4 ~ d n o v l a ? 8~8rrrmaklas. EY ~ ( i~ U P ~ ~ZV C O V Om l I rn) = 476. 491 K. n) *.I; EY zw Compi. Ed. 1 for avpersin 3. 20. 23.26. 211 cte. r a w . .avzov I rar rv zaaq O m o) = 1. 250 I<. p) = 250K. Compl. Ed. 1 Aicn. MS. om r y q)1 425 K. r) ?In, 252 K. : r. ar. au.rac m. I MS. 106 for S) = 336 K. t) = 342 K. i l ~ 8hShor. rv.auB.xa~ S~S.reads 89. 115 K. lax 569; f 559 K. 8. 8. e. a . as Ma&. u) nby 526 K. = 601 K.

-

~
'

+

.

This people draw ni& unto me with their mouth, and honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me; but in vain do they worship me, teaching the commandments and doctrines of mon.

Forasmuohas] this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart f a r from me, and their fear toward me i s taught by the precept of men:

Any needed remarks on this passage will be found under Matt. XV. 8-9, with which Mark agrees. Tischendorf begins Mark with o6sos- 6 dads, but Lacllmann reads 6 dads o6soc which Tisch. follows in Matt. Of course, in the texts of Tisch. and Lach. the first clause is left out by both, and a contrast is expressed between the service of the lip and of the heart. UThispeople honour me with the lips, but their heart is far away from me." In the original the former. part has added to it "draw near with thcir mouth", which both Matt. and Mark omit.
John VI. 45. [8mw ywquppkvouf dv
zois s p o q j z m ~ ]Kai #uovZLlC %&YTES~ 8 a m o 8&. 8 i QEOV e nnc onln aliisquc longe pl ... s (= Gb Sz) m u QEOV c mirl non it? mu. [It is writtcn i n tlie

(7) Is. LIT. 13.
xai ncivras zo&c uiois (101' ~ L ~ C L X T O &oil, &S
Beau ....rev e e o v 228.
- I. @:

Ts. LIV. 13.

n3 ??\B> ::
k) t.c.
3

~ ! ~ ; l ) -7j :x > ~ )

244K. 1)Nuliu~

prophets,] And they shall be all taught of GOD.

and (*I will make) all And all thy children thy ohildren to be taught, shall be taught of thelord. of GOD.
* O ~ O O verse 12. from

This Quotation is in the LXX collnected with the preceding verse

Table E.I.r.a.o.1

Acts VII. 33-34.

199

and put in the acc. case. The apostle, however, uses the nom. case, in which form the original may be rendered; but he agrees with the LXX in ,reading 8tSuxrol S.EOZ \"taught of GOD'', for the Hebrew 7 1 1 ~ >'taught of Jel~ouah"; and differs from both in omitting ~:i?'ro~s viovs oov "thy children". The prophet addresses the Gentile church under the idea of a mother, and the Quotation contains part of what is said of its members as her children. Now, the Evangelist has dropped the idea of mother, and there would consequently be no need to retain that of sons. Illoreove~.,tlie use of "thy sons" would have been inappropriate, since Jesus was addressing the Jews, who would apply it to their children, whereas it was not intended for them, at least f i r them especially, but for tlie Gentiles also, if not for them alone. -Compare Mic. 1V. 2 i r ? y n ? r p ) "and he (i. e. the Lord, GOD of Jacob) will teach us (i. e. the Inany nations) of 15s ways". The reason for ('taught of GOD" being preferred to "taught of Jehovah" appears to be this. If the Jews were addressed in the latter way, they would instantly infer that it has reference to themselves, since Jehovah was the name by which the Deity had revealed himself to 1. them. See Exod. 1 1 15. But, in order to avert this misconstruction the Deity is called GOD, meaning that He is to instruct the nations not through His relationship of Jehovah to the Israelites, but through that of GOD, as their GOD, not as if He were Israel's GOD only, but as GOD of all the earth.
Aots 711. 33-34. Exod. 1 1 5, 7, 8, 10. 1.

(8)

Exod. 1 1 1 . 5 , 7,R, 10.

xai .roc vzevaypaC adr 6 v jxovoa, xai nar6&v 2iaACoSLa~ a h o h rari vCu &Cqo inooreiAu cs slls Atyunrov.
zr;i,

dv Air6nry, nai .rqc xqnvyt.il~a5r6v . Z x j r o a . . 8xni

.

33. D'* al Avaa~I ZOS. rots (C* add oov C"Ea1 mRed
ax) r. n no" . ( B o. z.n.) I em o eABCDe* ('ov) . . . s rv w cEIi a1 plcr Chr a1 . . C (C* ovv) a l sah a m add a". 34. a&,* (C 31 EcS.) . D* la. yap / ADE rSov I au,nsu rACPF1 a l nt vdtr ferc .~ -... olnn vv ferc omn pp mu . Ln avcov e8D 26.1 D al a m -

jir sgr 81 add

.

..

z o ~ i @E )v ~ I ~ (<riirovr~ L -.li'~;Ib ?1Nlij8.-'Q'n~ ~ J~L '"xai u6v 8&qo rinoore8w $' nyrq)to 1-: . OE npbr @aya& @aucABa ;I$l@-bt$ Air4nrov. 5 Aaoac . lvoov Ald. t + = S ed. (nonMS)perEd. I er z. n. om ax / ov eoz. muiti H. K. ct R. u) n.iy o m o u A l s x . MS. 150 elf. 69 K. x) a*?! S. i ISmv rcSov ... 'Sow &Sou. d)=132K,lw?S. e)=132K. . al MSS. 0 = 1 5 . l i O K . g) ~3sm3 10. clnoozsiAe,. .. o ; n ~ ~ ~170. ~ a ~i I),mix>S. (exe. 66.) ms. curs. I nqos err ms. q) l '91 = 64 S. r) a = §. i

..

?.4ef) 7 6 ~ 3'iy:!;-nt$ i " ~ ~ y-n?! a!?yn? r
?n;;vsl

"y ,

...

+

..

DUIS.

~

.

I C" ?""& / L I X O " Z S C ~ . W eARCDE (-0rr2o) al Ch: ... F -orrLu~c l i a1 pi Thph.
. , , a

Acts VU.33-34 [aJThen said the Lord to him,] Put off thy shoes from thy feet: for the place where thou standest is holy ground. 3 4 1 have seen, I have seen the afaction ofmy people which is in Egypt, and I have heard then- groaning, and am come down to deliver them. And now come, I will send thee into Egypt. s*put off thy shoes from of? thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. ?..+I have seen, I have seen the afaction of mypeople which are in Egypt, and I have heard their cry ..sand I am come down to deliverthem . . . 1oAnd now come, I will send thee unto Pharaoh, kine of Eevnt. " * or, loose the sandal. t 11t. seeing I hay6 secn, - I have surely seen.
U"

[Table E.1.r.a.o. Sput off thy shoes from

off thy feet, for the place
whereon thoa standest holy ground.. . . 7 1 have surely seen the afaiction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry. ..SAndInrn come down t o deliver them. . . 'OCome now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh.

-

This Quotation is almost word for word with the LXX, which differs but little from the Heb. 7hl? i.yn ~ b ~ - LL&aw t l ~ y k ! off shoes z rujw (or sandals) from on thy feet", is in the LXX. kGua~ d d~6JVli(la'Ex ZOJGV (TOU "loosen the sandal from thy feet", and in Acts hGnow sir dlt68qficc r&v %oJ&u uou 'Lloo~en sandal of thy feet", or more simply the "loosen thy underbound of (i. e. what is tied under) the feet", meaning "thy shoes". Although in the next clause the pronoun, hF& in I-leb. and uu in LXX., "thou" is found, yet its omission in Acts is riot faulty, as it is there involved in the different form of the verb, i'uzqxas "thou art standing" being for 1 n l Y ;ice "thou standing;" and Acts follows the Heb. in rendering 1 h Y + a t 1% by E g i $ LLupon which," departing from the LXX $9 c5 "&:which". Passing over the next verse, viz. the 6", part of which was cited in ver. 32, the Quotation is continued in the same words as the LXX., excepting that roc uswaypoi; {xouua "I heard their groaning" -the effect and expression of compression-is read fbr r f s x p a u y q ~ adr&w dx,ixoa "I have heard their cry3'--the expression of desire to be relieved from the same. Now, although the original Oni?gS conveys both ideas, yet of the two, the former is more probably the one intended, as the following context implies. The Inf. abs. hk? with which this extract begins, being placed before the finite verb 'l'F87 adds an expression of intensity, see Ges. EIeb. Gr. 5 128.3. d. and is rightly rendered by i8dv ~ i s o v"seeing I saw" i. e. I certainly saw=I saw with my ow11 eyes. Having quoted as much of the verse as was needecl, he proceeds to the first clause of the following, ver. 8, 'ijry;?! xu2 xasip~,w E & U u 8 a ~ d r d s "and I am come down to deliver them", closing the whole with the purpose for which Moses was attracted, as given in ver. 10. The imper. ;& l which would properly mean, go, depart, passes over also into a particle of inciting, come! and has been correctly translated by 8cG~o"hither" i. e. "come hither". The 1Ieb. ends with >ir?i?-i! "unto Pharaoh", (in tire LXX n~c+g C>aqacjp a ~ o ? a r h ~ u ~ ~ i y ~ z r o u "to 'pharaoh, king of Egypt"), hut, as this, in the Quotation, might

l?.e!

Table E.l.r.a.o.1

Acts XY. 16-17.

201

have been less easily understood than €is Ai'yunsov "into Egypt3,, and not so much in harmony with the context, which is not so pi~rticular as the original, the omissions being taken as proofs thereof, the latter is preferred, (9) Acts XV. 16-li. Amos IX. 11-12. Amos IX. 11-12.
[na*ds rtrtra?rcm] 'eMnd?
rixGra i v u u r q i v o nrri ,;YO'roJop7jvw zijv mo7Mjv d a v i d rrjv ~ & ~ O K * H ~ ,zd XUZJ O \~ L Y
"6v

75 jPbgq SXELV!~ &a(TY~V$Y

daui(l m1i.v nb;! i y n20 Z;?V n ~ m o u v i a v , %a2 ~ Y O L - . : - 7 : . : rod'opjuw zh nanrwz6za inb?;lr lrplpc) c n u p p 6 m adcjs dvomo80a6rrjs, Z L Har8map?p>=Is) Dii?ij p'jrw nai rivog$ojoa rrSijv, aircis ivarnjuw, airi ?Wl,?') " " h w s t?v 6xS~rrjuwu~vi (;YOLKO(~O,U+LTO 06z7jv KGo -553) ~y-&x) x a z 6 l o ~ n oZ~ ~ iVv 8 g i n w v at ljCLBgur zaG ai6vos, r ' 2 i ; n o s S ~ h z j u w r ~ v o i x a r -! n ~ D ? I ~ zbv xdp~ov, xal nrivra r i $a",, d q , "is<nLHgxlr J r a ~ L;JoLnOL T& &"ae&nw", %mi ;l@ybl 7 . ... . . ntitc) cb a'vapI; pow En' ~ i r o i r s , n 6 v z a zd? i8vv ST' 0;s SZLiip~ ( P L O S~ O L G C . U T ~ . X ~ X A ~ T ( ~b UIvoP& ~~ 6 ZY IL SZ' abrods, 16yar x i r g ~ o ~ d norow
I T W ~ V O Z+Y

-nu ~3py,y1;1;119) ~ ) a 2
:diivin~>

- ng

n,,Mq

~?p~~):l@&

*f;1?-&$?5r)

xsx" 81 a p. K. r) m'ns 1 16. D' d p a r a Se / D ez'11. w r. 7~ ax. . . ~ a iq) ~ 1 11 K. S) = 1 K. 1) = 4 i 4 ozqay,o / B xazevcpefilLpzva, ;IELLeah5 dxrivars 62. 147. I ilem nls Procop -o.rgwl~pr~a avor~.pr...avam~ooCompl. K.w,,plu~.imiK. u) =428I<. . .E avronarph<evaI Cf (vdtr) Ed. I a u r v 5 Campl. Ed. ma- x) = 593 3. y) 1 = 1 i . 244 K. 2. 226 a p. B. bx 1 ($8 91 ocraJop7jow scc. loco. .row I l a razeon. . . . xaraoz) = 29 K. K. b a 180 K. - 17. E all Chr otrl uu I r u cqafifisua Alex. MS. ~ C D Y . D aclh . @so* I a 12. oYnoF . . add Alex. a)i.)i,+iy 4-l4ap.K. b) =951<. ~ nu'ov cACD"EGI1 a1 nt MS. I or Ed.Ald. pm o~ 1 Alcu. c) = 95 K. > i 304 a p. R. vdk onln Chr a1 .... Ln olu MS. et s l r w * av@. ... add 6 eB U* nonlorr) I z a u c a .rev ~vpcoLI cn'avz. in Ald. CAB$ a! m vg cop aeth ... 5 Ed. desunt I xup; o a. . . (-Gb Sz) add n a v r a e1.I a1 rvpror o 4 ~ 0 5 nouruv Alex. o pm syr a1 CEtr al.; proem BMSS. I nav. caw. ...zavza EG al mu. Alcx. MS. Compl. Ed. [asitiswritten,] isafter rrIn t h a t day will I 11In t h a t day will this I will return, and , misc up the tabernacle of raise up the tabernacle of will build again the taberavid t h a t is fallen, and David t h a t is fallen, and. nacle of David, which is I will build again ' the oloie* up the hreaches fallen d o m ; and I will fallen pzaccs thereof, and thereof; and I will raise 1 will raise up the roins up his ruins, w d I will build againtheruinstllereof, and 1 will set i t up: thereof, ,and I will build build it as in the days of "That t h e residue of men it again, as in the days old: I2That they may might scek after the Lord, of old: lzthat the residue pO~Sess the remnant. of ant! all the Gentiles, upon of mcn may seek a f i e r x e E d o m , and of all thc whom my name is called, and all the Gentiles, upon heathen, which are called saith the Lord, who doeth w h a m m y name is called, by my name,+ saith tho saith the Lord who doetll LORD t h a t doeth this. all these tlrings. * ¶ Heh. 1iedg.e or wall. all these things. t 4[Kcb. upon wlloln lily nsmc is eallcd.

nL;vza z a i n a .

.

.

The first verse of this Quotation differs from the Sept., which literally renders tho Hebrew, a s follows: I t begins with: M & z a sauza avaorptyw "After these things I will return", pointing to a time posterior to which something is to be done, whilst the IIcbrew reads Nl;i;l D P 2 "In that day", pointing to the time oS the deed, which, after

Table E.1.r.a.o.l

Rom. IX. 2i-28.

203

That the clause in each presents different ideas is apparent. If the Sept. has not been altered to conform with Acts, (and for tliat there is no evidence), it follows that the Web. has been changed. Now, how may it be rostorcd, with the least possible change upon its preseut reading? As oi xasaLorzor is in tlle nom. case, its correspoildent n ' l ~ i vwill he so too, and thus the sign of the acc. n prefixed must ! belong to 'some word omittcd. oi rar&i,oinor being follolvecl by rc?u du+~rSxalu, it is clear that 8 1 1 ~ for 895, and incleed tliat reading is is found in some MSS. (i') it in this change, we have dropped a letter 1; and, as the Jews were vcry particular aiout t h e number of letters, we hence infer that, in the original change, one mas omitted from some other part of tlie clausc. zxgqr~joootvcannot bc the transi ?at , lation o'f ?WI'? but of some other word, in all probability :+ : least the latter is both so rendered, and formable from the former with very little chail~e. Now, the signification of "seekin& searching for" I? ; is fournil attached to this veGb, chiefly in the phrase ; ! nv W?, "to seek Jehovah" i. e. "to seek unto Bim", to have rcconrse to Him lox aid by prayer Rrc.; and as we require a word of one letter after n N tlre sign of the ace., we infer that, since Jehovahis represented speaking, it must be 3 (yod), thus making ',?~. This, though omittcd in the Sept., is yet found in the New Test., but expressed by sou xuqlou, which may have been oxchangcd for it, for perspicuity's sake, unless it be, as Dr. Daviclson remarks, that the 7 (yod) is an abbreviation of ; I . If this. were the only passage wherein the New Test. varies, as regards Quotations, from the origiilal, it would be going too far to say that Luke wilfully corrupted the original, when he is supporter1 by the Sept., and especially when the present-reading favours thc Jews. Bad Luke's different reading fapoured them, then we might have admitted that he had corrupted the text; but, a s long as we bear in mind the hationa~intipatlry they had to the Gentiles' enjoying equal privileges with themselves, which was manifested in the infancy ol Christianity - the religion tbr the world, and the expectations they bad formed of their own race in connection with tlie proinised larid, we cannot but lay the alteration to their charge.

Roni. IX. 27-28.

Is. X. 22-23,

Ir. X. 22-23.

/ 2 i i H u n t m s J A + q ~ i t ~ idQ ~ zoi,'Ioqrx+L] d i,q~+27xrri $ 0 $~Y ~ T ~ cL Labs i ?j!;ii;l!q)-Dv1) p l s T ~ ili& ' I u e e $ i &< $ . 'luem+i 6s ;p,uos z i r 3,~- 7Nv D:;;I. iIil>b') P .. :: . Gppos Z+S . a l ~ ~ ~ c u ? s , z;- 1 . ~ ; ~6 ~ ~ ~ ~ . A ~ i(m~his~ppr~ jp\> ~lrzj: zW'v u m 8 ~ j u n c ~ . i 6 y o v UVY6 n 6 i e ~ p p zum+<lrsrna. 7% >>I3 2 8 i 6 y o v Tiee i 6 v xai uvuz i r l G v xai r i v n i p v m v 4v cu~r6,uvwu b J L X I I L O V ~ Y ! ~ ,L X C L O ~ S Y ? ~~ ~ i d c o r 3K , r u~ >);I,!. ?I'TN ' 7 ? 1 . .. T . , :?> i;nr itiyov U I I Y T E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V O L z tYrO Y~ p d ~ oXv ~ ~ L On S ~ j u e c J p o . . . >KYh, PAR:*) n o ~ j w '~ 6 ~ ' o g zfs yip .dl, ryj oixov@v,rj Z i j . 2-i

i

T y

'3"

yj~$)

ih.~a

.)zC)

:;127ye) 7 1 ~ 1 ~
1 '
:~l,N?-'j$~)

zl,~?

204

Rom. IX. 21-28.

[Table E.1.r.a.o.

21. u z o i r & @ @ (sic nullus - 22. Om avrwu Alcs. DIS.1 a testis in LXX.) CAB Eus . . rloyov y a p ovvzd,i.wvA1ex.M. 41. u n o r a c a l c ' w a F xaraMSS. ct Aid. Compl. Edd. itw~a eUEFGKL a1 ecrte 23. x v q . n o ~ ~ ~ a ~ . . plcl. Thdrl nl ... Chr e y r a r a - 6 Oroq Alex. MS. . .March ie~~w~a. MS. o ffsoq nor?jnn Compl. 28. ru 8'racoovvli, o n i o y . Ed. rveros, rupcoq jvva@ewv owzezp. cUEFGKL a Iongc l pl vg it sy1.P ad1 50 sl Eusl Chr Thph Occ liier Ambrst Bed ... Ln om CAB 23.*47.' 6i.** syr (pcrgit xaa n ' ] o?uac) cap meEuslDaln A u ~ (nclh vcrsulll sic habcl: yuia coasummuhtm elyruecisum ver6um ennrrelDeus i m w d o Thdrl om ouun .rPwu usq. Aoyov) 1 I3 o xuq.

.

..

[z7Esaias also crieth conoerninglsrael,] Thoughthe nombcr of the children of Israel he as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved: 28For he will finish W e w o r k , and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lor& make upon the earth. * ql Or, lhe account.

z) = 249.355 K. a) = 474 K. b) = 30 K. e) = 180K. d) 'nl 150. 309. 61%K. . c) o ~ 180K. n v 3 4 2 in lehlu n = ~ ~ ~ ~ K. iJ ~,iiih. 613 K. ' ? x = 30 K. * = 206. 474 K. g) = 154. 471 K. h) xva >h. 17. lSSK. i) = 1.4.30.14. 89. 96. 102. 115. 150. 154. 158. 160.175.1iS. 180.182. 187. 205. 210. 228. 246.249 -253.295.301.309.321.330. 332.33i. 342.365.399.406. 415.420. 423.428.453.461 471. 4i4. 4!)0.494. 5135.526. 530.533. 549.566. 562. 5i5. 516.590.584-598.612.ti13. 632.639.64s; 405.521f.; 168 margK.2.196.210.295.463. 518.554.715; 1.'20.23.226. 440; 25. 304. 305.663 cx c. R. Edd. ZZAnd though the people 21For though thy people '-of Israel he as the s a i d Israel bo as the sand of of the sea, a remnant of the sea, yet a wmnant* them shall be saved: *He of them shall return: the m L finish th'e work, and consumption decreed shall iC oat it short i n righteoas- overflow t w i t h righteousness; a3for t a short work ness. 2Vcr theLord GOD will the Lord make i n the of hosts shall make s oonwhole worlb. sumption, evendetermined, > in t h e midst of all the land. * Gr. finishing the ward ' Beb. in or among. q and cutting it short. t q Heb. in. t Gr. a word cul short or to pieces.

-The original begins with O; h:! ?! hfl& qpp ;l:;i:-ON l? "If thy 'people Israel' should be as the sand of the Sea," in wbiclr it is followed by the Sept., excepting 'thy," in 6 Aaos'IrqaqA "the people of Israel.".. But, as <'the sand of the sea" .is often put uts the image of abundance, Paul in explaining the idea writes: Biu 6 6 dpr8pFc6s z&v vi& i c ~ a l j h6 s Zppoc z?g 8arZdroqg "if ,the number of the sons of Israel should be as the sand of the sea," and that is his departure from Isaiah's words. For 13 >?iti, lt Ua remnant in (or among, we say, of) it (i. e. them) e! shall return", (i. e. be converted to Jeho~rah,see ver. 21), the Sept. has r b razdLzppcz dz6~jll~ W S + R B Z U L =the remnant of them shall be savecl," which tlie apostle gives, only omitting drw"u, which is of course implied. Now, the ideas are fundamentaliy.the same, since they would be saved or preserved from destruction, by returning to Jehovah, and putting their trust in Him; see vers. 20 -21. In the original, the conversion is made prominent; whereas Paul cleilaves its effect in their suluution. The FIeb. continues with, a$ the usual rendering: 'a finishing (or ending i. e. consumption or destruction) is cut off (i. e. decreed, determined), overflowiug (or sweeping away, i. e. whicb shall sweep away)

Table E.Lr.a.o.1

Rom.

IX. 27-2s.

205

as right, (as a right thing, or just as i t should do)", by which translation the unavoidableness of the destructioli is made prominent; or, it may be rendered: &Ithe destrt~ction(mhich i s ) decreed; is overflowing (shall sweep away) as right (as it should)," thus marking the effect of the decree, and the certainty of tlie foregoing statement; and this is as in the Authorized Version. Geseuins makes it: 'bringing in justice like a flood, i. e. overwhelming the wicked with merited punishment, ;ia?Y being accus. governed by TOW. But., I prefer the usual meaning, inasmuch as tho destruction is represented bringing in justice, whereas, properly speaking, justice demands destruction, and because justice is diverted to. mean merited punishment, whereas the puriishment of the wicked involves their destruction. The Sept. renders by 26you ~uvscr2ivxu2 ~ u v s f f i v m v Srxcrrodv?~ 2v 'finishing (oraccomplishing) and briefly executing the saying (i. e. decrcc) in rightcousness,'' in mhich the apostle follows it, but gives it as a reason "for" the preceding, Aoyov yap. I have just now stated the usual rendering of the clause, as found in the Sept. But fiorrl the fact that in the next clause a>? is translated by doyo; and ? :I ? ) by cuvrrspvfizvo,,, and as similar words would be similarly rendered, one cannot help thinking' that ~ u v r r f i v w v corresponding to YlT;! has changed places with nuvrerlwv. Restored to that order, it would thou he translated: %utting oE (or decreeing) the saying (or account, reckoning), ancl finishing i t in righteousness'j, which will be found to correspond precisely with the original. "He will cut off (or decree) a saying (or reckoning)", when compared with ua finishing (or destruction) is cut off (or decreed)", presents no difference, since the reckoning is made at the winding up or finishing, and in the 'present case it was to involve dest?uction. While, in t h e original, the fact is simply stated, in the version its originator is pointed out. "IIe will bring to an end (or execute) the saying (or reckonhg) in righteousness", and:. "the finishing (or destruction) is overflowing (shall sweep away) as right (as it should)" amount co the same thing, with the same difference as in the other comparison. When Yhe destructioli shall sweep away" is represented as done by one, it reads: "he shall make the destruction sweep away"; and, as the destruction is to cease only with the sweeping away,. it becomes: % shall finish the destruction," which is the result of the reckoning. This arrangement and meaning of the clause in the version coiiloide better, not only with the original, but also with itself; as the means for fulfilling the statement of the preceding clause is stated in the first part of it, and their accomplishment, which declares the certainty of t h e threat, its last part expresses. With this last part is fitly linked the concluding clause 6 s ~ A6yw mvtctp~fiOuouzodolijncc xLpro~8162 ~Fisy f ~"because the Lord (Jehovah) will clo upon the earth acut-off saying, (i. e. a reckoning wliich has been decreed)", which assigns the reason, points oilt the ground upon

.

-

266

Kom.

Xt. 9-10.

[Table 2.Lr.a.o.

which rests the stability of what has just now been noticed. The j? n'lN2: ii!;i:. ?7tj. ;iYlil>! 7); ,? original runs thus ~ l ~ i l -1?72? ;I.$Y "for, a finishing (or destruction), and (i. e. even) a'decreed thing (meaning a decreed destruction), the Lord Jehovah of hosts making (i. e. shall make) in the midst of all the land." Moses Stuart renders it: '[Yea, destruction is verily determined on; the Lord Jehovah d l execute it in the midst of the land." But, although it could bear such an interpretation, I yet, prefer the other, as it coincides with Paul's. Thus, then, have we seen that the Quotation not only does not present a different meaning from, but even agl,ees very closely with, the original.
7T.:z..

Rom. XI. 9-10.
[ g x o i d a v l J I+'] i-zw8 j z w i zp&nzta a h & e g i nrryi6a xu: E ~ S8 i D a v x a i &is m & v S c A a l ~ ~ ~ aSi E ~ &ren6Joprrarbrois,'OmonvS+r o o a u oi dq4aIpol a6rc.i~ 705 pj ~ ~ I Q ~ E L Y zbv xal , v6zov airrcv e&& n a v r b ~ oiuxap$uov. 9. FG a1 auzano8wba. 10. ovvrapylw eB'D*FG.. s Ln 49. my*. cAB**CD"' E"""Z c1c.

(11)
Ps. LXVIU. 23-24,
23ytvvgljzo 4 ~ q d n e t a C;i?@jh) nGz6v i v d n ~ o vc i z 3 v e g i :wpm\ n a y i 8 e xai el< ~vrr*nd8og~w n i t q n u n m p $JW<~+ X ( Y ~~k W I I Y ~ ~ I OU X O " Y. 1 '' .' . . . nugljrwouv oi l?4nLpol ) 1 ; 3 ? ! ' : l')?! a;?'!n$) adri-v roir p ~ L B T C ~~ Y , i j La ibv v&zizau adz& &ri navr& &y~a$uov.

Ps. LXIX. 23-24.

O!74w-,;i?23 o,n>iwSiniii)

.

Om. &$ncov ai<Gv
ran.

zan68ofis.

... @qqav, olhers

I ava+-

h) = 97 K.

k) I

i) = 30 K.
1)
' 3 125 $

= 285

K.

a

p. 538 f. K.

[#And D a ~ i d saith,] Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a. stumblingblock, and a reeompenco m t o then,: % G e t thcir eyes he dilrkencd, t h a t they may not see, and bow down their back alway.

23Let their table'before them becomc a snare, and a recomponcc and a ststurnb-' ling block; x4Let thcir eyes be ,darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their hack alwiug.

?%Let thcir t ~ b l e becdine a snare before them; and that mhich slrouldhcrve been for their welfare, b l it become a trap. 24 L e t their eyes be darkened, that they see not; and make their loins contiuually to shake

This Quotation follows the Sept. throughout, excepting that the lat. . ter, after the Heb. n;lr!p>,reads dv$nrov ul;~v "&I face of them," instead or which Paul would seem to have written at the end uhrois them;" since he says: "let their table become for such and such unto tJ&em," whereas in the original it is : "let their table in their presence be for such and such;" also that the former, besides inverting the order of the two last expressions, adds xa2 ~ 2 5 9.lj~uv"and for a trap." The original nQ is applied not only to the net for enclosing birds (see Amos 1 1 5), 1, but also to the trap for catching wild beasts or men by the foot (see Job XYIII, 9). Now, the Sept. has rendered it by aayg, which, liowever, expresses the former idea only, and in order to give tlre litter also, the apostle has adder1 8qyu. Thns, 'then, he has merely fully rendered the original expression. The next two exl~ressious,when inverted, arb nearly the same that occur in the LXX. But the Heb. is translated i s above. Humever,

Table E.1.r.a.o.l

Rom.

Xi. 26-21,

209

one of the meanings, and that not the least frequent, of the Piel form of the verb, from which the noun is' derived, is to requite, reconzpense, (soe Judg. I. 7 ; Jer. XVI. 18; Ps. LXII. 13) so that the noun may clenote recornpence, or that which is appropriately rendered. Nor is there any difference at bottom, since that wherewith they were remarded might bave been for their welfare, only it proved a stumblingblocR, an obstruction, an occasion for sin, and consequently for ruin.
(12)
Rom. XI. 26-27. Is. LIZ.' 20-21. Is. LIX. 10-21.

u&o^v.

2 6 . a ~ o o r e P y , e aCABCD* 39.4i. 80. ..FG go owoorqs.

... q

"a'

~ O O ~ Q E V P L

CD-"C~*~'L plcr vv pl Chr al Thdrt al.

[reas it is written,] There shall come out of Sion t h e Deliverer, and shall t u r n away ungodliness from Jacob: 2 7 3 ' 0 ~ t h i s is my covenant unto them, when I shall take sway their sins.

Is. XXVII. 9. . irnkimpar zby ;pnqrinv n6ra6.. . 2O.s~rxrvMar.MS.Ald.Ed. =ma .. . sr 93. ano Compl. Ed: I Iarop add rinevKuecas Mar.. MS. . . 9. 6rau .. . 6 . r ' a v Barb. MS. 17. a ~ aauz. ... ~ . avz. 2. a . Alcx. Rarb. MSS. Compl. Ed. .. &. out. Mar. MS. ZoAnd t h e Deliverer shall come o n account of Sion, and shall turn away un-. godliness from Jacob; UAnd this is my covenant unto them, said t h e Lord.

.

... ! n ~ p ~q .. . ~ .
u) 72 K. y) ilnn pi. K.

Is. XXVII. 9.

-

x) = 115 K.

.

.

"hen

I remit his sin.

21AnJtheRedeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turnfram transgression i n Jacob, saith theLORD. 2jAsforme,tbis is my covenant with them, saith t h e LORD. g...to take away his sin

..:

pan1 agrees with the Sept., excepting that h i reads cx Ziwv L c ~ ~ t of Sion" for i f v ZWV account of Sion;" omits EL%& f i p r o g "said ~ ~ "on ~ ~ the Lord," and adds Zsav dlyiLwpar r&s &fiugrias azkdv Uwhen I remit (or forgive) their sins (or errors)," which he probably takes fromIs. XXVII. 9. of the Sept., only it is there in the Sing. r$v &papriav d z 0 5 =his sin!' The Heb. says jl~y/!"to Zion;" the LXX. &cxcv Z i d v "on account of Sion;" the New Test. ;X Ziwv 'out of Sion," which appears to express exactly the opposite of the Heb. Now, every one know that, before one can come from a place, he must be in it, and, if he has not been always there, he must. have come to it. This being applied, they would appear to view the coming at different times, and that is all the, variance. They both mention a coming, only tbe Hob. states the former - the coming to, while the New Test. the latter that fronr. "When it is said .that the ltedeemer should come out o f Zion, it means that he should arise among that people, be descended from themselves,
~

-

208

Rom. XI. 26-27.

[Table E.Lr.a.o.

or should not be a fomigner." The Sept. seems to hme regarded it as meaning: "he shall come for Ziou", marking that for whose advantage his corning would serve. The next clause in t.he -Sept. aud New Test. is d n o n t ~ t q &d m r @tag dmd I u q 9 "he shall, turn away impieties from Jacob," whereas y@p pq> " a d (he shall come) to the retuillers from the Heb. is transgression in ~acob." Gesenius thus remarks on the prep. >. "A) as pp. denoting motion, or at least direction lornards any thing, a turning to or toward any object. 1. to, tornarrl, unto, Gr. €is, espec. after verbs of going, where it differs from 58, in that 55 is put before theperson to whom orle goes, and before the place." As in tEle text, is admitted to be prefixed to person, it cannot thercfoke have the meaning just now stated. Passing fartlier onhe says: "3. I t serves to mark the to nouns, where the Latin, dative, like the Eng. to, Fr. u b) Greek and German employ the dative casc. T h ~ s as marking the person (or thing) lo or for whose use, advantage, pofit a thing is done or serves." Now, this we may regard as its meaning in tbe text. It will then point out that his conking would be "fol'. the good of the returners from transgression in Jacob," i. e. of thoso in Jacob, not, probably, who had returned, but who woulcl (lo so. And their returning being cofisequent upon his coming, it might, in order to present him as the main cause thereof, be saicl: "he shall turn away the transgression which is in Jacob." But I think that 5 marks the h a 1 object, ILheshall come for them," with the intention of getting them, and as; in the geiting of them, he had to- exert his power, so as to make them fit objects of acquisition, it may well be rendered: "he shall turn away transgressions from Jacob." The Quotation makes prominent the agency of the Redeemer; and, as this agency is consequent on his coming, is exerted on men ahd for the purpose of making them his, it is seen, that the original, which states chiefly the objects of his coming, is not much different. They may be thus compared. The New Test. ultimately means: uhe shall come and nzake tlzem turn away from transgression in Jacob," while the Heb. runs: We shall come for n those mho turn away from transgression in Jacob," the former looking to the prior act, the latter to the posterior. Paul contiliues with the introductory clause of the next verse, after omitting, like the Sept., erne xuprog, as the rendering of ;l!;L: D p ; and then he quotes from another passage, seemingly Is. X%VII. 9. of the Sept., where the Heb. runs: "and this is all the fruit to take away (or, of taking away, i. e. when I take away) his sin." Or, it may be regarded as purt of another promise found in Jer. XXXI. 33-34; or, rather, as an abridgment of that pl.omise, and expressing its subslance. "It is clear that he intended to express the general sense of the promises, as they were wcll known to the Jews, and it was a point co~lcerningwhich he did not ueed to argue or reasoli

'?x??

5

Table E.I.r.a.o.]

Heb. I. 10-12.

209

with them, that GOD had made a covenant with them, and intended to restore them, if they were cast off, but should then repent and turn to him."
(13)
Ileb. I. 10-12.
[tOxai] . & i,xaz' hq&, Z
X ~ ~ L Z$Y E ,

Ps. C I . 26-2s. 2kxar' Jqzns T$Y 77% ub

Ps. C I I . 26-25,
n7$)y,,F~a)

rljv BYG~EA~ov(Is, ~ ~ i8~,ueI.i0(ies, i q y u Y L S xai xai i q ~ r G u X E L ~ Gwuv ZGY XELQOY"06 E ~ U L Y oi a Y E~,,LY 0; OCq(2Yoi. llair,,i O~qUYOi. 2:a"jcoi , ; z o l " ~ Y dnoAoGrar, d, 8d8cop8vsrs zai, (ih 86 ~ ~ U ~ B Y 1 F tL s nai ZL;MES d s ~ ~ L ; T L O Y ncZ&YIEE s ~ , ~ I ; z L o YZUJC*ICI)6 Aaro8juovra~, "no1 & u J Sjoovruc, rai 6uei I Z F ~ zeqr@bLa~ouM~SELS ~ldzobs @~.LULDY BUEELS~ i r o & xcri c xmi diAa7juourar, u& 8.Si 6 &lAuyjriovrnc 2 8 u h 8; 6 adzds cS xai rri iq aouv aCrds EL, ral r r 8 ~ 7 d aov 06% Bzisiwova~v. odx k A ~ i w o t ~ ( i ~ v . 11. 8hafi<vrcshoe ace. L 2G. r+,Y YVY r. Z V P . . .. 0"') a1 ut vdtr longe pl cop syr .up. r. y. Alex. MS. Ald. e t utr a1 ... D"%M a1 V " d e f Comol. Edd. P 8'a~avriq. 2 i : ~ i E r ~ q et ferc omn CAB 12. w o r r ...U'(E*?)Damoq 1 DISS. ... aiiaEaq in aliq. et cirF.... D' 4 3 d e f vg. (non v g it Ir Or al. hall') Tert aiiaFec~ aazous I eU"**KLM alut vdtr oinn vv pl pp pm ... Ln add o,q &pa~cov (1)-E e ~ p m .eABD'E d ) e aelh. to[And,] Thou, Iiord, in 25111 t h e *beginning, t h e beginning hiast laid thou, Lord, didst lay the thefoundationofthecarth; foundation of t h e earth, a n d t h e heavens arc the and t h e heavens s r e t h e works of thine hands : works of thy hands. ZaThey "They shall perish, but shall perish, but Thou rethou remainest; and they mainest; and they ail shall all shall wax old a s doth wax old as doth a. gara garment; t2And as' a ment; and as a vesture vesture shalt thou fold shalt thou fold them up, them up, and they ah611 and they shall be chatged; be changed: but thou art ??but thou art t h e same, t h e same, and t h y years a n d t h y years shall not fail. ' Gr. brginningi. shall not fail.

D3z2)?5

3i2::t?:7bp ~J'~yqli'~.

' ' 7222 ~ WU?!? 1 '.?j;?d) ;117Nii)28:ljinil cg;>fi5
7 -

C;?:=) \r!=?jN1 %$n we!
:pn?*L

- . N$TIIj$,
;

N3~~)

Z5Of old hast thou laid the foundation of t h e e a r t h : and t h e heavens w e t h e work of thy hands. 2GThey shall perish, but thou shalt *endure: yca, all of them shall wax old 1ikeagarment;asavesturc shalt thou change t h e m , and they shnil be changed: 2'But thou arf the same, and t h y gears shall liave no end. * lleb. slnnd.

Here the New Test. and the Sept. differ only in the arrangement i i solnc of the first clause, (which see above),. [and in the a d d i t i o ~ ~ ~ texts of riig iparrov as noted above]. They both differ from the Beb. in adding ow x u e ~"thou, O Lord", and ..omitting the proiloun in ~ $ 3 of them", giving only navscs "all", which, however, is to be reGdered "tlieeg all." They express the time more defidely by zar' u~xag "down'to the beginnings", for cU$. . "to the forepartn= "forwards," "shall be made old" and, applied to time, "of old". n~Laiw9.qoou~ar renders ?5?: "shall fall away" or "decay", which takes place when a garment becomes old. Bhi&~g %halt thou roll up" renders i2p;>?3 Ysl~alt thou make them pass away" or "change". As the outer garmcnt
14

210

Heb. I I 7-11, I

[Table E.1.r.a.o.

.

was roilecl up, ivbcn no longer to be used, so, to make it pass away or to chango it, would mean the same thing. d -74 6 uzizds EZ "bnt thou art the same," is beautifully, and Sriefly, yea sublimbly expressed (or the being). Lastly, ExLtcrpovow 'shall by N1;1 ; l p l "and thou-he" leave off," equals mt?? "shall be finished" or "have an end". Dr. Davidson in Introd. to Olcl Test.. p. 163 writes: '[This Quotation is taken from the SePtnagint, mLich agrees very nearly with the Kel~rew. Instead of E);>~Q the Cod. Vat,. of the LXS. has , E ~ ~ ~ E L Gwhich is iuaccu, rate, though the writer of the Epistle follows it". (But Dr.D. had said, on p. 162 L?'The Alexandrine recension of the LXS. which tho apostle used." Rut if he used it for Neb. I. 6., why shonld he follow the Cod. Vat. here?) He adds: T h e Alex. Cod. has dLlrldE~rg,which is in D and the vulgate, and is certainly conformable to the original, but is not the true reading in the epistle to the Hebrews." Now, if the writer followed but, as we find the Corl. Alex., we should have expected di.lZdE~~s, EAL'EELS,the inference is that he did not use it. Be ends with: "There is not the least probabilitp that the original reading both in the Psalm and this Epistle was d?.2~&&647.'' Probably not, and yet, a s I have shown a b o ~ e ,the various rkndexiugs do not alter the sense. The same meaning is conveyed notwithstanding. According to Tischendorf's text, this Quotation should be placed in Table D.d.r.a.0.
Heb. 1 1 i-11. 1. [rxa$ds itycc zb nvtcpa rd ZTLOY,]~ $ , ~ Q o Y $6"
q o v k o6raG i;noiimjrc,

(14) Pa. XCIY. 8-11.

Ps. XCV. i-11.

Bcrj,zq~v &(;I: Z ~ qwvfs S aiioir &xoilirjrz, p i cxA7q6qze z i s xap8ias ~ ( J G v , V A ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ T T E 'CAE %C%@CS irp6v i s 6v rqi n l ~ q a n l - . i g 6v zqi r n a q a n ~ ~ ~ u ~ p q 7 , x ~ a r ( ~xrrrb z$v $pBPmv ' zcrL z j v $ @ Q ~ v 108 nc6 j. ~ Q ~ C T f i i c c 2~ ~5$q7jpp o " OW zoi, nsrqaufio6 Bv $Q${AC~, d n ~ i ~ o u a02 nlrrdeas v dz~iparr&v( J E oi nnriqss 6p6v BY ~ O X L ( J W L T ~ ~ cZ8ov xu2 6 ( ~ 6 vd8v~i$cmavxai aldov , "ZSUU~*Q&T & & ~ i pou ~ E U I T E ~ ~ X O Y T Cz& ZQya PO". z? 8mi. " & b wqoo&jXYzua r,? xoma &? n p o s d x 8 ~ o a x, X y ~ v e fT U & ~zai E~TCOY, %i. yawf i l t ~ i v ? ~m l FTTCLL i ztnvGvjvruc zlj raQdi(r. a b zLuv6vrnr rlj. rmqcYicr, xai roi 8i 06% ~ ~ Y W U C I V Z&S a h o i oixiyvwoavzis di(oi,s pm. " i s i;poro: da rlj 6806s pou, "6s Spoua 2" zfj deyjj c;ov li.'~ioca~iirrov- dQr,i) p&, E ~ e i m A c i c o v z a ~ .r$v ~ ( r z i z a ~ i l i pow. iv zur 2 z i p xli*li;za",o~v(J011. E ~ S s

75

8.

nqanpov

qooavehBCD'E* !7. d'c cop (ap W k t ) i,cil ...s (Gho) add ,L~cD**'E"IILM a1 plcr f vg a1 pl Chr Thdrl nJ 1 FY Snrrrrrro~er(Gb7 eABCn*Eill 73. ' 1 3 i . d e edpl.eif; itemClcm Did.. . s p r ? w ~ ~ p a opaveD*" a KL a1 p l c r v ~ s y al m u / AC r

MS. ct Aid. Comp!. Edd.
zeqao>cou.

..

;

Alex.

9. /LE om in Cod. Alex. a12 it 1 r<?ox. add ri Alcx et al mu?rlSS.Ald. ctCornlil.Edd. 10. r e o o a , o . . . rrriorp. in Alrx. MS. I rina.. .rrzov in Alex. et a1 pm MSS. / x a r

Table E.1 r.a.o.1 alDid ' $ 0 9 I zenorp. eAB7C ... F Ln zconap. cR*fKLM a1 eerte plcr ...DE -I*10. 8‘0 . . . al ferelo om I (CWI eARI)"M R. Ii~ ,-. , ~. .
avzor

IIeb. III. 7-11.

211
g) nyil 1. 40 K. h) " n 2 , 2 i 80K. ~ a l i 1 1 3 K . i)-94K. niln 602 K. h) 74. 9; .

... a v z o ~ Alex. MS. Se et Aid. ct Compl. Edd. I f . e l . . Alex. MS. 7.

.

D i d . . . c r r n v n cCD**'EKL a1 longe pl. 1 ~ r & o v eBCD*" EKLM 31 longe pl Clcm Did a1 m..Ln r l n a cA(D'~cnav) a1 f c r e l o ~ ~ h r ' ~ " . [(as t h e Hoiy Ghost Today if ye will hear saith,] Today if ye will his voice, Bharden not yaur hear his voice, SHarden not hcsrts, as in t h e +provoyour hearts, as i n thcpro- cation, according t o t h e vocation, in t h e day of day of jaiigcr in the wiltemptation i n t h e wiiderderness, Where your faness: "When yaur fathers thers tempted me, proved tempted me, proved me, me, and saw my works. atid saw my works forty laForty years wasIgrieved years. loWhereforc I was with t h a t generation, a n d grieved with that gene- I said, They do alway err ration, and said, They do in fheir heart; and they alwap err in t h e i r heart; have not knorvn my ways. 11So I swam in my wrath, and. they have.,not knowu my ways. "So I sware p h o y shall not enter into in my 'wrath, *They shall my rest. not enter into my rest.) * Gr. If they shall cntcr. " Or, cmblttenng. f 01,bitterness. $ Gr. If thcy shall enter.

,.,- 57. 67. vg (i! i s f a ) Clem 23.

133K. I) = 40K. m) +n,= 168 K.

-

Today if ye will hear his voice, SHarden not your heart, as in the *prorocation, cnd as in t h e day of temptation in t h e ~iilderness: 9W.hen your fathers tempted me, provcclme, and saw my work 'UForty Tears long was I grieved v i t h this generation. and said, It i s a pcaple t h a t do err i n their heart, and they have not known my wags: l1Unto whom I sware in my wrath, t t h a t they shouldnot Bnter into my rest. * TrHcb eontei~tion B1Heb If they enter cle.

+

This Qnotation differs quite slightly from the original. The Scpt. has e ~ d e n t l ybeen followed; as it agrees therewith in some places, where it varies from the Keb. When the Israelites were wandering in the wil'derness, they came to a spot, where was no wat,er. Thereupon they chode with Moses, ]lb!~-;ip '?FY rl?ll.F)-;7i) "why chide ye with me? who said: ;i!;i!-nN wherehre do $e temptthe Lord?" Exod. XVII. 2. Their complaint being from want of water, it was given them; but the place was called ; "Massah" (temptation), and ;I?>?% (strife) Exod. XVII. 7. & "Meribah" Now, these two nafnes occur in tbe original. Ps. XCV. 8. "May ye not harden your heart, ~ l p "as 3 Meribah", 139e2 ilp2C'r'y'as in ~ at the day a t Massah in the desert." Instead of giving the names of v 7, the place, the Sept. has rendered them 6 s E S@ n a p a n i ~ ~ a q qxurd rljv +,tl$~avroc n ~ x e a ~ p oEv ryi iThpq;, "as in the provocation (or c embittering), according to the day of 'anger (or bitterness) in the wilderness," in which it has been followed by the writer of this epistle. I t narrates what, occurred at that place, a-hich received its names from the circumstances, and hence they state the same thing. The Web. of ver. 9: "where your fathers tempted me, proved me, also ~ a w works", rightly givcn in the Sept., the writer of the epistle my

*

212

Rcb. 111. 7-11.

[Table E.1.r.a.o.

varies from by saying, according to Tischendorf's text, 06 bnzi~uouv
oi n u r i ~ z s6pcoiu Ev 8ox~fiaiiiv xui E ~ S O ~ etjieya pou "where your zr2

fathers tempted me by proving, and saw my works," the manner of trial being here mentioned, viz. by proving, whereas in the original they are made coijrdinate. The apostle joins the re~nepdxovtufzq uforty years" to t h e preceding clauses, whereas the It-Ieh. prefixes it to the subsequent. The difference between them lies herein. The former says: "In the desert, during forty years, their fathers had tempted, and. proved GOD and seen his works they had never ceased to doubt of and complain against GOD, although they were, all the while, visible recipients of his benefits - in consequence of which the Lord beoame indignant toward them, and deprived them of entering into his rest." The latter states that "during the forty years the Lord was vexed mith them, and described them as an ever-erring people, on account of their unbelief and mumurings, and that too, when they saw all t,hat GOD did f6r them." I t is thus seen that to whichever clause "the forty years" is . joined, the same meaning is ultimately got, but the apostle adds Scd %herefore," to show that the foregoing contains the ground and reason of the Lord's anger. Dr. Davidson in Sac. Herm. pp. 430-31 says, LLThe apostle joins r r n ~ a @ ~ % o s sq t o the preceding xui E ~ O Vzrd Ba &ya pou, which renders the sentiment more emphatic than the Greek version or the Hebrew, as they are a t present divided.' 'Though they saw my works forty years."' But the emphasis is seen to arise,from translating 0 by "although," wl~ichmeaning i t sometimes bears: see 2 Is. XLIX. 15, and then assigning the same meaning to xu?, and from making the 'forty years" modify Y,hey saw" only, whereas i t modifies the two preceding clauses a s well. The Heb. reads 111> Dl??' uI was grieved with the generation: for which' P a d gives npo'nak8tou z j yzuc@ rudzy "I was wroth with thal generation", emphasizing the 'generation" by "that", and so the sept. xu2 E ~ ~ O V n ~ u v f i ~ z u c XUQS~F, I said, They always 'As2 z?j 'and wander in heart" (and so in the Sept.) i s found for the original . 335 9p'n DY -.. "and I said, A people, wanderers of heart (i. e. of wandering hearts) [are] they." I t is thus seen that, instead of rendering Dp by 'people;' which it means as at presentpointed, they have done i t by, a z r %lways," a s if it were pointed Dl?, which may be taken, adverbially, to mean, "at the same time," "all the while," a sense which is not far from "always". The following lines of the Hebrew are generally thus rendered: "And (as for) them, they have uot known my ways, (in regard to) whom I sware in my wrath &c." but there is no connection shown between the two clauses. I t appears to me that the former contains the reason for what is stated in the latter, and that they stand to each other thus: "And (as for) them, they have not lrnown my ways. (In

-

~5

-

Table E.I.r.a.o.1

Heb. VIII. 5; Heb. X. 16-17.

213

view of) which I sware in my wrath &c." that is, so I sware &c. And so it is in the Sept. and New Test. ds &fio~a.
(15 )
Heb. VIII. 5. Exod. XXV. 40. [na8&s x & ~ ~ q , f i i ~ c r z a ~ Mourjs] . . " O q m [rip qrigqo, z o ~ i n ~ ~ s A ~ X T T (IVY] ~ O L ~ I G EY TSI %mrA z 6 m v zdv 8e8aypLvo~(TO' Z~ L I zdu 26nov rbv 86&%~?bvzLI dv-z(Z ;PEG.

Exod. XXV. 40.
Y

.

(TOG

dv

r6 6qec.

DC?>=~:~) 3 5 ~ ji?+ ;II?N-,$EI. . .. . .-

noL?i~Ehc une omrl (Gb")e d pipp mu...^ (=Sz)-nvc e mi11 mu j I)(E?) Seq9wrav.

cns 109 K. -In: i 5 . n o ~ q o ~ s a l M S S . l a d d z a l v ~ a r) V11. et al HSS. et nliq DP 1 125. 300; 80. 109. 132 a p. Sebzthura Several M S . et K. 10. 14. 16.197 a1 R. pp c l Coiiipl. Ed.

+

[asMoses was admonished of GOD1 ...for, See, [saith he,] that thou make all things according to the pattern showed t o thee in t h e Mount.

See thal thou make them according t o thc pattern showed t o thee i n the Mount.

And look thatthoumake them after their pattern, *wh~chwas shewed thee in t h e mount. * THeb whleh thou wast esused lo sce.

This Quotation varies very slightly from the original, and less so from the Sept. It adds d u r a "all thzngs", which is not folnld in either; and, like the Sept, omits "their" in tI?Q2D? "after their pattern." I t "See begins Sea %oc?]~~rs that thou make", literally: "see thou shalt make" for ;Iwp! ;in? '<see and make", which corresponds with our own idiom. The last part, meaning literally: "their pattern which thou (wast) made see or shown", is similarly expressed by "the pattein which was shown to thee."
(16)
Heb. X. 16-17.

Jer. XXXVIII. 33-34.

Jer. H X . 3 3 4 . X[ 3

r i v ~ q 6 y o6 ~ 0 6 s 3 % z ~ 3ipG Eropa' zais 6 8 m i a ~ s ~ &WS Y a 8 r i v ivaal 16; C;fiapz~WY a 6 r i v 0414 . i v r i c 8 6 &r. UA , EZL. . u + .uuvn~86roua~ 33. Om @ovAlexFA et a1 16. auzw D* f vg Amb a1 add Sa I .row Sravo~wvc mu MSS. / Ssd.. ..Alex. MS. D*"EKL a1 longe pl vv pl et Comol. Ed. add. ~ o p o v cI om Sv~dw I FA* Y U ~ U IFA; a1 Y T2n r n v dravaiav cAC . ~~~D* a15 am harl* to1 (A pauc rap8mw pro Sbauorav I ra' d ante raqSbav) I a1 plusZS mlypaow aur. s z c c a r xaqbasm sgrP mg sl5. add in f. d ~ a i(FA r m 'apJza*) auzwu Alex. MS. I Compl. Ed. uozsqor l r y t ~ a1 simile. 17. D* al'vg i Amb Bed &w",Y. l 34. Compl.Ed. praemleyer om a v w v pr wvcy7ja4ljoopas (Gb') cACD* [E confuse) 17. xvqaoq 1 xar .r. awp. am.

~ b r 6 - v $ z ~ ~ p r ;a4ro6s, ~o "zal z i v < > ~ o I ~ z L ( ; CY ~ Z xai z i v & v o p 6 v iv6ziv 06

...

.~

i?

~5 .o~npi~i)l DI !$

....... n.n,n~x .
> .
7:

:7

. . ... .
~

?ly-1?1$

~

~

_ ._

214

Heb. X. 16-17,

[Table E.1.r.a.o.

. . r r q 0 9 o cD""KLa1 pler 49 and 90 add r' cwv aua PP m. oPIWY aVcWv. [far after t h a t he had said before,] W h i s is the 33Fo1 this is my covencovenant t h a t I will make ,ant t h a t I will malre with with them after those days, the, house of Israel after saith the Lor&, I will put those days, saith the Lord, my laws into their hearts, *I will surely put my laws and i n their minds will into their mind, and write I write them: i?*Andt,heir them upon their hearts; sin, and iniquities will I 3 4 . . .for I will be merciful remember no more. t o their unrighteousncsses, and their sins will I remembcr no more. * Some eopics h a w : * Gr. giving 1 will give. Tlie~r e s n i d , A i ~ d h thek. Sce vav. lcet. nl v. 16.

.

33But this shun he the covenant t h a t I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, andwrite i t intheirhearts; 3a.. f o r 1 will f o ~ g i their ~e iniqxity, and 1 will remember their sin no more.

.

This passage had been a,lready cited at greater length in ch. VUI. 8-12. The part, with which tbis corresponds, is in verses 10 and 12. The two Quotations differ as follows. For z@ ooxp 'Iopaljrl ''to the^ house of Israel" is read ngds avrous "to them"; and for dt80ds vbpovs pou &is z4u S~&volauaGrrjv, %a2 En2 xupSlas aGz6v 5v~n~ypd~pm uusouS,' "giving mp laws into their understanding; and (or, even) upon their hearts I will write them", is found dcSods u6pous uou Pn2 xag8Lag d z r j u , xu2 Dt zrjv 6 t ~ v o ~ G v n 7vdzrjv B n ~ y p d y wd z o r i g "giving nly laws upon their hearts, and. (or, even) upon their understandings I will write them." T,he rest i s passed over, till we come to verse 12, the last part only of which is quoted, but that 'with an addition: reading for xu2 z r j v d p a @ + u udzGu OGp$ p r q o a r j 8 t h "and their errors I will not remember, longer," %a2zrju &pplarpnrju adz& %a2 zriv dvopcrju d z 6 u od p q ,uufo9?joopac. L%r I'and their errors and their lawlessnesses I will not remember longer!' When this Quotation differs from the former one, it does so from the original also. lo the second variation the Heb. reads ?O?'in-ii~ ';i??iT~ tl;)-Sp Drip. "I will give my law in their midst, +nn upon their heart will I write it," meaning by-"their midst", the inner part of a person, viewed as the seat of the mind, (see Ps. XXXIX. 4.), and so, rendered r $ u S ~ a v o i a uu3zGu "their understanding," vhich idea is conveyed by 3? "heart" also, as in 1. Kings X. 2., Judg. XVI. 17. The two expressions would seem to refer here to the memoq, (just as we say, to get a thing by heart,. and, to put one in mind of a thing), and, after all, to be synonymous, and therefore interchangeable. The conclusion apparently expresses an idea more than the Heb., as it does more than the Sept., yet, it merely gives the idea of the original in all itsfnlness. It means an erring from the path of right and duty as taught in the divine law, both which ideas are stated in "their errors and their lawlessnesses."

?nn!

Table E.I.r.a.o.1

1 Pet. 1 . 6; 1 Pet. IU. 14-15. 1

215

(17)
1 Pet. 1 . 6 . 1

Is. XXVIII. 16.

Is. XXVIII. 16.

Z L ~ O V ,X O L ~ ;)

dirqoywx~aiov6xAszrbv gv8spiLca Zcdv l i 8 o v naivZEA? L ~ L D T E G iz' ~XLE%TLV ; ~ q o y w v ~ ~ l i o v ~V ~ ~ z ~ p o v i ~ .TI^ ~ E ~ B A L ( X e, a i ,u+ rirrule;(uvg,j. airrjs, x a i d m c r d w v 06

gsp!

3 I t m t 3-;-1 m n " ) -ign ' .
-:
7

'n?,el inilj

W)ill")

.

M Z ~ I ~ ~ F Ald. Ed. au=wv I ... axeoy. c x i . eACK cfe. ... BC r r i , aryoy. (syr E X ) . . ~ Y Z . o x'o. .. . Alex. I S . add w wuru .....H.MS.Ald.etCorup1. axpoy., Oce a r e . i v z . EX)..) Edd. add 2' a;r!j. n

[Wherefore also it is containedinthescripture,]Behold,'^ lay i n Sion a chief comeh' stone, elect, preoious: and he t h a t believeth on him shall not be confounded.

'

Bchold, I lay for t h e foundations of Sion, a costly stone, chosen, chiefcorner, precious, for her fauiidations; and he t h a t bclieveth shall not be ashamed.

C. 530 K. Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he t h a t belioveth sbi~ll not make haste.
o) wms

The literal translation of the original is this: "Behold me laying a stone, a stone of trial, (or which has been tried i. e. a tried stone) of the corner (i. e. a tried corner stone), precious, of a foundation founded (i. e. firm, enduring)!' Peter changes the modifying substantives fnto adjectives, and introduces a different order, namely: "a stone, chief-cornered, chosen, valuable", and leavcs out the direct mention of the purpose for which. i t was to be used, as a stone "of a well-founded foundation", which is to be inferred indirectly from <%he laying of a stone." For remarks on the last clause see Rom. IX.33 in'TableE.III.r.2.a.o.

ih Zion

(15)
1 Pet. 1 1 34-15. 1. Is. VKU. 12--13. zdv 8h md@ov alirGv @+ z l v 8i qdflov adroc 06 P+ ~ o B @ k & ocs4 P+ zzmoB@?= ~ ~ .raeax*z~, 8 4 L S ~ G p ~ o v zbv X e ~ c z b v qC(X9iz~. ' 3 ~ 6 q ~a~ 6 v 8h hv

Is. VIn. 12-13.

+ierns
14. r r v t e (137. rai 06 iuq) c a y a x D . cACK a1 ferc omn vv ornn Clem ...BG 43. om. 15. zov x* (Gb') eABC 7. 13. 33ms 69. 137. fitem all w p VPWY,) vg syr utr cop sah arm ... q .rov@rov eGK a1 longc pl arP sl. Thph Oee and be not afraid of their terror,neither be troubled; 1sBut sanctify the Lord

ar~iearcs,
I
Compl. Ed.

1 ~ y n - ~ tI,Y?ln-PIt+! 'i n!;i!-nN :ly~7t.nb) . . rwt7pqd) mk9 n ? ~ $
c) = 1 K. b) - 96 K. d) 3. 1rlyn3OK.lu,lyn182K.

12. avzou... scveral MSS. amu)~ O V S ~ r a p . pv ow8 ov rq rap. Alcx. MS. ct

...

.
neltherfear ye their fear, and fear ye not his fear, neithsrbetroubled.*nSanc- nor be afraid. 13Sanctlfy ti& the Lord himself. the LORD of hosts himsolf;

GOD.

-

216

1 -Yet. 111. 14--15.

[Table E.1.r.a.o.

In this Quotation we find the last clause, according to Tischendorfs text to be: "but sanctify ye (i. e. regard as holy) theLord Christ", and according to another reading Lord GOD", whereas in the original i t runs: IL(as for) Jehovah of hosts, him ye shall sanctify." An affirmation made by Jehovah, expressive of another's f ~ ~ t uaction, re is as obligatory as if it had been uttered as a command, whenever and inasmuch as it delivers His will and is directive of conduct: hence "ye shall do so and so"is equivalent to "do ye so and so!' The Sept. reads only: 'Lsanctify ye the Lord himself." It may be remarked that the form of expression in the original implies that Jehovuh alone was to be sanctified. Comp. Deut. VI. 13. in the IIeh. and Sept. Instead of quoting it, "sanctify ye Jehovah of hosts alone?', Peter's words mean: "sanctify ye Jehovah the G O D , or "the Christ," where it is implied by the first that Jehovah is the only GOD, and by the last that Christ is Jehovah. Gesenius thus remarks upon the expression nlN?? illill: "As to the grammatical construction of n l m Y ?in,, some suppose i t to be by ellipsis for 'Y jgis '3 but this is not necessary, and the Arabs too subjoin in like manner a genitive o attribute to the proper names of f persons. The hosts thus signified in n\E>Y ; 1 1 can hardly be doubt1;' ; & : ful, if we compare the expression ' N?? Josh. V. 14. 15. plur. '' ?$ LLhosts f Jehovah," Ps. CIII. 21. C&\TII. O 2., which again do nbt differ from i:Z H 2 Y "host of heaven," embracing both angels, Gen. YD$ XXXII. 23. and the sun, moon and stars. Comp. Dan. VIII. 10. 11. The phrase n l H 3 Y 7, therefore differs from the later form ';i'i~ UGOD of the heavens." So far Gesenius. Tlze "hosts" in LLJehovah of hosts" must be the same as in '%he host or hosts of Jehovah or of GOD." Now in Gen. XXXII., 2. 3. <'the host or army of GOD" is explained to he Yhe angels", a i d such is probably its meaning in 1. Chron. XII. 22. Comp. Dan. VII. -9.10. But the name is not limited to them, for in 2. Chron. XIV. 12. we h d the 'Israelites called "the army of Jehovah," and it is more likely they who are meant in Josh. V. 13. 14. by Yhe host of Jehovah." besenius understands it in the latter passage of the angels, and the captain he makes one of 1. the higher angels. But by cornpiring verse 15 with Exod. 1 1 5., in both of which the same order is given, and to persons, whose situations differed in this only, that Moses was about to be, and Joshua was ac:.ually, leader of the Rebrews, we are disposed to think that the same person 'was the speaker. Now, in the account in Exod., he is first called <'the angel of Jehovah" ver. 2, then "GOI)" ver. 4, even, the GOD of the Patriarchs ver. 5, and we afterwards find him described as "Jehovah himself" ver. 15, all which names are thus applied to the same- being, no other than whom I suppose meant by '%he captain of Jehovah's host." In Ps. CXLVIII. 2. we have the parallelism: "Praise ye him, all his angels-Praise ye him, all his hosts", where
~

Table E.1.r.a.o.l

1 Pet. 111. 14-15

217

it may be inferred that by "Jehovah's hosts" l'the angels" are meant. Again, 'Ithe host of angels" which stand around the throne of GOD are called in 1. Kings XXII. 19; 2. Chron. XVIII. 19. L'the host of heaven", (cornp. nz~usruovgwuros in Luke 1 . 13.) which appellation is 1 given also to the sun, moon and stars (Suvvpscs zwv oupuvwv Matt. XXIV. 29.) Dent. IV. 19; XVII. 6 ; Dan. VTII. 10. By turning to Ps. CIII. 19. we read: "The Lord hath prepared his throne in the heavens: and his kingdom r d e t h over all," that is, all creation is the extent of His empire, and heaven is His more immediate dwelling-place. I n the remainder of the psalm His angels, hosts and works are called on to bless Jehovah; and, as His works are more extensive than His hosts, or angels, and inclurle them, is it too much to infer that His hosts are more extensive than His angels, and include them? Now, we find that "the host of heaven," applicable to the angels, is generally applied to the heavenly bodies, and that '&Jehovah'shost" embraces the angels, but, it is highly probable, is more extensive. Supposing that it is coextensive with "host of heaven," I shall have just now stated the difference of their use. I admit that "Jehovah of hosts" is synonymous with "GOD of hosts", or, "of the heavenly hosts," but I do not see that "GOD of the heavens" expresses the same idea, though Jehovah be so called in Gen. XXIV. 7. The following scheme may exhibit some idea of our results: angels = army of GOD Jehovah = Israelites host

-- -

-

-=heaven = heavenly bodies. In fine, it appears that "GOD of the heavens" conveys the idea of His residence, 1. Kings VIII. 30; whe~easHis government of creation seems to be mentioned in "Jehovah of hosts."

Luke X. Sifp.

[Table E.1I.a.

TABLE E.1l.a.
Luke X. 2ifp. ;lyanijoa~s nby~ov zbv 8 ~ VOW 8E 8 . l ~mjs xap6 ~ ~ Jlos oov m $5 Z17s 6 j s i p z f s m u rai 85 2 7 s r7js 2~x405 uou xari $8 3.75 zfg JLOVO~GF VUV. zov B E . COV... DH'orn aolr I D a14 it [cxc e f ] aclh rv o i q c q z u p 8 ~ ao. . . B om zljc prim I Ln r . EY 0 l l j z 7 qqlj a. L sv 017 2 1 ~ a i ( u co. ;t. EZI 7 oilj .nq S ' a v o ~ a a. oADL al4 it aeth ( D r it [enc e f ] Tert om r . E. 02. Z . 86-9. 4.) 1 L a1 vv C a1 aliq om x . a. o l . z. r q . o. Deut. TI. 5.
xai i y a m j a a ~ xirp~ov ?by 8 ~ 6 v u i t 8175 rijs &am voias oov mi 8 zA7s z f c E yuz+js u o iral E'E 517s r f q ou &v&p&g vov.

Deut. TI. 5.
?r;~.$?

;l];ifi.y

fi,;i~>
7,:
- 7

z77

+ I-~?

:~?&"k?\

-,-, L-

>

..

Thou shalt love the Lord thyGODwithallthyheart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind;

S ~ u v o ~ a s zagS'as Alex. .. . and many other MSS; also Ald.elCornp1.Edd.l ~ Y U ~ ~ ~ . . . c ~ u o isn some MSS. 1 " ~ u . , ~ q GOU two MSS. add rar e E € ailjs zve roxvos oou. another adds x u r e l oiqs zljq zap8wzs oou I 8 v v a w w c . &avolac in sorncMSS./ Two MSS. add in f. x. r. "A. 7 . "nx. a. And thou shalt love the And thou shalt love the Lord thy GOD with nll LORD tby GOD with all t h y mind, and with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with d l thy thy soul, and with all thy

.

strength..

might.

Luke agrees here with the Neb. till we come to the last clause xa2 E 6kqg z i j ~ l S~auoiag GOU "and with all thy mind," which seems to be additional. Yet, if 7Nn "power" be regarded i s extended to both body and mind, rGyvoq wiU' express the fdrrner, and S~auoras latter: the See further remarks on Mark. XI. 29-30. For the Heb. "in or with" there is the rendering EY, which Lachmann has followed the last three clauses. It will be seen that Matt. reads Bv, and Mark Eg, whose different meanings were formerly explained. See Matt. X X l I . 37.

Table E.II.o.1

Luke IV. 4; John I. 43.

TABLE E.n.o.'
(1)
Luke IV. 4.
[,T'dyqezzu i p r p pdvp 8qonas.

Dcut. VIII. 3.
oii( zaL d nami phy
d z ' a"pro@6vy i;v8qozos,
54~8-

Deut. VIII. 3.

06%dz' Gjumarc 6 Zv~ T L ]

izi #j,parc z j &zoqavoq 6

6 a v 4 p cABDEGLVd a1 i ~ l r sr6parros 8 ~ 0 pm cop sah ... FW&II~lSUTA S;1 6 eOzO Sa1 plus70 om 6. c Ln in t add -2.2 i n & qqr E Z X O Q . Alex. MS. navzr ~ ~ f i o (alzovv Thph zc om zq, I One MS. om in f..
add e x z ~ r u o f i r v m&a n o tVo. o a v 8 .

Ni11n-5?il-j< DSEj;! ? ; :im~?~'). R>l?->g 7yl) .
7 -

on$--jj! N5

1)

-

69 K.

m) = 18 K.

razoc) S r o v cADEGHKMSU V r A A etc. ...om cBL ssh. [It i s written, That,] man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of GOD.

man shall not live by bread alone, hut by every word t h a t proceedeth out of the mouth of GOD shall man live.

man 60th not live by bread only, but by every mord t h a t proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth m i n live.

By the adoption of Tischendorf's text, which has only the first clause, this Quotation is placed here. If g Ln, as noted above, be followed, Luke will be fonnd to have abbreviated it more than Matt., by reading, in the second clause, dr2X 2'87 zrzuz2. $ l j l u a z ~850; ILbut by every word of GOD," and omittiilg E x n o ~ c u o p $ u p SL& crzo,ua~og "that proceedeth out of themoi~th." Yet this omission is not one of great moment, since the abbreviation 'Iword of GOD" implies that, humanly speaking, '&it proceeded through His mouth." This other text mould place the Quotation in Table E.1.a.o.
(2)'
John I. 23.
'Ey& povj zor dv Z? dq$pp E63ivara Z+Y dihv xupiou,] x a 8 & g a b n m 'Huaihs d nporpiqs. '

,,
Is. XL. 3.

Is. XL. 3.

[Sw]

0oi-v-

@wvj @0ivc0s8% z i d q $ p p % c a ~ p & u a r e zjv 6Jhv zuqiou, ~ S 8 e i s s o ~ f z eZ& n zpi@ovs .roc 8soG &&v.

38 3

?;?pa NlJp il? m2:z6j n! @ 712

: ~ ; 5 5 +en ~5
d) = 109 K.

EvSuv. usque r v q ~ o vita OrsaePe Epiph. ..om Or (dis)

or 9wv;i flohzos 6y
Sq&p &acp&oare
nocijre ... zorrizr Alex.
x.

25

z. i.

I

Cyr. w e said,] 1am thevoice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight t h e way of the Lord,] as said the prophet Esaias.

MS.1 .r. 4.4....adzov 209. Campl. Ed. The voice of one cxying i n the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the paths of our GOD.

The voice of him t h a t crieth in t h e wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight i n the desert a highway f o r our GOD.
.

The original of this passage begins with Nil? il? 'the voice of a crier", and the rendering is correct: gnwvlj ~ 0 6 v r o s . What is cried

220

John I. 23.

[Table E 11.0.

is divided into two clauses, which may be translated: "In the wilderness prepare ye the way of the Lord (or Jehovah), = straighten ye in the desert a highway for our GOD:" and upon examination it is seen that they form a parallelism, or are synonymous, and hence each part is interchangeable. Now, the apostle, in expressing them in one clause, could have quoted either one or other entirely, or have inserted part of the one into part of the other, thereby making a whole. Taking, then, the first clanse as the foundation, he has exchanged its verb for that of the following, thus making, 6v Z$ ~ Q + / L ~ J~ d 8 d v a s z z;jv 66dv x u ~ i o u"in the wilderness straighten ye the way of the Lord" i. e. Jehovah. Hence it appears that of the methods, either of which would have been sufficiently correct, and neither could have been ohjectionahle, he has adopted the latter, which expresses, perhaps better than any other could, briefly yet fully, the idea of the oligimal, considering the form given to the same Quotation in the other places.

Table E.U.l.a.?.o.r.j

Matt. XXI. 5.

j

TABLE E.II.l.a.2.o.r.
(1) Matt. XXI. 5. Zeoh. IX. Y. Zeoh. I6i. 9. ['rarizoJ6 Z1.i.o~y6youev ;W(X n i 7 p o 8 f j zb prp96v && zo; z q o q j r o u iiTovro;] 'EiX L I C ~ o q l J Q a *azcp ,>y1)-n7 -,Rn l i ( f k ) . Sara z~5vyrrrqi2cdv'IJoir Xdu, x j p u o w 8+a;ra"~q , ,5 ) ym 6 @ R V L ~ & ; (10- 6~xezaETUi DL ' I F ~ O U ( T ~ % $ 6 PCIULiJo& ~ xu1 ~7") i-421Y$Q 3%") n q a i s , 2 n ~ B e ~ q n ii)n i 6vav i s ; k c p p z a l r o c JGza~as s nal d z i n d o v vibv <no<v- o ~ < ~ v , npq& zm ~ z ? l~ ~ 'q0) ~ ~ i T : ) Vq)jlc ylou. 6zcBe@?~i)s6n1 6zo<+irirou 1: 1?2-$1 l k ~ ~ " ) - % nrri n i k o v *Coy. :nbh~') enrpap?x. cD 81.69. vg ed pard. add oov Ald. et et. gat., fu arm for a b e Compl. Edd. Cyr I Om nor ff 1.2. h arm a1 Cyp. Hler ... q 310 l naovc ... B.Cvl. Comol. Ln x-6 m r p e p . BCEGHKLM NSUVXZl-A ete. l e' scc eB n L N Z r a12 sah syr . q om CDEFGHKMSUVXI'A cte. ~t ve coo ete Or I LZ edd so 0; it'edd om &ov 01' vrdv

I . F>e>7!-nz

.

VZO~"~'O~I)

L

[&Allthis was done, t h a t it might lie f u l m e d which vas spoken by t h e prophet, saying,] T e l l ye t h e daught e r of Sion, Behold, t h y King conieth unto thee, meei, and sitting upnn an ass, and a colt tha foal of a n ass.

Rejoice greatly, 0 daught e r of Sion; proclaim it aloud, 0 d a u ~ h t e r Jeof ruralem: behold, t h e King i s coming t o thee, just and snring; he is meek, and riding on an ass, and a you~lg foal.

Rejoice greatly, 0 d;ught e r of Zion; shout, 0 daughter of Jcrosalom: behold, t h y king cometh unto thee: he i s just, and *having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt t h e foal of a n ass. * 41 Or, saving himself.

The introductory clause, which Matt. pre6xes, is take11 from Is. LXII. 11. l>yic-n2>p E2'~aser58uyarpi Zm5u %ay ye to the daughter h of Zion"; at all events there are found his words; which are used instead of the two clauses beginning the passage in Zech. This is a practice not unusual with Jewish writers, and others as well, and of which several instances occur connected with the present subject. In Zech. the address is made to the daughter of Zion immediately, whereas in Is. and Matt. other parties are directed to speak to her. In the rest Matt. is seen to have followed neither the Heb. nor the LXX. throughout; yet, in so far as an agreement may be 'predicated, to be more conformable to the former. Thus, the original reads: 75 N3 7?'n 'j ;i'Lbehold k i n g shall come to thee", which Matt. thy gives in id'oli 6 ,9aci~).~fi~ !p~czaiGOL L'beholdthy king is coming to GOU

222

John XII. 14, 15.

[Table E.II.1.a.Z.o.r.

thee," whilst tho LXX. omits ~ o v saying only: "the king." The appel, latives that follow in the Heb. viz. 832 Yeiij PW&! "righteous and one who has been saved (i. e. has obtain66 salvation, viz. for himself and others) (is) Ren, rendered by the LXX. 8Lzu~osxu2 ~ d i j i o uahros, are omitted by Matt. And the last are thus ibnnd in tbe LXX. n ~ q ~ b s xui Bnr,&@rp&s Bni -;l~o<-;lyrov xai acjlov viov "gentle, and mounted on a yoke-beast, even a you.ng foal (or colt)"; the yoke-beast or beast of burden pointing to the ass, which was usiially eml~loyedin the East ::!?E;?-~Y >>TI for that purpose. The Eeh. reads: i-i?jnN-l? 7~-$91. "lowly--meek, and riding upon an ass, even npon a colt, son (i.e. foal) of she-asses", with which Matt. closely agrees in rendering it: n p d s x a i Enr@s@~)xri?;,~ 6vov xcs2 $722 w61,ov vidv hno~vyiov, 'Lgentle, and Bnl mounted on an ass, even on a colt, son+. e. foal) of a yoke-beast (i. e. ass)." Matt. would appear to have followed the LXX. in mentioning th,e act, "mo~mted" for "riding," and the I-Ieb. in describing the animal. Compare Symmachns's rendering: Enl 6vov x a l no7Aou vidv 6ua8Zs.
(2)
John XU. 14, 15. Zech. IX. 9. Zeoh.

IX.9.

ybov

15. Buyar7p CAB' (3" 7 9uy.) DliLQXd a1 ... F 9vy a m p eEGHMSU a1 pler Or 1 A om oou. ['has it is written,] ' T e a r not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King conleth, sitting on a n ass's colt.

:I10 lnpps ... Cornpi. Ed. rcq+o< I nnr unot..Sym. rcuders: Lni Zvov ~ dnuiiov i vav 6vaJdq. Rejoice greatly, 0 daught e r of Sion; proclaim it aloutl, 0 daughter of Jerusalem: behold t h y king is ccming t o thee, just and saving; he is meek, snd riding on an ass, and a young fdal.

m i z6Am Y ~ O Y . ppanri. add oov Ald. et Comp!. Edd. Cvr 1 Om no&

..
k) 15- 245 ap. K. l)'='rlr 89 K. m) l y m 17 K. n) = 89 K. 0) = 30 K. p) 1 = 89. 150 K. p) 'na 230 K . r) ln 408 a p. K. ;w
Rejoice greatly, 0 daught,er of Zion; shout, 0 daughter . of Jerusalem ; beliold, thy King cometh unto thee: be is just, and *having sslvation; lowly, and riding upon an sss, and upon a colt t h e foal of a n ass " 7 Or, saving. himself,

The intrbduction in this Quotation is quite different from that in Matt.., where' the same passage is cited, nor does it agree with the commencement of the o~iginal, which calls on the Udaughter of Zion" to "rejoice exceedingly". EIowever, I do not think they are irreconcilable. Tbe Evangelist and the prophet have delivered their announcements with reference to different conditions. The former sees the daughter of Sion encompassed with enemies, afflicted by

Table E.P.l.a.2.o.r.-

1 Cor. 11. 9.

223

oppressors, with a usurped throne, and he exhorts h e r not to be afraid p4 yopo5, though all that be befalling her. The latter sees her in the same condition, but, insteact of directing her attention to the present, he invites her t o l o o k onward to the future, where a better fate i s awaiting her, and in prospect thereof he calls on her to refaice exceedingly 9@ 'p?~ u r orpo8~n. John, too, founds his encourage~ s ment on the future, and the approach of tlie king, whose character, however, he does not describe, mentioning only the luallner of liis advance, 0 ' ~ ~ e xat!++p~uog n61,ov 6kou "he is comiilg, seated on za~ 8%; a n ass's colt", whereby the ideas of the original are greatly abbreviated.
1 Cor.

U. 9.

(3) Is. LXIV. 4 .
limb TOG < X ? ~ P O Eh $ K O ~ o
(TafJEY

IS. LXIV.
&I)

a.

[<iiLi xa8& ri7aama~] " jm8nL,ubs 06% E?&Y %nD A

03s 06%
xpQJiw

$XO<>UEY

&d

0% 7

02

ip8di:u0i

& v a Q & n a u 02%
mu o

$p6v

EBOY~ b vZL+Y 4

i

,
edev

xni zh g q a o a v

x

roll

ZOL+U~L~

8 e b s zois hy<mG.r~v c d l i d

zois i n o & v a v o ~ v 81zov.

~ t h ~ ~ ~ l T h .d r a809 Alex. XS. I Alex. t orlfivl ooaeABC (vd1r)ilipp &IS.' o m DEOV l ? j 00". m ~ Aihl Has Mae Cyr utrq. . . q Ln ? DEFGL a1ut vdtr omn i Srnyrn. epist. OrEusAthete.
a13 Clemi

... Cal Clcrnrom~&v...

3Qv7ik5 'j) ) u:in;i -;, 1F 731'7 D,3$$) 3 15-3znw)
i) I = 590 K. k) 1 9 0 49OK. 1) N ~ piurK.multiR. I m) 73 K. n) ilx 1 K. l i ~ i x K. 351 o) ,:nu5 93. 461 ; 698 cx e. K.

>j)p41k)-,q5 D519)j)i)

..

M omaalpoz our d e l T L ~ O Y

.

-

~

+

[But as it i s written,]
Eye h a t h not seen, nor
ear heard. neither have entered into tlie h e n ~ tof m a n t h e thillgs whichGOD hath prepared for t h e m t h a t love him.

<

From everlasting we have not hesrd,neither haveour eyes sciln a GOD, beside, thee," and thy works which thou 'shalt do for t h e m t h a t wait for mercy.

' i. e. nor anyworks likc thosc which e t ~ .

Bor since the heginning of t h e world men have not beard, nor perceived by t h e ear, neither h a t h t h e eye *seen, O GOD, beside thee, mhut h e hath prep a r d for him t h a t waiteth for him. * Or, scen s GOD beside ihec, iz,hi~!h doclh so ior &e.

This Quotation seems to be taken from Is. LSIV. 3(4); yet i t does not agree with either the Neb., or the Sept., or any ancient version now lmown. Paul leaves out the first word b>'l~::? so< niczvoi. KProm of dzd old'', and transposes the first and second 'clauses. He begins with: & 6p9aLpdg odx cBeu Ywhat eye hath not seen', which i s found in I?]! the middle of the Eeb., ~1cf(?-fii "eye hath not seen"; and for the first two of the Eleb., 13'iNl ~5 19pi-K5 "tbey haxe not heard, they have not given ear to", which are ~zearlysynonymous, the latter implying the idea of attention, Paul gives only' %a2 ov's 06% inohrev "and ear hath not heavd", malci13g it agree ';ill form with the first clause, and seeiningly rendering the latter of the two in the EIeb., though in a different form. The third clause in the Quotation xvi

224

1 Cor.

11. 9 .

[Table E.II.l.a.2.o.r.

hn2 xaqSiarv & U ~ ~ ~ Z ozixU dudpq *"and upon the heart of man it has O not mounted" is additional, and was probably inserted for emphasis, mention being thus pade of eye and ear and heart. On the contrary, for the Heb. ?n>ri.beside thee", there is nothing in the Greek. Then, in the Heb. the' seconcl person is changed for the third, according to the usual rendering: "seen 0 GOD, beside t,hee, mhat he hath &! c' But, it will hear to be rendered: "seen a GOD, beside thee, mhvhich doeth so for &c." And so has the Sept. translated C>;~!E;, as an acc., ~ E O Z I , it has continued with the second person, xa2-;& # ~ y a only oot $ a o n j g ~ g"and thy works which thou shalt do." In the Greek there is no change of person, but 13j55~is taken from its place as a voc., or an acc., and made a nom. to ;i@??,~ h bonjm, only Paul as if (&I 8 s writes &a ijroipucizu d 8 c d g "what things GOD hath prepared", a meaning which >WJ! will bear. (See Ges. Heb. Lex. s. v. 2. e.) Pan1 ends with sois iyan60w ph6v 'Tor them that love him", which the Heb. gives in the sing. lir-;l?nn) L1forhim that looketh for (01. waiteth for, = desireth) him", Paul expressing the feeling, and the Heb. the action; "waiting for" flowing from "loving". By this exact comparison of the two passages we find that tbey agree substantially, though the sense is more apparent in the Greek, being agreeable to the connexion in which it stands, which cannot be said of the Hebrew text. Some may prefer placing t h i s Quotation in Table E.III.l.o.3.a.r., as the first clause of the Original seems to be left out., and the third one in the Quotation is additional, whilst there is a difference. in the renderings. I t will, consequently, be found there, and be aocordingly treated. ,,

Table E.III.r.l.o.]

Matt. IT. 15, 16.

225

TABLE E.1U.r.l.o.
(1)

Matt. IV. 15, 16. Is. IX. 1, 2. Is. VIII. 23-IX. 1. ["&a nl.rlqoe,j rd &3 6 v &i Hcriztov uuloi, ~ P O qrjrou ibyovros] ' S ~ - ? Za'Taka npirrov nie, zaili j ; jliifx-,;? qe, P! Bo*h&v P N ~ r p S o i ~ i p , ~ o i X~ ~r Q C ~ ~ Bi Oy i~ J,:??, ~ ~ , i L is,^ dJbu .ttnl.ivlr7s nbpav roc NzrpBulip, nai oi i o ~ n a o i i c:gfj 71j.i>j>? $mqi~ 'Iopiivov, l k i r l r r i a r i v ziv caquliav Y U ~ndeav 6 8 . ~ .'% 6 i b s 6 n d h j p s - 706 'Iop8&vov, r a L l o r i ~ :??A? 6~~ ]%!? ~ $ 1 vas dv axorlq rp& B ~ ~ E Yz i p dBSYO'v. 26 Labs 6 no?J Cj<l i, pdya, xui rois ~a877fi6co~s E I I ~ ~ E L E Y O S U X O I E L , i i e z ~ ~ i i f v k ) >,yi 7~ 9x7 dv dv z i p P ?ul m ~ h 8avoliou rp& p i y a ai x,xrocno6urss I n ylE($ 96s i s i z s d e v a6zo;q. 6v rie!x mcj Y C ~ Y ~ ~ O U s . Z 6 , i i p y s ' $9' 6pGs. 0 ; l ' i.~ . 15. D al am om yq sce / D 1 . m e -4ld. et Cornpi. Edd. c) nyz 245.392; 93ap.K. . T ~ ; ( V Z G E Nrrn". o8ovBaian/ it am lor y a i r l a ~ a c . f) a1 145K. g) 'bn,y-419 K. 16. rv o r o r r o cBD (I) oxoo?je rau or 1. or rq~napaLcov h) + ,3794 K. i) = 309 K. .rc~ai . . F rv bxocer eCEK xarorrowrac x a r Alcr. MS. k) c,x;i.rs 251 K. 1) 2 = 72. Or LMPSUVA ctz. I muc rcct eB itcrn M a r . . . in flne add r a 91. l i l . 182. 198. 420. 431. C als am for f ff a b c h gl pneq rljc IovSa~nsAlex. et 490. 531. 541. 613. 632; 69. (a b e h g m. r r J o v . . D al Mar MSS. ' 336 ex e. K. 26; 174. 305. erSov mod Or2 Chr . c era. 2. o 1a;o xa@qpeuoc Alex. 380. ex c. R. ' ~ 596 a 11. R. n mwe eDEKLMPSWA ete. I MS. ei Compl. Ed. / cSme ... r~SeveBEMUdete.CKLPetc. Compl Ed. rr8z Ald.Ed. 'Se iSau / D* or xa9ljpevoc. al crkw / p e a x a ~ oxra Alex. et Mar. MSS. Ald. et Compl. Edd ....a l ~ w o r ~ a c l a [lhThat it might be fnl- pwe avwzcltv MS. !01. filled which was spoken , . by Esaias the prophet, saying,] 'EThe land of Za'Drink this iirst. Act 'when a t thc first he buloe, and the land of quickly, 0 lsnd ofzabulon, lightly afflictcd tho laild Nephthalim, by t h e way t h e land of Nephthalim, of Zebulun and tho lana of the sea, beyond Jordan, and the rest dmelling on of Xu'aphtali, and afteraard Galilee of the Gentiles; the sea-coast, and beyond did mare gricvoosly afflict '16The people which sat i n Jordan, Galilee of the her by the way of the sea, darkness saw great light; Gentiles. 2 0 peoplswalk- beyond Jordan, in Galilee and t o them which sat in ipg in darkness, behold a *of t h e nations. ?The the region and shadow of great light! ye dw,lleis pioplcthatwallieJindarkdeath light is sprung up. in the region and shadow ness h w e aeon a great of death, a light shall light: they t h a t dwcil in shine upon you. the land of t h e s)iidow of death, upon them hath the light shined. " Or, populous.

npN!

?'>?I

,

5

.

The second verse of this Quotation agrees nearly quite with the Original, the only differences being that c ; i, i,aos, whom the latter z! describes as c'J~?;I~, the LXX. rightly 6 ~ ~ Q E Z J ~ ~ E , V O S called by in are , which is the same descripticn as is next given in Matt. 6 %a@?jp~vog, both, '??sois xui+~pcirols, in the LXX. oi zasorxo5ul;eg; and that the

226

Rom.

l .15-li. a

[Tnble E.11Lr.l.o.

EIeb. calls the place in which they ilwell ny)q YlN 'land of the death-shadown,-of darkness such as is found in the place of the dead,-for which Matt. gives ,ydpy xu2 nx~e4uvasou "the region and (prop. even) the shadow of death"; also, that the Heb. says 7 2 1lX 2 "the light hath shined", which Matt. renders by ~ 6 ~ U ~ Z E I A ~ E U . s While the L X X . may be said to agree with the Beb. in these respects, i. e. in rendering. by the right morel, it yet differs in presenting the description as addressed to the people and telling them of their future condition, i. e. in using a diferent form. The first verse mentions those who are included in 'the people"; and as this appears to have been all that Matt. meant to adduce, he has omitted what is stated concerning them in the original. The first clause is: 'As at the' first time he made be light (or despised, i. e. bl.oug6t into contempt) the land of Zebdon and the land of Naphtali", from which Matt.. has extracted only the places: yij Za,!fovrlrjv xa2 yij iV~rp8,arlelp. Next follows the clause: <'And at the last time he made be heavy (or honoured, i. e. brought int,o rgspect) the way of the sea,-over the Jordan,-Galilee of the Gentiles", which Matt. has treated in the same way, omitting the first part: Of this verse of the original I have given a rendering different from the usual one; but one which appears, to be more in harmony with the antithetic language employed in the EIeb. Dr. Davidson in his Introd. to Old Test. p. 115 writes: "but the received version in Isa. VTII. 23, IX. 1, is incorrect.. It ought to be: "As the former time brought into reproach the land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali, so the succeeding time brings into honour the way of the sea" &c. The Sept. departs widely -from the true meaning and would not have been used in citation. (2)
Is. LIX. 7-8. Is. L E . 7-8. 'oi 84 nd8es a6ri-v k n i 927, y$> c ~ ~ > > ~ sxxsac a&, '%6vrqipp~s novqqiev rqdjlouu', r o r ~ ~ v o i p!" ' D? ?Bw) ?>g,n?) K-1 Z < X I L ~ L ~ WzcisU I ~ ~ B *&a, x.2 o l 8'010kv ~ I u L nnwpp r$n>tfint) .. d80is rriiroiv, "xal 68bv y ~ c p o la&Gv J~abycvpoi elq+&,r 06% &vwvcu. i n ; (pi)vmv. ~ ~ Y T ~ ' ~ ~ ( L ( L c I X(IJ 1 2 q x ) ' 1~ . . 'jl*) Z~L~,,~, Z Z ii80i~ ~ ~ 1 :oiyiCng 7 ~ airriiv, Sxol d8bv ~ i q j > q s ry7, 06%0 i . 8 ~ ~ ~ ~ s) = 180 K. t) = 252 K. a m enu,,,,,~ ...a@pouow Cyr Alcx. MS. Cornpl. Ed. / a&, u) = 187 K. x) = 150 K. Ram. III. 15-li.
lSdEeig oi n68es ajroiv

.

'

n/iq

- ih

8mor

Mar. MSS.

. ... +woav

Alex. et

15Pheir feet are swift t o shed blood: "Destruction and miserg are i n their ways: 17And the way of peace havethey not known:

'And their feet run t o evil, swift to shed bloat; their thoughts also are thoughts of murderX: destmction and misery are i n their ways; 8 m d the

'Their feet run to evil,
and they make haste t o

shedinnocent blood: their thoughts are thoaghts of iniquity; wasting nndxdestmctionn~.eintheirpaths.

Table E.III.r.l.o.]

Rom. 111. 15-17. way of peace they know not.
Gr. fiom murders; or,

227
sThe way of peace they know not;

foohsh men.

accord~n~ Var. Leet., of to

'qJ Heb. breaking.

The original begins with: "Their feet run to evil, and hasten for shedding (i. e. quickly shed) innocent blood", by comparing which with the Quotation: "Swift are their feet to shed blood", it is seen that the former clause is omitted, and that, hecause, while it states the matter generally, the latter points out the articular form of evil,which was sufficifint for the apostle's purpose. The next clause, viz. "Their purposes (or devices) are pnrposes of evil' is passed over for the same reason; but in the rest they agree. With the same exceptions, it coincides nearly verbally with the Sept., only reading ~ & L S for ZCZX~VOI, and i'y~m~av for o Z ~ G ~ , according to Vat. MS., but Alex. et March MSS. give ~yuwuav.

228

Matt. 111. 18-21,

[Tdble E.Ill.12.o

TABLE E.Ill.r.2.0.
(1)
Is. ZIT. 1-4. Is. XLII. 1-4. Matt. XU. 18-21. [ i 7 i ~ zl?po$,?j z l &$iu a 8~irXurriou roc nqoqjzov "IczdB 6 na;spou, o'v~d~ovro;] @ & ' 6 nais I ; ' ~ .i :i rz-lpne ~ ; p1;li . z < > r ~ l l j ~ p oaiz011. 'IrqajA 2 ' ~ R p,~ ,urnl B ?j,afr~un, u7mrj: v o 7 ;Ins> $xI,~xrAc pas, nqoplli:aro , P. O 8 ZY &b'orrjnev rj ' s : t + ~ v ~ ~ i . tcp$ga) 15 c r 4 ~ b v i q u p j pos. g8wm ytspj pou. 4 j m o r b nusipri 1 pou in' a$r6u, -re2 n q i o ~ v zi, il"~Gp<;pO" L9z' 04~6"~ ~ $. i%ii.~ x5! ;ij$:h'lp yin?")p i 3 . t ) l-ois $$YEULY c ; l t m ~ ~ ~ L xeiniv l a i s S4uirrev W O ~ C F I . ~i. ?oi, X E X ~ < ~ : F I I I L0286 ~ V $ U F LZEq;? >l' , 9 0 0 i ' ~ 06th x(,aVkqiu~l * HL y 1 q 0 <;,",<,S~~..T.L 7j $<o yhriat, oS& o'roi,rrir a E)Y c &i Z Z L. - . i F ~ ~ ,xGToG. 3 2 r i L ~ , u ~ v + zais m l a r s i a ~ sz j v (lirdviv irj?'') K?$> & 4 : ~$i$& a4 <Ar"{. 20xolirrpov rruvrs- ze$La~p',~ou nvvrqiqar, ~'~-1;1~17; j 06 .reb,ppE)vov 04 xazs~Ee,.r u l xui Aivov ranv~C6p~vov , 1 . Livov ~ l i q 6 ~ s v o4 u @ i u ~ l , r ~ f u a t dlL& ~k & l i $ e ~ a v ae rn?mi;h) ingen c v Sos a'v &@dln cis Y ~ % O S T $ Y QSOIUEC X ~ ~ L Yd .< ; ~ ~ & d p $ O ~ ~ : xeirrcv. " X U ~Z$ dv6pari xai 04 $qovc9?joeras $a* a'v 45 $mi ris ~ $ 5 rqiurv. aGzo6 Wv? $Ln~o.irocv. xcrl E)ml z$ ~ Y ~ ~ I U~l4zoG D L T L gay? nn~ocuc". 1. IZac ~ ( 9 Iaxo~B. 106. 0 ~ 18. 8 ~ ov eC'EGI<LMSU s vxn a1 plcr Eus. cle. . .. % IJos Iarop 302. 3115. Om. eB a12 ff (ff quem surccpit) .. Icpn$. 302. 305. r s w x a . . . C* (vdtr) D a12 vg it Dial lr Compl. Ed. r?dwra. 2. au zaaEezac. Alex. MS. Hi1 ru ol. 3. " " v ; i ~ i a o p w o v . Alcx. 21. r w ovop eBCEFCKLB1 StiVXlil a1 plusloo Chi. ...F Mar. MSS. Aid. el Compl. Edd. I a 1 7 0 .... Mar.MS. Aid. ( = GbSz) iu r a eD clc. Eus il vs Ir "1.. . in a1 p m c Eus et Cornpi. Edd. aL791j. 4. a ,MarMS. B q n s ~ ; IHicr 8 ' ZU. %

~)CS:~) ~5'

ZJ

-

5

y7h.Y)

~5

ri-

[,?That it might be fulfilled 'which was spoken by Esaias t h e prophet, saying,] ~613ehald servant, my whom I have chosen ; my beloved, i n whom my soul is well pleased: I lvill put my spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to t h e Gentiles. 'OHe shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets. 21'8 brnised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till ire send forth judgment unto victory. 2fAnd

suspieatur avaAawqe~usque Y ~ G O L Y18,B ~ ~ . M 21. Aliter Or.

lJacob is my semant, I will help him; Israel is mine elect, my soul has accepted him: I have put my spirit upon him, he shall bring forth judgment t o t h e Gentiles 2Ho shall not cry, nor *lift up his voice, nor shall his voice be hcard without. 3 8 bmised rced shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench; but he shall bring forth judgment unto 1.rut.h. 4He shall shine out,

~Beholdmyservant,whorn I uphold; mine elect, in mhom my soul deligbteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment t o t h e Gentiles. 2He shall not cry, nor lift his up, nor c a ~ i s e voioe t o be heardin t h e strcct. 3A brnised reed shall he not break, and the *smoking flax shall he not tqucnch; h e shall bring forth judgment onto trutli. 4IIe shall not Sail nor be dis-

+

in his name shall the Gent i e s trust,.

and shall not bc tdiscouragcd, till he have set judgment upou the earth: and S i n his name shall the Gentiles trust. " Gr. let out. t Gr. broken. Gr. upon.

couragcd, till lie have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for his law.

+

$7

" 4/ 0 ;dimly burning. 1 1- LIeb. quench it.
Beb. broken.

That Matt. has not here followed t.he LXX. is most cvident. A glance will show that the verbs are all different, except three, of which one is in another form. The LXX. represents the description as that of Jacob and Israel, fiom their names occurriilg in the first verse, names which are, !rowever, not fouiid in the Reb. lLIt is probable, therefore': says Dr. Davidson, "that these names rrere purposely iaserted, that the text might not speak of the Ile3eemer. In Eusehius, Justin a.nd others the text of the Seventy is altered in confar~nity with that of Matthew. Eusebius in his Prueparutio EvungeZica IX. says "The names Jacob and Israel are markcd with an obelus in the Seventy, and i n other interpreters they are not found, since even in the Hebrew they do not appear': naed zois 6 wJYdL~eza~ 205 Iax@ rd mi zd s o < 'I~pu6A6uopw xa2 nupd roig r2ornoTs Bqpvv~uzaTgna!mc&r oldnr/~ac 2nd fir/% lu r@'EJYq. ~E!IEzuL.'' 'Yet this insertion for such a purpose appears to me very doubtful. We rean in ch.. XLIV. 1 N ~ ) V 8; ZXOUOOU Tnx~ifl narg flow, xari %c~w$jrZ O~C>~&,IA~ZI, exactly 6 80 'gin? h?u;l? '??J! 2PX: jm@ ?p.ll!; where "my servant" after the Web. i> is expressed of. Yacob", and "whom I have chosen" of "Israel"; and, 1 ask, what would bo more natural t11:tn to throw back tl~ese names to ciL XLIIi 1, where "niy scrvant", and "mine elect" 6 laais pou, and 6 PlcLsxsls pow are read, and there insert them, a s those of whom the description is given? But Matt. varies from the Heb. also. The original presents the different ideas more'dramatically, Matt. more connectedly. The tleb. S2-7pPN "I will lay hold on him", i. e. hold up or support him; LXX. &iiA~yopar adso<, Matt. renders by 8" ?>pEztca "whom I have taken or laid hold of"-not: I'have chosen", as in Auth. take for oneselfnVers., a sense expressed by the middle voice: Matt. choose, prefer". 93nS "1 have given" i. e. put, LXX. JC?G~XU, renders by the fut. -86ew "I will put". The last clause is: B?Vn N'Y? ciif> "he shall make go out, (i. e. bring forth, LXX. BEoio&t, or pblish, Matt. d n a y y & l ~ i ) judgment (specially luw, statute, as a rule oP judging; and here, the law, the divine law, i. 8. the religion of soig J ~ U & G L U hay Jehovah) to the nations." And so Matt. xn2 xqic~v p d e i , 'lhe shall announce (publish) judgment (or decree, meanins the gospel as decreed by GOD) to t h i heathen." The next verse reads: N5 'Lhe shall not cry outn, LXX. oL) xtzprl~csac,for which Matt. gives o6x Beiccr "he shall not skive".

230
matt. XII. 18-21.
[Table E.III.r.2.o.
HWJ h"b! "nor lift up" ([his voice], i. e. nor bawl aloud), LXX. d S d dvjloir, ('nor send up" i. e. his voice, Matt. renders by: odS4 xqocvyun~t "nor cry", which properly belongs to the former perb. Lastly PV?? h"31

%or make (one) hear", where '<he" is the subject, Matt. idiomatically renders by: oh83 drodncr T L S :%or shall any one hear". The latter uses the verb uxovirv hear", the subject of which is '&anyone else", whereas in the original, the cansative form of the verb is used, which the LXX. rightly enough renders by the pass. voice, with the object of the former now as the subject: oJSi e ' x o v n j a i r a c 6 vovlj d r o C . Each of these clauses expresses in different ways the same idea. The two texts may not be said to vary until we come to the last clause of ver. 3. Dp* nnft> ILtotrnth shall he bring forth judgment7', i. e. he shall publish ti;; law, as was explained above, until the truth is published. The three next clauses are left out, vie. "he shall not be faint (i. e. despond), LXX. e'vuAdpyi~LLhe shall shine out': (the negative thought expressed in a positive form, and the figure of a light introduced), %or shall he be broken down (i. e. be disheartened), until he have set jndgment (or appointed the law) in the earth", LXX. &'GIG &w 85 Emit& yes xqCei5lv. Now, Matt. begins the last clause of ver. 3 like the last omitted one, and reads: fmg b En@dd3 cis vixos z;ju x ~ i n ~ "until he have thrown out judgment unto v, victory: i. e. until he have announced thegospel, so as that it everywhere prevails. Matt., thus then, omits the three first clauses of ver. 4, but borrows from the third: 19, f o g &v, for the last clause of ver. 3; renders U e q p N3?1' by Ex,9d;ir z$u xqiwv; and for nnX35 LLtb r u t ~ LXX. clg ci~1j8crcxv,says: cis vinos, "unto victory1: ~ u, t , Bj says Dr. Davidson ILbetweennn3 truth, and vixos viclory, there is no disagreement. Theprogress bf truth is a continued victory over error." That is true, yet I prefer giving the primary meaning to h n .. v z firmness, stability; and hence, perpetuity. , Hence, it means, 7.K i . l2mness and constancy in oneself, in,,keeping and executing one's promises, i. e. faithfulness, fidelity, truth; and thus truth,'as opp. tofalsehood. Geseuius says, this truth is ascribed to the servant of GOD here. But it may better mean: %o perpetuity", "until he have thrown out ti. e. spread) the judgment (i. e. the law of the new dispensation, or the gospel) to perpetuity (= for ever, or so as to have it stablished everywhere and always)", expressed by Matthew's sis vlsos, which, in LXX. Thren. (Lament. Jerem.) V. 20, Job. XXXVI. 7, and other places for the Heb. np>, means: &ifor ever", to everlasting. And thus would the two be reconcileEl, Matthew's cis vixos being: in perpetuum, the same as nn&; and De Wette's supposition, "that the evangelist bad in his mind,"& read as a gloss in the margin, the synonymous ilg&, which the LXX., agreeing with the Syriac, renders by cis vixos, in 2 Sam. 11. 26, and other places", is unnecessary. i?ml The Heb. ends with: ? h j U?? ll'\. "and for his law the isles

232 he converted, and their sins should be forgiven

Mark IV. 11.

[Table E.IIl.r.2.0. their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and he& with their ears, an5 understand with their heart, and convert, and bc healed.

them.

is become gross, andTtheir cars are dull of hearing, and (heir eycs they closed, lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with iheir ears, ancl understand withiheirheart,and should t b e conuerted, andIshould heal them.
'Gr. they heard heavily with their ears. t Gr. convert.

* 7 Or, in hearing &c.; or without ceasing &e. Bcb. IIear ye in hearins &c. t 41 Hcb. in seeing.

I t is to be remarked here a t the outset, that, properly speaking this is not a Quotation, though unquestionably the passage in Is. is in view; and hence will be accounted for the great divergence of Mark from the original. I t is only at the beginning and end in Is. that we find what corresponds with Mark, the middle portion from 8nax;vav Y&Q to 75 zoledYq G U U ~ G L being passed over. He has also altered the form, in order to introduce-it into his text, besides changing the order of the two first clauses. Thus be says: iwz flA6nousss /3rlafnmgru <'that seeing they may see", for ,9ACxourcg j?i.ty~re "seeing ye shall see", or for 1N? 'IN?> "and see ye a seeing", i. e. the present subj. for the' future or imperative. And in the last clause his words are: xu2 &pei+?airsois i'and there be. remitted to tllem" scil. zci & , u a e ~ q y a z a"lheir sins", (or, as Griesbach commends, &YEt7qaezac 'Ltherewill be remitted"), which clause comes in place of xu2 irioofiar adzozis, '<and I will heal them", 5 $ 7 "and healing be to them", a healing which is interpreted by remiision of sin. In thii last clause, then, he varies from the original, as also from all the other passages containing the Quotation. "It is difficult", says Dr. Davidson "to determine whether he resolved the figure of the Greek version in this clause, or translated paraphrastically the Hebrew text." It appears to me, on the other hand, both that the Hebrew text has been followed, and that the figure has been resolved. The close similarity in the form of expression points out the fonner, and the latter is inferrible from this: that GOD is said to heal a people when he restores them to their former prosperity a n d happiness (Is. XIX. 2 2 ; Wos. XI. 3), which restoration is so connected with, as to depend upon, the remission of their sins, (see 2 Ch. VII. 14; Jer. 1 1 22); and hence, to heal is the same as to pardon. Instead, 1. then, of giving the consequent-healing-Mark has pointed out the antecedent-the remission of sins. And thus is it seen how well they harmo~e. Further remarks in connection with this passage will be found where it will be seen that, agreeably to the at Matt. XIII. 14-15, idiom of the Hebrew, and the Oriental languages generally, predictions are often made in the language of command, the force of the imperative

Tdble E.III.r.i.o.]

Juhn X l l . 40.

233

being, "consirler the thing as already done; look upon it as fulfilled." Hence the translation may give it in the form of tho future, as is done in the 1,XX. and Xatt.; and Mark, to suit the context, in the present subj.

John XII. 40.

Is. VI. 10.

Is. VI. 10.

jrS&i zoGza
aYZO
B&EY
ZLCIE&LY

oix

$64~-

~ T L ~ ~ L Y Z

'Kcaics] O ~ e ~ S r p i ~ - i z a ~ i r v * xnqJla xev a i r & =oat d@rrLpois zoC Leo6 zobrou, vui rois jrouxui Bndqocev uBr6v T ~ Y d v i r a i r 6 v ~ a p B w s c a v , rai rob; d @ a i p o i s xaqJlcv, iva p i i6uocv r a i s d@aLpois, XUI Y O ~ V ~ U L Y ~ X ~ ~ ~ U U V C V%,U T E t8Wol z?j xaqJIF xxoi crqnrp6oav ioii dq4uLpoiS, xol roi; 6 c i u &aoimuwor, xui ra werui i i v o p a ~ i r a i ; . a 6 l ~r v u 6 ~ r xai i n r r n q b r WCL, xixi i&oapar a i r o i s .

i

,

rnwewniv cAB*I<LXalEus omBaip. avruw Alex. et ( D ab a v m w a d a u r w v t~mns- Mar. MSS. ct Ald, rt Compl. ilit) .. F LII nrnuiqwicv eB'* Edd. EFGHMSUdA a1 1ong.c pl Chi. a l - / D rac r?l vorjoovoav K a1 mu Ctjr nvvnlorvl o r q a mwaw cBD* a1 ...F rrnorqam. eALI*%FGHSUdA a1 pler .... KLMX a1 Eu.; Did e z ~ o c q e w an'* (a1 -vounw) / raooraa (Gb") eARDEFGHKMSUXd A al piDid ..E ~ a o u i ~ a ~ e L U " ' nl pl Fus. ("Therefore the7 could not believe, because t h a t Esnias said again,] 4oHe For tha heart pf this hath blinded their eyes, people is beeorno gross, and hardcued their heart; and 'their ears are dull t h a t they should not see of hearing, and l h c b eyes with Mcir eyes, nor under- they closed, lest they stand with acir heart, should see with their eyes, and be converted, and I and hear with lheir ears, should heal them. and understand with thcir heart, a n d should iba converted, and I should.hea1 them. * Gr. Thcy heard heavily with their ears. t Gr. eonvcrt.

.

Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut thcir eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.

On this passage Dr. Da~iclson remarks, that "it is quoted in other parts of the New Testament., hat not in the same way as here. I t is not easy to say whether the apostle followed the Septuagint or Hebrew; rather does he seem to have followed neither. His words differ from both. They present the sense of the original passage in a form somewhat abridged, but very energetic." The evangelist omits the middle clause of the original, which regards the ears, viz. "and make thou heavy their ears lest they hear with

...

234

John XI]. 10.

[Table E.II1.r.l.o.

their ears"; and he inverts the order of the other two. The Hebrew quoted, then, if literally translated would read thus: '&Makethou fat the heart of this people, and smear their eyes, lest they see with their eyes, ... and understand w ~ t h their hearts, and return, and healing be to them." When the Orientals intend strongly to mark the character of any one, their expression is that they make hzm such; so that, the meaning of "make thou the heart of this people fat &c." is 'Lpronounce their heart such", or 'Lconsider their character to be such." And so is it read in the LXX., which gives verse 10 as the reason for what is stated in verse 9 Lax6vS.rj yap 6 xap&a x. r . A. T o r the heart of this people is thickened &c." Whilst the L a . , then, merely states their condition as a fact, and whilst, in the Iieh., the prophet is called upon to regard them as they are described, the apostle looks more deeply into the matter, and tells whence it all proceeded, r c s v p ~ w x w cruswv x. r . A. <'he hath blinded then eyes kc." In the original, the words are addressed to the prophet as descriptive of his hearers, but the evangelist quotes them objectively, as detailing a result. And, comparing the three together, they might run thus: The Heh. says: "Reckon them such and such", "for"*adds the LXX. "they are so"; and "to be which he hath made them" is what the apostle closes with. As GOD knem the effect of truth on sinful minds to be hardening, and knowing it, still sent the message, and suffered it to produce the regular effect, John might with propriety say: "He hath blinded &c." And thus, while he has retained the substance of the passage in Isaiah, he has presented it in a different, but not less truthful, form, using the third person a t the beginning, but returning to the first at the close, xa2 t c i o o p ~ a6sods 'and I will heal themn, as in the LXX. and Matt.

...

.

*

Table E.III.l.o.3.a.r.]

Matt. XXVII. 9, 10.

TABLE E.III.l.o.3.a.r.
(1)
Matt. XXYII. 9, 10. Zech. XI. 13. Zech. XI. 13. [9z0z~ dnL?qd-glj zb &g i v 8 2 .roc nqo~p$zouTqe plow Idyomns] Kc2 n a f o v l f i 4 8 s lrinobs eis zb l~>)~z $?a'8) & t @ ? zri 'r~6ix'Jvra iq76q'a, Z$V x ~ v & ~ ' ~ xai mEyiopac rp,i?lc)7$3 o Y > IEJ;~ ,jHb) . . zcp$v roc zn~pr&vov 8v ~i 8 i ~ ~ p i~ v Z L Y T ~ ~ Z O Y ) U Iiv , i l i & ) E?~>@) &cpiuamo i n b u & 'IF i d 8 0 ~ ~ p d u S ~ v airrGv. %dq 9933 qa+, iOxai gc~mrav a i . r ~ xai sarxpuv robs r e ~ ~ x o n a ?'>%! ?!??. ?i% E ~ Z ~ i ~ q b ZOG X E ~ C + ~ S~, ~ ~ Z I ~ iluiZ ~ V ~ ~ Y L O Y - 5 ~ 9 S Y v O I E xa8dr uuu6zaE6v poc r i y ~ o ~ zobc sic rdv a E o v ~ v p i a v . :17? !> eis zb X e ~ ~ z ~ P ~ ~ ~ . z) f riia 150K. a) ns: 10. A* a S @ x w . . eddasyr orsvacavzaerAlex.MS ..... ulr ~Swxar. B MS. Ald. et Compl. Edd. 101.144K. b) nm 1.lU2K. e ) '*n 98 K. d) o A y n 2. o x ~ . y a r I e r g orxou. Alex. ea ~ N 96 K. n a I MS. i MS. 106 adds xaeci 17. he. e) f. = 2 2. 1) + ax 250 K. ovuAaE5 #or xdqroq,.

W"Vf) n?=')
+

+

[#Then was fulfilled t h a t which was spoken by Jeremy t h e prophet, saying,] And t h e y took t h e thirty pieces of silver, t h e price of him t h a t was valued, %horn they of the children of Israel did value; 1oAnd gave them for the potter's field, as t h e Lord appointed me. * qOr,whom thcy bought of the childi.cn orlsrael.

ff) '3 ix li. 150. 309. 590; ,251 a -p. K. 356 f. K. ii+x 366 K. gl Ihi 650 B. K. T J I N ~5 ~ 1 650 B. K. Tnxn i~ 530 K. irrm ill>ii, 590. 168. 251 a p. 30 ex c. K. 2ap.R.-

Drop t h e m i n t o thefurnace, and I will see if it i s good metal, as I have been proved 'hy them. And I look the thirty pieces of silver, and threw them into t h e house of t h e Lord, into the furnace. * or, for their sakcs.

Cast it unto the potter; a goodly price t h a t I was prised a t of them. And 1 took t h e thirty pieces of silver, and cast them to t h e potter in t h e house o f the LORD.

The introductory formula of this Quotation, which presents the difficulty, that Matt. quotes as from Jeremiah what is now found in r the writings of Zechariah, will be considered ~ d e its proper head. Meantime we have to do only with the Quotations themselves. The first clause of the original 1!gvi?-5i*: ?;i?'>~;~i is unto I1Cast 'drop them the potter", in the Sept. x&;.4Es alisods 62s ri, X W V E U ~ / , ~ ~ O V into the furnace", though expressing the order, is omitted in Matt. The noun l y i ? is supposed by some to mean here, not 'potter" hut '<pottery3',or "place where the potters dwell, and where was a court into which were thrown all the broken vessels of the temple, (comp. Jer. XIX. 2, 10, 11) and where it may be supposed other flth was cast out.. ..But the words ?i? n'z seem not to be reconcilable with !l

236

Matt. XXVII. 9, i 0 .

[Table E.UI.l.o.3.a.r.

,

this interpretation. Hence, says Gesenius, whom I am -quoting (see Heb. Lex. s. v.) LLthe other and earlier explanation is preferable, which here regards >S'il as i. q. l?!N treasurer, from r. Ti(?; so Chald. and Syr. vers." In the previous context, Matt. tells us that when Judas saw that Jesus was condemned, "he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple"; tliat "the chief priests took the silver pieces", and "ought with them the potter's field", because it was "not lawful to put the money into the treasury." Now, as with the money the potter's field was bought, would not the money be given to him? And as Matt. adduces the Quotation with reference to said field, it does not seem to be necessary to depart from the literal rendering of l g ? ' by 'potter". Of course, the money would be taken in charge by the treasurer of the temple, yet he is not though of in this connection by Matthew. The next clause of the original ~ ; l l $ z n fn'n7G; 'i?:;l 115 "the l@f.:f.: splendour of price (i. e. splendid price [said ironically]) which I was highly prized at by them", seems to be given in the second clause of the Quotation s+v z1p1;v SOU" T E S I ~ ~ ~ ~$v O * T I ~ ~ U U Vda6 vi&v V ~ U SO Tcqa4$ "the valuo of the valued (one), whom they valued of the sons r of Israel", where the Sept. has xa2 ~ x i y o / r a EL 86xc,uhv Bnriv, Sv z06nov Ed'oxrp&n@~d n t ' ~ adrijv "and I shall see if it is provecl (i. e. assayed=gennine), after what manner I was proved (i. e. assayed) on their account", both which versions differ from the Hebrew m d from each other. The first-clause of the Quotation za2 i%aflw z$ zpi&xovscc d e y d ~ i u "And they took the thirty silverlings", which last words are modified by the clause just considered, next follows in the original ilppN) 1033 D ? w ~ ?"aiid-I took the thirty (pieces) of silver". As far a s the form goes, irLi2a@ov,might be rendered "I toolil', like 9i??N, but since ?,7mxav follows it., it must be taken as third person plural, the reading A8mxu being found only in cdd3 syr utr. i i? The original ends with 7glx;i-58 ;!l n'? Sn& l?>Lh.! '?And I cast it (into) the house of the Lord unto the- potter", which Matt. represents by xu2 $8mxuv adz$ cis zdv dyqdv zoi, xeqapeds x u 3 2 auvise@u por xliq~os "and they gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me." The first words agree in both, except in person, . . the Heb. as before being of the first, and Matt. of the third. The the potter", Matt. zig ziw dyq6u izoi, jSeqaperhs Heb. says -I!$x-\~ "for the potter's field", for which would not the po:ter get the payment? The Sept. ronders, as before, eis s d p u ~ ? ~ r , ; p ~ o u the "into l ' furnace." 3131 i? is given in the Sept. by cis s6u oixov xuqiov "into the houseof the Lord", so .that the original has not been changed here. Matthew's last words, then, may be regarded as additional.

Table E.IIl.l.o.Y.a.r.]

1 Cor

I. 9. I
Is. LHV. 3.

,a

f Cor. IT. 9. [&.4Ll; x a 8 & reenmarr] OA d@aipd< oirw E ~ & V ~ i * i oi;r oix$rouc~vxa2dz2nixap-8Lav i v A q i n o u oirx hvkgri, +~oi,fiarw 8 ~ b TOCS s i y a n r j o ~ uaim*. rrd'zv . C a1 Clemrom idrv . a13 Cle1u1~"f Ath Thdll o d e I Ln' ooa eA BC [vdtr) Aipp Eus Epiph Ath. .. . c 49 S eDEFGL a1 ut vdtr ornil. [But ss it i s mitten,] Eye h a t h not seen, nor ear heard, neither h a r e entered into t h e h e a t of man, t h e things which GOD h a t h prepared for t h e m t h a t love him.

(2) Is. LXIV. 4.
i n 6 zoir alcvos o b jroG c a p w 0. oi dqAoLpo2 66 3 $pGu z8 io 8 ~ l L i j u $06 l 0r v n rai z; ~ q y n rrov norjcEL* TO;<

~y~~~)-~~c,~7y~,i

a~q?'rii
i
i

iynlj

~i,m

. . ..

~ZO~LBYOUOLY

#.EOY_

lb-a;qn?")

c?;ji?j

Pro E I ~ O Y , L~PDY in Alex. 1\1S. / Alcx. MS.* om Brov n+ m u .

i) 7 = 590 I<. k) tiyrz 490 K. 1) 8% plurimi K. multi R. m 8 = 72 K. nl ax I X. r:mir, 331 K. 0) m u j 93.461 ; 59Rcxe.K.

+

From everlasting we have not heard, neither have our eyes seen a GOD beside thee,* aud thy works which thou shalt do for t h e m t h a t wait for mercy.

* i. c. 'nor any works like those which &e!
;

F o r since the bcgiuning of t h e world men have n o t heard, nor perceired by t h e oar, neither hat11 tho eye 'seen, 0 GQD, beside thee, ivfiaf h e hath plepared for him t h a t waiteth for him. * qr Or, sccn B GOD besidc thce, which docth so for him.

The original begins with 'ly@-~'I D > T Y "And from of old they ~ ,have not heard1'= they have never heard, in the LXX. &zd TOG airSvos odx 7jxououpu, "From eternity we have not heard", the first person for the third, which clause is omitted by Paul. He begins with: IA dry4aLp~3sadz z;8&?u <$Whateye hath not seen", which is the ti~ird clause in the Heb. XJR?-N~ "eye bath not seen", in the LXX. 1_ Y i od8& oi drp9.rcZpo2 4plcZu E;<~OU, have our eyes seen"; and he con"nor tinues with xu2 06s 06% ;jaouoeu, 'land ear hath not hearci", which may b e talcen a s the rendering of >I'!E;;I-K~ 'Ithey have not given ear", a clause omitted in the LXX., unless i t b e t h a t the odx +xohoj-apcvoftheLXX., and ihe 08s odx ijxouotv of Paul, render the two first nearly synonymous expressions "they have not heard, they have not listened" of the Heb. Paul, thus, transposes the clauses. But he adds xa2 in2 xup&'uv &w8pojnou oljls dvip'q, "and i t hath not gone up upon (- entired into) the heart of man", a clause perhaps inserted to give greater emi~lrasis the to expression, a s thus, eye and ear and heart are specified. Anrl he ends with gou $roifiaaeu 6 9 . ~ rois dyancjocv adrdu, "whatever GOD hath 6~ prepared for them that love him", where the LXX. has Azdv mL+v not?, evidently as the rendering of ~n)>i~ ' ; jILa~ i GOD beside thee", which Paul omits; and it adds xu2 r d fey; oou 'and thy works", equivalent to Paul's 8 o a "whatever things", giving & n o r f i ~ ~ r ~ ~ roi tinoj~~uouo~u O V ~ E "which thou shalt do for them that wait for mercy", aWp.1 for the Beh. !$-Xi?<> "he shall do for him that waiteth for him", wlrrre the LXX. has the second person for the third of il?e

238

1 Cor. I. 9. I

[Table E.III.l.o.3.a.r.

Heb. and Paul. And Paul's rendering is not incorrect, when he gives TOTS ~ ~ C Z ~ "them that love", as he who luazts for GOD, will be ~ U L V I he who loves him, the former evidencing the latter; and ;* to do means also to prepare, arrange. He inserts 6 8~0s the nom., as whereas DY~S?I may be taken as the acc. By this minute comparison of the two places, it is seen that the sense is substantially the same, only more obvious in the Greek. Some suppose the Heb. to be corrupt here, (see Bp. Lowth's note on the passage); yet there is no MS. evidence for that, and the above comparison may show its needlessness. This Quotation has already been considered in Table E.II.l.a.2.o.r. (3) p. 223, where some may prefer placing it. It is given again here, as its more suitable place.

Table E.III.r.2.a.o.]

Luke 1V. 18-19.

TABLE ~IE.r.2.a.o.
(1)
Is.. LXI. 1-2. "llv%pa % V Q ~ O dn' ~ nue6pa x v q b v 6%' 6p6, $2 a??, 9 i l ~ ' ) 2p2, 08 E ~ L E XEXQLUQY pa 0; F~LE~LEYE,,QLO~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ 7 ? d )- ntj9=) ~V p a ~ y ,2,b) , d a y T d i r r a u 3 a ~ nzo,yois, iiuuo9.ac z z o ~ o ~ s&Bwm>,U~-?A@n l ? ? ~ . ., 1~2) r in6oralrdv pa 'Bx7eG5a~ orair6 ps i & n n n 8 u ~ o i s a i ~ p a ~ d z gqsrrcv xa2 o v n e r p ~ p , u ~ v oZu ~ Vzrryo~~ ~ D!lvb : . gTL!=>-'??w?? rvqioi~ F;Y~@%~LV, rho~~arv, x@cur mi~pciiro~~ ill? rne$ar zs~?prrvu~bua~s kv hqcuLv xai ~ u q a ;~ i i ~ -n~~gyp)~)2~;$1pnp~fj p iqdnac, x v ~ 6 E a r dv'y~aurbv p'ieyicv, 2xaiBocr~6vravrbv xvpiov 8sm6u. xvpiov i ~ x r b v 18. s (=Gb Sz) rvexw I s 1. Z ~ Y xae.. naps~ar a ) main nlm 116. 144.414. (- Gb SZ) r n c z ~ ~ e l ~ tI~ vAlex.~et Mar. MS. el Compl. 4fil. 535 K. ',N = 253 K. @a s (= Gh) in I add ~aoacSac Ed. b)=141K. c ) + w n 9 6 K . cows ovurezQc@nrvous . v r 2. xaa naleoac Campl. Ed. d) = 96 K. e) a 1 9 3 ~ 5 96. 253 a1 K. Ed. f ) -150.158. rap8mv, Ln [G. r.v.7. x.] cA 159.160. 180. 198. 201. 602 EFGHKMSUVrA a1 pler. al K. g) '51 198 K. om cBDL sl vv m Ora Eus Ath al m.
Luke
Is. LXI. 1-2.

IV. 18-19.

,D&

. - T

c~+c&)

qa'>:ji?

.

..

1aThe Spirit of the Lord
is upon me, beoause he

'The Spirit of the Lord
is upon me, because he

hath anointedmetopreaoh the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokeu-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, Y o set a t liberty them that are bruised, "To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.

hathanoiotedme to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind; 'to declare the scceptable year of the Lord,

'The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath Sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them ihnt are bound; %TO proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD.
tcc~an9-actovs

It is seen that ~ischendorf'stext omits the clause
c u u s ~ t ~ z p p ~ v otu s xccp8~av'$to vu

heal those broken (or contrite) as to the heart": Otherwise Luke follows the LXX. exactly, as far as dud,8L~ytu,where he inserts c h o ~ r e i d a r rc8paucpEYovs E al.(p&sm ILto u send off the bruised at liberty", a clause not found in the LXX., but which is added by the Evangelist himself, probably from Is. LVIII. 6, where ?@, 8 g is read D'We? 0'$1?(1 i \ ! in the LXX. d d ~ ~ d r rl8s ~ a v ~ p B u o uEY oiy&~sc, and which he ohanged so as to adapt it to its present position. The last clause of the citation also agrees with theLXX., except that xl]pi;Ea~ herald" is used instead of xaUcar "to call." "to But the deviations from the Hebrew text ar* considerable. It begins with: ILTheSpirit of the Lord Jehovah is upon me, because Jehovah hath anointed me'', which Luke gives as: "The Spirit o f the Lord (i. e. Jehovah) is upon me, on which account, (or,

240

Luke IV. 18-19.

[Table E.III.r.2.a.o.

more probably, on the account that) he hath anointed me'', where it may be s'aiil that 'iJelrovah" is twice omitted. @?CP 7p?> "to cheer with glad tidings the meekly oppressed", (i. e. those who suffer mong and submit to it, preferring such to .the doing of wrong), is rendered nrwxoig '<to bring glad tidings to the poor", by czicryyei.i~ant9.a~ whence it is inferred that the 'cglsd tidings" refer to the 'tgospel of salvation", .and that by the "poor" are meant the "poor in spirit". See Matth. V. 3. Some join d a f o r d x 8 pc "he hath sent me" to the prepions words cziayycrli~aui?~r nrwXois rendering the passage: "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me; he hath sent me to preach glad tidings to the poor, to heal the brokenhearted kc.", thus making dnfara),xf fie be connected with all the i~ifi~~itives. such a construction there need be no objection, there To being required no change of the words, ohly of the punctuation, which one may treat as he pleases, since it is omitted in MSS. The next expression s~-,,?L+> ~275 &<to bind up (a wound) for the broken of heart" is, as said above, omitted by Luke, unless it be supplied by i d ~ a c & r rozi4- ouuzcrqrp~fvovi.r$u xa~8Lau "to heal the contrite in heart", spoken of those who are penitont, whose sins are repented of, and the gnshings of whose heart-felt sorrow for them are stemmed. But the greatest variation is in rendering 3'ii)RpCO~?)DN>! "and to the bound (i. e. to those who are kept in bonds)' opening (of the prison), or deliverance" by zu2 zvgirlois &vk,9Leqru "and to the blind receiving of sight", which "is not a right translation", says Dr. Davidson (in Introd. t o Old Test. p. 12S), though (in his Sacred Herm. p. 367) he - had said that ILthe sense of these two clauses, being figurative, does no: much differ",-in which I believe him to be right, since it is n o i difficult to account for such a tra,nslation. We find the verb Rp3, from which the noun Tlptlp? comes, which dod,92.zqru renders, chic$ applied to the opening, o f tile eyes, being only once spoken of the ears in Is. XLK 20; and in Is. XLII. 7, we find the same inclividual spoken of as sent nrs)? O?!'P r1;?5$ (in the LXX. riuoi&t 6gii?u& /LOGS rugi)lljv) "to open the'blind eyes". In comparing the two passages, then, we may regard the one as explanatory of the other, "to cry to the captives freedom, and to the bound opening" being regarded a s the same as "to open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison: the clauses being only inverted. The primary idoa of "the boimd" being tnat they are in prison, it would be inferred that the opening referred to deliverance therefrom; but the primary idea of the opening on the other hand, being that of the eyes, it could not be erroneous to refer the binding to these organs. After all, whatever may be the rendering, the sense will still be the same, since the figurative language must be interpreted in the same way.

Table E.1II.r.l.a.o.l

Acts 1 1 22-23. 1.

241

.~ . . ,-? o a4ro;s 2% Z ~ Y 50s ilu l a i l j o n nqls 6pgs. 23guzrr~ b n i n e l y u ~ ;i i r ~ g Eiie,l,qo'v (1&r6v 6sneq u i , i e;l'ig . 1 ? 3 . .. . Qirv (j & ~ a i l u ~ mqoq+, roc xni I u , ~ , + ~ EiL r o i ~ ( ' 3 -ii~~i.'"~)~s.cc a r ~ .. &U Q X S ~ V O U c 0 a ~ Y q 8 ~ o + ~ ~ - i;v i 61' ~VZEUO~(IL abz6yggx)-i5 wwz .raL b roc La&. ' 9 x r * 1 6 gv3qonos Z S c'iv . -%LC . pj ;i:%o;u? 5,, & L,*l"jug 1>-i:=1 . . d neotp+r?s &aiuos in2 z- : t u ~ ; ? ~ 1gii >?i& dubprrri pov $76 ~ Z ~ L I $ C O

Dent. XVIII 15,16,16,19. Dcu~.XVIII.15,16, IS, 19. "nqoqjnlv 2 r6v ;islx [2'ilfmvcir phv S I ~ E V ] 5r~ Tc.Yn ,ylpnz)k ? m qo'v 003, 6s 2p.2 i v a m + l r s ~ nqoq,jr~p 6 E i & V ~ U Z + U E L p Lv 77') C>P:') 3 x ~ 3 ~ ) uoc xzieios d 8 8 6 s uov, airrirqros d ads 6p6v b r6v :pYpwp 3?ef) ??$J%) roc ixo4ozn8e. 'Gxxacr; i S ~ i r p 6 v6p6v 6~ $pd. airN Q ~ )1 8 , . ,>& i i - " ' l E zoG &roirnra% iardr n i n a niurtr 8ua '8npoq+r7v Acts 1 1 22-23.. 1.

(2)

'

.

...

r ; i > ~ ~ , " clp.k: :lli)ric7> ntj Tra? ~$th.",-4;
+&ti

92y1-.5~)

r; en

uporu pr C A D al plvg arP cte. Chi1 Ir. .. om D 60. cop (syr am o 4.vp.) Chrl ... CE al m s ~ r P sah aeth Juslin ~ h p h " e?pow 1 vrav sec. ~ e .. D gr a15 Thph* vfio,v j C a13 i.a170sc. 23. e m eAC a1 pl Thph .. s Lo a v eBDE ni can ila mu / rEoAaS.eABCD cte. ...c rEoio8. eE a1 eerte pler.

Alex. 1115. 1 rasorr 01. MS. xa8.ole~1e~J.Ox.MS.Compl. Ed. ~"<EI.LW'LLIC_
DXEWOF

IS. sxzruv... ex r~coovr r v .

.

19. i avayonos. ariep. .. AIcY. MS. Ald. Ed. I
6',...1V.

.

i ~ o i o ncivru o o a ...arosog ?~ r w v ioynrv auzov ooa Aicx. MS. Ald. ct Compl. Edd. I eao ial. e z u r a ov. pou D n omv~qs,syw Alex MS. I

and,otbeis~

A&.
YOF

e l ~ o n l p l d am erer~ d Ox. MS. om a npoqqrvs

[lzFor Noses truly said nnto t h e fathers,] A prophet shall t h e Lord your GOD raise up unlo you of your brethren, like unto m e ; him shall ye hear i n all things whatsoever Fe shall say unto you. 23AnL it shall eome t o pass, fhat every soul, which will not hear t h a t prophet, shall be destroyed from among t h e people.

EIa'wos.

d

The L o r i t h y GOD will raise up unto thee a prophet from among thy brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear. ' U e cording to all t h a t . 1 8 1 will raise them up a prophet from their brethren, like unto t h e e . . and he shall speak unto them as I shall command him. 1nAnd whatever man will not hearken t o whatever rvords t h a t prophet shell speak i n my name, I will take vengeance on him.

..

.

The LORD thy GODwill raise up nnto thee a Prophet from the, midst of thee, of t h y brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken; ~ ~ e e o r d i nt o g all t h a t . 1 9 1 will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, li%e unto thee . an5 1,e shall speak unto thorn all that I shall command him. '9And it shall eome t o pass, that whaso8ver will not hearlienullto rny~vords which he shall spcak i n my name, 1 will require if of him.

..

..

The first part of ver. 22 may have been taken from the LXX., though not verbatim, as the addressed are'spoken of in the plural number, iiptv and dfic5u, whereas the singular, oov and go(, occurs i n the LXX., which follows the Heb.; but this change is necessary in the circumstances in which the words were spoken hy Peter. They also both differ from the original in leaving out q=lpn "from the
16

242

Acts 111. 22-23.

LTablc E.II1.1.2.aia.

midst of thee", but the same idea is explicitly stated in 'j'nKF E x sGv dJzrZcp&v GOU @fromthy brethren", which would seem to have been added as explanatory thereof. The clause xasd ndvza 8oe i%vAarl+~? weds dpCs 'according to all things whatever he may say unto you", is neither in the Heb., nor in the LXX "It is probable" says Dr. Davidson, "that the historian or apostle took the &st words of Deut. XVIII. 16, viz. xnrd wdvra o"~a ancl connectecl them with 8oa 69 rlaJb+q in the middle of the 19Lh verse of Deuteronomy XVILI. and then added np6s +pZs." Such is~Davidson's solution, and here follows another. Luke had quoted as far as xar& izrivsrc &a 'Laccordingto all whatcver", and then stopped. Passing down over what Moses tells the people they had formcrly said, he comes to what the Lord, in speaking with himself, on that occasion, promisecl them, and which is found to be the same as what he is stating to them. Tilere is found the additional clause "he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him", in the LXX. haA;ioe~virrois xa9.6n 2v bvscirlwpat airs@. Now, - joining the first part only of this to what he had already quoted, after having changed it so as to give it the form of being addressed, i. e. by it putting 6piv or nqcpds dpGs for adrois, and rZarZ1jog for rZnrZi$oe~, would become just what is written. And I prefer this latter mode of solution, inasmuch as, while it suppleruents Moses' address, it gives it more consecutively than would be done by borrowing part of the next verse, which he forthwith quotes. In the original, it is given as part of what the Lord said to Moses, but, as Moses was, telling it to the people, Luke joins it to his address. The Neb. -ends thus: "And it shall come to pass, the man who shall not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name, I myself will demand from him." Luke begins, as the Heb. .?I?!, with Ci-sac St' "and it shall be'', which the LXX. omits; but the latter ren& Lnke giving ders the next rightly 6 C?&QO~OS Edv fir) &XO+G?, instead ~ Z G E $rrs s. p. a. Instead, however, of rendering - 5 ~ . ltt$ih"'237 "unto mywords which he shall speak", the LXX., says . . o"oa 89 LaAfj~g6 a~op;jrvs blscivos Uwhateverthat prophet nlay speak", whereas Luke says only so5 a~ocp;irovExzivou "that prophet", greatly abridging the clause, as he had already given the substance of it. The Quotation concludes with b ~ o ~ € ~ ~ & u i E ~ ~ t s u r "shall + soZ rZnoC x be ntterly destroyed from the peopla", for which the original gives IDpn W T q F ?5K "I myself will demand from him". Demand what? Evidently punishment, (see Ps. X. 13, Comp. Gen. IX. 5), so that it means: "I will punish him", or, as Luke might have written it: L'shall be punished", instead of which, however, he has adopted the frequently-occurring formula: "shall be cut ofl from his people". See 11! ; i 1 ? , in the LXX. i7>] Lev. VII. 20, 21; XVII. 4, 9 &c. ;?"!2n N;; ~ e v VII. 10, 11; dnorZcisa~;j l/VX1j ixeivq E so6 akdi virrrjg, mean. x

*,$

Table E.IL[.r.2.a.o.]

Acts '711. 6-7.

243

ing "shall be put to death". See Exod. XXXI. 14. But, as it may be asked, how he conld state the particu1a.r kind of punishment, since it is not done in the original, and if he may not be incorrect in assigning that of death, it may be proper to direct attention to Numb. XV. 30, 31, whereby Luke's particularity is substantiated. After all, then, it is seen that Luke differs from the original only in being less indefinite, not in stating what is not in accordance therewith.
(3)
Acts VIl. 6-7. Gen. XV. 13-14. Gen. XV. 13-14.
[P2iilriu~v 8 OGTW~ 6 ; 8~6s,] iir~ r r a ~ z b n d ~ a 8 o iir~ n&qocxov &ruc zb a4roi ?r&po~xovi v y i i -rmiqpor uov i v y ? o b i i l q , l korplp, roli 80uiojoovo~v xcli Jouiduovwu u 6 r o i ncl a&rbxai xax&oovcrv8cri rc- aarduovum xai ZDzarvojoovtr~vr*6roiag rzrprrr p a r d u ~ a'nut z b $Ywor r.5 i&v

Y~N?

y~->>

~?,qv347TD1S1Y!b;i) h"i 14 1' 3 y,?c ]?'38!') l v E 'ljaq)-n?

t Y '

8ov2.~6uovu~vr p ~ v G . r6ma Ez? 14ri isvos $ eZ?r,v 6 9.~65,*a1 (I& i i r v JO)DZIJEP;~W(IL L YST&X~ O z a i z a i:~i&ovrar zci in- p ~ z b8.A zoGilla S ~ E ~ E ~ U O Y zpa.juovulv POL i u z 5 rAz@ T a L G8e ( I E Z ~ i z o u x ~ ~ , j s q

mq7? .)N!4:

]?*Vl&! '225

e'yd,

:?Ti;

r 0 . j ~ ~ .

oovlauzo ...D

vv m av.rou< I ~aro,oouoru;. . C a1 vv m (Thphl eomm) add auzo (E
avro
x. doui.).

fi. mumu

...a14 vgGXtalm

noilis. 13. L S G ~ , a i ~ X ~ ~ ~ X adz6 nai Souiuioaua~u a$r o i i s x. z a z . ,a. Alcr. M S . I
rar xar. aurouq xar c a z . au<our Campl.Ed. om avrovrl cezp. r r v Compl. Ed. r . 2. 14. .ro Ss r 4 . d rav al rar zo 14. 4 av / xpm6 &d
oi8~ in

~

U q) Y L O S: qd.

* I 244 ~

K.

I h,>ji( )

*ax.

omnChra1 ...LnavcBDI8ovAruoouvcv eACD gr a1 cop sah syr Ir . . F 1,n -ooobv eBEH al pi vg a1 Chr al ( rm.oB.eDEH alutvdlrornn .. . Ln o 4. am. cABC 1 C"E 31 l a z q s v o a o ~ v . [ e h d GOD spake on this wise,] That his seed should sojourn i n a strange land; and t h a t they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years. TAnd the nation, to whom they shall he i n bondage, will I judgo, said GOD : and after t h a t shall they come forth, and seme me in this place.

7 . rac zo... C al sah aethPP so Sr I iav eACEI1 ai utvdtr

.

Compl.Ed, a d d i r y n n ~ ~ c 1 s o Ald. Ed. deesl.
,

-

,*athat thy seed shall be

lathat thy seed shall be

a sojou-mer in a land not
their own; and they shall bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil, nnd humble them fourhundred years. '&And the nation, to whom they shall be in bondage, will I judge; and after these things they shall come forth hither with much property.

a strangor in a land that
i s not theirs, and shall

seme them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; "And also t h a t nation, ivhom they shall servc, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.

The original records this Quotation as Addressed to Abraham, hence 7Y.lI "thy seed", but in Acts it, is given as what was said, without referonce to hino as the hearer, hence zi, mzDppcc adrofi 'his seed." The differences of rendering are the following. The Ileb. says a;?) N\ YC lLin a land not to them", which the LXX. renders by I .> .. ;
16*

244

Acts VII. 26-28.

[Table E.III.r.2.a.o.

06% ic?& ILnottheir own", whilst in Acts it is & r l i l o z ~ 'Lanother's", or i~ belonging to another; all expressing the same thought in diverse forms. Next, the original has Dq& 13Y! B ? p e ! 'and they (i. e. the Israelites) shall serve them (i. e. the ~gyptians;for they are the people of tliis strange land), and they (i. e. the Egyptians) shall afflict them (i. e. the Israelites)", where the subject and object have been changed. But in the versions the same order has been continued throughout, and hence a different kind of verb has to he used in one of the expressions. In Acts the rendering is: z a i Sovrl05oouoru adrd rui xaxcjaovoru "and they (i. e. the Egyptians) shall make it serve and do evil to (it)", or 'shall reduce it to servitude and oppress (it)", from wliich the LXX. differs by reading adrods "them", as in the original. It, however, has an additional clsusc to both the I-Ieb. and Acts in r a i s a n ~ r u c j ~ o v oadrods "and shall bnmble them." Czp "and also" ~u is only given by xa2 or d'e' uand" or L'but". After ~s,olvc?Eyi, "I will judge", in Acts is added e?n&u 6 8 c h s "said GOD", which would not a.ppear in the original, and yet is not incorrectly inserted, since he is reporting what 'GOD said" to Abraham. The Eeb. ends with $ 1 W J l ? 'lh'y! (l~-~l?7C(lZ afterwards they shall come out with much 1; "and substance", (here, moveable property), to which the LXX. adds "hither", an addition which is adopted in Acts, but changed into E u z@ rhzW r o L q "in this place", only, while omitt,ing all mention of their then condition p a d rlnoozeu+g norll;Fjs, there is stated the por purpose for which they were to come, xui Aaz~edoou~Lu "and they shall worship me", an expression not occurring in the original passage, but found in Exod. 111. 12, whence it may have been drawn and u added. And that the G?JE"hithe?' = E z@ zbmp roLr(o '5n t h h place" does not exceed the original, may be learned from Gen. XV. 16 "they shall come hither again", ?=?WSlj.
(4)
Aots VII. 26-28. Exod. 11. 13-14. Exod. 11. 13-11. ['%? za $ T C L O$p6kelr ~U~ '32:c:E14&v 86 Z? j p h q ~ ~ . : ;13;11: ?)w';I~ l 891 UB~ .. . ~ g... . 6 q 3 r i ni,rois pol;lops'vo~~, Jmrhqrt de(i Giro a"uJqas Togr! OjWJE nni o~svjl,roevir6roi.g eig E f l q n i o ~ ~ ~ G~anLvxr~lopC ~ i ~ l e hvr j u ] ~ I/luJqe~, %,ous,xu; A d p c rc; r~8~auGmr :q?l j ~ ;la> A L r~ ci zinrscs zbv Z L , ~ . i W'N> ?Q@ 'n*nNY .: ~ J Z A ~ O r ~s . ii.a z i LGS~r ra2re &iAl;iovs;[>"6 G I;&- uiov; 6 86 B Z ~ E7,;s w 34~,7:)2 ? ~ > 5 2 $ 1 ~ ) ~ xov rdu rrAquioiov in&orrro aar8uirjutv a'qovrur niri pi?;! >@#? >p& ;i?~') . . abzhv ~ i n d v ]T i s V F ~(uTB- &raurju c'cp'jpiv; p i <YE7-lp;Ii-ne vrqc~u hmovra nai Jcraai s i v ps ah 3dL~cs rq68u T+V dq' i P G > ; 28plj &YC nov iveiAeS 13.45 zbv AiA~iup~ ri 3 . 4 " ~ZY s~ ~ ( i r r o v~ ~ ~ Z Z L O Y ; ~ ivriLcs &3is rhv Alyirn-

.

ill'?=^

n?n

Y~II

nou;

26. scTr cABC O) zr %or
.Lzi

G V J ~ P a~~

e ) . r p CY(E ~~

a & r e ~ mr c s ?om]

aiAli-

13. Aiex. MS. am ow. 14. f m ' ... Ald. and Compl. Edd. fp' 7 i p r i 5 / .rou

q) 'ah S.

I) ,h-

'L( 3

8 1 K.

Table E.lII.~.2.a.o.] E a1 mu vg sali arm sjr Chr Proiniss .. . s (GbU) add liozsr cII a1 D! Sv1.P (COD
iouq).

Acts YII. 21-28
A c y . j(#rr in Alex. I S . for ~ B r zov A l y . s

243

* 4/ Ecb. a man, a pl.inee. O f this Citation the last. part, in vers. 27-28, containing that with which Moses was reproached, agrees with the LXX., both differing from the original, which runs "who hath set (i. e. slightly in expressior~ appointed) thee for a man (who is to act as) a prince (or chieo and a judge over. us? Whether for killing (i. e. with intent to kill) me (art) thou saying (in thyself i. e. thinking, see I Sam. X. 4; 2 Sam. XXI. 1 6 ; 1Kings V. 5; so that it means, Whether art thou purposiug or wishing to kill me), as that thou killedst the Egyptian? They omit o i u d i i u pi air ~ ~ Z C L S : "Art i#r& "for a man". They render by; t h d i not wishing to take me off," the last question, which is just the meaning of the Hebrew expression, as shown above: and to the last clause add q $ i s "yesterday", as-specifying the time af the deed; and so in the Syr. Vers. But it appears to me that there is one peculiarity of the Neb. which they do' not fully express. The T<F3 not only states the manner, whether of thinking or of killing, (and the latter chiefly the Qnotat.ion conveys), but also upbraidingly informs Moses that the murder on the previous day was known. It is as if he had said: ILDostthou wish to kill nze, as he wished, who killed tho Egyptian, and as he who killed the Egyptian, killed him, and that is thou!' Whilst the speaker might wish to tell Moses of his previous murder, yet, doubtless, the uppermost thought in his mind would be his own, and not so much by whom as how it would be done, and that is the main idea presenied in the Quotation. Both represent the words as spoken by Yhim who was injuring his ~leighbour"; and, who, besides speaking, d n w ~ u r o&rbu upnshed him off," as the New Test. adds.

a1 transpj ~ l i ~ b ' 0 c i . 27. D rrmslrar ... E cop a1 7 l v p ~ ~ ( G bcABCS~ l) 8130 Ierc Thphl (et tcnl ct eomm) ...c qpus cDE a! plil Clrr al. 25. r ~ # r seBCD a1 . . q j(8rs eAEH a1 pler. [ZsAnd t h e next day he shewed himself unto them as they strove, and would h ~ se t them a t one e again, saying,] Sirs, ye are brethren;. why do ge wrong anc - t o afiother? ['7But he t h a t did his neigliboor wrens thrnst him away, saying,] T h o made thee a ruler and a judge over us? , W i l t thou kill me, as thou diddast the E ~ p t i z n yesterday?

..

'3And having gone out t h e second day, he sees two Hebrew men iighting, and he saps t o t h e injurer, IVhercfore smitest thou thy neighbour'i ".in4 he said, Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? Wilt thon slay me as thon yesterday sle~vest the Egyptian?

13And when he ~ o n out t the second day, behold, two men of t h e Hebrews strove together: and he said t o him t h a t did t h e m a n g , Wlierofore smitcst thou thg fellow? *'And he-said, Who made thee a 'priuce and a judge over us? inteudest thou to kill me, as thou killadst t h e Egptian?

246

Rom. IX. 33.

[Table E.IILr.2.a.o.

If verse 26 be reckoned as cited, it may be compared with the he went out on the original as -follows: The Heb. begins with: second day, and behold t,wo of the men, Hebrews, striving", which ! Q @ Lip& c c ~ s o i s in Acts is given succinctly by z5 s c EmoGcp + ,ucc~o,&ots: "And on the Eol~owir~g he appeared to the& fighting", day omitting 'Hebrews", while it is added ru2 ovv+Accocv uirsoiis cis c i ~ $ w p : uand he exhorted them to peace", a clause introductory to and pointing out the aim of his address. In the original it is then I$ recorded 7z7. ;i?n ;? Y@?>>pH21 ILand he said to the evil-doer, Wherefore srnitest thou thy neighbour?" but in Acts we read that i he said: "AYC?QS~,S s 2 p o i s m c . ibcc si &J<xeise ctl.A+Aov~; "Men! ye are brethren: Wherefore injure ye one another?" In the: "Men! ye are brethren", we see the use made of UHebrews". It would appear from the original that the address was to one of them only, but from Acts, to both; and therein they may be said to contradict one another. But is that really the case. When Moses came to them, he would not a t first know which was in the wrong, and seeing them striving, might infer that the one had done what the other considered a wrong, for which he was inflicting punishment, which probably was resisted. Wishing to reconcile them, be would address them, as in Acts: ccuC?~rs,EL~EAQ)OL~ t e"Men! ye are brethren"; and could add e 2va zi &Jzzsisc &AA+?ous "-erefore injure ye one another7', which could be responded to by both-by the one who was then suffering punishment, and by the other who thought that a wrong had been done him. It afterwards turned out, however, as in Acts also we are immediately informed, that one only was the evil-doer, so that,, as the words were applicable to him only, it could be properly recorded as in the Heb. We see, then, that in Acts it is written as it would naturally happen, while the original, keeping especially in view the reply, records i t against him to whom alone they could be spoken with suitableness: and thus the apparent contradiction is removed. The original does not say that he did not speak to the other, which would doubtless have contradicted the statement in Acts. It only mentions the one whom the address suited, (althougb, as we learn from Acts, they were both accosted in the same way), as the other needed not to have been so spoken to. In Acts Moses is presented with his first observations, while Moses records of himself, with his after experience.
Rom. IX. 33. (5) Is. VIII. 14.

Is. VIII. 14.

[33%a9.is rirpn~ma;] xzl, o;i( 6s ki9.ov w ~ c 'I&& z ~ ~ , U LZ L ~ V 2~ Z~$O.~Y X ~ P ~ E L C L~TV Y W T $ O E ( I ~ ~ , L 06d6 &qom6pparos r l, zdrpav 6s n i z g a g zscipaz~. ol uzav8&kov, xa2 6 n r a e 4 a v

51w=n

12 1

6 '
84r~zcc~.

06

xazamyuv-

Table E.III.r.l.a.o.]

Rom. IX. 33.
IS.

247
1. 8
E ~ S

1-7 -.~ '~) ~ p y? h ) ~ ~ l ~ q 3.~&&= lil?~~ , A??, n?j") ji-lj E, ,;noLvrelrj k z i ~ n z h v i x p o ~ C N E ?Dmn) spin ;~ rwwuiov~~rqunu,g zi 3.cpi 5 I '
,1606

XXVIII. 16.

XXVIII. 16.

+.,; #pp;iao

~

f

:

-

7

o nmzrvov

cABDEl% 47.

it syr cop aclil go Or Dam A y g Ambrst Ruf Bcd . . . F (Gb*R)pra~m el<Lili plcr nai vg sqrP arr sl ChrThdor "'OF

Thdrt (nddit idctni in LXX.) Thph Oee Hier Scdul (ef ad X. 11.JJDEFG ou rv x a r a ~ a xvv3q. r'z' avrq. [As i t is written,] Behold, VIII. 14. and ye shall

y6La udirjs, roi ir nrrre6ov 06 xaraicpul+;i. 13. nuvaz,rvn. JIsr. 818.-r70rro0ar aur;rr Alcx. MS. 16. rrpal.o Alcs. B. Mar. MSS. Aid. cf Cornpl. Edd. I avz7s Ald. Ed. ullrov / zco .rrt,r,j,,v hlcx liS.add r v u v r q B. MS. Ald. ct Coiilp!. Edd. not come together against Him a s against t h e ohstiuc_tion of a stone, nor as nyai%sl t h e falling of a rock. XXVIII. 16. Behold I lay, for t h e foundations of Si&,acostlystone,chosen, chief-corner, precious, for her foundations: and h e t h a t believeth shall not be ashamed.

tb%z"J

11) = 490. 659 K. ix f. l 96 K. 25. 1 ili I<. k) = 4i4K.')'nl 403. 816 R. 1) 119 I<. jnN3 40'J g. m) ni;o 155 K. 'on 23 I<. n) 1. 11. IOi. 111. 219. 431. 4 i t . 803 Ii. >ma 200:K. o) s i i i ~ 530 K. f.

-

-

I lay in Sion a stumblingstone, and rock of ofence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be *ashamed.

VIII. 14. b u t for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence.

*

Or, confounded.

XXVIlI. 18. Behold, I lay in Zion for a, foundstion a stone, a tried stone, a. aj.ecious corner-slonc, a. sure foundation: he t h a t believeth shall not make haste.

.

This Quotation begins, like the original in is. XXVIII. 1 6 'I?? ?@!, with IJa3 n l l f i f i r Sv ZLWV 'LBehold I lay in Sion". Instead, however, of giving to the stone the laudatory epithets there applied to it, and of pointing out its use as there stated, Paul has had recourse to Is. VIII. -14, where reading i l ~ ; n ? l ~ > > j 2 ~ \ 1<'andfor a 923 stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence", he has thence borrowed his i.i#os nqoo%dp,uaso~ nisqav u%avShkou. I t is thus seen that xu2 the present is one of those compound passages, which contain a portion of one passage inserted into another - a thing quite permissible whenever, and inasmnch as, they both refer to the same subject. The apostle then continues w i t h the original passage; but for W l u j ~5 j'p%g;? "he that believeth shall not make haste", he writes b aaorc6wv S ' uirr@ oi, xara~oxuv8+oes~r that belieieth on him a !he shall not be ashamed", wherein he agrees mostly with the Sept., which has, h arusnirwv oir pl) xara~uxuv9.g $'he that believeth shall by no means be ashamed", adding $a' adz@ to show the object of belief. On this difference between the original W'nj and the apostle's xarnrupv8qo~zu~ Davidson thus observes (in Sac. Herm. p. 459). Dr. T h e r e is one word in the Iiebrew, which is snl~posedto have been different at the timo the Septuagint Version was made, via. wrn: rendered by x a t a r ~ ~ u vto ~ ashamed. According to some, it wa.s 8 be 1 once D92) from W 2 to he ashamed. This conjecture is utterly ground-

248

Heb. VIII. 8-12.

[Table E.III.r.2 so.

less. The present Hebrew word bears the same sense as the one into wl~ichit has been rendered. Primarily Vlil signifies to hasten Arab. $L to fly mith trepidation. The meaning of the passage is "he that clwelleth in Christ shall be so confident of security as not to be ashamed of tile foundation on which he has built, nor to fly to another. In the time of need, neither shame, nor fear as to the stability of his hope, shall take possession of his mind." The sense of both words is substantially the same."
(6)

Heb. TIE. 8-12. Jer. XXXVIII. 31-31. Jer. XXXI. 31-34. [ Bidye'] ' I $piqccc 3'i80b $pCqm S q ~ o v m + -c?! aw? cn; 7?13' #pxovra~,J C ~ E L i r q c o ~ , ~ xci q ~ u xdqcos, xal <?~uSjuo- n7sii7kj y,-??I , ill?? i uuurd.dum dm1 zhv o&ov pal r @ ~ h y ' I u q i x j xui r$ i %1@j ' I r p a j l nai dni zbv aEov oixy ? 0 4 d a 8 ~ a l f h j n ~w j v , ilyil! n~:~)-n~] m~ ::;IwT~ ) 1 3 : ~ 'Ioir8u u!~a$+x?u xa~wju,Ooi 320.i, H ~ I &nv 8~~19$zqv i Y j y ) " j $Y xazir Z ~ Y ica8rjxrjv jv d ~ o i - ~ ! ' I L E ~ZCO~~?~Y ~ O T Z a&- U L-nx 9 ~ YW&'J ~nr1-.) ~ ~ , . 1 7-a zok nrrrq6urr a6r6w ZGY, dv $pCqp dzcAa@opC'i?'!?;i D?'ia~ e $pbpP d m ~ ~ u ~ o , u C ~ o v YOU pou Z + ~ S X E L ~ ~aizCv % pou S n??+n ylyn s*??!;l"/ zjs x e ~ p d ~ a&6v d6uyayeiv dbyuysiv airroh dx yijs i5 a&oirs d% pjs Aiy$nrou, Aiyirnzou, i;rc a;roi 06% - 7 il?;i ilt3;laj-?qk . . 3n)l;bj 5 ~ 'aazo' 06x : ~ : ~ Y ~ ~ Y I x Y ~ ~ ~ C " Edv Y ~ Y~ L u Q ~ x ~ $v L T? z? 8 ~ a 9 j x 3 pou, ~iXyi) +p'- pov, dyd $pdJ7ua si- n r y?" R :~:;I!;I;-CK? D?*) irj~e nirGv, iCyec X G ~ ~ E ZGV,q7ui H ~ ~ L O 335r' US -RN n i 3 ~ . S. ' 0 8 n a C q $ i'a4+x7 ;iv rv 4 8ha8jxq pos ijv iridhB?+;! i$?@ G~a8rjvopu~ o i x q 'I$- oopir~ o i x y ' I u q e j i M ~ - ~ & rqi r$ mnlf) ;iiil?-~y? - . .. ~;l? && z i s $$qas 6%- z i s $pdqnE bsivas, q7ul c?lp?? yip-ns eiras, Ai8yzc nGqros, i&u!obs xiq~as,&8obs 8 d u o vdpovs v6p""s pow &~SZ+Y Y O ' O I Y 110" e i T~ ~ (Y L ~ ~ Y O L O L YU ; Z ~ V ,c;l In>:;?! :;Inp.>kj ~L& P > o3i . . .,.., a2rGv, xoi dnl ~ a p i i i i a ~ ai- xai d2 naq8ias a k 6 v ypri- n 7 %$i;il ) c774 ' , rGv 2n~yp&yL, aZroirs, aai y w airoQs, nai 8uoirr' r r i :D~!. 8uopac aizois 88s 8ebv nai zois 81s 8ebv nai air02 6u?:;~pl-n~ wy air01 8uovrai pa' ais l a i ) ~ . ovrai poc 5;s lab". ?'%mi -n@ "nai abr$i~8&:wocv~zao- od ill%i;il-ny Y ~ N ? -j 'i~? 13qi ~ L ~ ~ E W V &;(~UZOS LY zos .rbv moiizqv c k a 6 r a i rbv zoiinjv aira6xai8xor7- qti i p ' ~ $ 1 3 ~7'1 ) 8zauzos rbv a'8~Lqbv airoc, zos rbv Li8siqbv a h 0 6 i d o>liilp! c~ppni idywv r v 6 9 c rbv K ~ ~ L O V , ywv F u 6 8 ~ xirqrov. BZL zbv n i ~ e;? ;~!il?-c~j'j ZTL ~ ~ Y T E S ei8~rovuiv pe n i n z s tiSjuovui pa b z b I ? Q N ~' ? ~ ? i z b p~xqo6oiir6v {mi- pzp'xq06 &TGY 5 w ~ ~ y d l o v p :-isv-lzi5 y&lou uir6u. '%zc BEWS aur6u, &L i % ~ o s # r o pruis a~ Euopa~znis &SLZ~OLS a&&, &i~uiucs abr6v vai 16" nai ZGV jpaqz~Gv a 6 ~ 6 ipaprr6uiv a&6vo6 p+ p q ~ xarl T ~ Li~opc"~6~ Y oldrGv 06 u8G 8~'. p j pvrjr86 Em. 8. D* om SZA see. 31. mqo~ d&ra Alex. FA ... 9 . mnouvaa ... a1 paue pp MSS. Compl. Ed. 1 $&a@. ... m 8&rOewlv I B 34. w ?pap- ovmdaoe 41. 1 .rw om. ...en" a 1 yqs . . DE <.is. ' s zov OLXOV 41 .I FA*ornzaoqv, 10. 86aClljxq eBKL a1 ut 32. & r @ . ..worqoaComp1. vdtr omn i t vg cop a1 ut vdtr Ed. / zoss nazg. aaz. ...FA omn pp mu ...Ln add [pou] z. nazq. upou 1 eminp. r o v eADE / B e z a raq&a (-8~au ...ComplEd. r y ?j merlnpoK a1 Clrlu ; in c o d e vg Bed; PIY I r a r eyw . . . Alex. MS. 31 -8~acc) caurov yqarpo. x a y o 1 pqnr .... r l r y e ~ 41.

~ S P ? ' ) ':I ;@

315i

~5 'rin?;?

- 5 ~

"

k''

-lly');nai: 5 ? . ~ ~ ~

~ 5 .

r?!ii$

Table E.III.r.Z.a.o.1
11. D**'E Chredd ap Xt.

Reh. VIII. 8-12.
33. IfiaB. pou Om pou Alex. FA nlSS. a1 m pp aliq S'rYovs doiow .. Om 8wcm Alex. MS. et Comnl. Ed. 1 Y U P O V F .. FA* vopbv I FA'

...

.

.

it" o m auzau see (I)' anlea Z ~ V Z O ~ )avrwv pr cD"' 1 L a1 ut vdtr longc pl cop svr utr a1 .Gb"oLn omcABD*K als vv m 12. KL al rLco5 1 x c u .rwv avop'wv a u z w v eADEKL a1 plcr d c sgr ill mu Thdrt Dam al. . 2 9 om eB 17. 23. vg cop a1 P r ~ m Bed

rays. a i r . yeaw*,

(Cbmpl.

Ed

errrye.) avrous Alcx. MS. r . r n ~ v oa ~ z . e z ' . r a c r a a S r a e . , . . , (FA e z r xae8'av) auz. Ax FA add rac oyoaac auzous.
~~~

,

I

.

Alex. MS. a1 pm pp m I adrieov . . . niljocov Alex. M S . j i t r ~ a .~ ~ wBl FA a1... ~ i om a m . Alex. MS. a1 pp m Camel. Ed. I r u g .. . F A xa'
gov

34. mi. B et FA

...a s e l -

ras

Compl. Ed / a ~ a p ra. u r . ... a1 pauc add r a r ~ w v a v o p r w u '
~~~

(07'.

. . L y e ' XIIq"O5, 02'

a~ic,,,y49.

90.

[phe saith,] Behold, t h e days come, saith t h e Lord, when I will make a new covenant with t h e house of Israel and with t h e house of Judnh: ',Not aocurding t o thc covenant t h a t I made with their f;tthcrs in t i e day when I took them by t h e hand to lead them out of t h e land of E g y p t ; beoause they corninned not in my eavellant, and I regarded them not, saith thl: Lord. loljor this is t h c covenant t h a t I will make with t h e house of Israel after those days, saith t h e Lord; I will 'put my laws into the9 mind, and write them ?.in their hearts : and I will be t o them a. GOD, and tiley shall be t o me a peoplo: L'And they shall not teach every man his neighbour, and every man hie. brother, saying, Know t h e Lord: for all shall know me, from t h e least to t h e greatest. 12For I will be merciful t o their unriglitecusness, and their sins and their iniquities w i l l 1 remcmber no more. * Gr. give. t 41 Or, upon.

alBehold, t h e days come, saith t h e Lord, *when I will make n new covenant with t h e house of Israel, and r i t h the house of Juda: 32not according t o t h e oavenant which I m a d e with their fathers in t h e d a g t w h e n I too! them by the hand t o lead them out of t h e land of Egypt, for they continued not in my covenant,, and I disregarded them, saith t h e Lord. 33F01 this is my. covenant t h a t I will make with t h e house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will *surely put. my laws into their mind, and write then1 on their hearts, and I will h e t o them a GOD, and they shall be t o mc a people. 34And they shall not a t all teaoh every m a n , his fellom- citizen, a n d every m a n his brother, saying, &ow t h e Lord; for all shall know me, from t h c least of them t o t h e greatest of t h e m ; for I will be meroiful t o their unrighteousnesues, and their sins ail3 I remember no more. * Gr. and. t Gr. of me taklng hold of thclr hand. GI. g m n g I will g ~ c .

SlBehoid, the days come, saith t h e LORD, that I will make a new covenant with t h c house 3f Israel, and with t h e house of J u ~ l a h : 32Not a o c a ~ d i n g to t h e covena t t h a t I made with ,their fbthers in t h e day that I took them by t h e hand t o bring them out of t h e isnd of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, 'altliough I was ..an husband unto them, saith t h e LORD: 38But this shall be t h e covenant t h a t I will make with the house of Israel: Aftor those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write i t in their hearts; and will be their GOD, and they shall h e my people. 34And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD, for they shall all h o w me, from the least of them unto the grcntest of them; saith theLORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more. * Or, should 1 have continued an husband unto them?

S

'

250

Heb. VIII. 8-12.

[Table E.III.r.?.a.o.

This long citation is evidently from the Sept., from which it varies hy a few unimportant deviations, wherein synonymous terms are substituted for those there found. They are as follow: Uyec for 507~2;m v r ~ k t o w8 ~ 2 rdv oixov for S~aS.+joo,uas oi'xq,; inoiqou for r@ S~cS.iipqv; 8nryyhyiw for the simple y g h ~ $ w . It also omits pozr after Slai?$xq in ver. 1 0 ; and S ~ G O after S~Sodg. Let us now compare them. with the original. The proper word to denote covenant, compact, viz. ~uvi?+wj is never used in either the Sept. or New Test. to denote the covenant which GOD m k e s with men; another word riz. 8~aS.qxqbeing carefully employed. The writers of the New Test. evidently derived its use from the Sept., but, why the authors of that version employed it as denoting a mill, rather than the proper word, denotins a compact, is unknown. It has been supposed by some, and the conjecture is not wholly improbable, that it was, because they were unwilling to represent GOD as making a compact or agreement with men, but chose rather to represent him a s making a mere arrangement or ordering of things. And there has been suggested as goss2le an additional reason, why it so uniformly occurs in the New Test., viz. that the writers of the New Test. never ~neanlto represent the transactions between GOD and men as a compact or agreement properly so called. They have studiously avoided it, and their, uniform practice in making this nice distinction between the two words, may show the real sense in which the Heb. word f ' ? rendered covenant, is used in the Old Test. The word St~S.qxq, l? which they employ, never means a compact or agreement as between equals. I t remotely and-secondarily means, a mill or testament; and hence our? name "New Testament", Siui?qxq xarvq. But this is not the sense in which it is used in the Bible, for GOD hns never made , a mill, in the sense of a testamentary disposition of what belongs to him. We are referred, therefore, in order to arrive at the true scripture view of tbe whole matter, to the original meaning of the word, which, being derived from the verb S~as~t'l.qp~, meaning, to place apart, set in order; and then, to make over;. appoint,' make an arrangement with; will denote a disposition, arrangement, plan; and, then, that which is ordered, i. e. a law, precept., promise &c. Hence it means, properly, the disposition or arrangement, which GOD made with men in regard to salvation; the system of statutes, laws, directions, and promises, by ~ i h i c hmen are to become subject to Him, and be saved. And the same meaning. is believed to be properly 'attachable to n7-p; at least, from the uniform rendering of it by Sza@qzq, it would seem that, in the apprehension of the authors of the Sept. and of the writers of the New Test., the latter, in its original and proper signification, fairly conveyed the sense of the former, and that the word ~ u S . q x q ,denoting contpuct or agreement, would no1 express it; thereby implying that n'?? means not ouuS.qxq, but &a-

Table E.UI.r.2.a.o.I

Heb. VIII. 8-12.

251

87x7, or that il?? in Heh. and Gca87xo in Greek are applied to the same thiug. ' which ? renders by 8'co;.8?popac "I will set apart, D the Sept. I , put in order, arrange, appoint", Paul makes mean m v r e L ~ r w"I will bring to an end, finish, execute." But they really signify the same thing, as one executes what he has appointed, and oile uppoinls for the purpose of execuling. And the original meaning of 'ill?, via. "1 will cut" either 'out", i. e.prepare, or "of?' i. e. finish, corresponds with either; although the ILcutting"mdoubtedly referred to sacrificing an animal to ratify the arrangement, in Beb. il'??, commonly called 'Lcovenant",between man and his Maker. See Gen. XV. 9, 18; Exod. XXIV. 6 seq. When the -same word V I again occurs, the Sept. n? ~ ~ V , gives another form of the same verb, viz. S L E ~ F but Paul writes Enoilioa "I made or effected", still presenting, however, the same idea, with the additional one of the plan's adoption, as was the case. The first part of ver. 9 (in orig. ver. 32) states that the new covenant was to differ from the old, and the last part gives the reason for this difference, viz. 8sr airs02 oirx Pvip~lvav P s$ diu84xlj pou v Ubecausethey did not remain in (or abide by) my covenant." xdyd Gpidqaa airrGv, Uyel xbpros LLaud neglected them, saith the Lord", I followed from the preceding as the necessary consequence. In this last part, however, it is said to differ from the original. According to the translation in the Authorized Version, viz., "which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them", it would appear that a contrast was intended t o be presented between their viplation of the covenant, and GODS husbanding overthem, as also that their violation was stated simply as a fact, and irr~spectiveof the making of the new covenant. Now, although the text can, no doubt, bear this interpretation, yet as it clashes with the New Test. Quotation, we must examine into its correctness, which, we shall find, may be questioned. The lW& beginningthe first clause,. may seem to give to '!??I a relative signification, ~ i z . ~ w h i ccovenant of mine':; but it can h also be regarded as a causal relative conjunction, meaning "because that", and as assigning a reason for the previous statement, which may be considered a question, and it as the answer, (comp. 1 Sam. XV. 19); and so the Sept. and New Test. view,it, rendering it by 6s~. See Ges. Heb. Lex. s. v. B: 3. The verb 11?;7i "they brake" is not incorrectly rendered by oux 8uep;uclvav FV %hey did not remain in", equivalent to <'did not keep", i. e. "they broke". The main parintiorr, however, is presented in the last clause of this verse D? rl??Y? l?%!. Paul, quoting from the Sept., reads xdyd ij,uC)?qna airziv "and I neglected (or disregarded) them." Now, the verb 52: means (1) to be lord or master over any thing, Is. XXVI. 13. Hence (2) to become the husband o f any one, to nzarry a wife, Deut. X x . 13; XXIV. 1: 1. 'i2W (3) with 3 prob. to disdain, reject. Jer. 1 1 14 . . . O'q2'iV?!'$ii

2 52

Heb. ViII. 8-12,

[Table E.III.r.2.a.o.

Ci?? ' ~ $ 3$35 'turn ye, 0 rebellions children ... for I have rejected 7 , you." And it is very probable, that this is the mealling here, for it is not only ado13ted by the Sept., but by the Syr. So also Abulwalid, Joseph Kimchi and Rabbi Tanchum understood it. See Pococke

ad Port. Masis, p. 5-1.0, and comp. Arab. seq. + to despise, reject. All that may be necessary to observe here is that it cannot be demonstrated that the apostle has not given the true sense of the prophet. But the probability is, that the Septuagint translators would give the meaning, which was commonly understood to be correct, and there is still more probability that the Syriac translators would adopt the true sense, for (1) tho Syriac and Hebrew langnages strongly resemble each other, and (2) the Old Syriac Version-the Peschitois incoml~arablya better translation than the Septuagint. Moreover, that such is the correct rendering of the clause in Jeremiah is now admitted by the best interpreters, among others, by Gesenius and Stuart. The former says in the Heb. Lex. s. v. (3). *In c. 31 the common signif. might perhaps be adopted, q. d. allhough I PFBbl:) mas their Lord. But this sense is not so easy; and besides, the signif. of disdaining is not foreign from the primary meaning of the verb. I n A1.abic there are also other verbs, in which the signif of subduing, being high, havinb dominion, is transferred also to that of looking damn upon, despising, contemnivy, as to subdue, seq. + to despise; V, to be high; Conj. I, to look down upon, to contemn.'? On this Lee inHeb. Lex.App. C. remarks: "Gesenius prefers, here, Be weary pf, reject, ("fastidivit, rejecit", wilh Syr., Rab. Jonah, Pococke,
d

&

Porta Moiis p. 5-10, LXX. #)&pa azisrjv, Arab. with i fasli, divit.) The places, however, appear to me incapable of such sense." And a similar opinion Dr. Davidson expresses in his Introd. to Old Test. p. 1 b 7 : "Joseph Kimchi and others after him explain the Ilebrew by the Arabic, !and I rejected them", a sense which is expressed in a mild form by the i j p d v o a of the LXX. But'this can hardly be sustained. The most natural interpretation is, "I ruled 'over them". 1. This is favoured by the LXX., in Jer. 1 1 13, .where the phrase also occurs. In the present instance, those translators, by using i j p t A - T ~ a , missed the true sense." This would seem to be his matured opinion; for in his Sac. I-lerm. pp. 436-7, he had written: "In our received version, the Ilebrew is translated, "and I was an husband unto them", b ~ r t the correctness of this may be questioned. In the Arabic language, i , signifies, to despise or reject; which translation the Syriac interpreter, as also A b d Walid, Joseph Kimchi, Pococke, and others adopt. The +,U&GU of the Seventy is a mild form of expressing the same thing." And at that time, as he leaves one to conclude, he did not seem to think the Sepi. had missed the true sense,
,

i $

.

Table E.IIl.r.2.a.o.]

Luke I1 l i .

253

when it translated D? by 4jfiiAqca airs&v. There appears, then, to be no reason for supposing the Hebrew to be corrupt, as Me&, Capellus and others have imagined, when they thought that the nabr&. was once ?c\@. In t.he remaining verses they mag. be said hardly to differ. Like as the Heb. the New Test. has not pow after 860:@7/~11, in the Sept. qri! "I will give" is rendered in the Sept. by 81Sows 6wow, "giving I will give", i. e. UI will suirely give", and in the New Test. by Sd'owg Ygiving". They all present the same idea. 5;1%1 "his neighbour" in ver. 34, is given in the Sept. by s d v zoAizqv adrot, which Tischendorf admits into his text, as being supported by the best authorities, a reading adopted by Griesbaclr, Tittman, Rosenmiiller, Knapp, Stnart,, in preference to the other reading n i l j ~ r o v . Now, as the Kcb. V> would be readily translated by &,mow "neighbour", it is easier to account for the appearance of i?hrrt word in the version than.of norlrsqv, and hence the latter may be regarded as the true reading, more especially as its meaning: Ucitizen, fellow citizen" is not far from that of 27. m u l e the Sept. and New Test. read navmg 'all", ((a the end of ver. II), the Heb. gives ~ $ 3 "all of them". Had ver. 11 ended with AEYEL xupog lisaith the Lord", it would have followed the Eeb., where the expression is found, ;!l DY3. l;j
(7)
Luke I. 17. xal a i r z b ~nqg~As60ezac dvdnrav a&oi i v Z Y C ~ U O I T L nal J)UYL;,LFI 'TL4iov, 6n~urdye' raq8Lus nare'gov in1 Mal. 1 1 1. 1. *a1 & z ~ B A d y n ad8bv npb ~ Z O O S ~ ~ OU O V . . V ~ - IT. 4-5.

Hal. III. 1. L IY T-ll-32Plc) l! E
7 7 :

..

xa q o ~ ~ r ~ x v u r a 2 i ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ s E i r hl ~80;iTi, inooceA6 6 'HAiav zbv Otv@iOEL C ~ ~ W Y~ T U + & ( I ~ L ~ l q i q , ~ r?v S b ' ~ ;n~ncrcaor+~e~ d lab* xarcoxsuuupivov. xaqJiaiav nnrpbs npbg vibv nai xaq8Lciar dv8qdnov ngbg rbv nirlnlov a6ro6,. 111. I . 8amS8sorpaEoe~8&u, CLV a1 zqoneieunecars F ap Wfii nopeuomar, a1 Cornpl. Ed. 4 . anooz~l.iwAlex. M S . nyorrop. I ~ l c o (l.MUTal m u 41.. ILI a1 pl <L. EK a1 m Compl. Ed. d a n . I Cleo@. Cornpl. Ed. nqop?rvr. -low MUVrd a1 pl -LOG . . s 5. ;raqSaa~ ZmEqwv Arm. IjAiou) B,~Lrra, ljlia 1 AIC L Eueholog. a1 Tit zw ruom. IU. 1. and he shall 1 1 1. 1. And he shall go before

...

...

.

..

him in the spirit and power of Elias, t o turn the hearts of the fathers t o the ohildren, and the disobedient *to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. * g or, by.

survey t h e way before my face I .4. 5. And behold, I T will send you Elijah the Tishbite.. Swho shall turn again t h e heart of the father t o the son, and the heart of a man t o his neighbour,

.. .

.

and ho shall prepare the way before me. 1 1 ' 3 Bchold, I will 1 . 2. send you Elijah the prophet. . 24. And he shall turntho heartofthefathers lo the children, and the heart of the child re^^ t o their fathers,

..

.

.. .

254

Luke I. 17.

[Table E.III.r.2.a.o.

These words in Luke I. 17 evidently respect the prophecies in Malachi, that refer to the forerunner of the Messiah, though they cannot be regarded as containing a Quotation, having no introductory forlmla to show such an intention. They form part of what the angel Gabriel s a d to Zecharias anent the child, mhom he and his wife Elisabeth were to have. Yet no question need be started as to how Gabriel could know Malachi's prophecies. We find Satan, during the temptation of our Lord, quotiug Holy Writ (see Matt. IV. 6); and if an angel, who had so important tidlngs to communicate, needed to know Old Testament prophecies, so as to show that their fulflmcnt was on the eve of taking place, GOD would doubtless iaform him. And we are told by Peter that the angals feel interested in those matters which concern the redemption of man. See 1 Pet. I. 10-12. "Which things the angels desire to look into", is read at enquiring the close of ver. 12, while ver. 1 0 tells of the and searching diligently concerning salvation, as connected with the sufferings of Christ and the following glory. Why, then, might not Gabriel have known thereof, more especially as GOD here sends him to foretell the birth of Messiah's forerunner, whom Malachi spake of? The k s t clause xu2 adrds nqoeAe6~zsar Ev&nrov udroG; "and he shall go before him", (viz. x r ~ ~ i oru c 8coG d s 6 v "the Lord their o GOD", as is seen from the end of ver. 16), evidently refers to Mal. 1 1 1 "Behold me sending my messenger, and he shall prepare a 1. . way before me ... saith the Lord of hosts." The next part of that clause E % v ~ h f i a z ~ S L W ~ ~ E L Uin v xu2 iElhiov: the spirit and power of Elias", interprets Mal. 1 1 23. "Behold, I 1. (am) sending to you Elijah the prophet". It was not Elijah himself that was to come, but one @inElijsh's spirit and power", for our Saviour so interprets, as is read iu Matt. XI. 7-14. When two of John's disciples, whom he had sent to Jesus with the inquiry: "Art thou he that should come; or do we look for another?' (ver. 3), had departed, RJesnssaid unto the multitudes concerning John" (ver. 7), "This is he, of whom it is written, Behold I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee" (ver. lo), wherein he declares that John the Baptist, so called, is the person foretold by Malachi in these words; moreover, he adds: LLAnd ye if will receive zt, this is Elias, which was for to come" (ver. 14), thus applying to the same John, Malachi's prophecy in ch. 1 1 23. A 1. similar explanation is given in Matt. XVII. 10-13, where we are told that "the disciples understood that he spake to them of John the Baptist" (ver. 13) when he said unto them =that Elias is come already" (ver. 12), as explanatory of the Scribes' statement, which was a deduction from Malachi's prophecy L'that Ehas must first come" (ver. lo), which Jesus says is quite true (ver. 11). The middle clause EnruseC7pur ic. z A. 'to turn &c." is clearly .

Table E.III.r.l.a.o.]

Luke I. l i .

2?15

referable to the last verse of Malachi, only changing the definite ='Will uand he shall turn", into the infinitive Bmrusp+at I t t o turn2>- the 3>1 predictive being altered into the purpose. The counterpart i 2 ~ 7 2 y I pxa2 xcr~&av z ~ x v o vEm Z ~ S E ~ Cuiiscov, CS the heart of children to their fathers" is left out, and there is found instead xa2 & ~ . S G F I4% E~? ~ ~ O U ~S G E L C "and~ disobedient to prudence of the S. ~ LXC ~W just", i. e. to bring back the impious to a manner of thinking worthy of pious men!' The last clause is $ z o c p d ~ a XUQL'CJ ,iudv x a z & ~ % & u u u ~ c ~"to u : r v o prepare (rather, to collect) for the Lord, i. e. the Messiah, a people wellprepared", viz. to receive him; and h a s respect to Mal. 1 1 1, and Is. 1. XL. 3-5, without being quoted from either.

256

LU~C

1n. 4-6.

LTable E.1II.r.o.o.Z.o.

TABLE E.III.r.o.a.2.o.
(1)
Lukc 111. 6 6 .
Is. XL. 3-5.
3qwV;I ~ O ~ ~ V5% Z ~5 ~ O Sqijp~, ~ o ~ zilv 66dv ~ ~ p ~ ~"Jphtl,6 8 ~ i l ~ L ~ T E7h6 ~ ZO s rqi@o~rs roc &0< ,jr&v. %ni;ua qI;~uySn i ~ p w f i unmc, x r i i niv 6 p g rai
@OVY~S
ZCOZECY~${L~EZUP

Is. XL 3-5

[6 rtyqanrct~ @$LO 's h
A6ywv 'Huato'ouzoC n p q j ZOU] r I ) 6 ~ ~@ O ~ Y T O8v T? $ S 2ej,aw ~EZOL,UI;LTUIF ~ Z+Y 6 % nvqiou, ci3eing ZDLE;ZE zis reipous c ~ i i o G in;na qrpay: nAr]polY$uercrr x a l nEv iipos xu2 Pouvb; .renscvofiraraa, zai $mza~ z,; m ~ k ~E & S~ 6 8 8 i a ~ ~ sat rri r q q ~ i o ~ (i8whSkeiaS eiS oxal 6qsraa nivn viqE zb oor,,'q~ov QEO~;. roc ~ z e

nai &roc n & v m rr rnohclr i
E ~ S ~$EZXY, ~ i * i F

len~~idr EIE neJla, d ~ a d p Q $ v n a ~ l

+

nni;~a a uw-rjq~ov . roc 8 ~ 0 6 . d)=109K. e ) I = l OK. 4. A a15 ae pl zov raprou I 3. or m w ~ j~."YT"F. 'Ev g)=liOK. aurov . D ~ ' U ~ L W S per <+ dq7. 8 ~ 0 6X ~ r.1 ! ~ Z U C P I I S f j ' z i l I 1 K . SYI. . . qrwv. hiex. MS I l o < 8 . 7. .. ai- h) = 50 K. 1 5 . AIIL'X nlpmmaqa5lau- zoii 209. Compl. Ed. .hs eBll a1 vg it Ir (sed c %a 4. om navra Alex. MS. f Ir ms in d<rircclurn) Or2 Compl. Ed. d a1 1 ?j rqay.. .. discrtc ( a v z r i v ~ x o u Ecs eva rqayrivr inscvcrnlMSS. I i 4 2 ~ a v [LXX] n l ~ 9 u u r ~ z o vals xer9ia. . O& <dohF Ada< ~ O E L C L..F e w 8 e ~ a v F) eACFG Alcx. Tar. MSS. Aid. Ed. HI<LMSUVXIWd a1 pl cop z e 8 k Asia Cornpi. Ed. . .

j

xuqlov, xai

$~ET(IL

..

..

SF".

6. I DEoU.. . D .

YV~LOV.

[&As it is written in t h e book of t h e words of E s s i t i ~ t h e prophet, saying,] The voice of one crying i n t h s wilderness, Prepare ye t h e way of t h e Lord, malie his paths straight. SEvery valloy shall be filledl and every maulltain and hill shall be brought low; and t h e eraoked shall be made straight, and t h e rough wnysshnll be made smooth; cAnd all flush shall sce t h e salvation of GOD.

3The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye tho way a t t h e Lord, make straight t h e paths of our GOD 'Every vallcy shall be filled, and every mountaxn and hill shall be brought low; and all croolied mays shall be made s t r ~ i g h t , and t h e rough plnccs Into plams; Send the glory of t h e Lord shall be seen, and all flesh shall see the salvation of GOD.

3The voioe of him thnt crieth in the wildcmess, Prepare ye the way of t h e LORD, make straight i n t h e dcsert a highway for our GOD. 'Evcry valley shall be cxnlted. and evcry mouiitain and hill slia!l be msdc low: a i d tile crooked shall be made 'straight, and t h e rough places +plain: U n d t h e glory of t h e LORD shall he revealed, and all flcsh shall see it tdgether. " Tl Or, n straiohf place. . 91 O:, a p l a m p l a c e .
A

The 41h verse in Luke has been already considered in the Quotations Eou~ld Matt. 1 1 3, and Mark 1 3, (Table E.1.r.a.o.) with which in 1. .

Table E.ILI.r.o.a.2.o.l

Luke 111. 4-8.

257

Luke agrees, leaving out ,a???> "in the desert", and reading &roc for roc Acoc + p ~ v ;lh>. 91 But, inaddition to what Matt. and Mark cite (Is. XL. 3), Luke contains the 4th and 5th verses also of the original, on which alone I need remark here. Now, by comparing Luke's 5th verse with the 4'" of theLXX., we find that they nearly agree, the differences bcing, that, like the Heh., Lnkc has not ltavra along with rd cxoitiu; reads €is c $ @ ~ i afor € 2 tlj,?eiaw, the plural for tlie singular; also like tire s ~ r~uxcZa"the roughness"; Beb. ui zeax~Zur the roughnesses", for and substitutes eis l80ljs ;leius which reading is found in Alex. MS. of LXX., for cis ztSiu, Linuto smooth ways" for LLunto plains". Where the Neb. says Sic??"shall be lifted up", the LXX. and Luke say: z2.qpwA+nt;ar Ushall be filled up", the latter explaining the former. 'LTlie crooked shall be unto straightness" means that "the ups and downs' of the surface shall be levelled", and 'the roughnesses unto a valley", that "the inaccessible places would be cleft or opened up, and thus become as assa able as a valley, or cleft of a mountain." Luke omits the first clause of the next vorse: li2? 7>!?1: %nil the glory of Jehovah shall be revealed"; as if a veil woild be ,the glory of removed; in the LXX. xai 6(pA+n~rar W t a xuQioz,:icancl the Lord shall be seen." But, in the last clause xu2 & / J E ~ ~ Lzclva o d ~ E GGJS+QLOV roc A E O ~ : zd %nd,,all flesh shall see the salvation of GOD", he agrees with the LXX., differing from the original: -52 '1N.171 '?n! l@> "and all flesh shall see together." This closing clause is the only part of the Quotation, which presents any difficulty. Dr. Davidson says, (in Introd. to Old Test. p. 127) "Why they have rd n?Z+QIOV to6 Atoi; for it is not easy to tell. Dr. H. Owen suspects that they had a different word in their(!copy, but this is unlikely. (The Modes of Quotation &c. pp. 22, 23.) We suppose the phrase to be an addition to the Hebrew, the translators omitting the adverb." Yet, in his former -work, (Sacred Berm. pp. 364, 5) he quoted Dr. H. Owen's solution a t length, without disapproval, leaving one to conclude that he preferred his view. But t,o proceed. The Heb. is usually rendered: "and all flesh together shall see." Shall see mhat? Evidently, a s the context leads one to infer: "the glory of Jehovah", that fie+ effulgence surrounded with dark clouds, in which Jehovah is represented as. appearing, or GOD himself surrounded by that eEu1gence, such as EIe manifested himself to Moses and the people a t Sinai, or appeared in the tabernacle, or in the temple, or was seen in prophetic vision. This, hdwever, goes upon the supposition that llii! is rightly rendered "together", which may be said either of united action, or of union in place, or time, and thus mean either that 'hll flesh, in one and the same act", or that "all flesh, in one place, o r a t the same time, should see Jehovah's glory." And when it is pre17

+

+

258

Luke 1 1 4-6. 1.

[Table E.III.r.o.a.2.o.

ceded by all, it comprises the many in one,-views the all a s one,-and would thus here mean: "all flesh as one shall see GOD'S glory." But that such is the meaning I do not conceive; and hence wonld attach to. it some other meaning. Supposing, then, that <'the salvation of COD" zd gwr$g~ovroc 8 ~ 0 6 were for "his salvation" s d owr+~~ov udroii, which change might have' been made, in order that it might not be said of tiall flesh", we have to inquire if :?I could so signify. And says Dr. H. Owen, "We render the Heb. pariter, together; but they might rencler it, gwrljpov crdroii, and, for the sake of perspicuity, OEOG e. r o c ~ E U in place of crjrofi), for, whom we wonld (i. C SAVE from imminent danger, we lay hold oL embrcace and unite to ourselves; which is the iclea conveyed by the roqt -in'." By referring to Gen. XLIX. 6, and Is. XTV. 20, where the perh occurs, from which l??! is derived, it will be inferred that it presents the idea. of being united mith, becoming one of, and hence means here radically: "his. unions", 'lhis oneness with", so that the clause reads: "all flesh shall see his being one (among them)", i. e. his manifestation in the flesh. And so John writes: I. 14 xu2 6 A6yo~ odq: Eylv~ro xu2 Eoxfivomv E Ijpiir, (xu2 29;.crodp~i?cc rljv 86,tuv udroii "And the Word became v fiesh and tabernacled among us, (and we behold his glory." "If this be not allowed", to quote Dr. I-I. Owen again, 'gwould it be too much to suppose that the word should be read )7ii' jechido ~~nigenitum ejlls, his only begotten? The whole verse would then run in this manner: 'The glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see His only-begotten'. And may not St.. John be supposed to refer to it, when he says: 'We beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father' I. 14." He ends with: "But, after all, I rather suspect that the Hebkew copy, which the Seventy used, had 13W1, and not \?ti7. See Isaiah ch. LII. 10, where the-same prophecy occnrs." Now, we read i s Is. XLIX. 6, "I will ~ i v e thee for a light of the Gentiles, for being (i. e. in order to be) my salvation unto the ends of the earth." Again ch. LII. 10 says: "Jehovah hath made bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the heathen, and i l l ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our GOD." Also Ps. XCVIII. 2 has: UJehovah habh made known His salvation. Ne hath levealed His righteousness, in the eyes of tile heathen: (3) A11 ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our GOD." From these different passages, then, all bearing on the same point, and evidently connected with the present Quotation in consequence, oneneed not be surprised to find it ending with: "a.nd all flesh (i. e. the human race-all mankind) shall see his salvation", (i. e. GOD'S), zd nwr$gtbv r o c <'?eoiibeing for rd owz+prov udzoG, the rendering of l ? ~ ?"his oneness" with them, i. e. his manifestation in the flesh for their sal~ration, it being for that purpose that- he was to appear; and hence the purpose and not the mode may have the prominency. Compare Luke 1 . 30-32, words spoken 1

Teble E.III.r.o.a.Z.o;]

Rom X. 6-8.

259

by the holy Simeon, with his eye clearly directed to these prophecies, while holding in his arms the infant Saviour.
(2)
Rom. X. 6-< 86 8%Z ~ U I E W S L X O I L O ~ &vli o4ros iirsc],M+ einns $v ~ lxap8iq DOU Tic &paj @+wrac cis zbv oCpav6.v;
[6$

Deut. XXX. 12-14.

Dent. XXX. 12-14.

. '?o& Sv z@ aiiearv+i &w ~ l ; l ~ qp$3 ) 13 $ozi, 167~~, ;vaj?jv~Tk 7 lhx? m ijpiv ek Z ~ Y oieavbv ' - , &LY X ~ C O . C ~XV~ Z L I - ~ a Li ~ W E T ~ C C ~ Y xal 1-1) ;i~'~tqg rovr + L LISI+Y, :~ . .~ . .~:?& ? l . uJ ~ ~ Y r a y e i v Ti k xactr(9+oerar h ~ o i i o a v r z C ~ ~ -+ noljoT > Z;Z* ~ ~ U U ~ Zollz Y ; q e v ; 1 3 ~ ; 8 b O =gqay Z ~ S vpp-&Fjr3 8o-m~ Xp~rrrbu b 9rnqGv 80li(i.o77s dori, Asywu, T i s -587 $j) i?fl {&i) &vnyaygiu. 8&11d? ri ?.ere'; J ~ a n s p k o jpiv eis rh ~~ 125. 3;i71,bl €2:qa) lsp ' E r r 6 5 oov ?h $ j p & LVILV, d p a v zis 8 ~ A 6 o o rai , , ~~ . : k U PG : ~L I ' ~ 6~ oz6parl 0'021, noi b A6pn j,u-v -l.i.6z~v,xal~xouo-:1 . . . Z@ 2172-'2'~ zlj nap8ip r o w ZOGZ' ~ V Z L Y Z+Y j p i ~Z O L ~ U ~ aiivjv, z b $!pa z7js v l m s w s 6 r l - n o ~ j u a p w ; 14drr4s no6 p 5 2 1 e ) 7 7 ~ 2 ~l)& n e.inrrropev. do,' zb &pa rrqdJpa i v 1 :DW& r @ m6,ulaazi oov *a1 $v zlj rap8ip oou, z a l S v zais rerroi vov n o ~ e i v niir6. .. 12. avnr in 0x.MS.Ald. et 8. Additur q y p w q $.post ) x i 0 K. s) = 5 K. Aryc~ (sic DE al m vv m Or<ompl. Edd. dcest 1 avap7jo. t) 1 0 j K . u) nmyx 107 K. a1 Hi1 a1 m ) s . post i c (FG) qpou Alex. MS. Ald. Compl. x) -lli. 170 K., y) = 84 non item ABKL cte. 1 e n r m Edd. K. ih1GiK. z) 'y,n=1119K. (h. 1. et nonnulli in LXX.; 13. d~anep. . Ald. Ed. a) o h 9 K. b) li ill = 176K. . i Or2 om; a12Orz add aqorYqa) J~arrepaorraclqlr~vinCompl. 15 193 K. c) +. ,>i l09K. .DEFG vv m pp"t post syy. Ed. deest / Iby,eraa ~ c v a u - d) i K. ej = 193.K. 150 oou (d e v g ppIat aliq om) mu, rar avovaavres avrljv noa7joopnr Alex. MS (A7jp,y.) PO". Ald- et Corn~l. Edd. . . Ox. MS. 7. auz. el om xas
I

-

+! c? ; :)

?vp!!l.

T : . :

7')~ .:

7

.

.

-

,

.

ax.

usque xac.

[SBut t h e righteousness which is of faith speaketh m. on this wise,] Say not i n 1 2 1 t i s not i n heaven thine heart, Who shall above, 'as if one should ascend into heaven? (that say, Who shall go up for is, t o bring Christ dawn us into heaven, and take fromahove:) 7Or,Whoshall it for us, and we will hear descend i n t o the deep? it, and do it? 13Neither is (that is, t o bring np Christ it beyond t h e sea, *as if one should say, Who will again from t h e dehd.) s B n t what saith i t ? The go over for us beyond the word is nigh thee, even sea, and take it for us, i n t h y mouth, and i n thy and make i t audible unto heart: t h a t is, thelvord of . us, and we wiIl do it? faith which we preach; 14The word is very nigh thee, in thy mouth, and in t h y heart, and i n t h y hands, t o do it. ' Gr. saying. This Quotation begins with M$ dnpg 61,

14.ogo8qaomVlI.. .Some ~ MSS. om x a av z a ~ sX . c.

J.
121tis not m heaven.
t h a t thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for u s to heaven, and bring it unto us, t h a t we may hear it, snd d o i t ' ? 13Neither is i t beyond the sea, t h a t thou shouldest say, Who shall go over t h e sea for us, and bring i t anto us, t h a t we may hear it, and do i t ? 1Qut the word i s very nigh unto thee, i n thy mouth, and in t h y heart, t h a t thou mayest do it.

zfj X E Q C ~ L ~ aou: "Thou
I,*

*

260
.

Barn. X 6-8. .

[Table E.IIl.r.o.a.2.0.

.

fpayest not say in thine heart", which is read in the Sept.. of Deut. VIII. 17, as the rendering of ~ 2 2 ClnN] LLand 3 ~ thou say in thine heart." Yet P m l may have adopted it not fro111 that place, but by modification of the present passage. In the original there are two questions, the former introduced by: UIt is not in heaven, for saying (i. e. that thou shoulaest say)", and the latter by: '<And it is not beyond the s e q for saying (i. e. that thou shouldest say)", which the apostle simplifies to "thou mayest not say", adding "in thy heart", to make it mean: "thou mayest not think or suppose", since "saying in one's heart" is a Hebraism for Yhinking". The next part of the Quotalion is Tic r i v a ~ j ~ c z a€a 2 ~zdv odpuvdv; "Who shall ascend into heaven?" ;j Tic xazu/3;i~azuc 62s i v 6,9vcoov; "or, Who shall descend into the deep?" which appears to be abbreviated from the original, reading, LLWho shall ascend for us heavenward, and take it for us, and make us hear it (or announce it to us), and we shall do it?" ... "Who shall cross for us unto beyond the sea, and take it for us, and let us hear it, and we shall do it?" From this comparison it is apparent, that the first clause only of each interrogation is quoted, and that the latter undergoes transformation. When: UWho shall ascend to heaven for such a thing?' was asked among the Jews, it was intended to denote the difficulty' of its attainment. To cross the sea in the early times of,navigation involved the highest difficulty, danger, and toil. The sea, which was in view, was doubtlessthe Mediterranean, but the crossing of that was an enterprise of the greatest difficulty, and the regions beyond that were regarded as being at a vast distance,-at the ends of t h e earth. Hence it is spoken of as being the midest object with which they were acquainted. Paul, however, varies herein from the Heb., by using,yet in the same sense, the' word =abyss", which in the New Testament is applied to the abode of departed spirits, and particularly to the dark, deep and bottomless pit,' where the 'wicked are to dwell for ever,those deep, awful regions of the nether world. In the passage in Rom. it is opposed to heaven; and to descent thither to bring up one is supposed to be as impossible as to ascend to heaven to bring one down. Paul's variation respects the deepest object, whereas the original regards the widest; yet it is seen that the sense thereof is retained. The Quotation closes with &,lad zi Lfysr; 'Eyfis cow st3 &pci Eozrv, BY zQ u ~ 6 p a z i cov xa2 EY S? ~apd'ip flow: "Bit what saith it (or 4 ypupw "the scripture", if that reading be followed)? Near thee is the word, in thy mouth, and in thy heart", like the original, which reads: "But exceedingly near unto thee is the word, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, for doing it, (i. e. that thou mayest do it)", from triorsiv &so. which Paul varies by leaving out %n cpo8pa and > D W Y ~

Table E.lII.r.o.a.S.o.]

Rom. XIY. 11.

26 1

(3)
Is. XLV. 23. Rom. XIV. 11. [ydyqanra~ yLe] 26 dyo, xaz' ipuvro6 Lpv6~1,FL ,A+ 3.$cA:Swzm 2% z.6 m 6 Idye&rSqcog 6 2 ~ 0 2 i p % ' x ~ Z C ( I Y d v ~ X ( X ~ mEua ~ y p ~ r 6 ~ ~7cxrrca~4vli, pou oi y i k a a iSopotay$ana~ ~ 7 idror pow oljr anaorqaqiz 86&. oovrac, ;cr i,Aoi % ~ & U E L ZUY ydvv, irai 6,ualmr nriua riw'uca rbv 4edu. ozc.. .U*FG (gnisiamLpoi p?...sa r ~ V Alex. MS.1 Y m e p . I t ~ ?Mar. lilS. Ald.Ed. i niam) e~ na. ?.I. rfopol. eACD"*L a1 ut vdlr omn vg om rou 1 ap. n. yl.cov Rrov cop syr a1 ... Ln cEap. n. yi. .. rIoroloy?ne.rac n. yA. rq Alcr. c t Mar. YISS. eBDL et "'EFG it go (syr De?> aelh r a ~ ~ O Ce b p . E. yl. i.) E Ruf a1 I ru, +em (ham Gal6 dicunturornDE; omEph?)... -17. SgrP (T. B. in mg) ddemid slant2 nvo'w. . [For i t is written,] As I By myself1 swear, rightlive, saith t h e Lord, every eousness shall surely proknee shall how to me, and oeed out of my mouth, every tongue shall confess my words shall not be turned aside; That onto t o GOD. me every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall swear by GOD.
Is. XLV. 23.
,

,?)-,; ,4a, N5,~) ,,5
.... ..
:
7 7

7ep x ; :

ip$y@i :9

.

y) l = 93. 116. 145. 158. 2 9 i K z) 75 4K. a) = 1K.

.

I have sworn by myself, t h e word is gone out of my month in righteonsness, and shall not return, T h s t unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.

The original commences thus: "By myself have I sworn,- the word hath gone forth from my mouth (as) righteous, (i. e. as what should be), and shall not return."' The version of the Sept. differs a little from this, as may be seen above. Now, when Jehovah swears by himself, the formula of the oath is, a s in Numb. XIV. (21 or) 28 I. ;I!;I7@?! rJPI;-rp, in Sept. Z 6 2*d, i@er x h g i o ~ : Uliving(am) I", (' e. as I live), saith the- Lord; (see ,also Is. XLIX. 18, and other places); so that., instead of stating the simple fact, that Jehovah had sworn by himself, the apostle merely supplies its place by the frequently occurring formula, "As I live, saith the LorG' ZcS dyd, A f y a %hpios. The next clause is omitted entirely. And Paiil ends the citation with wZoa yAo?ooa EEopoAoy+otsac r@ &@: "every tongue shall openly confess to GOD", which the Sept. gives as 6 p ~ i z a r w 6 o uyA6oou shv 6'86~: "every tongue shall bind itself by oath to GOn". I t is evident from this resemblance that the latter was used, as in the Beb. is read only jlw>-b? yz$n "every tongue shall swear", i. e. swear allegiance. See 2 Chron. XV. 14. 'llie next verse of the original is as follows: "Only in Jehovah have I, shall one say, righteousness and strength, unto him shall they conle, &c." which the Scpt., by giving i t y o u A ~ x a c o o l j u lcai r?b& wqdS aljzhv $EEL, has joined with the ~ preceding thus: "every tongue shall bind itself by oath to GOD, saying, Righteousness and glory shall come to Vm". As Paul does not seem to quote anything more than what the Lord swore to accom-

262

Born. XIV. 1 1 .

[Table E.III.r.o.a.2.o.

plish, so he does not continue with the confession added in the original. Yet, as it was necessary to give some idea of confession, he has changed it from dpeizac to E~opoLoy$oesat, and as the con''to fession had respect to Jehovah, he annexes the words r @ G O D . Herein Paul may have either followed the Septuagint's zdv 8e6v, or added them to show as what Jehovah was to be confessed to.

APPENDIX.
John VII. 38. d nclrrs6mv EL'S 6p' [%a8;s E E ~ Y$ reoq+] nozmpol 8% .rjr xoclias aSzoii

i;Jmos [6nos. ...I-IA a1 - C ~ V L Y . He that bbelieveth on me, [as the scripture hath said,] out of his belly shall from rivers of bvingmater.
@C~(TO*(T'Y

qrvoovow

These words, "rivers out of his belly shall flow of living water", which seem to be meant by: $<as the scripture hath said", are not found in any part of the Old Testament; as says Ghr. xrr2 aoD E&EW l j yqaprj &r msapoi etc.; Orir7apoC; and hence, some have connected that phrase with the preccding clause: LLhethat bel~evethin me." Others think tbat it is a Quotation from an apocryphal book; but such a conjecture cannot be admitted, since 1t reads xut7r;~ E ~ E V y~a(plj=as said the scripture", and no New Testament writer appl~esi j y~ccpq to what we call uncanonical books, or books not admitted by the Jewish Church to be the Word of COD. Most commentators are of opinion that the original should be sought for in such passages as these: Is. XLIV. 3, "For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty: and floods upon the dry ground, I will pour my spirit upon thy seed"; ch. LV. 1 "Bo, every one tbat thirsteth, coLe ye-to the waters"; ch. LVIII. 11 "Ancl thou shalt be like a watered garden: and like a spring of water, whose waters fall notn, since these texts contamn expressions similar to that found in John, though partly unlike; and John's words, "as said the scripture", do not restrict one to some particular passage as cited, but leave one at liberty to suppose that the general tenor of several passages is given. John explains in the next verse: (LLBut this spake he of the Spirit, which they that belleve on him should receive"), what Jesus meant by this Quotation; in other words, John says that Jesus' words are the same as: "he that believeth on me shall receive of the Spirit", which is signified by the saying of Scripture: "out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water". The influences of the Holy Spirit are corn-

+

264

John VII. 42.

pared to water, as being refreshing, cleansing, diffusive. And there are, a s we have seen, several places in the Old Test., which speak of "the Spirit applying to the soul the truth concerning the Messiah, and thus relieving its anxious cravings after happiness. The prophets, in predicting, under a former economy, the Saviour's advent and reign, alluded to the peace of his true subjects, their abundant comfort, and the never failing spring of eternal life which should be in them and abound. From Messiah come all the blessings which satisfy the thirsty souls of his people; while the living streams of Eis grace, drawn from the Living Fountain, flow forth from them agaln in fructifying plenty upon the barren world. They contribute not only to their own comfort, and edification, but to the true benefit of others. Our Lord, therefore, may be supposed to allude, in general and metaphorical language, to such passages as" those formerly quoted. Dr. Davidson's Sac. Herm. p. 375.'
John VII. 42.
[o& j ~ p a q + BIzE~;J KL
i z roc :

.

o z 6 q p a z o s A r r v M xai i n 6 B7p%thp 6 5 ?dMc, Zmov $Y davi8, &q%nuc 6
Xe~c~d~;
..rbu..

om
vg
iqx.

e D E G H K M S U Y r A A a1 ut vdtr omn vv pl.

/ epr. o xTeBLT e ff 2 g syr Cqr Chr . . . F o x T

. D. 13.

69. 1 5 i a1

[Hath not the scripture
said,] That Christ cornath of t h e seed'of D a ~ i d ,and out of the town of Bethlehem, whrre David was'?

This verse, like some others, is not a direct Quotation of any portion of the Old Test., but contains what may be proved therefrom, because found therein, and so the question: @Hathnot the Scri$ture said?" 6 z ~ roc mztppuzo~ fx duu2S ...f@,y'e~cza~ 6 X@coz6~ "that of the seed of David cometh the Christ", one may have the knowledge of, from several places in the Old Test. In 2 Sam. VII. 11-13, 16 we read of the establishment of David's throne for ever, which Solomon repeats, as read in 1 Kings VIII. 25, or 2 Chron.VI. 1 6 ; and Ps. CXXXII, 11,12 is similar. In Is. XI. 1 we read of the "root out of the stem of Jesse"; and in Jer. XXIII. 5 , we are told that Jehovah would "raise unto David a righteous branch", - that "a. king should reign and prosper"; and that "his name should be The Lord our Righteousness". Certainly no mere man could bear such a name. Jehovah our Righteousness is the name of the King to descend from David and to rule for over, and of whom else, if u o t of the Messiah, can this be spoken?

Eph V. 14.

265

.

Next, Scripture hath said a dnd Bq8Aeap.. .d e x ~ r c c6~ &rrSros n "that from Bethlehem. cometh the Christ." This is found in Mic. V. 2, which has been already considered at Matt. 1 . 6 in Table E.1.r.a.o. 1 Lastly, Bethlehem is here called rrjs urhpqs h o u ijy dud3 Yhe village where David was"; and 1 Sam. XVI. 1-13 will furnish the proof thereof, especially vs. 1, 4, 11-13.

..

Eph. T. 14.

[&A i6py,,] '%yecpa 6
>,aqG?,, z*a; ~
~ ~

xa-

8EirJmv xai &vima i n rrjv
o DO'r i ~ s ~

6 Xqcvz6s.
G i n mg notat. in secret0 Enoeh I e y e ~ q e uoc omn a1 c p1. .5 (= Gb Sz) erelpab c rninusec I en'm. oou o ~5 (et Clem Or1 Ath Chr i v ~ ac c% a v z r y q . ap Thdrt Dam a1 Arehel [om oab] H ~ e r m). a1 U* quldam ( o ~ p i y E z ~ y a 4 ~ el$ psoh zoC ~ 5ap Chr ct ) ap Hler Thdrt d e Or'nt Ambrst a1 r n w a u o r w zov p. [Wherefore 'he saith,] Awake thou that slaepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thea

.

a

I

light.

7 or, if.

On this passage various views have been advanced. Some, as Epiphanius, supposed it was taken from an apocryphal writing of Elias, or, as Syncellus of Byzantium and Euthalius, from a similar composition of Jeremiah. Others, as Doepke, after Theodoret and Heumann, think it was borrowed from a Christian Hymn, used in the Church in apostolic days, and Michaelis, Storr and Flatt follow this vicw. But this is mere conjecture; and Olshausen aptly remarks that 0 the formula 8 3 Ldya would hardly be used to introduce what was uncanonical. There remain two views; either, with Harless, Olshausen and others, to consider that Is. LX. 1, 19, 20, is here presented as a free citation, and incorporated by the apostle in his epistle; or, to suppose that the apostle means by Ldyzr "saith", that it is the y&s "hght" that says what follows, or that he means: <'he now says by me", whereby it could he seen to be no quotation: and thus every difficulty would be cleared away. As to whether it is to be tegarded a s or a Quotat~on otherwise depends, then, on the view taken of Ar'ycr. If lt IS taken to mean 6 ypapnq hycr '%he scripture saith", (which form, however, Paul does not use,) it will be regarcled as a Quotation, and may be referrod to Is. LX. 1, 19, 20, the ideas wherein are freely cited. But, if it means rd rp&s Li'ye~ '%he light says", then it is no

266

, Eph. V.

14.

Quotation; neither is it such if it means "he now says by me", an interpretation which may be supposed far-fetched, and hazarded to get rid of the difficulty. The preferable solution seems to be that which regards yGs as the subject of il+ec, and a consideration of the preceding context may make it e~ident,that such a view is defensible at any rate, if not the only correct one. .

GENERAL SUMMARY.
In the foregoing pages 275 passages of the New Testament, which are considered as Quotations from the Old, have been arranged into five Tables; of which Table A, containing those passages, wherein the New Testament agrees with tho Original Hebrew of the Old, which has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint Version thereof, has 53: Table B, containing those passages, wherein the New Testament agrees with the Original Hebrew of the Old, which has not been correctly rendered in the Septuagint Version, has 10: Table C, oonta~ningthose, wherein the*New Testament dzfers from the Original Hebrew of the Old, which has been correctly rendered in the Septuagint Version, has 76: Table D, containing those, wherein the New Testament dzfers from the Original Hebrew of the Old, and agrees with the Septnagint Version, which of course also varies from th? Hebrew, has 37: And Table E, containing those, wherein the New Testament differs from both the Original Hebrew and the Septuagint Version of the Old, which also differ from each other, has 99; The Appendi has 3 besides, thus making 278 in all. The following scheme shows the Tables at one view; N. T. standing for New Testament, 0. T. for Old Testament, and Sept. for Septuagint.
Table A Table B Table C Table D Table

E

N.T.,Sept.,O.T.,

N. T., Sept., N.T. O.T.. N.T., N. T., . Sept., Sept., 0.T., 0. T, Sept., 0. T.,

Again, Table A is subdivided into two parts; the one part, having those passagcs in which the New Testament follows the order of the Septuagint, is called Table A.s. and has 49: the other part, called Table A,d., in which occurs a slightly different order, has 4: Table B is also subdivided into two parts; the one, called Table B.s., wherein the Septuagint may have been partly followed verbally, has 6: the other part, called Table B.d., when such was not the case, has 4 :

268

General Summary.

Table C. is subdivided into three parts, according as the difference is in Words, or Clauses, or Both. The first, Table C.I., containing those that differ in Words, has 66: the next, Table C.II., containing those that differ in Clauses, has 7: and the last, Tahlc C.III., containing those that differ in both Words and Clauses, has 3: Table D. is also subd~vided, but into two parts; the one, Table D.I. in which occur those that hffer in Words, has 34: and Table D.D., with a difference in Clauses, has 3: This Table D., agreeing with the Septuagint, which differs from the Original Hebrew, admits of subdivision also, according as the words follow the same order a s in the Septuagint, or depart therefrom. Hence originate Table D s.1. which has 29; Table D.d.1. which has 5; and Table D.s.II. which has the remaining 3: Table E., containing those passages that differ from both the Original Hebrew and the Septuagint, which also are themselves a t variance, is subdivided into three parts, according a s the difference is'in Words, or Clauses, or Both. The first, Table E.I., has 77: the next, Table E.11. has 6: and the last, Table E.111. has 16: One passage is referable to either Table E.II., or Table E.111.; if to the former, it contains 6: and Table E.III. 16; if to the latter, it contains 17; and Table E.11. 5 : The Appendix, in which are placed those passages that have no corresponding passages in the Old Testament, has 3: making, as before, 278 in all, that are adduced, arranged and critically discussed according to their agreement with, o r variation from, their originals. In conclusion, it may be remarked that a corrupted text is supposed to exist in some passages of the Old Testament and of the New, from the circumstance that the Quoted passage in the latter cannot be always made to harmonize with the original in the former. Such corrupted text is supposed to be found in Ps. XIX. 5, (Sept. XVIII. 5), quoked in Rom. X. IS, and placed in Table D.s.1.r. S), p. 99, wh~ch see for explanation hereof; in Ps. XL. 7-9 (Sept. XXXZX. 7-9), quoted in Heb. X. 5 7, and placed in Table D.s.1I.r.o. (i), p. 119, wh~chsee for a full discussion on this point; in Is. LXIV. 3 (Sept. 4), quoted in 1 Cor. 1 . 9, and placed in Table E.III.l.o.3.a.r. (2), 1 p. 237, where the matter 1s alluded to; in Is. XXVIII. 16 quoted in Rom. IX. 33, and placed in Table E.III.r.2.a.o. (5), p. 246, where Dr. Davidson's remark'; on the conjecture arc given; in Jer. XXXI. quoted in Heb. TrIII. 8-12, and 33-34 (Sept. XXXVUI. 33-34) placed in Table E.IILr.2.a.o. (6), p. 248, where see in pp. 250-252, a full exposition of the variation; in Amos 1X. 11-12, quoted in Acts XV. 16-17, and found in Table E.1.r.a.o. (9), p. 201; where a t pp. 202-3, the charge of corrupt~oriis advanced and proof adduced; and in Zech. XII. 10, quoted in John XIX. 37, and placed in

General Summary.

269

Table E.1.r. ( I ) , p. 131, where the conjecture of corruption is shown to be needless. A corrupted text in the New Testament., under the head of Quotations, is supposed to be found in Matt. XXVII. 9-10, and Heb. I. 10-12; but, in regard to the former, it i s concerned about the introductory formula, which falls not to be considered here, but in the next volume; and, in regard to the latter, quoted from Ps. CII. 26-28 (Sept. CI.), and placed in Table E.1.r.a.o. (13), p. 209, the variation is accounted for, and there is no ground for the supposition of corrupt.ion.s@ OE@S@a.

I N D E X I.
OF QUOTED PASSAGES OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
o~T n
~ S ~

N*W ~ @ $ t .

Page

Gen. I. 2i. 11. 2. 11. 7. 11. 24.

Matt. XIX. 4. Mark X. 6.
Hcb. 1V. 4. 1 Cor. XV. 45. Matt. XIX. 5. Mark X. 7-8. - I Cor. VI. 16. Eph. V. 31. Matt. XIX. 4. Mark X. 6. Acts VII. 3. Gal. 111. 8. Rom. IV. 18. -1V. 3. Gal. Ill. 6. Jamcs.11. 23. Aets VII. 6-7. Rom. 1V. 17. - IX. 9. &I. 111. 8. . ' %1 30. Rom. IX. 7. Hcb. XI. IS. - VI. 14. Ads 111. 25. Gal. UI. 16. Rom.IX. 12. Neb. XI. 21.

V. 2. XII. 1. X11. 3. XV. 5. XV. 6.

54 Exod. XVI. 4, 15. John VI. 31. XVI. 18. 2 Cor. VIII. 15. 54 57 XIX. 6. 1 Pet. 11. 9. 56 XIX. 12-13. Heb. X11. 20. 165 XX. 12. Matt. XV. 4fp. 16i - XIX. 19 fp. 109 Mark VII. 1 0 f ~ - X. 191p. 187 Luke XYIU. 201p. 54 Eoh. V1. 2-3.

I
11

Old Tast

New Test.

,

n.i;3k4} 11.11. .Times
XX. 13-16.

x
111 $15 112 '243 7 145 52
C"

Matt. XIX. 18. Lpke XVIII. 20fpMark X. 19fp. Rom. XIU. 9fp. - VU. 7. Matt XV 4 1p. MarkVII 1Olp.

XX. 13-17.
XX. 17. XXI 17 16)

XV. 13-14. XVII. 5. XVIU. 10. xmn. 18. XXI. 10. XXI. 12. XXII. 17. XXI. 18. XXV. 23. XLVII. 31.

-

XX1l.

gi}

Acts XXIII. 5.
Heb IX 20. - VIII. 5. 3 . ~ VII. 40. ~ 1 ~ 1 Cor. X. 7. Rom. IX. 15. 1 Pet. 1 16. . Luke 11. 24. Rom. X. 5. Gal. Ill.' 12. Matt. XIX. 19 lp. - XXiI. 39. Mark XII. 31. T.uke X. 271p. Rom. XIII. 9 lp.' Gal. V. 14. James 11. 8. 2 Cor. VI. 16.

t10

.,
36
e*

Exod. 11. 13-14. Acts V11. 26-28. - VIT. 35. 11. 14. I . 5 7, 8, 1 0 - VII. 33-31. Ill. 6. Matt. XXII. 32. Mark X11. 26. Ill. 6, 15. Acts VII. 32. IX. 16. Rom. 1X. 17. Xil. 46. John XIX. 36. XiI1. 2. Luke 11. 23.

11 8 l e v . XI. 44. XI. 8. 103 ~ m . 5. 244 XIX. 18. 102 199 I

XXlV 8.' XXV 40. XXXII.l, or 2 XXXII. 6. XXXIII. 19.

31 47 1

j:!

,'

-XXVI. 11-12.

Index I.
Old Test.

Numb. XVI. 5.
Deut. V. 16.

New Test. 2 Tim. 11. 19.

page

/I

Old Test

N*W ~ e r t

21

1 Kings X1X. 1 4 R 3 &ngs -

Malt. XV. 4fp. - XlX. 19fp. Mark X. 19 1p. Luke XVUI. 20 lp. Eph. VI. 2-3. V. 17-18, kmes 11. n. V. 17-20. Matt. XTX. 18. Luke XVIII. 20 fp. V. 17-21. mark X. 19 fp. ' Rom. XNI. 9fp. v. 21. - VII. 7. VI. 4-5. Mark XU. 29-30. Matt. XXII. 37. VI. 5. Luke X. 27fp. VI. 13. Matt. IV. 10. Luke N. 8. VI. 16: Matt. IT. 7. Luke 1V. 12. VIU. 3; Matt. IV. 4. Luke 1V. 4. 1X. 19. Heb. XII. 21. XVIII. 15. Acts VII. 37. XVIIL16,16,18,19. - 111. 22-23. Malt. XVIIT. 16. XIX. 15. John VIE. 17. 2 Cor. xm. I. XXI. 23. Gal. 111. 13. X XXV. 4. 1 Cor. I . 9. 1 Tim. V. 18 fp. XXV. 5. ' Matt. XXII. 24. Mark XII. 19. Luke XX. 28. xxvn. 26. G ~ LIU. 10. .

41 41 I 1 Kings XIX. 18 R 42 3 Kings 4 1

I

~ XI. ~3. .

I

~ XI. ~4. ,

28

1 ps. 11. 1-2. 11 i

/

75 19 166 218 151

n. 9.
V. 10. VUI.3. VIU. 5-7. VIII. 7.

X.
IX. 28

}

Aets IV. 25-26. - X111. 33. Heb. I. 5fp. - V. 5. RW. 11. 27. Rom. 111. 13 fp Matt. XXI. 16. Heb. U. 6-8. 1 Cor. XV. 27. Rom. 111. 14.

XVI. %--I1 XV. XVI. 10 X.Y. XVIII. 50 xw. -

\

Aets 11. 25-28.

-1 1
)
) ) }

-

XIII. 35. 9.

R O ~XV. .

xmn.- f
XXI. 2

~ ~ txxvlr. 46. t . Mark XV. 34. Malt. XXVII. 35. John XIX. 24.

xxF )

Rom. XI. 8.

XXX. 12-14. XXXI. 6, 8. XMUI. 17. XXXII. 21. xxm. 35. XXXII. 35-36. XYXU. 43. Josh. 1. 5.

- X. 6-8. Heb. XIII. 5. 1 Cor. X 20. Rom. X. 19. XII. 19. Hcb. X. 30. Rom XV. 10.

XXII. 2 3 ) XXI. XXIV. 1 XXIII. XXS. 6 XXX. -

~

~1. b . 1 12.

1 Cor. X. 26. 28 lp. in

Luke XXIII. 46.

XXm.

-

XXXI.

g: i
Xxxm

-

1

Rorn. 1V. 7-8.

13-li] I Pet. IU. 10-12.

Heb. XIII. 5.

Judg. XUI. 5.
1 Kings

.

Matt. 11. 23.

-

) John XIX. 36. XXXV. ) John XV. 25. XXXIV. XXXvl. ) Rorn. III. 18. m.XXXVIU. ) John XV. 25. XXXVII. -

2Sam. VII. 8,14 2 Cor VI 18 2 Kings Heb. 5 k . '

-

f

;.

Index I.
Old Test

XL1. l0 XL. "IV. 23 XLIII. XLV' i-8 XLIV. L1. L.

)

~ e Test w

Page

1
]

John XIII. 18. Rom. V111.36 Heb. 1. 8-9. Rom. Ill 4. Eph. IV. 8. John XV. 25.

';l/i
12 5 30

.,!/ Ps.CIX. - ] CX. 1
4

Old Test.

Ner Test.

Heb. V. 6. - VII. 17, 21. 2 Cor. IX. 9 .

1

Cxl. CXI. CXVI. 10

)

Cxv,

]

- 1v. 13.

) LXIX' ) LXVIII. LxvnI.
LXVII. LXIX. 16 LXVII1.-} LXIX. 23-24 LXWI. LxvnI. -

-

J

\

I
,

CXVII. 1 cxVI.-

j

- XV. 11. .
Heb. XI1l. G .

~ X ~ I 6. I CXVII. -

1-

Soh11 11 17. Rom. XV. 3. 9-10,
206

/I

/

1 Pet. 11. 7. CXVIII. 22-23) Matl. XXI. 42. CXVU. - ] ~ ~ ~ k 10-11. x l l

1

129

c x m .CXL. cxXXM.-

LXXVL1l.24 LXXVII. Lxxxn. B ~ ~ ~

-}
1

} Rom. 111.131p

John VI. 31.r

60

1Acts XIII. ~ ) 1 , 22.

Prov. 111. 11-12.Heb. XI1 5-6. 111. 34. James IV. 6. - V. 20. 1 Pet. 1V 8
43 XXV. 21-22. 13 14 Ecel. VII. 20. %I0 ls.1.9. VI. 9. l3 VI. 9-10. 159
'I)g

XCI. 11-12 XC. XCIV. 11 XCV. XCIV. XCV. XCIV. 7-8 8 7-11 8-11 11

1

Matt I . 6. V Luke N. 10-11.

2 Cor. IX. 7. Rom. X11. 20.

xcv.

111. ) Heb.1V. 7.15. ) - 7-11.

Rom. 111. 10. Rom. UI. 29. Luke TIII. 10. Matt. XIII. 14-15, Mark IV. 12. Aels XXVIU. 26-2 John XU. 40. Malt. 1. 23. 1 Pet. 111. 14-15. Rom. IX. 33. Heb. 11. 13fp. - TI. 131p.

XCVII 7 XCVI. CII. 26-28 cL CIV. 4

] - 1. 6. ) - 1.10-12.
John XV. 25.
Acts I. 201p.

36

!
,

]

30

CIX. CX.

-f

Man. 44. Mark XU. 36. LukeXX 42-43 Acts 11. 34--35. 1 Cor. XV. 25. Heb. I. 13.

xq.

.

25 27 28

1 6;3

~

VI. 10. VII. 14. WI. 12-13. VIII. 14. VIII. 17. VlII.18. V111. 23-IX. 1 )iNatt. IT. 15-16. IX. 1-2. Rorn. IX. 27-28. X. 22-23. XI. 1. Malt. 11. 23. Rom. XV. 12. XI. 10. 1 Cor. XV; 32. XX11. 13. - XV. 54. XXV. 8. XXVU. 9: Rom. XI. 27. XXVIII. 11-12. 1 Cur. XIV. 21.

18

Index I.
oid ~ e s i
~ e test w

Paee I

Old Test

New Test

Is. XXVIII. 16.

XXIX. 10. XXIX. 13. XXIX. 14. XL. 3.

XL. 3-5. XL. 6-8. XL. 13. XLII. 1 4 . XLV. 23. XLIX. 6. XLIX. 8. L11. 5. LII. 7. LII. 11-12. LIT. 15. LIII. 1. LIII. A UII. 5. LIII. 7-8. LUI. 9. LTlL 11, 12. Lm. 12. LN. 1. L N . 13. LV. 3. LVI. 7.

LIX. 7-8. LIX. 20-21. LXI. 1-2. 4 LXV. 1-2. LXVI. 1-2.
Jer. VII. 11.

'

{

Rom. IX. 33. - X. 11. 1 Pet. I1. 6. Rom. XI. 8. Matt. XV. 8-9. Mark W. 6-7. 1 Cor. I. 19. Matt. U. 3. I Mark I. 3. John 1. 23. Luke IIT. 4-4. 1 Pet. I. 24-25. Rom. XI. 34. 1 cor. 11. 16. Matt. XII. 18-21. Rom. XIV. 11. Acts XIII. 47. 2 Cor. VI. 2 Ram. II. 24. - X. 15. 2 Cor. VI. 17. Rom. XV. 21. John XII. 38 Rorn. X. 16. Matt. VIII. 17. 1 pet. n. 24fp. 1 Pet. 11. 241p. Acts VIU. 3 2 3 3 . 1 Pat. 1L 22. II. 24Q. Mark XV. 28. Luke XXII. 37. Gal. IV. 27. John VI. 45. Acts XIII. 34. Matt. XXI. 13fp. Mark XI. 17 fp. Luke XIX. 46 fp. Rorn. 111. 15-li. - XI. 26-27. Luke IV. 18-19.

' O

-

. '

25

)

)

Rom. IX. 26.

23 V1. 6. XI. 1. XllI. 14. II. 2 8 3 2

- IX. 25.
Matt. M. 13. XII. 7. Matt. n. 15. 1 Cor. XV. 55.

-

)

Ack

n. 17-21.
w. 42-43.

11. 32 1

1

Rom. X 13. .

Amos V. 25-27.Acts M.11-12.
39 92

- XV. 16-17.

-

I
H

V.

2

1

Matt. 11.6. Acts XUI. 41. Heb. X. 37-38. R O ~ I. 17. . Gal. III. 11.

Hab. I. 5. 11. 3 4 . n. 4.

~ n. 6. ~

~ Heb. MI. 26. .
Matt. XXI. 5. John XU. 14-15, Matt. XXW. 9-10. John XIX. 37. Matt. XXVI. 31. Mark XIV. 27. Rom. M.13. Matt. XI. 10. Mark I. 2. Luke I. 17. - VII. 27. 17 58 59 252 60 252

~ e c h 1% 9. .

XI. 13. XII. 10. Xm.7. Mal. 1. 23 -. 111. 1.

1 Cor. n. 9.

Rorn. X. 20-21. Acts VII. 49-50. Matt. XXI. 131p. Mark XI. 17 1p. Luke X K 46 1p.

IV. 4--5.

I N D E X 11.
OF QUOTATION-PASSAGESIN THE NEW TESTAMENT

New Test

i
New Test

Matt. 1. 23. U. 6. 11. 15. n. 18. 11. 23. 111. 3 . 1V. 4. 1V. 6.

.

.

Old Test

Is ViI. 14

.....

Page

XI. I . Jer. XXXI. 15
HOS.

IV. 7. 1V. 10. N.15-16. VIII. 17. IX. 13. XI. 10. XU. 7. XII. 18-21. XUI. 14--15. XIU. 35.

XV. 4fp.
XV. 41p. XV. 8-9. XWI. 16.

Is. XI. 1. - XL. 3. Deut. VIU. 3. Ps. XCI. 11-12 XC. Deut. VI. 16. - VI. 13. Is VIII. 23-IX. 1 Is. IX. 1-2. LIII. 4. Hos. VI. 6. Ma1 In. 1. Hos. 71. 6. Is. XLII. 1-4. VI. 9-10. Ps. LXXVIII. 2 - TXXYII. Exad. XX. 12. Deut. V. 16. Exod.XX1.

]
)

127 Matt. XXI. 131p. XXI. 16. XXI. 42. 22 193 X W . 24. XXII. 32. 64 XXII. 37. X W . 39. 164 XXII. 44. 74 15' 225 XXVI. 31. XXVII. 9-10, XXVII. 35.

,

Old Test

Page

Jcr. V11. 11. Ps. VIll 3. - CXVIII. 22-23 - cxvn. Deut. XXV. 5 Exod. ID. 6. Deut. VI. 5. Lev. WL. 18.

-

j

I65 2 105 76 42 166
3

- CIX. Zech. XII. 7. - XI. 13.
152 235

-

- XXI. -

-

j

:;]

XXVII. 46. 142 128 58 Mark I. 2. 129 I. 3 . Zz8 W.12. 88 W. 6-T. 129 vn. lofp. YII. 101p. 4t 41 47 195 164 54 54 165 1 1 41 41 2 221 41 X. 6.

-mMal. IU. 1. Is. XL. 3. - VI. 9-10. - XXlX 13. &od.xX. 12. 16 Gen. I. 27. - V. 2. 11. 24. Exod XX. 13-17. Deut. V 17-21. Exod. XX. 12. at. V. 16. IS. LVI. 7. Jer V1I. 11. Ps CXVIII. 22-23 59 197 231 198
3

,

Is. XXIX. 13. Deut. XIX. 15.

X. 7-8.
X. 19fp. X 191p. XI. IT@. XI. 171p. XII. 10-11.

-

- n. 24.
XIX. 19fp. Erod.XX. 13-16. Deut. V 17-20. Exod. XX. 12.

- V. 2.

xn. 19.
XD. 26. XII. 29-30.

- cxvn.

-

)

54 54 167 26 26 42 42 -3 168

Deut. XXV. 5. Exod. 111. 6. Deut. VI. 4-5.

17 43 1%

18*

Index I1
New Test

Old Tesl.

Page I

Mark XII. 31. XIL 36. XIV. 27. XV. 28. XV. 34.
Luke I. 17.

Lev. XIX. 18 Ps. ex. 1

- ax.-

>

3 John XV. 25

1

New Test

Zech. XUI. 7.

- LXIX. 5 - LXVrn.7- CIX. 3 - CWI. XXII. 19 - XXI. Exod. XTI. 46.

30 30

IV.4.
1V. 8. IV. 10-11.

X. 27 1p. XvlIl. 20 fp.

X E . 46 fp. XIX. 46 Ip. X X 17.

XX. 28. XX. 42-3.
XXII. 37. XXl11. 46.

Mal. 111. 23-24 - 1V. 4-5 Exod. Xm. 2. Lev. XII. 8. IS. n.3-5. Deut. Vnl. 3. - VI. 13. Ps. XCI. 11-12 1 - XC. h u t . v . 16. s Is. LXI. 1-2. Mal. IU. 1. Is. vl. 9. Deut. VI. 5. Lev. XIX. 18. Exod. XX. 13-16. Deut. V. 17-20. Exod. XX. 12. Dcut. V. 16. Is. LVI. 7. Jer. Vn. 1 1. Ps. cxVIn. 22 ) - CXVII. Deut. XXV. 5.

-

31

- XXXIII.
43 90 239 60 143 21 8 3 28 28 4 4 48 168
lU6

Zech. XII. 10.

131

1

Acts I. 20 fp 1. 20 1p. 11. 17-21

- LXm.- CE. 8 - cm. Joel 111. 1-5 - 11. 28-32 Ps. XVI. 8-11 -XV. - ex. 1 5 - CIXDeut XVIII. 15,16,18,18. 241 Gen. XXII. 18. 32

n. 25-28.
I. 34-35. I
111. 2%-23. 111. 25. IV. 11. 1V. 26-26. VII. 3. W. 6-7. W. 26-28. VII. 32. VII. 3 3 - 3 4 . VII. 35. VU. 37. VII. 40. W. 42--43. VII. 49-50. VIlI. 32-33. XIlI. 22.

>

I

- CXVII. - 11. 1-2. 5 Gen. XII. 1. 169 XV. 13-14. 243 & ~ d .n. 13-14. 244 - 111. 6, 15. 50 - 111. 5, 7, 8, 10. 199 - 11. 14. 102 Deul. XVIII. 15. 143 Exod. KXXU. 1, or 23. 44 Amos V. 25-27. 169 132 Is. LXVI. 1-2. - LIII. 7-8. 92

78 28

-

IS. LIIL 12:

20
J

-

Ps. XXXI. 6 XXX. -

1

Is. XL. 3.

VI. 31.
VI. 45. VII. 38. V11. 42. W I . 17. X. 34. X11. 14-15. XII. 38. XII. 40. XUI. 18

- rxxvnr. i 4 - LXXVU. Is. LIT. 13. Deut. XIX. 15. Ps. LXXXII. 6 - LXXXI. Zech. M.9. Is. LIII. 1. - VI. 10.

1 Kings Ps. LXXXIX. 21 - LXXXYII1.- 11. i . , Is. LV. 3.

6 50

- XL. -

XI11. 47. XV. 16-17,

- XV. Hab. I. 5. Is. XLE. 6. Amos I .11-12. X

-

183 144 201

278
New Test
Old Test

Index 11.
Page

New Test

Old Test

Page

2 Cor. N. 13.

- CXV.

Heb. 11. 12.
1

- XXI. Is. VLII. 17. VIII. 18. Ps. XCV. 7-1 1 XCN. 8-11 - XCV. 7-8 - XCIV. 8

21 17 101 210

VI. 2. VI. 16.
VI. 17. VI. 18.

vnr. 15. IX. 7.
IX. 9.

Is. XLIX. 8. Lev. XXVI. 11-12. Ezek. XXXVII. 27. Is. LII. 11-12. 2 Sam. VU. 8, 14 2 Kings E X O ~ .XVI. IS. Prav. XXII. 9 XXII. 8

11 51 51 73

U. 13 fp. 11. 1 3 6 . nI. 7-11.
In. 15.

-

-

\

1

-

63 20 157

IV. 3. IV. 4.

- XCrv.Gen. 11. 2. Ps. XCV. 7-8 - XCIV. 8 - II. 7. - CIX Gen. XXII. 17. - CIX. Exad. XXV. 10. Jer. XXXI. 31-341 - XXXVIU. Exod. XXIV. 8. Ps. XL. 7-9 1
14 14 36 14 213 248
37
.<a LIZ

nn. 1.
Gal. Ill. 6. Il 8. l. 111. 10. n ~11. . n ~12. . m. 13. ID. 16. 1V. 27. N. 30. V. 14. Eph. 1V. 8. V. 14. V. 31. VI. 2-3.

- CXI. D e u t XIX. 15. Gen. XV. 6. - X I . 3.

- x m . 18.

.

.

,

Deut. XXVII. 26. 1 3 ~11. 4. ~. Lev. XVIII. 5. Deut. XXL 23. Gen. XXII. 18 Is. LIV. 1. Gen. XXI. 10. Lev. XIX. 18.

52 52 158 141 45 187 11 101

/

VI. 14. V11. 17, 21.

vm. 8-12,
M 20. X. 5-7.

W I . 5.

- xxmx Jer. XXXI. 33-34 - xxmn. -cmv. Deut. XXXII. 35-36. Ps. CXXXV. 14

213 160 160 116 15 10'3 161 72 57 150 37 38

- LXV11.

187 149 149 113 39 21 12

Gen n. 24. Exod XX. 12. Deut. V. 16.

1
/
1 I

]

1 Tim. V. 18fp. V. 181p. 2 Tun. 11. 19.
Neb. 1. 5 fp. I. 51p. I. 6. I. 7. 1. 8-9. 1. 10-12. I. 13..
11. 6-8.

-

XXV. 4.

Numb. XVI. 5.

X. 37-38. Xl. 18. XI. 21. XI. 5-6. XI. 20. XII. 21. XIS. 26. XIII. 5. XIII. 6.

Ps. U. 7 2 Sam. VII. 14 2 Kmgs - Ps' XCm' - XCVI. - CIV. 4

] )

Hah. 11 3 4 . Gen. XXI. 12. - XLVU. 31. Prov. 111. 11-12. Exod. XTX. 12-13. Dcut 19. Hag. n. 6. Deut. XXXI. 6, 8. Josh. 1. 5. Ps. CXVIII. 6 ) - CXVII.

,

-

159

Jarncs 11. 8 11,

- cm. -

Lev. XIX. 18. Exod. XX. 13-14 - 13. 15. Deut. V. 17-18. Gen. XV. 6.

15

-

- XLTV. - CIS. 26-20 - CI. - CIX. - Cx ' - VIII. 5-7.

209

f

.

l 3 1 Pet. I. 16. 118 I. 14-25.

/4

1,

N. 5. 1V. 6. v. 20.

Prov. 111. 34.

38 112 123 162

!

LC". XI. 44. Is. XL. 6-8.

18 136

Index 11.
New Test 1 Pet. 1. 6. 1
Old Test

279
Old Test

Page

New Test

I.XXVm 16. s

215

1 Pet. 11 10-12.Ps. 1.

1. i . 1 1.9. 1 1. 22. 1 1. 24fp. 1

- CXVII. - LID. 5.
Exod. XIX. 6. I.LIII 9. s L I . 4, 11, 12. II

Ps. nrv10.22)

- XxXuI. I.V I . 12-13. s II Prov. X. 12.
Prov. XXVI. 11.

XXIITV. 13-17

-

IT 24 1p.

I . 14-15. n 1V. 8. 53 63 1 2 Pet. 1. 22fp. 137 39 Rev. 11. 27.

215 137 138 138

Ps. 11. 9