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Gate of Reincarnations
From the teachings of Rabbi Yitzchak Luria Introduction The work, "Shaar HaGilgulim," as the title reveals, is about the Torah concept of reincarnation. Based primarily on the Zohar in Parashat Mishpatim where gilgulim are discussed, it is from the writings of the master Kabbalist, Rabbi Yitzchak Luria, zt"l (15341572), otherwise known as the 'Arizal.' The book was recorded by his foremost disciple, Rabbi Chaim Vital, zt"l, and amended by Rabbi Shmuel Vital, his son. As well as outline principles of personal rectification and reincarnation, this work reveals the spiritual roots of many of the great Torah scholars of the past. Furthermore, it often provides vital information about the future in terms of helping one understand the challenges to be expected throughout Jewish history and particularly at the 'End-of-Days.' Our new annotated English rendition was translated by Rabbi Yitzchak Bar Chaim. It is being edited and annotated by Rabbi Shabtai Teicher, an Ari Kabbala scholar in Jerusalem. We have divided the lengthier of its 42 chapters (in the original called: hakdomot "Introductions"), into a number of sections.

Names of the Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 1 We will begin with what the rabbis wrote that the Nefesh has five names. From the bottom up they are Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama, Chaya, and Yechida. Translated, they are: Yechida Chaya Neshama Ruach Nefesh Singular Life (Force) Breath Wind (that which has come to) Rest

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Each of these levels represents a different level of light that originated from Ein Sof, the Infinite light emanating out from G-d. On the level of Yechida, the light is still very sublime and unified; on the level of Chaya, it is less so, but it is considered to be the life force of all that comes after it. "Neshama" is derived from the word "neshima," which means breath, because this level of soul is said to be like a breath in the mouth of G-d, soto-speak. Ruach is the soul-light as it leaves the stage of Neshama, like a breath blown out of the mouth of a person. The soul-light comes to rest on the level called Nefesh, which is in the blood of a physical human being, and therefore it acts as an interface between the spiritual and the physical. When a person performs righteous deeds, it unifies the levels of his soul Certainly, these names have not been ascribed by chance or convenience. Rather, know that the person himself is the spiritual element within the body, while the body is only a garment for the person - not the person himself. This is what is written, "It shall not be smeared on human flesh..." (Ex. 30:32), as is noted in Zohar, Parashat Bereishit, 20b. In other words, "flesh of man" implies that the flesh belongs to man, but it is not the man himself. "Flesh of man" is only the body and exterior garment; it is not the real man. It is, therefore, not worthy to be anointed. Since man connects all four worlds of ABY"A...[an acronym formed from the initial letters of Atzilut, Beriya, Yetzira and Asiya] Correspondance of the Four Worlds and the Parts of the Soul: Atzilut Beriya Yetzira Asiya Emanation Creation Formation Action Chaya Neshama Ruach Nefesh

A very important concept is implied by our text here. Even though a person’s physical body is miniscule compared to the physical world, his spiritual soul spans all five spiritual worlds that emanate from Ein Sof. Since there is a direct and automatic correlation between the levels of soul and the levels of worlds, man’s actions, besides having a direct impact on his soul, have a direct impact on the corresponding spiritual worlds. When a person performs righteous deeds, it unifies the levels of his soul, and hence, the four worlds as well; the opposite is true if a person sins. Since man connects all four worlds of ABY"A, by necessity, there has to exist within him sections from all four worlds, and each section is called by one of the five names: NRNCh"Y (Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama, Chaya, and Yechida), as we will explain. [To link to a

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related article, The Glassblower Analogy, click here.] [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.] [Publisher’s note: An integral part of Kabbala study is to review the material a number of times.]

Growing Spiritually
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 2

He does not acquire all of them [all five levels of soul] at one time, but rather according to his worthiness. At first, he obtains the lowest of them, which is called "Nefesh." Afterwards, if he so merits, he then also attains "Ruach." This is explained in several places in the Zohar, such as in parashat Vayechi, and parashat Teruma, and specifically at the beginning of parashat Mishpatim (Zohar 94b): "Come and see: When a person is born, he is given a Nefesh..." The sefirot are like a family tree...with multiple generations Although a person begins life with only a Nefesh, he has the potential to ascend to higher levels of soul, according to his merit (as elucidated below). …All Nefashot are only from the world of Asiya; all Ruchot are from the world of Yetzira; and, all Neshamot are from the world of Beriya. However, the majority of people do not have all five parts, which are called NR"N, etc., but only the Nefesh from Asiya. We have seen at the end of the previous section that the abbreviation for all five levels of the soul is NRNCh"Y. Since the uppermost levels of Chaya and Yechida are inaccessible now, they are often ignored, and the short-form is even more abbreviated to NR"N. Late in history and distant from Mt. Sinai as we are, most people only have access to the Nefesh level of their soul, which is why it is so difficult to relate to God and spirituality. However, even this Nefesh has many levels, and this is because Asiya itself also divides into five Partzufim, called: Arich Anpin, Abba, Imma, Zer Anpin, and Nukveh d'Zer Anpin. The word "partzuf" (plural: "partzufim") literally means "face". In the Kabbala it also refers to the entire human shape. In general, there are ten sefirot: keter, chochma, bina, chesed, gevura, tiferet, netzach, hod, yesod, and malchut. However, each one is a localized version of the entire system. In other words, it is possible to discern within each one of them ten component sefirot, and within each one of those ten others, etc. (This may be likened to a photograph taken with a

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hologram, where any detail may be blown up to reveal all the basic information that is contained in the whole photograph. All the basic information of the whole is contained in the detail; and the detail contains all the basic information found in the whole.) When we see a number of sefirot joined together, working together and functioning together as a system, then they are called a partzuf. Each partzuf has a unique name, and these correspond to the names of the sefirot, the names of the soul and the names of the worlds, as discussed previously (Chapter 1, Section 1).
Soul Yechidah World Sefira Keter Partzuf Arich Anpin

Singular
Chaya Atzilut

Crown
Chochma

The long face
Abba

Life force
Neshama

Emanation Wisdom
Beriya Bina

Father
Imma

Breath
Ruach

Creation
Yetzira

Understanding
Chesed -Yesod

Mother
Zeir Anpin

Wind
Nefesh

Formation (details)
Asiya Malchut

The short (or, near) face
Nukva de'Zer Anpin

Rested

action

kingdom

The feminine consort of Zeir Anpin (the short or near face)

Table of Correspondences:

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It should be noted that the sefirot according to the names of the partzufim resemble a family tree of three generations: grandfather, parents, child and his bride. Before a person can merit to attain his Ruach from the world of Yetzira, he must first be complete in all of the five partzufim of the Nefesh of Asiya. In other words, though a person begins life with a Nefesh, it too has higher levels that must be attained through spiritual growth and rectification. When all the levels of Nefesh are rectified, then a person is ready to ascend to a higher spiritual level, that of the level of Ruach. He then repeats the process of growth on this higher spiritual plane. That is, he must first master the Nefesh of his Nefesh, then the Ruach of his Nefesh,

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the Neshama of his Nefesh, and so on. Once he has acquired the Yechida of his Nefesh, then the entire level of Nefesh is said to be "his," and, he is ready to work on acquiring the levels of Ruach. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Path of Rectification
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 3 Even though, as is known, there are people whose Nefesh is from malchut of Asiya, and others who are from yesod of Asiya, still, every person must rectify the entire spectrum of Asiya. Only then can a person receive his Ruach from Yetzira, since Yetzira is greater than all of Asiya. Not all souls are rooted in the same level. However, in spite of the level of the root of one's soul, a person is still responsible to rectify all strata within the level of that world to which he is attached. This includes those levels within the same world but below his root as well as those above it. No individual can begin to rectify the next level of soul applicable to the next world until he has rectified all the lower levels of the world in which he is rooted. Thus, he can initiate work on Ruach from Yetzira only after his Nefesh from Asiya is completely rectified. One must be involved with [the study of] Torah and [the performance of] mitzvot that correspond to all of Asiya Similarly, in order to attain his Neshama from Beriya, a person needs to rectify every part of his Ruach in all of Yetzira, after which he can then receive his Neshama from Beriya. It is insufficient for him to rectify only the particular place in which his soul-root is grounded. That is, the level in which his Nefesh is rooted. Rather, he must rectify [all parts of each level as] we have mentioned, until he is fit [to receive the Nefesh of] all of Asiya, and then he can attain his Ruach of Yetzira. It is this way with all the worlds. The import of this [above mentioned rectification--tikun] is that one must be involved with [the study of] Torah and [the performance of] mitzvot that correspond to all of Asiya--not just those which correspond to the specific place to which his Nefesh is attached. The 613 mitzvot correspond to the various limbs and tendons that make up a human being whose shape represents the structure of the sefirot in the spiritual realm, in the sense that

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partzuf refers to the entire human form, each partzuf consists of 613 limbs and tendons. Thus, the performance of specific mitzvot brings rectification to the corresponding parts of the human body and to the corresponding section of the partzufim and sefirot. The Talmud has already taught that there are mitzvot that have special significance for specific people. That is to say, one mitzva is important for a particular person, and another mitzva is significant for a second person. Nevertheless, in order to advance spiritually each individual must perform all the mitzvot that he can, and not content himself with the performance of only those mitzvot that are significant to him. This [above mentioned rectification] is [thus also applicable] in the realm of "upholding Torah and mitzvot." [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Acquiring Soul Levels
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 4 [Part of the last paragraph of the previous section has been repeated and the paragraphs of this section numbered in order to facilitate explanation of this section.] 1) It is not sufficient to only rectify the particular spot to which his soul is connected. Rather, he must rectify (all aspects of each level as) we have mentioned, until he merits all of Asiya, at which time he can achieve his Ruach of Yetzira. It is this way with all the worlds. 2) This means that one must be involved with (the study of Torah) and (the doing of Her) mitzvot…. Likewise, if a person sins and blemishes a particular spot in Asiya, even though it is not the place to which his Nefesh is attached, he must rectify it. If he commits a sin that affects a part of Asiya to which his soul is not particularly connected, he is responsible to rectify the blemish Even though a person’s Nefesh comes from a specific place in the world of Asiya, he is still responsible to acquire every level of Asiya - the Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama, Chaya, and Yechida of Asiya - as we learned at the end of the previous section. Likewise, if he commits a sin that affects a part of Asiya to which his soul is not particularly connected, he is responsible to rectify the blemish, since he is expected to acquire that level as well on his way to attaining Ruach of Yetzira. (3) However, if another Nefesh failed to perform a specific mitzva from the world of Asiya, or sinned and blemished [something in the world of Asiya], this does not obligate him to rectify the missing mitzva or the blemish caused by the sin of the other [Nefesh]. If they are

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both from the same place, [however], then this is not the case, as we will explain later on, with G-d’s help. Though this will be explained in a later chapter, it can be said here briefly that there are times when more than one soul occupies a single body. If the souls originate from the same root, then they share a common responsibility and need for tikun. However, if they do not come from the same root, then the deficiency or sin of one Nefesh does not necessitate the other to be part of the rectification process. (4) Alternatively, it is possible that the concept of tikun-rectification applies only to blemishes resulting from sin, and not from the [lack of] performance of any of the 248 positive commandments. Thus, rectification is only necessary in the case of a sin, and not for positive commands that were not performed, as first proposed. (5) Or, the following is possible, and it is the correct [interpretation]. Let us say that a soul is from the Malchut of the Nukva of Asiya, called the Nefesh of Asiya…. He does not have to rectify the sections that are not connected to the root of his soul If you take the tenth sefira called Malchut, and subdivide it into ten sefirot it becomes a partzuf called Asiya. The tenth sefira of this sub-set of ten sefirot is also called Malchut, and more specifically, the Malchut of Asiya. If this Malchut is, in turn, subdivided into its own set of ten sefirot, its tenth sefira will be the Malchut of the Malchut of the Asiya, or, the Malchut of the Nukvin of Asiya. Thus, the soul in question would be a level within the sub-set of the sub-set of the tenth sefira Malchut within the general structure of ten sefirot. He will have to rectify all of the malchuyot (plural of malchut): of Ruach, and Neshama, and Chaya, and Yechida of Asiya. A person has to rectify his five roots in the five partzufim of Asiya, but he does not have to rectify the sections that are not connected to the root of his soul. Since his root is specifically in Malchut, it is relevant to the Malchut on all levels in each partzuf. Someone who only rectifies the Malchut of Asiya only acquires the Nefesh of the Nefesh that is within Asiya. If the root of his soul is in Malchut, then he has to rectify the malchut of the Malchut of Asiya in order to acquire Nefesh of Nefesh. A person who also rectifies the Zeir Anpin of Asiya acquires both the Nefesh and Ruach from Asiya. Since his soul is from the Malchut, then he must rectify the Malchut of the Zeir Anpin of

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Asiya in order to acquire the Ruach of Asiya as well as the Nefesh. If he also rectifies the Imma of Asiya then he attains the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama from Asiya. It is the same until he rectifies all five partzufim of Asiya, in which case he will have acquired all the NRNChY . This will be discussed again in Chapter 11. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Aspects of Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Review of Chapter One, Sections 1- 4 By Shabtai Teicher It will be worthwhile to review some of what has been taught until now, and specifically in relation to the information presented in this section. The text of this section contains two distinct ambiguities, separated by a parenthetical statement (not uncommon in the writings of the Arizal). The parenthetical statement is what we have numbered paragraph (3). It has already been explained that this refers to a situation where more than one soul occupies the same body, and it will be explained later on. It concerns the need to rectify all the aspects of each world before one can advance to the next level of soul. The two uncertainties contained in the text are purposely left unsettled. The first uncertainty emerges from contrasting paragraphs 2 and 4. It concerns the concept of tikun, 'rectification', whether it applies to both blemishes caused by transgression of negative commandments and incompleteness in the performance of positive commandments, or to transgression of negative commandments alone. The second uncertainty emerges from contrasting paragraphs 1 and 5. It concerns the need to rectify all the aspects of each world before one can advance to the next level of soul. (This is the case whatever the definition of tikun - rectification discussed in the previous uncertainty is.) The question now concerns how we should count "all the aspects" that need to be rectified. Are they 5 of 5, or 5 of 25 (the NRNChY of his soul root alone)? This will now be explained. The NRNChY of his soul root

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We have already learned that the five levels of soul correspond to external worlds. There has to exist within man sections from all four worlds Since man unifies all four worlds of ABY"A, by necessity there has to exist within him sections from all four worlds, and each section is called by one of the five names: NRNCh"Y [Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama, Chaya, and Yechida], as we will explain…. The first level, Nefesh, comes from the world of Asiya; the second level ruach, from the world of Yetzira, etc. All Nefashot are from the world of Asiya only, all Ruchot are from the world of Yetzira, and, all Neshamot are from the world of Beriya…. We have also learned that each world has five parts or five partzufim. However, even this Nefesh [from the world of Asiya] has many levels, and this is because Asiya itself also divides into five Partzufim…. Hence, for a person to merit his Ruach from the world of Yetzira, he must first have achieved completion of the five partzufim of the Nefesh of Asiya. Now we will learn that each of these partzufim can also be further detailed into five partzufim. Thus, the world of Asiya will contain 25 parts, or cells. All the other worlds above - Yetzira, Beriya, etc. - will also contain 25 cells each. The way of depicting the 25 cells that comprise the Nefesh that is derived from the world of Asiya is shown in the following diagram that is entitled "The NRNChY of NRNChY". However, let us first recall that the names of the souls, the sefirot and the partzufim are interchangeable. 5 4 3 2 1 KETER CHOCHMA BINA THE SIX MALCHUT ARICH ANPIN ABBA IMMA ZEIR ANPIN NUKVA DE' ZEIR ANPIN YECHIDA CHAYA NESHAMA RUACH NEFESH

Numbers have been added to this list of correspondences to simplify the following diagram where the numbers 1 through 5 represent any of the corresponding terms shown above. The diagram that follows will deal only with the Nefesh that is derived from the world of Asiya. In this respect it follows our text. Now, let us review the text using the diagram as an

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explanatory aid. 1) It is not sufficient to only rectify the particular spot to which his soul is rooted. Rather, he must rectify [all aspects of each level as] we have mentioned, until he merits all of Asiya, at which time he can achieve his Ruach of Yetzira. It is this way with all the worlds…. (5) Or, the following is possible, and it is the correct [interpretation]. Let us say that he is from the Malchut of the Nukvah of Asiya, called the Nefesh of Asiya. Diagram of the NRNChY of NRNChY: . Row # 5 Row # 4 Row # 3 Row # 2 Row # 1 ASIYA In our diagram the Nukva of Asiya is indicated by the bottom row of Asiya, Row #1. The Malchut of the Nukva of Asiya is one-fifth (so to speak) of the partzuf Nukva of Asiya, indicated in the diagram by the convergence of Row #1 with Column #1 (marked with an "X"). The text provides an example where the soul-root is Malchut of Nukva of Asiya, the place marked X. That place is all that he is required to rectify on Row #1. The text further implies that it has already been rectified. Now it goes on: He will need to rectify all the Malchuyot (plural of Malchut) that of Ruach, and Neshama, and Chaya, and Yechida of Asiya. These are indicated in the diagram with the mark "0". In this way he will have rectified one COLUMN #1 O O O O X COLUMN #2 . . . . . COLUMN #3 . . . . . COLUMN #4 . . . . . COLUMN #5 . . . . .

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column in our diagram - i.e., the NRNChY of Nefesh of the Nefesh from the world of Asiya. Someone… whose soul-root is from Malchut of Asiya… who rectifies only the Malchut of Asiya… only the first row of the first column - he... only acquires the Nefesh from the Nefesh that is within Asiya. Someone…The same one, whose soul-root is Malchut of Asiya… who also rectifies Zeir Anpin of Asiya i.e., the second row of the first column in our diagram - he… …acquires both the Nefesh and Ruach from Asiya. Someone who also rectifies Imma of Asiya… the third row of the first column… …will have acquired the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama from Asiya. It is the same until he rectifies all five partzufim of Asiya, in which case he will have acquired all the NRNChY . At that time he will have completed the general level of Nefesh from Asiya, and it will be possible to advance to the level of Ruach from Yetzira. In the first possibility of this uncertainty, each level of NRNChY was detailed into five aspects corresponding to the five partzufim of each world. Someone whose soul-root is in Asiya, for example, has to rectify all five aspects of Asiya. In the new idea presented here, in the second possibility of the question, each of the five partzufim of a world is further detailed into five. Thus, there are 25 "cells" in Asiya. Nevertheless, each person rectifies only five corresponding to the 5 levels of NRNChY of his soul root in Asiya.

Stages of the Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 5 Stages Traversed on Each Level of Soul [To review the information presented in this series so far, click on the Previous button at the bottom of the article.] Similarly, [this process of spiritual growth continues] in this way, until the person has thus

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rectified all five partzufim of Asiya, giving him NRNCh"Y, which is called a whole Nefesh of Asiya. Each aspect of the five levels is complete in its three sections, Ibur, Yenika, and Mochin, alluded to in the verse, "His mother would make him a small robe, etc." (Samuel I 2:19). There is a direct transference of light to the souls, as a mother does to a fetus inside her womb Literally, these words mean: 'embryo', 'suckling', and 'brains'. The first term refers to a stage where the sefirot netzach, hod and yesod are "pulled up" on top of chesed, gevura and tiferet, and in this posture of "three within three" they are curled up within the womb of bina. In this way she provides a direct transference of light to them, as a mother does to a fetus when the fetus is inside her womb. The second term refers to the stage when these sefirot have since left the womb of binaImma, but like a new-born child they still require direct "nourishment" (of light) from their "mother," i.e. bina. This stage corresponds to the sefirot of chesed, gevura and tiferet because the size of the partzuf is now equal to all six sefirot from yesod to chesed. The last term, mochin-brains, is another way of referring to the sefirot of chochma, bina, and daat, which function as the "brains" of a partzuf. This stage is also called "adulthood" or "maturity", and the size of the partzuf is correspondingly enlarged. The partzuf has now grown to its full size of ten sefirot; it is now complete and whole (to see Ibur-YenikaMochin chart) click here The levels in the growth of the soul go through the same three-stage process of spiritual development All partzufim develop towards completion through these three stages; and we are being taught here that all the levels attained in the growth of the soul also go through the same three-stage process of spiritual development. Then he merits the Ruach, which comes from Yetzira. On this level there are also five parts, and they make up the complete Ruach of Yetzira. It is the same with respect to Neshama from Beriya, Chaya [from the world of Atzilut], and Yechida [which corresponds to the level called "Adam Kadmon" - "First Man"]. However, this is not the place to elucidate. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Asiya Differs
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 6 Asiya Is Different Than Yetzira, Beriya and Atzilut It is important to explain a difference between the nefesh of Asiya, and the rest of the divisions, Yetzira, Beriya, and Atzilut. This will also help us to answer a difficult question: How can a person, whose root is in malchut of Asiya, be able to ascend to keter of Asiya? Since [every Jew must reincarnate until all the aspects of NRNCh"Y are completed], then by necessity every Jew will ascend to the keter of Asiya, [then eventually] to keter of Yetzira, and [then finally] to keter of Beriya. [That being the case, then] all the other [lower] levels would [eventually] become nullified! Since all Jews, after all their gilgulim, would eventually reach the highest level, no one would be different and no one would remain on any of the lower levels. However, that can never be the case! There are 'leaders of thousands of Israel' from the side of keter, 'wise men' from the side of chochma... However, this is unimaginable. Obviously, there are Jews who are on the level of malchut, and others from yesod, etc., as mentioned at the beginning of Sefer HaTikunim: "There are 'leaders of thousands of Israel' from the side of keter, 'wise men' from the side of chochma, and 'men of understanding' from the side of bina…." Clearly the Jewish nation is composed of many types of individuals with different abilities and strengths, which are determined by their soul-roots. However, the explanation is based upon the difference between Asiya and all the other three worlds. For, someone whose root is in the malchut of Asiya is obviously rooted there specifically. Yet, by rectifying his actions he can purify his nefesh, level after level, until it actually reaches and becomes part of the keter of Asiya. Nevertheless, though it ascends to the keter of Asiya, even there it remains on the level of the malchut of the keter of Asiya, since its root is on the level of malchut specifically. His soul-root level of malchut of Asiya remains, though it ascends as a result of his spiritual improvements. Because of its root in malchut, when it ascends to the keter of Asiya it becomes the malchut of that level. However, he must be purified until he actually ascends to the keter of Asiya, even though it

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will only be called the level of malchut of keter of Asiya. This is true regarding any of the levels of Asiya [to which he may ascend]: he will only be considered the malchut of that level. For example, if he reaches the yesod of Asiya, he will only be considered the malchut of the yesod of Asiya, etc. However, concerning Yetzira, Beriya, and Atzilut, it [the process] is different. A person whose soul-root is malchut of Yetzira, who has rectified and completed that level, also receives a ruach from the yesod of Yetzira after he has also purified and rectified the yesod of Yetzira. As opposed to simply becoming the Malchut of the yesod of Yetzira, as was the case on the level of Asiya. The first ruach that he had from the Malchut of Yetzira remains below [in its original place] in the Malchut of Yetzira, since that is where it belongs. Unlike the levels in Asiya which actually ascend from level to level. Asiya is the lowest of all worlds, and is, therefore,encompassed by the kelipot. Likewise, when he completes the hod of Yetzira, he leaves the second ruach that he had from yesod in yesod of Yetzira, and instead he receives a ruach from the hod of Yetzira. And this is the way it continues up to the keter of Yetzira. Since he has rectified all the levels of his nefesh from Asiya, he is able to receive ruach from all levels of Yetzira. It will be likewise with respect to the Neshama from Beriya. The reason for this difference is that Asiya is the lowest of all worlds, and is, therefore, encompassed by the kelipot. The word kelipot means "encasements," like the peel of a fruit, or the shell of a nut. It refers to the extreme opposite of spiritual purity and holiness, and is therefore the element within creation that makes possible spiritual impurity and sinful action. Sometimes the kelipot are called "Chitzoniyot," which means "Externalities." Being the least spiritually pure element in creation it is the furthest from light, and therefore at the bottom of all the worlds. Consequently, even though a person has already rectified the root level of his nefesh in Asiya, still, if he leaves it on that level, there is a fear that the kelipot there will latch on to it. Since evil has no independent existence of its own, it derives spiritual nourishment and strength from the side of holiness, but for its own evil purpose. The closer something holy is to the kelipot, the more vulnerable it is, and the more desirable it appears to the kelipot as

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a source of nourishment. Therefore, [he must constantly refine his actions] until he rises as high as he can, [until he reaches his root] in the keter of Asiya. However, in the World of Yetzira, and how much more so in the worlds above it, there is no fear of the kelipot latching on, as there was in Asiya. The ability of the kelipot to latch on is eliminated on this more sublime level. Hence, when a person rectifies the root of his ruach in Yetzira, he can rectify another ruach from a higher level. Then the first ruach can remain in its place, in his root. He can acquire a second from a higher place without having to raise up the first ruach to a higher place because the fear [of the kelipot latching on] is not there [in the world of Yetzira]. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

To Be Like Moses
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 7 (The subject of this section is an esoteric interpretation to the verse of Samuel II 14:14 according to the principle that was explained in the preceding section about the difference between Asiya and the worlds above it.) The following is the esoteric meaning of the verse, G-d spares [yisa] no one [Nefesh]; He considers thoughts so that no one be banished from him (Samuel II 14:14). These considerations, that no one be banished, are only for the sake of the Nefesh, since the Nefesh is in Asiya, and thus, because of the kelipot there, in danger of being “banished from him.” the esoteric understanding of the verse is that it is talking about the nefesh of a person, asking that it not be 'banished' The "banished one" refers to King David’s son, Absalom, who had fled from his father after having his half-brother, Amnon, killed in revenge for violating Absalom’s sister, Tamar. The verse is addressed to King David, asking him to allow Absalom to return home. However, the sod (the esoteric understanding) of the verse is that it is talking about the Nefesh of a person, asking G-d that it not be “banished” amongst the kelipot which can latch on to it.

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Therefore, because of this concern the remedy for the Nefesh is that “G-d does spare yisa the Nefesh.” The word employed by the verse yisa is translated as “spare,” but the more literal translation is “lift up,” which leads to the following esoteric explanation of the verse: In other words, G-d does not “lift up” [noseh] and raise a person in order to give him another Nefesh from a higher level than that of his actual root. That would necessitate leaving behind the first one in its place, leaving it vulnerable to the kelipot there. In other words, as the person moved to a higher level of Nefesh, the lower level of Nefesh that was left behind would no longer be in use, which would render it vulnerable to the kelipot. Accordingly, He [G-d] does not give him another Nefesh, more elevated and exalted. Rather the original Nefesh itself ascends upward according to the person’s actions, up until the level of the keter of Asiya. He never possesses any other Nefesh.1 He earns an additional, higher, ruach However, this is not the case in Yetzira and the other worlds, where his Ruach or his Neshama, etc., remains on the level of its root. Instead, the person earns an additional, higher, Ruach commensurate with the perfection of his deeds, as discussed earlier. Beyond the World of Asiya the holiness is such that the kelipot can no longer latch on to a vacated soul-level. Therefore, the soul-level from which a person is ascending need not ascend with the person as he goes up from level to level. This is the esoteric meaning of the well-known statement: Every person can be like our teacher Moses [i.e.] if he is willing to perfect his actions. For [by doing so] he continues to acquire higher levels of Ruach until [he finally attains] the uppermost level of Yetzira. Similarly, [this advancement continues, and a person can ultimately obtain] a Neshama from the uppermost part of Beriya, etc. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Help from Heaven
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 8 According to this, you can also understand another well known concept of our rabbis: ruchot or neshamot of the righteous are infused into a person, in accord with the esoteric principle called “ibur,” to assist a person in his service of G-d. The concept of ibur here is not the same concept that was mentioned earlier in Section Five, although the nomenclature is the same. Literally, ibur refers to the embryo during the state of pregnancy. In this case, it refers to the “impregnation” of a person with the soul of a tzadik, which descends into the soul of a living person to assist the latter in his spiritual devotions. The Talmud informs us that someone who comes to purify himself is assisted from On High As is written in Midrash Ne’elam, [still] in handwritten manuscript [form], concerning the statement that “Someone who comes to purify himself, they help him.” The Midrash Ne’elam is one of the books included in the holy Zohar. The Talmud (Shabbat 104a) informs us that someone who comes to purify himself is assisted from On High. The Midrash Ne’elam now explains this statement according to Rebbe Nathan. Rebbe Nathan said: The souls of the righteous come and help him. This is the type of heavenly assistance that may be granted. The soul of a tzadik will descend and become impregnated within the soul of a person who sets out to purify himself. [It is, also, a form of Divine inspiration - Ed.] Similar sources are found elsewhere in the holy writings. The soul of Rav Hamnuna Sabba appeared in the form of simple workman transporting merchandise on a donkey The same is found in the Introduction to the Zohar, on Genesis, where Rav Hamnuna Sabba came to Rebbe Elazar and Rebbe Abba in the appearance of a donkey loader, etc. That is, the soul of Rav Hamnuna Sabba appeared to Rebbe Elazar and Rebbe Aba in the form of simple workman who transports merchandise on a donkey, in order to reveal to them secrets of the Zohar. Undoubtedly, the ruchot and neshamot of tzadikim are “hidden away” and “bound up” with the “Bundle of Life”, each in his respective root, and G-d does not cause them to descend at all. However, what descends are the ruchot that remained behind at each level of Yetzira,

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and which did not ascend, as we have spoken about. As the righteous person ascended from level to level in the World of Yetzira, he left behind previous levels of ruach as he received new ones in their place. The levels of ruach that were no longer used became available to descend to help others in need of Divine assistance in their service of G-d. It is these that descend and enter other people to help them. However, the highest level of ruach that the righteous person acquired as a result of his deeds is bound up forever with the “Bundle of Life” [after he dies], and it does not move from there. This is true concerning the [levels of] neshama, chaya, and yechida as well. Asiya is the lowest of the worlds, in proximity to the kelipot, and in constant danger of attack by them. Review When each level of Asiya was completed, the perfected level of nefesh (from Asiya) itself ascended to the next level (i.e., to the same aspect of the soul-root on the next level). In this way all the completed levels of Asiya ascend to the highest place in Asiya, the keter of Asiya (albeit, in accord with the aspect of the original soul-root). In the higher worlds of Yetzira, Beriya, etc., the situation is different. There, each completed level of soul remains in its place. The reason for this difference was also explained. Asiya is the lowest of the worlds. Consequently, it is in proximity to the kelipot, and in constant danger of attack by them. Therefore, each completed level of soul ascends to a higher level in order to distance it as much as possible from the kelipot. In the higher worlds, however, there is no such danger. Therefore, each completed level of soul may remain in its place. Based on this difference between Asiya and the higher worlds, we digressed in this section to learn something about the concept of ibur. Since there was an ascent from level to level in the world of Yetzira, the lower levels of soul that were completed there and remained in place, are now available to descend to impregnate the souls of other people. This infusion, or ibur, takes place in order to assist these people in their divine service. The text now returns to discuss another difference between Asiya and the higher worlds of Yetzira, Beria, etc. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Asiya Is Only One Sefira
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 9

There is a second reason for the difference between Asiya and the other worlds. As known, all the worlds have ten sefirot [collectively]. Now Asiya, in its entirety, has only one sefira [of the collective ten], the sefira of malchut. In the system of ten general sefirot, the World of Asiya corresponds to the sefira of malchut, whereas the World of Yetzira corresponds to six different and separate sefirot: chesed, gevura, tiferet, netzach, hod, and yesod. Thus, the World of Asiya is one homogeneous sefira, whereas Yetzira is a composite of six different sefirot. Thus, the Nefesh that is there is able to rise as high as the keter of Asiya, because it is all one sefira. In other words, even though Asiya has many levels, they are levels of one sefira, and therefore connected to each other, which allows movement amongst them. The five partzufim in every world Arich Anpin, Abba,Imma, Zeir Anpin, and Nukva correspond to the five levels of a person’s soul However, Yetzira corresponds to six sefirot: chesed, gevura, tiferet, netzach, hod, and yesod, each of which is a separate level. Therefore, if someone's root is the malchut of Yetzira and it becomes rectified, it cannot ascend and become part of the yesod of Yetzira. It must remain below and he will have to acquire a new Ruach from the yesod of Yetzira if he wants to become elevated through his actions. This is true of the rest of the "Six Extremities" as well. In Hebrew, the term is "Sheish Kitzvot," the six extremities, another name for the six sefirot of Yetzira. The five partzufim in every world - Arich Anpin, Abba, Imma, Zeir Anpin, and Nukva correspond to the five levels of a person's soul, which are from the bottom to the top: Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama, chaya, and yechida. Nefesh is from the Nukva [Malchut] of Zeir Anpin, whereas Ruach is from Zeir Anpin itself. That is, the six sefirot: chesed, gevura, tiferet, netzach, hod, and yesod. "Wisdom gives life to its owner"

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Neshama is from Imma [Bina], and chaya is from Abba, which is called chochma because that is the place of life, as it has been taught concerning the verse, "Wisdom gives life to its owner". (Eccles. 7:12) Yechida is from Arich Anpin, called keter, because it is alone and special… The Hebrew word "Yechida" means both "alone" and "special". The partzuf of Arich Anpin is both alone and special relative to all the other partzufim. It is alone and special with respect to the rest of the sefirot because it lacks a "female" counterpart. Nukva is the female consort of Zeir Anpin. Abba-father has a female counterpart, ImmaMother. Arich Anpin, however, does not have a counterpart. This is known from the verse, "See now that I, I am He" (Deut. 32:39), as elucidated in the Zohar, in Parashat Bereishit. This verse is spoken by G-d, Who has no counterpart. Arich Anpin is also called "I". Thus, on the level of Arich Anpin, the highest level and closest to the One G-d, the Infinite Creator, there is no counterpart and no corresponding female partzuf. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Gilgulim and Righteous
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter One, Section 10 Know, that if a person merits obtaining his Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama, and then blemishes them through sin, he will have to be reincarnated to rectify the damage. The process of gilgul and tikun will be explained throughout the rest of the book, starting with the next chapter. The main point here is in this next paragraph. When he returns in a gilgul with his Nefesh and he rectifies it, his Ruach will not join him. This is because his Ruach remains blemished, and it cannot rest upon a rectified Nefesh. The Hebrew word for “convert” is ger, a word that also means “stranger.” Probably both meanings are applicable here. In other words, rectified levels of souls do not reside in the same body with blemished ones. In what was discussed previously, the person was adding non-blemished, new divisions of soul to already rectified divisions of his own soul. However, once he has

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sinned and must come back another time, the process of tikun changes. He cannot add blemished aspects of soul on top of parts that have already been rectified. Therefore, his [blemished] Ruach will be reincarnated into another person, joining up with the Nefesh of a convert. The Neshama will likewise do the same. The Hebrew word for “convert” is ger, a word that also means “stranger.” Probably both meanings are applicable here. The Nefesh that will host this blemished Ruach must be the Nefesh of a convert, but relative to the homeless Ruach it is also the Nefesh of a stranger. The reason for this is explained elsewhere, in chapter 4, section 2, based on Shaar Maamrei Rashbi, Parashat Mishpatim, 98. Righteous people are greater in death than during theit lifetimes. And the Nefesh that was rectified will receive a rectified Ruach of a righteous person who was similar to him in some of the particular good deeds that he performed. It will actually take the place of his own Ruach. Similarly, if he rectifies his [blemished] Ruach completely, then he will receive a Neshama from some righteous person, which will act in place of his own Neshama. This is the esoteric meaning of what Chazal say: “Righteous people are greater in death than during their lifetimes (Sanhedrin 47a).” Since their Ruach can fulfill this important function in the lives of others. Now, after this person dies, his [own rectified] Nefesh will go together with this Ruach [of a righteous person] and through it [i.e. the Ruach] receive the blessing fitting for itself. When his own Ruach, which joined with the Nefesh of a convert, becomes completely rectified, then his original Nefesh will say, “I will go and return to my first husband,” since it has been rectified. In other words, after parts of his own soul are rectified, they can later be reunited in another gilgul, and return together. It works in the same way for the Neshama with respect to the Ruach. After a person dies, they return in a gilgul and achieve tikun together. End of [Original] Introduction (Chapter One). [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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The Nefesh of the Ger [Convert, Stranger]
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter One, Section 11 The concept of "Nefesh of the Ger" [convert, stranger] will be mentioned several times throughout Sha’ar Hagilgulim. It will be worthwhile to examine it now in greater detail. We have already learned from the Ari several important rules. Firstly, a Ruach cannot come into the world until the Nefesh is completely rectified, and the Neshamah cannot come into the world until the Ruach is completely rectified. Secondly, when the Ruach comes into the world, it must come ensconced within a Nefesh. However, if the Ruach (and/or Neshamah) were already in the world together with the Nefesh, and they were blemished by sin, then the Ruach must be rectified after completion of the Nefesh, but then a blemished Ruach cannot enter the world ensconced within a rectified Nefesh. The rectified Nefesh cannot become a vehicle or external garment to a blemished Ruach (or Neshamah). Yet, the Ruach and Neshamah cannot enter into the world without the intermediary of a Nefesh. How can the Ruach and Neshamah ever enter into the world to achieve rectification? The answer to this conundrum is the concept of "The Nefesh of the Ger (stranger, convert)." The Ruach or Neshamah grabs hold of the Nefesh of a Ger, ensconces itself within that Nefesh, and in this way it enters into the world with the Nefesh of a Ger serving as its intermediary or interface. In addition, there are several points that need to be known to understand this concept of the Nefesh of the Ger. Firstly, when this Nefesh joins with a Ruach or Neshamah, it has already been in the world. The convert has already done what was necessary to merit to it. Secondly, the Ari will explain in later chapters that there are three basic types of soul: new souls, somewhat new souls (descended from Kayin and Hevel) and old souls. The Nefesh of the Ger is a fourth type. The following are the relevant words of the Ari at the end of Chapter Seven of Sefer Hagilgulim. There are other Nefashot [plural form of Nefesh] of converts that fall out from the Kelipah of Nogah, which is composed of good and evil, as mentioned in Parshat Vayakhel, p. 203. They are from the marital intercourse of the souls of the tzadikim [righteous ones] that take place every night in the earthly Garden of Paradise, as mentioned in Beshalach, p.188. The divisions of the souls of Isrealites, however, are three. They are new souls, intermediate ones, which are the souls of Kayin and Hevel, and old ones, which fell from Adam Harishon [when he sinned] and they fell into the Kelipot. Thirdly, we will learn that it is possible for a blemished Ruach, whose Nefesh has been completed, to enter into the body of a person, a stranger but not necessarily a convert, who

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himself possesses an unfinished Nefesh. This is called Double Gilgul (see 4:4). Those that want to examine this concept more extensively can read the translation and explanation of the relevant section of the Zohar in the Note #10. NOTES: 10 If he takes a different wife… Let us consider the words of the Sabba as they appear in the Zohar (Exodus, Mishpatim, pp.98b – 99a, Sulam: 88 – 96), the post-biblical source of the concept "Nefesh of the Ger." The relevant section of the Zohar is actually an exposition on the verse, "If he takes a different [wife]…" (Exodus 21:10). It concerns a Jewish girl who is sold by her father when she is still a minor. She is called an "amah ivriyah," a Jewish maidservant. The Torah requires the person who bought the maidservant to marry her, or to marry her to one of his sons. If he does not do this by the time she becomes an adult [12 years of age] then he gives her gifts and she goes out free. If he or one of his sons do marry her, then she is entitled to receive the love and respect due to every Jewish wife, which is defined by the three categories, "…her food, her raiment and her qualitative time of intimacy." Even "if he takes a different" wife, he can never deny this girl her privileges, fully and without prejudice. However, the Zohar is considering this situation from an esoteric point of view. Source in the Zohar 88 All these souls of converts flew out from the Garden of Paradise in a hidden way. In other words, these souls were not born to Holy Seed. Normally, souls come from the Higher Garden of Paradise into this world by passing through the Lower Garden, and then through the Holy Seed into the world, but these did not come down in a normal way. Suddenly, they appeared far away, and somehow they made their way back. Their path is called "hidden." When they leave this world, the souls that they [the converts] gained from the Garden of Paradise – to what place do they return? Notice that these souls were already in the world. The converts, through their deeds, have earned them. The question here is how do they get back to their place in the Higher Garden of Paradise, and where are they in the meantime? If they had come out in a normal and known way, then they could traverse that path in reverse to get back to Paradise. However, these souls that came out in a "hidden" way – how do they get back? Their way is hidden. And if they cannot get back, then where are they? 89 We were taught that the first person to grab and take hold of the property of a convert

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merits to it. There are two rules in Jewish Law [Halachah] that are relevant to this statement. 1) Any Jew has an inheritor. There is some relative, however distant, who has the right to inherit his property. When he dies, his property is never "up for grabs" since there is someone who has the legal right to inherit it. 2) In contrast, a convert does not have a Jewish family tree that goes back for generations. He might die and leave no inheritors. In such a case the rule is that his property is up for grabs. Whoever grabs the property of a convert who has died and left no inheritors merits to the property. It is the same here with all these holy and high Neshamot who are designated by the Blessed Holy One to go down below, as we explained. According to the Ari these are the Ruchot and Neshamot that were blemished in a previous lifetime. They go out at specific times to play in the [Lower] Garden of Paradise, and they meet the souls of converts. One that takes hold of one of these souls, unites with it, merits to it, ensconces itself within it, and goes out. Since their Nefesh is completed, it is now time for them to be reincarnated. However, they cannot ensconce within their rectified Nefesh because they are blemished. What do they do? They meet the souls of converts, grab hold of them, ensconce within them, and within these garments they are born into the world. They exist within these [enveloping] garments, and they remain in the Garden in these garments because all those that are existing within the [Lower] Garden of Paradise cannot exist there if they are not clothed. 90 If you will say, "Because of these garments, these souls will be denied the ecstasy that was theirs from the first!" Perhaps this is talking about the original Nefesh of the Ruach/Neshamah. This Nefesh will have been cheated because it must now exist without a Ruach or Neshamah, which has gone off to join the Nefesh of a Ger. Or, perhaps it is talking about the Ruach itself that is ensconced within the Nefesh of the Ger. The latter acts as an imposition blocking out some of the ecstasy that was supposed to be absorbed by the Ruach/Neshamah. The Sabba answers. Behold, it is written, "If he takes another [wife] to himself, then he shall not deny her food, her raiment and her qualitative time of intimacy." In the Garden he exists ensconced within this garment that he grabbed and merited, but when he goes up

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from there he removes it because he does not need to exist there within a garment. Thus, when the Ruach/Neshamah goes up into the Higher Garden of Paradise, he divests the garment. The interposition is removed, and he is free to rejoin the original Nefesh. Moreover, the Nefesh of the Ger has gained an important benefit. It has been brought back into the Higher Paradise, albeit as a garment, but now that the Ruach has divested itself of its garment in the Higher Paradise, the Nefesh of the Ger is there on its own and as an independent entity. The Nefesh is the interface 91 The Sabba began to cry as he had done before, and he said to himself, Old Man, Old Man, you certainly have reason to cry and pour out tears over every word that you are revealing. But it is known to the Blessed Holy One and the Holy Divine Presence that my heart is agreeable and I am speaking only in their service. They are the masters of all words, and they are crowned by them [by the words of Torah]. 92 All these holy souls come down into this world to inspire human beings and to take their places as is fitting for each one of them. When they come down each one is clothed in those souls that we discussed [the souls of converts], and that is how they enter into the holy seed. In other words, a Ruach or Neshamah is ensconced within the Nefesh of a Ger, and in that way it reincarnates into the holy seed, into the body of a Jewish person. It is within these garments that they are able to exist and to be effected by the things of this world. When these envelopes [the souls of the converts] draw desired things from this world, then the holy Neshamot are nourished from the odors that they smell in these garments. The Nefesh of the convert is a garment that envelops the higher souls from the levels of Neshamah and Ruach, and it is through this exterior garment that envelops them that the Neshamot and Ruchot enter into the physical world. In other words, the Nefesh of the convert is the interface between the higher souls and the physical world. The Neshamah and Ruach can enter the world only when they are enveloped in a Nefesh, which acts as their interface. They can only benefit from the world by the sense of smell. This they do through the interface of the Nefesh, and if they cannot use their own Nefesh, then they get to use the so-called Nefesh of the convert, which is made available to them specifically for this purpose. "You have known the Nefesh of a Ger" 93 All the hidden things that the Blessed Holy One does He has put into the Holy Torah, and everything is in the Torah. He reveals a hidden thing in the Torah, but he immediately

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clothes it in another garment and hides it. The Wise, who have many eyes, are able to see a hidden thing within its garment even though it is hidden there. They spot it when it is revealed even though it may be hidden again within its covering immediately, and they don’t lose sight of it again despite its obscurity. 94 In several places the Blessed Holy One has already warned about converts that the people of the holy seed must be careful about them. The people of Israel must be careful about the converts in their midst, not to oppress them or treat them harshly in any way, and to go out of their way to make converts feel comfortable and at home as much as possible. The Talmud (Baba Metzia 59b) even says that the Torah has warned the Jewish people about this no less than 36 (and some say 46) times. In one of these places it is written in the Torah (Exodus 23:9), "Do not oppress a Ger, for you have known the Nefesh of a Ger when you were strangers in the land of Egypt." The continuation of the Zohar emphasizes the need to understand this verse and the concept of Nefesh of the Ger in an esoteric way, and not according to its simple meaning. 95 Having warned about the Ger [the stranger and convert] in all these places He now takes the thing out of its covering and reveals it. This is what it says, "…for you have known the Nefesh of a Ger," and then it is immediately hidden with the words, "…when you were strangers in the land of Egypt." In other words, the Sabba is insisting that we should not understand this verse according to its simple meaning that since we were strangers in Egypt, therefore we have the ability to empathize with the convert in our midst. That may be true, but according to the Sabba the Torah is not giving over here a mere psychological ethic based on the historical experience of the collective. It wants us, at this point, to discount the words "when you were strangers in the land of Egypt," which is a mere garment to the important message that "you have known the Nefesh of a Ger." It is as if the Torah thinks that by hiding the thing immediately nobody will pay attention to it. The Sabba may well be doing what he is "accusing" the Torah of doing – revealing one measure and hiding two. He never really explains what the phrase, "…You have known the Nefesh of the Ger" is supposed to mean. He leaves it for us to meditate upon it, or speculate about it. Furthermore, the Sabba reveals now that the esoteric meaning of the verse is talking about the relationship of Neshamah (and Ruach) to the Nefesh of the Ger. It is through this Nefesh of the Ger that the Neshamah knows the things of this world and is able to benefit from them.

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In other words, it is through the Nefesh of the Ger that all the blemished Neshamot and Ruchot can enter into the world. That is the main point. The Nefesh of the Ger is the interface, the mechanism by which blemished Ruchot and Neshamot know the world and benefit from it. The Zohar will now further clarify the point by comparing it to the cloud that is mentioned in the verse, "And Moshe went into the midst of the cloud, and he went up to the mountain…" (Exodus 24:18). 96 The Sabba began, and he said, "And Moshe went into the midst of the cloud, and he went up to the mountain…" What is this cloud? This is what is written, "I have put My bow in the cloud…." This bow sent forth its garment [the cloud], which was given to Moshe. With this garment he was able to go up to the mountain, and through it he was able to see what he saw and benefit from what was there. In other words, the cloud was the interface between Moshe and what was being revealed on Mount Sinai. At this point the members of the fellowship [that were present, R’ Yossi and R’ Chiya] prostrated themselves before the Sabba. They cried and they said, "If we had come into the world only to hear these words from your mouth, then it would have been enough." [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Ibur-Yenika-Mochin
"Gate of Reincarnations": Review of Chapter One These words mean: Mochin - brains; Yenika - nursing; Ibur - embryo All partzufim go through these three stages from embryo, through the nursing stage of infancy, to the stage of adulthood. These stages parallel the developmental stages in humans. In the last stage, when a child grows and matures and becomes an adult, it is said that he has developed "a mind of his own." Hence, the Arizal calls this stage "mochin", which means brains or mind. The following chart will help to illustrate the relationships among the stages.

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TABLE OF I-YaM (Ibur, Yenika, Mochin)
(5) Names of the Brains

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(6)

CHaBaD

Chochma Bina Daat

MochinBrains

GADLUTPermutations of Maturity, Tetragrammaton Adulthood, Big KATNUTImmaturity, Infancy, Smallness

INTERNAL

ChaGaT NaHiY

Chesed Gevura YenikaTiferet Nursing Netzach Hod Yesod IburEmbryo

MIDDLE Permutations of Elo-him EXTERNAL

The embryonic stage is the closest to potential Because this chart depicts stages of development, we shall read it from the bottom to the top. Column 3 describes the basic subject of this teaching, I-YaM: Ibur-Embryo, YenikaNursing, Mochin-Brains/Mind. The first stage in development, Ibur-Embryo, corresponds to the lowest three sefirot, Netzach, Hod and Yesod (column 2), whose acronym is Nahiy (column 1). The second stage corresponds to Chesed, Gevura and Tiferet, whose acronym is Chagat. The third stage corresponds to Chochma, Bina and Daat, whose acronym is Chabad. On a scale going from "potential…" to "actual" the embryonic stage is the closest to "potential". In this stage the partzuf is not even visible (barely existent) since it is hidden within the womb of Imma-Mother. Even within that place it is only six sefirot, and its height is only one row of sefirot because Nahiy is curled up on top of Chagat. Furthermore, like an embryo within its mother's womb it cannot even be called an independent partzuf. In the second stage, yenika-nursing, the partzuf has left the mother's womb, but it is still dependent upon mother. This stage is still the katnut-infancy (lit. "smallness") of the partzuf. It is still only six sefirot, but it is larger than it was beforehand. Its height is now two rows of sefirot because it has uncurled, and all six sefirot are completely visible. Therefore, it corresponds now to Chagat. In the third stage the height of the partzuf is three rows of sefirot because the row of Chochma, Bina and Daat has been added to it. These are the mochin-brains/mind that it has received from above. Therefore, this stage is called mochin. Its complement has been completed to ten sefirot. It is now completely independent, corresponding to the stage of Gadlut-Maturity/Adulthood. In this stage the partzuf has been actualized. When a child is an embryo or a nursling it also has a brain in a very primitive stage of development

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****** We will now explain, with the help of G-d, columns 5 and 6. According to the Kabbala all things are composed of two aspects that are called "the light" and "the vessel". The classic example of these two terms is the body (vessel) and the soul (light, or essence). Also, all things are made from combinations of the letters of the holy Torah. These letters are not only the spiritual genetic code of the thing, but they also give rise to the substance of the thing. In the kabbala of the Arizal the vessels and essences are depicted by combinations and permutations of the letters of the holy names of G-d. When a child is an embryo or a nursling it also has a brain, although its brain is in a very early and primitive stage of development and it is definitely not comparable to the fully developed brain of adulthood. Thus, in the stage of katnut-infancy the names of the brains are combinations and permutations of the name Elo-him. In the stage of gadlut-adulthood the names of the real brains are combinations and permutations of the four-letter Tetragrammaton. Column 6 shows an alternative nomenclature used often for these three stages - external, middle and internal. This is consistent with the rule that all partzufim, or parts of partzufim that are higher than another one are more internal than that other one; and all partzufim or parts of partzufim that are external to another one are lower than that other one. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

CAPTER TWO

Entry of Soul's Levels
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 1

Entry of Nefesh, Ruach & Neshama throughout Life When a person is born, his Nefesh enters him. If he is adequately rectified through his actions, his Ruach will enter him at the end of his thirteenth year when he becomes a "completed person." His Neshama will enter him only when he completes his twentieth year, as it says in the Zohar (Mishpatim 94b). This is talking about the ideal situation during a person's first gilgul, as we will soon see. However, if he does not completely rectify his Ruach, then the Neshama will not enter him

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and he will remain with only his Nefesh and Ruach. Likewise, if he doesn't completely rectify his Nefesh, then he will remain with only his Nefesh, lacking both his Ruach and Neshama. The Ruach and Neshama will remain in a place known to The Holy One, Blessed is He, and there a place will be prepared for each one. In other words, until a person is able to receive all parts of his soul, the parts he has yet to receive remain hidden away by G-d until the person is ready for them. He will have to die and return in order to receive the Ruach Now, if a person does not completely rectify his Nefesh the first time and dies, then his Nefesh will have to reincarnate, perhaps even many times, until it is sufficiently rectified. However, since he only achieved tikun through a gilgul, even after complete rectification is achieved his Ruach will not enter [unless there is a pressing need, as will be explained, G-d willing]. Had it been his first gilgul, then he could have received his Ruach while still alive in his original body. This is not the case if the rectification of the Nefesh is completed during subsequent gilgulim. He will have to die and return in order to receive the Ruach. Furthermore, once the Ruach is sufficiently rectified, then he will also have to reincarnate before receiving a Neshama, as was the case with the Ruach. After he finally rectifies his Nefesh and dies, in the next reincarnation he will return with a Nefesh and a Ruach. Once the Ruach is rectified as well, then he will die and come back in another gilgul with a Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama. If the Ruach is not sufficiently rectified, then the Nefesh and the Ruach will have to come back again, perhaps many times, until the Ruach is rectified. Once rectification is achieved, then the person will die and his Nefesh and Ruach will come back with the proper Neshama until all three are rectified. Once this is done, there is no need for any further gilgulim. When his Neshama is completed, he has become a "complete person." [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Levels of Rectification
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 2 If a person rectified his Nefesh, and came back to receive and complete his Ruach, but during that gilgul he sinned, then his Nefesh will not be affected in such a way that it would

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be forced to come back by itself to become rectified once again. Once the Nefesh has been completely rectified and he has returned to work on Ruach, the Nefesh is protected against any further damage. Otherwise, the rectification process could conceivably go on forever. Rather, because he now has a Ruach, the sin will only damage the Ruach, and only this will need rectification. Therefore, if an additional reincarnation is necessary to rectify the Ruach, then both the [rectified) Nefesh and the [blemished] Ruach will come back again together. This will continue until the Ruach is rectified, after which he will have to die in order for the rectified Nefesh and Ruach to reincarnate with the Neshama. If he has accomplished this and then sins, then it will only damage the Neshama, just as we explained with respect to the tikun of Ruach. However, there are different levels of rectification, and the above-mentioned procedure would be altered accordingly: They will reincarnate together until the Ruach is rectified It can also happen that the Nefesh becomes rectified and purified to such a great extent that it need not come back again with the Ruach for the rectification of the Ruach. Rather, the Nefesh remains Above in a place fitting for it, "bound up with the Bundle of Life." One of the different levels of rectification is so complete that the level of soul that has been rectified does not need to ever come back again. In such a case, the Ruach would have to come back alone to rectify itself. However, this is not possible. The Ruach cannot come down into a body without the presence of a Nefesh. In this case, however, the Nefesh that has undergone such a complete tikun will not return to reincarnate. Therefore, it reincarnates with the Nefesh of a convert, as it says in Sabba d'Mishpatim [in the Zohar]. They will reincarnate together until the Ruach is rectified. This Ruach, therefore, will come down to join the Nefesh of a convert, and they will reincarnate together until the Ruach is completely rectified. Once that is achieved, then the person dies and the first Nefesh comes back to join with it [the Ruach] in order to receive and rectify the Neshama. Or, the Ruach may come back by itself with the Neshama until the Neshama is rectified, after which time the three of them no longer need to return and are instead "bound up with

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the Bundle of Life," as is fitting for them. Once all three levels of soul Nefesh,Ruach, Neshama are rectified, there is no longer any need for gilgul It was said previously that the Ruach does not enter a body without the presence of a Nefesh. In this case, however, where the Ruach was completed when it was together with the Nefesh of the convert, then the rectified Ruach may serve as the vehicle and base for the entry of its Neshama, as if it were both Nefesh and Ruach. In this case, therefore, the presence of a Nefesh is not absolutely necessary. In any case, once all three levels of soul: Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama are rectified, there is no longer any need for gilgul, and all three may remain "bound up with the Bundle of Life," as is fitting for them. The Arizal now returns to consider the fate of the Nefesh of the convert that has been the vehicle for the Ruach that came into the world without its Nefesh because the latter had undergone such a complete tikun. The Nefesh of the convert that was joined to the Ruach has helped it to perform good deeds in this world, and has been a vehicle for it in this world; through their union the Ruach was able to achieve its tikun. This Nefesh of the convert will also become elevated with the original Nefesh of this particular Ruach. The two of them will be on the same level in the World to Come, like "neighbors," and they will never part from one another. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Receiving an Ibur
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 3 In this section the Arizal will disclose new information concerning the concept of ibur, which he has already discussed in Chapter One (see Section 5). First, however, he will review the important rule that we have been studying in this chapter: namely, if a Nefesh achieves tikun only in a subsequent gilgul and not in its first lifetime, then it cannot receive Ruach in the same gilgul. The person must first die, and then his Nefesh and Ruach will be reincarnated together. If a Nefesh reincarnates and becomes rectified through its actions to the point that it is ready for its Ruach, he cannot receive his Ruach, as it has been explained. [If it is not his very first gilgul, then] two or three levels of soul cannot become unified in one gilgul without great need, as we will mention later. Rather, each one requires its own gilgul.

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Only in the first gilgul can the Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama be rectified within one body First the Nefesh needs to be rectified, and even when this happens he will not receive his Ruach until after he dies. Then the Nefesh can reincarnate and merit the Ruach. The same is true of the two of them; if they become rectified to the point that they are ready for their Neshama, they cannot receive it until they reincarnate again. Then they can merit their Neshama. As we have already learned, only in the first gilgul can the Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama be rectified within one body. After that, the person must reincarnate to move from level to level, even if he finishes one level "early." What happens for the Nefesh that is already rectified but lacks a Ruach? We are talking about after the first gilgul, when it is not possible to receive another level of his soul without reincarnation. What happens, though, in the meantime until reincarnation, if the Nefesh is already rectified? This is the sod ["secret"]: From the same level of purity and extent of tikun attained by this Nefesh, there will reincarnate into the body of this person, while he is still alive, the Nefesh of a righteous tzadik that has already completed gilgulim and rectification, and does not need to reincarnate here. By entering here, the Nefesh of this tzadik takes the place of the Ruach of this person. A regular gilgul involves reincarnation from one lifetime to another. Thus, from the time that the Nefesh has become rectified, the Nefesh of a righteous person will enter him and fill the role of the Ruach that cannot come down. Sometimes, it is even possible for the souls of early tzadikim, such as the Nefesh of our patriarch Abraham, or similar souls, to reincarnate. This depends upon the tikun and purification of the Nefesh of the person. Gilgulim [of this type] which occur during the lifetime of a person are called by the rabbis, "sod ["secret of"] ibur." And this is the basic difference between a regular gilgul and an ibur. According to what we have learned here, a regular gilgul involves reincarnation from one lifetime to another. Ibur, on the other hand, is the "impregnation" of a person by the soul of a rectified, righteous tzadik because the Nefesh has completed its tikun, but it cannot receive Ruach without reincarnating since the tikun did not take place in its very first gilgul. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Ibur of Righteous Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 4 Sometimes it is possible, even in this late period of history, for the Ruach of a righteous tzadik, even from one of the Forefathers, to come as an ibur. It will all depend upon the level of the mitzvot being performed by the person. Some mitzvot have the power to draw down the Nefesh of a righteous tzadik into ibur, whereas others can draw down the Ruach of the tzadik. It is also possible for a person to receive the Nefesh of one righteous person, and after that merit another Nefesh from another righteous person, even greater than the first. In such a case, he will have his own Nefesh, the Nefesh of the first righteous person as his Ruach, and the second, higher Nefesh, acting in the place of his Neshama. Thus, in one lifetime he can merit a Ruach and Neshama, though not his own. Or, perhaps, the Nefesh will be perfected to the point that after already receiving the Nefesh of a righteous person, he will merit the Ruach of a second righteous person, even possibly the Ruach of Abraham the Patriarch! There is no generation in which there is not someone like Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Samuel… In this case, the Ruach of the second tzadik will act as his Neshama, and the Nefesh of the first tzadik will act as his Ruach. This is the inner meaning of what they wrote in the Midrashim, in particular Midrash Shmuel: There is no generation in which there is not someone like Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Samuel, etc. (Bereishit Rabba 56). In other words, there are people in every generation who may actually have the Nefesh or Ruach of these great people from the past. There is no pen that will prove sufficient to record all the details in a book. Nevertheless, an understanding person will comprehend and make the necessary inferences on his own. In summary, based upon the tikun and purification of a particular Nefesh, it can even merit a Neshama from the earliest generations, including the most elevated of all; and it can happen even in this generation of ours. Furthermore, it is exactly the same when a Nefesh and Ruach reincarnate together and become rectified, but are unable to acquire their Neshama without first dying and

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reincarnating. They can receive the Nefesh, Ruach, or Neshama of a righteous tzadik as an ibur, and it will act as their Neshama. All the details that were described in the case of the Nefesh alone that has completed its tikun will apply here also. On occasion, it can happen that all three levels of soul will reincarnate together and become rectified. Then the Nefesh or Ruach of a righteous tzadik may impregnate him [as an ibur]. When he leaves this world he will ascend to the same level as the righteous tzadik that came to him as an ibur. In the World to Come they will actually be on the same level. Although his own soul was not originally on the same level as that of the righteous tzadik, he has now merited ascending to that level forever. Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai …said that in "that world" [the World to Come], both he and Rav Hamnuna Sabba would be shining together. This is the inner meaning of what is written in the introduction to Zohar Bereishit (7a): Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai fell on his face and he saw Rav Hamnuna Sabba. He said that in "that world" [the World to Come], both he and Rav Hamnuna Sabba would be shining together. Since the soul of Rav Hamnuna Sabba was within Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai as an ibur, they would be on the same level in the World to Come. This is enough. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Reason for Ibur of Righteous Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 5 Ibur occurs for two reasons. First, through the ibur of the righteous, the Nefesh of a person can become rectified to the level of the Nefesh of the righteous tzadik. In the World to Come he will ascend to that level since the righteous tzadik will have helped him to add mitzvot and holiness to his life. This reason serves the person [receiving the ibur] himself. The second reason is for the sake of the righteous tzadik who was the ibur. By helping the other person to perform mitzvot and rectification, he gains a portion in them. This is the sod [meaning "secret"] of what Chazal wrote: Great are the righteous people, for even in death they merit children (Sanhedrin 47a). In other words, when they cause the person to increase his merit they become like "fathers" who guide and help. This

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is to his merit. The righteous tzadik who has entered as an ibur is like a spiritual, internal navigation system The righteous tzadik who has entered as an ibur is like a spiritual, internal navigation system for the host person. For this service the tzadik will also receive reward through the mitzvot he is helping the person to perform and the holiness he is helping to increase. The righteous soul which enters a person and assists him during his life, as an ibur and not as a gilgul, "easily attains reward and is distant from loss." This is an expression used in the Talmud regarding the laws of monetary investments and interest, borrowed here to describe the secure benefit accruing to the righteous soul in the circumstance of ibur. Every time the person does a mitzvah, he [the righteous soul] receives reward. This is the secret of what is written, "A righteous person receives his reward and the reward of his friend in Gan Eden" (Chagiga 15a). Understand this deep secret well, though now is not the time to discuss it at length. The righteous person receives the reward for having performed mitzvot during his own lifetime, and for those he helps his "friend" perform while an ibur inside of him. On the other hand, if the [host] person does evil, the righteous soul will not suffer any punishment or loss since he only came to help him, not to cause him evil. On the contrary, if this person negates what he rectified, then the righteous soul will leave him. Thus, the righteous tzadik "easily attains reward" for his assistance in the performance of mitzvot. At the same time he is "distant from loss" because he will not suffer any detriment or pain from the sins of the host nor need to participate in the host's sufferings. If the person continues to act righteously, then the righteous soul will remain The sod [meaning "secret"] of ibur is that it occurs during a person's lifetime and therefore does not bind [the Nefesh of the righteous tzadik] to the body. This is unlike a Nefesh that reincarnates, that enters as a gilgul from the time of birth and is unified and bound with the body without exiting from there until death. On the other hand, the Nefesh of the righteous tzadik enters as an ibur willingly and leaves at will. If the person continues to act righteously, then the righteous soul will remain there in order to receive a portion in the actions of the person. It will remain there until the host dies, when they will both go up to the same place, as mentioned previously. However, if the person does evil, then the righteous soul will become disgusted with this union and leave it. He is not permanently there, but "borrowed," like a guest who remains

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with his host until he feels it is time to leave. For the same reason the righteous tzadik will not feel any pains that may occur to the host person and he does not have to suffer them, because he is not "attached" to the body; he is only "borrowed." His ruach and neshama will be worthy to be clothed by this nefesh The rule is that a person who performs a mitzvah of great importance can merit an ibur of the Nefesh of a righteous tzadik from an earlier generation. As a result, it is possible [for him] to become rectified and purified to the point that his Nefesh will actually become transposed onto the same level as that of the righteous tzadik. Afterwards, the person will have to rectify his Ruach and Neshama to such an extent of purity that they will be worthy to be clothed by this Nefesh. The word translated as "to be clothed" indicates the kabbalistic concept of enclothement, hitlabshut, and comes from the root that means "to wear," as when it is said, "He wears warm clothes," or "He wore a new suit." Derived from it, for example, is the Hebrew word levush, which means "garment" or "clothing." The concept of hitlabshut is actually a derivative of the concept of partzufim, both of which are among the most important and innovative ideas in the Lurianic Kabbala. (For a basic article on these innovations, click here). Hitlabshut refers to the fact that the partzufim, or parts of the partzufim, are ensconced or enclothed one within the other, or dressed one upon the other. (For more on hitlabshut, see subsequent articles) Then he will actually become transposed [in his entirety] onto the level of the righteous tzadik, having ascended beyond the original root-level of his soul from whence he came. All of this is the reason for the help and assistance of the righteous soul. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Soul Combinations
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 6 It is also possible for the Nefesh of a person to ascend until his Nefesh will be from the world of Atzilut. Generally speaking, the Nefesh is from Asiya, the Ruach is from Yetzira, and the Neshama is from Beria. However, on a more specific level, each world has its own

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levels of Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama (NR"N). ...each world is part of an overall general system, and a smaller version of the same thing This is not something new. As we learned in the first chapter, each world is part of an overall general system, while at the same time it is a smaller version of the same thing. Hence, it can be that sometimes the NR"N of a person is from Asiya, Yetzira, and Beria. That is, the Nefesh is from Asiya, the Ruach is from Yetzira, and the Neshama is from Beria. Sometimes, though, his NR"N can be from the malchut, the Zeir Anpin, and the Imma of Asiya. That is, all three are from within Asiya. What will follow are other possible combinations. Sometimes, the three of them will be from Yetzira, or from the world of Beria, or all of them will be from Atzilut. [In the latter case,] the Nefesh will be from the nukva of Zeir Anpin [malchut of Atzilut], the Ruach from Zeir Anpin [Yetzira of Atzilut], the Neshama from Imma [bina of Atzilut], and the Chaya from Abba [chochma of Atzilut]. Another combination can be the Nefesh from Asiya, and the Ruach and Neshama from Yetzira. Or, the Nefesh can be from Yetzira and the Ruach and Neshama from Beria. Alternatively, the Nefesh can be from Beria while the Ruach and Neshama are from Atzilut. This is possible because the four worlds, ABY"A [Atzilut, Beria, Yetzira, Asiya], are each comprised of four [sub-]worlds of ABY"A and their own set of ten sefirot. Those ten, in turn, are comprised of their own ten sefirot, and so on. The general system of ten sefirot breaks down into sub-sets of ten sefirot, which in turn break down into their own sub-sets of ten sefirot, etc. It is not possible to write down all the details at length since the space is limited. However, the person of understanding will comprehend and make the connections on his own. Theoretically, sub-categorization can go on ad infinitum; and the number of possible combinations is virtually limitless. However, when we say that sometimes the NR"N is from Yetzira, or from Beria, it does not mean that he lacks a Nefesh from Asiya! After all, even the Shechina is called "Malchut" and It "nests" in Asiya. How much more so the Nefesh of a person! In other words, the Shechina [Divine Presence] obviously belongs to a very exalted and spiritual place. Yet, this does not stop it from "nesting" and hovering about in the lowest of worlds, in the world of Asiya, even in the world that we humans also inhabit. It is the same

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for souls, and even more so. The Nefesh of all people comes from the World of Asiya, as we learned beforehand, even if it is said about it that it is a Nefesh of Atzilut, or a Nefesh of Yetzira. ...like a candle that makes nearly no impression at all when it shines during daylight Rather, what it means is that the Nefesh originated from Asiya, but that it became so purified that it cannot be sensed in comparison to the [newly acquired] light of the Nefesh of Yetzira within him. It is like a candle that makes nearly no impression at all when it shines during daylight. Therefore, it is all called the Nefesh of Yetzira. He has a Nefesh from Asiya and it remains that. However, it can ascend to the world of Yetzira above it so that its light can become almost as bright as its level of Yetzira. Consequently, its Asiya-light becomes non-discernable, and for all intents and purposes, it is like the Nefesh of Yetzira. It is the same for all the aspects: when we say that his NR"N is from Atzilut, really he has a Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama from Asiya, Yetzira and Beria [respectively]. However, they are not referred to by their names, and all of them are considered secondary and referred to as being from Atzilut. Actually, the NR"N of Atzilut are aspects of a higher and more interior world than that of Beria, Yetzira andAsiya (BY"A). Therefore, they are clothed within the worlds of BY"A and shine from within them. The light of the higher entities from Atzilut may be so revealed that the lower, weaker, exterior lights of BY"A are simply non-discernible. You can apply this concept to any of the other details that have been mentioned. Thus, the system of levels of souls remains the same for everyone, though within the system different combinations of souls can seem to exist based upon the individual's level of rectification and purification. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Yibum -- A Special Case
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Two, Section 7 Within the concept of gilgulim there is a distinction between reincarnation into any body that may be ready for his gilgul, and reincarnation through a brother, which is

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the sod [meaning "secret"] of yibum. Yibum is the Levirate marriage in which a surviving brother marries his (widowed) sisterin-law whose husband, the man's brother, has died childless. In a normal gilgul, the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama [NR"N] do not reincarnate together, or even two at once. Only the Nefesh reincarnates until it is rectified. Afterwards, in another gilgul, the Nefesh and Ruach return together until they are rectified. When that occurs, then the entire NR"N [reincarnates together] until the Neshama is rectified, which completes his gilgulim. Or, sometimes each of the three reincarnates individually [and achieves tikun independent of the others]: the Ruach with another Nefesh in another body, and the Neshama with a different Nefesh and Ruach in a different body. However, when a man reincarnates through his brother, the entire NR"N may do so together. Chaim Vital says: It seems from Sabba of Mishpatim that even with respect to yibum all three do not come back together, but only the Nefesh and the Ruach without the Neshama. This requires further investigation. Thus, it is not clear if just the N"R come together in one gilgul during yibum, or if all three come together at one time. In either case, it is different than a regular gilgul. End of Introduction [Chapter Two].

Ibur While Alive
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 1 Ibur takes place during a person's lifetime, as we have already mentioned. In Chapter 2, Section 3 it was written: "…There will reincarnate into the body of this person, while he is still alive, the Nefesh of a righteous tzadik." This is called ibur, and more specifically, "ibur while alive." The difference between this type of ibur and gilgul was also explained there. Normally, ibur takes place during a person's lifetime; it involves parts of soul that come to a person years after he is born. Gilgul, on the other hand, involves parts of soul that a person is born with. They reincarnate from the time he is born, and they stay with him until the end of his lifetime. (Later on in this chapter, there will be introduced a new concept of "ibur from birth," and it

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will be explained there, God-willing, when we come to it. The subject of this section, however, is the normal type of ibur.) Sometimes a certain mitzvah may come before a person, and he performs the mitzvah as it should be done. At that point the Nefesh of an earlier righteous person who had performed this same mitzvah correctly will join the person as an ibur, since they are alike with respect to this mitzvah. Thus, the actual mitzvah to be performed affects which righteous soul will join a person as an ibur. Now we are learning that the ibur can even come from a living righteous individual Not only this, but it is also possible that the righteous person is alive during his lifetime, and still ibur can occur. The one who performed the mitzvah and the righteous person are alive at the same time, and still ibur can occur. Thus, if a person performs a particular mitzvah or mitzvot relevant to a righteous individual who also performed correctly, then the Nefesh of that righteous tzadik can enter the person, even while they are both alive at the same time. Up until now we knew that ibur occurred in a living body after birth, but with the soul of a righteous person who has already died. Now we are learning that the ibur can even come from a living righteous individual. This is the secret meaning of the verse, "The Nefesh of Jonathan became attached to the Nefesh of David" (I Samuel 18:1). In other words, even while they were both alive, the Nefesh of David was joined with Jonathan as an ibur. This accounts for the strong soul bond they had while they were alive. (Rabbi Chaim Vital, who recorded these works, says: It appears that one mitzvah performed correctly is enough to initiate the ibur. It is not required that he have performed all mitzvot to this point). [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Effect of The Sin of Adam
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 2 With respect to the concept of gilgulim, we will begin the discussion with Adam HaRishon, the First Man, to more easily grasp the matter. To begin with, when Adam HaRishon sinned he blemished all the sparks [nitzutzot] of his Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama. Just like a person's body contains many sparks throughout his 248 Limbs and 365 Tendons, and consequently there are many sparks in his head, in his eyes, and in every limb--it is the same with a Nefesh as well. The human body is comprised of the 248 Limbs and 365 Tendons, and as such they denote the form or "shape" of the human body. The body is composed of Holy Sparks..dispersed throughout it and within its limbs. The Nefesh is in the same "shape" as the human body; more correctly said: the human body is in the same shape as the Nefesh. The body is composed of Holy Sparks that are dispersed throughout it and within every one of its limbs. It is exactly the same with the Nefesh, only more ephemeral. When Adam HaRishon, the First Man, sinned, he blemished all the sparks throughout the spiritual form of his Nefesh, and his Ruach and Neshama as well. To explain this, the Arizal now digresses to a deep explanation of the Midrash. The Midrash Tanchuma (Ki Tisa 12) and Midrash Rabba (Ex. 40:3) provide an explanation for the verse (Job 38:4), "Where were you when I founded the earth?" Job is complaining about his lot, and arguing with G-d. He answers him, "Where were you when I founded the earth?" In other words, G-d is answering Job that he has no right to question G-d unless he also knows from what part of the soul of Adam the spark that constitutes Job's soul originally came. If he does not know from whence his soul was hewn, then he does not know his own history. Consequently, he can never fully understand the things that are happening to him. When Adam was created, the Holy One, Blessed is He, showed him every righteous person who would ever descend from him Actually, the Midrash starts off by quoting a verse from Ecclesiastes (6:10): "That which was/ it was already called by name [from the beginning]/ and it is known that it is Adam…" In other words, all that exists "was already called by name" from the beginning, and that beginning or source is Adam HaRishon, when he was created. When Adam was created, the Holy One, Blessed is He, showed him every righteous person who would ever descend from him: from his head, his hair, his neck, his two eyes, and

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some from his nose. His Ruach is also divided in this way, as is his Neshama. From the sparks that comprised all the various limbs of the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama of Adam were descended the souls of all the people that would exist throughout history. When he sinned, he blemished the majority of the sparks of his Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama, causing them to become immersed in the kelipot. The kelipot are the husks or shells that imprison the fallen Holy Sparks. When Adam sinned, the Holy Sparks of his Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama fell into the kelipot. In the sense in which it is being used here, the concept of kelipot refers to the entire realm of evil into which the souls and the Divine Presence have been exiled. This realm is the mirror image of the realm of Holiness [Kedusha], but in the depths of spiritual impurity. The Divine Presence is exiled amongst the kelipot This is the sod [meaning "secret"] of what is written in Sefer HaTikunim (Ch. 5), on the verse, "like a bird that wanders from her nest …" (Proverbs 27:8). The Divine Presence is exiled amongst the kelipot. The [souls of the] righteous tzadikim wander after Her from place to place. This is talking about a quality naturally inherent in a human being that allows him to return to his Creator, as a bird does to its nest. The deeper meaning of the verse refers to SoulSparks of righteous people pursuing G-d while they are within the realm of the kelipot. The place to which the sparks are exiled in the realm of the kelipot is according to the aspect [of the soul of Adam] from which they have come. If they have come from the head, then they are exiled into the head of the kelipot; if from the eyes, then to the eyes, etc. This is the sod [meaning "secret"] of the idea of the "exile of the souls" that is mentioned there. As explained, the spiritually impure world is a mirror version of the spiritually pure world, except in an unholy and impure way. Thus, when the souls fell into the world of impurity, they fell to the level that corresponded to their own. For example, the souls that are derived from the sparks of the eyes of Adam's Nefesh fell into the kelipot of the eyes of the Nefesh. If they fell from the thighs of the Ruach, then they fell into the thighs of the Ruach of the kelipot. It is from their specific place of exile in the kelipot that the soul-sparks must be redeemed. [Translator’s note:The Hebrew words that have been translated here, "When Adam was created…," are "mutal golem." The implication of the word mutal is that he was lying around lifeless. The word golem will be more familiar, from the stories of the creature that was made by the Maharal of Prague. Whereas G-d breathed into the lifeless lump that was Adam the spirit of life, the Maharal imbued the spirit of life into a lifeless lump by the use of Holy Divine Names.]

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Thus, the literal translation of the Midrash at this point is as follows. "When Adam was a lifeless unformed lump…." Concerning that time it is written, "And the Lord G-d formed the Man out of the dust from the ground, and He breathed into him a living soul…"(Gen. 2:7). It was at that moment also, according to our Midrash, that G-d manifested the potential of all the human souls for posterity that would be descended from Adam, the Primordial Man. [The verse quoted by the Midrash from the Book of Job (38:4) is: "Where were you when I founded the earth?" The Hebrew word for "where" is ayfoh, comprised of the letters alef -yud -- peh -- hei. The Midrash notes that these letters can also be read as ayfah. An ayfah is an amount of dough that has not yet been kneaded into the shape of the loaf that will be baked. Therefore, the verse, when it is read with the indication [remez] ayfah, also hints at this moment when Adam was a lifeless lump, like an ayfah. This is the moment when G-d gives form and life to the lifeless lump, and manifests the potential souls of the entire human race, the moment when Adam was created.] [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Additional Blemishes
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 3 Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam, committed their own sin in addition to that of their father and thus caused their sparks to become more deeply immersed in the kelipot. Cain murdered Abel, and according to the Midrash, Abel had (previously) looked at the Divine Presence as it descended to consume his sacrifice on the altar. Gazing such at the Divine Presence was deemed a grave sin and warranted for Abel the penalty of death. Thus, they caused further damage and blemish to the soul-sparks from the soul of Adam that were originally damaged by the sin of the First Man. However, in each generation some of the sparks reincarnate into the world to become rectified. That is good news. All do not end up like Cain and Abel. There is tikun. Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam, increased the damage and blemish of the soul-sparks The level of the "quarry" of the souls of a particular generation can be either that of the sparks of the head, or the eyes, etc. The "quarry" [as in a rock quarry] is the place in the soul-structure of Adam from which the soul-sparks derive. This varies by the generation. It is like a spiritual quarry from which the sparks of the souls of a particular generation are "hewn." Some of these sparks reincarnate

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and become rectified, but some of them reincarnate, become more blemished because of sin, and fall deeper into the kelipot, like the souls of Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Half-way: Ibur from Birth
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 4 Some reincarnate to become rectified, but they are not [entirely] careful and sin. Such a spark will become immersed again in the kelipot, with all the [minor] sparks that derive from it and depend upon it. There are major sparks and minor sparks. The major sparks are composed of many minor sparks. They may reincarnate all together in one gilgul, or they may separate into many gilgulim. What we are considering here is an intermediate case that includes both gilgul and ibur. The Arizal is now going to describe the intermediate case of "ibur from birth," which is in some respects like ibur and in some respects like gilgul. There are parts of soul that reincarnate and come to a person when he is born, as is the case in gilgul. However, they have already been rectified, as in ibur, and like ibur they can reap reward from mitzvot that are done in this person's lifetime but do not suffer guilt from sins that may be committed. Thus, they are an intermediate category. The reason for this phenomenon is that there are two types of blemishes resulting from sin. As a consequence of serious sin (which will be explained later on), the soul-sparks are severely blemished; they undergo gilgul. However, the result of less serious sin is a less serious blemish and does not necessitate gilgul. A soul may reincarnate, achieve extensive rectification, but nevertheless remain somewhat blemished because of some "light" sins that were committed during the gilgul. These parts of the soul that are for the most part - but not completely - rectified will reincarnate again at the time of birth and remain with the person until the end of his lifetime, as in gilgul. However, in this case, they will reap reward for mitzvot but will not suffer guilt from sins that may be committed, as in ibur. It is these parts of the soul, those which are less seriously blemished, that constitute the intermediate category undergoing "ibur from birth." The sparks of the nefesh do not separate from one another until the day of death All the sparks of the Nefesh, even those that are already rectified, return in a complete gilgul at the time of birth with the individual spark that was damaged. They do not separate

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from one another until the day of death. All the sparks of Nefesh -- both those that have been almost completely rectified, retaining only a light blemish due to a "light" sin, and those that have been only slightly rectified -return at the time of birth with those soul-sparks that have been severely damaged and will require extensive tikun in this lifetime. Since they arrive at the time of birth, they are all similar to a "complete gilgul." However, the rectified sparks reincarnate as an ibur. In other words, the abovementioned almost-completely-rectified sparks reincarnate as an "ibur from birth." The reason it is called "ibur" is as follows: They do not share in the sins of this body, only the merits. It is similar to the souls of righteous tzadikim who have died and come as an ibur during a person's lifetime and not at birth. Even though the almost-completely-rectified sparks have to return with the damaged ones, they only benefit from the reincarnation. Thus, a spark that has not been rectified whatsoever by the performance of those mitzvot to which it is related or [has not been rectified] as a result of transgressing those sins from which there is no revival must reincarnate into a second body, which will be named for that spark. That spark's "name" is the essence of the gilgul that is happening, like the name of any given thing describes the essence of that thing. The gilgul reincarnates into a body for the sake of the tikun of those soul-sparks that have been severely damaged or not rectified at all. Therefore, that particular birth will be called by the name of those sparks that must undergo extensive tikun. However, sparks that have achieved rectification through the performance of mitzvot, but have also been blemished through the transgression of "light" sins, only reincarnate as an ibur of the sort mentioned previously [i.e., ibur from birth], even though it is also a gilgul. They are an ibur that must come back at birth, but they are not the main soul of the body in which they find themselves. It is because they are not the main soul of the body that they are an ibur. They are a gilgul because they come at the time of birth. In contrast, there are sparks that have not been blemished through sins after having been rectified by mitzvot. These sparks have been fully rectified and are not blemished whatsoever. They do not return at all except as an ibur during lifetime [i.e., after birth], and then only if

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he merits it, as explained. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Summary and Completion
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 5 Thus, what we have learned [from the previous section is as follows]: The main part of the gilgul associated with the body is specifically that part which was damaged. The other parts of the soul previously rectified in other reincarnations only return as aspects of ibur. When the part which is associated with the body performs a mitzvah in this world, the other parts share a portion of the mitzvah, since they have assisted in the performance of the mitzvah, as explained earlier concerning the soul of a righteous tzadik that comes as an ibur. Since they only come to assist for the sake of good they do not share the punishment when the main Nefesh transgresses. When a person reincarnates, the entire Nefesh returns. However, the essence of the gilgul is only the part that sinned in a previous body and returns to become rectified. It is associated with the body, and reward and punishment are applicable to it. However, the rest of the Nefesh takes part in the reward but not in the punishment. Now, the Nefesh in its entirety suffers and receives punishments in the existing body, besides what was suffered by the sparks in previous bodies. And it will suffer as well the pain of death and the pain of what comes after death. Consequently, there is atonement for the earlier ["light"] sins. Moreover, through the mitzvot of previous gilgulim and the present one in which they have a portion, as we have said, the tikun of the Nefesh becomes complete. In this respect, the comparison between the mostly rectified parts of the soul that come as an "ibur from birth" and the soul of a righteous tzadik that comes as a normal ibur ceases. For a soul of a righteous tzadik, the ibur is not meant to act as a cleansing process. It just increases its own merit by the ibur, and it assists the person in which the ibur is occurring. However, by the case of "ibur from birth", the mostly rectified parts of the soul need the ibur to complete their atonement and tikun. However, if they had a portion in the [present] sins as well, there could never be tikun for the Nefesh. A person usually sins, and this would only add sin to sin and there would be no end to it! If the mostly rectified sparks had a portion in the sins of the non-rectified sparks, then it would hamper progression towards tikun, because previous tikunim would be cancelled out

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by future sins of other sparks. …through reincarnation, completion ...for all the sparks from the "head" of the nefesh to its "feet." However, since the rest of the Nefesh does not share responsibility in the evil of this spark - only in its merits, sins can be atoned for and not increased. New merits can be added through each gilgul. There can be a conclusion to the cycle of reincarnations and tikun for theNefesh. Understand this well. In this way, the Nefesh achieves completion in all its sparks; through reincarnation completion is achieved for all the sparks from the "head" of the Nefesh to its "feet". This refers to the beginning of the discourse in Section 2. The sparks of the Nefesh from the head to the feet are the sparks of the soul-body of Adam HaRishon. Each generation is destined to rectify the selection of sparks associated with it, until the tikun of the whole is completed. Once the "feet" are reached, then Mashiach will come, as it says in the Zohar (Parashat Pekudei pg.258, and the end of Parashat Vayakhel). In the age of Mashiach, there will be no more need for gilgulim. Mankind will be fully rectified and will have merited the appearance of the greatest soul of all, the soul of Mashiach, the keter of human souls. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Between Yibum and Gilgul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 6 Yibum is not like gilgul because it is for a different reason. When it comes to the rest of the sins of the Torah, rectification can be achieved through suffering in this world and after death in Gehinom (Purgatory). Thus, not all sparks of the Nefesh need to reincarnate, but they may come back only as an ibur of the type mentioned in the previous section. Only specific sparks actually reincarnate. Rectification can be achieved through suffering, or through the performance of mitzvot. The Rav is concentrating on rectification through suffering, it seems, because of what he wants to say here about yibum. We also learned in the last section that completely rectified sparks do not need to reincarnate, and those that are mostly rectified, but not completely, will reincarnate as an ibur from birth. Only specific sparks that are badly damaged, or have not yet undergone

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any tikun through gilgul, will reincarnate to become the main soul of the body. The entire nefesh that was in the first body must return again for its own sake However, yibum occurs because the person died before having children, a lack of success that makes it as if he never came into the world, as if his first body did not exist at all, as it says in the Zohar (Vayashev 187a). The man left this world without leaving behind any progeny, and therefore it is as if he never existed. Therefore, the entire Nefesh that was in the first body must return again for its own sake. This is the main point here. Rectification through suffering did not happen in the first body, and no parts of the soul were released from the cycle of gilgul. In the end, it is the second body that becomes his main one. After rectification and death in this world the Nefesh will resurrect only in this second body. There will be no soul to enter the first body, other than the "Ruach [spirit] that he put into his wife", as it says in Sabba of [Zohar] Mishpatim. When a man first procreates with his wife, a part of his soul goes into the woman and remains there in her womb. This is the spirit that the husband has left within his wife. It is only this minimal spirit that is available to resurrect the body. (See Chapter 36.) This is the difference between someone who has died without leaving children and must return in the secret of Yibum, and one who dies with sins and must reincarnate. All the details we have explained regarding the sparks of the Nefesh apply as well to Ruach and Neshama. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

A Second Difference
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 7 There is another difference between yibum and gilgul, which was mentioned at the beginning of this analysis. If a person reincarnates in the secret of yibum, his first body is considered as if it had never existed at all. For this reason, the entire Nefesh returns as a new creation. It is possible, therefore, that the Ruach and Neshama can reincarnate together with the Nefesh, though not all at one time.

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When he merits and performs mitzvot fitting for the Ruach, then it will enter him; and it is the same with respect to the Neshama. About a person who came into the world for the first time, the Sabba of [Zohar] Mishpatim explained, "If he merits more, they bring him a Ruach; if he merits more, they bring him a Neshama, etc." This is not the case, as we have explained, for someone who reincarnates. The one who has come back in the secret of yibum is as if he has come into the world for the first time, and all the rules apply accordingly. This is the case even though it is the second body of his Nefesh (and perhaps it is even a later body of a subsequent gilgul after a second or even a third reincarnation). The brother-in-law has the ability to return a portion of the nefesh of his brother into this world through yibum. Therefore, someone who returns in the secret ofyibum is similar to a new creation, and he is able to achieve his Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama (NR”N) in one gilgul, if his actions warrant it, as was mentioned. This is the esoteric meaning of the verse, "If he sets his heart upon it, then he would gather into himself his Ruach and his Neshama" (Job 34:14). This is understood in Sabba of [Zohar] Mishpatim in a deep way to refer to one who has returned in the secret of Yibum. The simple description of the mitzvah of yibum is as follows: The wife of a man who has died without leaving any progeny in the world, will marry the brother of the deceased. This latter is called "the brother-in-law". The child that is born from this union of the wife and her brother-in-law will be called by the name of the deceased. It is considered as if the soul of the deceased, who has left no progeny, has come back into the world. The brother-in-law has returned a portion of the Nefesh of the deceased into this world. Just as the brother-in-law has the ability to return a portion of the Nefesh of his brother into this world through yibum, so too can yibum itself collect and return to the Nefesh both the Ruach, and Neshama. However, it must be dependent upon good deeds, just as it says, "If he sets his heart upon it." (Ibid.) The only reason it comes back is in order to help the ruach to do good A gilgul, on the other hand, does not have the ability to draw all three parts of the soul to him, but only one at a time. As mentioned before, first the Nefesh reincarnates alone until it becomes completely rectified, after which the person dies. Next, the Ruach alone is born into a different body until it is rectified. The Nefesh will also reincarnate together with it, but only as an ibur, since it is already rectified. The only reason it comes back is in order to help the Ruach to do good, and not bad. Therefore, it receives a portion of the good deeds of the Ruach, but not the bad deeds, just as we said with respect to the Nefesh itself when rectified sparks return in the secret of ibur. This is another explanation of how there can be an end to the reincarnations of the Nefesh,

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for it has no part in the sins of the Ruach, as mentioned. Once it is rectified, it remains rectified no matter what the un-rectified Ruach or Neshama do while in the body. After he dies and the Neshama reincarnates to become rectified, then the Nefesh and the Ruach reincarnate only in the secret of ibur, until it is purified. After that, there will no longer be any need for this person to reincarnate into this world for his own sake. However, he may return into this world as an ibur in another person, during that person’s lifetime, to assist him and thereby receive a portion with him, as was explained previously at length. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama for a Slightly New Gilgul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Three, Section 8 Now we will explain what was mentioned at the beginning of the chapter. A secret of gilgul is that when the need is great, a slightly new gilgul can achieve Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama at one time in a single incarnation, without the need for multiple reincarnations since the three of them will achieve tikun in one body. What is a "slightly new" gilgul? This will be explained in depth later, especially in Chapter 7. In brief, it refers to a person who has completed the tikun of his Nefesh, but not in his first gilgul. Normally, such a person cannot [rectify his] Ruach in the same gilgul. He has to die and be reborn with his Nefesh and Ruach together. However, there are special cases "when the need is great" that he can attain Ruach-- and even Neshama-- in the same gilgul in which his Nefesh has been completed. This is possible even though it is not the first gilgul of the Nefesh. When the nefesh comes alone and achieves rectification and purification, the ruach cannot join it Although it is not the first time his Nefesh has been in this world, he has completed the tikun of his Nefesh. Therefore, the Arizal calls him "a slightly new gilgul" (as will be explained in Chapter 7). It is this that makes possible the attainment of all three parts of the soul Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama in one gilgul. Normally, when the Nefesh comes alone and achieves rectification and purification, the Ruach cannot join it since the Nefesh has been rectified while the Ruach has not.

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However, there is a way to achieve rectification [together in the same gilgul] when the Nefesh is already completely rectified. When a person sleeps at night he can deposit his Nefesh with G-d, as is known. Thus, it is possible for the Nefesh to remain Above, adhering to the "Supernal Well" and in the secret of "Mayin Nukvin". Our learning of Torah and performance of mitzvot liberate these holy sparks from the kelipot that imprison them Literally, Mayin Nukvin means "Female Waters". It refers here to the holy sparks that are strewn throughout the levels and dimensions of Creation -- all of them -- as was mentioned briefly in Section 2 of this chapter. Our learning of Torah and performance of mitzvot liberate these holy sparks from the kelipot that imprison them. Then the holy sparks ascend "upward" to reunite with the sources of spiritual light. When this happens they cause the "downward" flow of additional light and blessing. Because they ascend from below to above they are called "female", since (as in conjugal relations) the juices of the female flow from below to above, whereas the juices of the male flow from above to below. Indeed, all types of light that go from below to above, such as "Returning Light", are also called "Female Light". The classical abbreviation for Mayin Nukvin is "Mem-nun", which we will refer to as M"N throughout this translation. (These matters are known from Sha’ar HaTefillah in the section about going to sleep at night. Investigate this further there.) Furthermore, the place for water is in a well. Since there is a place in the supernal worlds called "the Supernal Well", it is fitting that this Nefesh that has been fully rectified and has ascended upward in the secret of Mayin Nukvin remain there in the Supernal Well. Consequently, the Nefesh that has been completely rectified and has ascended as M"N to the Supernal Well does not descend in the morning when souls return to this world. It will remain in the Supernal Well, and in its place his Ruach will descend. When he awakens in the morning, his Ruach will then enter by itself, as if reincarnated into a different body. Once the ruach is also rectified there is no hindrance to its becoming ensconced within the nefesh This new situation will continue until it is rectified completely, at which point the Nefesh will return into the body as before, since they both are now rectified. The Ruach can be dressed within the Nefesh, and the Nefesh can be its "vehicle". Once the Ruach is also rectified like the Nefesh, there is no hindrance to its becoming

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ensconced within the Nefesh, and the Nefesh becomes its vehicle. Likewise, after the Ruach becomes completely purified, then both the Nefesh and the Ruach can leave the body at night during sleep and be "deposited" Above, where they will remain [for the time being]. In the morning, when he awakens, the Neshama will enter into him. It will become rectified, and once rectification is complete, then the previously rectified Nefesh and Ruach can return. The three of them will join together in the same body, and one will become the "vehicle" for the other(s). No more reincarnations will be necessary. Thus, there is a possibility that a "slightly new" soul can achieve rectification of the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama even though it is not his first gilgul. This lesson now becomes the basis for a new, esoteric exposition of the following verse. All of this is alluded to in the verse "My Nefesh has desired You at night; even [with] my Ruach that is within me will I seek You…" (Isaiah 26:9). [The interpretation:] My Nefesh became purified until it was able to cling to You in the secret of "and cling to Him" (Deut. 11:22). It then desired You, and yearned to cling to You. The time of desiring and yearning is specifically at night, when souls may be deposited because they are ascending in the secret of Mayin Nukvin to cause a supernal zivug. Since the time of yearning is at night, it was written, "My Nefesh has desired You at night…" The strength of this yearning, because it is pure, makes possible total adherence. The word zivug used here literally means "to pair", although "union" (and specifically, conjugal union) would probably be a more accurate rendition according to the meaning of the Kabbala. By ascending to higher levels in the secret of M"N the holy sparks cause the Upper Partzufim to unite together (zivug). Thus, they draw light down from Above to the lower levels. The strength of this yearning, because it is pure, makes possible total adherence. The Nefesh can remain there and not descend. Thus, the first part of the verse has been explained. "My Nefesh has desired You at night", because the night is the time of desire when the souls ascend as M"N to the Supernal Well. In the morning when it is time for the descent, then my Nefesh does not descend, but my Ruach in its place descends into my body to seek You. The Hebrew word that has been translated here "to seek You" is ashachreca, the root of which is shachar. Shachar means "morning". Thus, the second part of the verse will be rendered, "…In the morning my Ruach will enter into me", in the place of my Nefesh.

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In the morning when it comes time for the Nefesh to descend once again and it does not, then "my Ruach" can enter me instead. This is why it is not "my Nefesh" that "seeks for You"/"in the morning". This is according to both meanings of ashachreca. Rather it is his Ruach that enters him to become rectified. Therefore, the initial letters of the Hebrew words that have been translated "in the night my Nefesh, even my Ruach" [bait-aleph-reish] spell "be'er" [in Hebrew, well]; this alludes to what was mentioned earlier, that the Nefesh longs to ascend to the Supernal Well. That these initial letters spell be'er, meaning well, is an indication to the Rav that something is happening here in this verse that is taking place in the Supernal Well, and he has explained the verse accordingly. Now, he wants to draw a practical application from what he has been expounding in this section: namely, that this verse should be recited at night before going to sleep. Hence, if a person knows on his own that he has rectified his Nefesh, he can say the verse, "My Nefesh has desired You at night; even [with] my Ruach that is within me will I seek You [in Hebrew, ashachreca]…" before laying down to sleep. He should recite it concentrating upon the esoteric meaning that has been explained here in order to attain his Ruach, and similarly his Neshama. Then he will not need additional gilgulim. Understand this esoteric secret well and be cautious with it. In Your hand I will deposit my soul... Indeed, in the prescribed recitation of the Bedtime Shma in the prayer book of the Ari (at least according to the Ben Ish Chai) this verse appears, and it is recited by everyone every night. There is another verse that is also recited each night in the recitation of the Bedtime Shma. The reason for the recitation of this second verse is similar to what has been explained in this section, but not exactly. The Rav will now explain the differences between them, and why both verses need to be recited. However, the verse that we are accustomed to say, "In Your hand I will deposit my soul…" (Psalms 31:6), doesn’t help to accomplish what has been explained here. It only means that the Nefesh will ascend as a "deposit". In the morning it will return to descend. However, the verse, "My Nefesh has desired You at night; even [with] my Ruach that is within me will I seek You…" means that the Nefesh will remain Above, and that either the Ruach or the Neshama will descend in its place. (Note: Shmuel says: The verse "My Nefesh has desired You at night; even [with] my Ruach that is within me will I seek for You…" is explained in Gate Six of Shaar

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HaKavanot. See there.) (End of Chapter Three) [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

When 2nd Gilgul Is Like 1st
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 1 In this section we will learn another way that all three nefesh, ruach and neshama may be received in one lifetime, even though it is not his first gilgul. There are two other distinctions that apply only to gilgulim. They apply only to gilgulim, and not to ibur or yibum. Firstly, if a first-time gilgul earns his Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama (NR"N) and then sins and blemishes them, in his next reincarnation he cannot rectify them all at once except through the device that was explained beforehand. When going to bed he should recite the verse, "My Nefesh has desired You at night…." This was explained at the end of the last chapter. The two distinctions mentioned here are made possible by entirely different circumstances, depending upon what happened during the first gilgul. Either he earned all his NR"N during the first gilgul before he sinned, as in the first possibility that we have just read; or, he earned only his Nefesh before he sinned in the first gilgul, which is the second possibility that will be explained here. …his Nefesh will remain above in the Supernal Well, and in the morning his Ruach will come down… In the first possibility, he cannot receive all his NR"N in his second gilgul, except through the device of reciting the verse "My Nefesh has desired You at night…", as was explained at the end of the last chapter. Then his Nefesh will remain above in the Supernal Well, and in the morning his Ruach will come down in its place. Now, the Rabbi will explain the second possible way of achieving all NR"N in a second gilgul. Secondly, if a first-time gilgul earns only his Nefesh, and sins and blemishes it, when he reincarnates he can achieve NR"N in that gilgul itself. Since he had not previously damaged his Ruach and Neshama, they can join the Nefesh after it has been rectified, as if it were a first incarnation, just as it said, "If he merits more..." In his first gilgul he rectified the Nefesh that he received at birth. This is the main point

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here. Before and after it are only reviews. In his first gilgul he rectified the Nefesh that he received at birth, and he never received either his Ruach or Neshama before sinning and dying. The Ruach and Neshama were never affected by the sins he did with his Nefesh. If he rectifies his Nefesh after reincarnating with it, then the Ruach can come to him in the same body since it was never damaged. If he merits completing his Ruach as well, then his Neshama can join both his Nefesh and Ruach in the same body, even though it is his second reincarnation. This is possible because the Ruach and Neshama were not previously blemished. Otherwise, each must come back in its own gilgul, as we have said until now. How can a rectified Nefesh become the vehicle for a damaged Ruach or Neshama? This is not the case when they have all come, and all have become blemished. For how can a rectified Nefesh become the vehicle for a damaged Ruach or Neshama? However, if he only damaged the Nefesh, then all three can return together in a single gilgul. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Rectifying the Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 2 It seems to me that all the aspects of rectification are really the fulfillment of mitzvot, which are dependent upon the "limbs" of the Nefesh. All blemishes result from violating negative mitzvot. All blemishes result from violating negative mitzvot It is well known that there are 248 positive mitzvot and 365 negative mitzvot. The negative mitzvot tell us what not to do. Their number corresponds to the 248 limbs of the human body, which is made in the image of the Nefesh. Thus, each one of the negative mitzvot corresponds to one of the limbs of the Nefesh, and transgression of any one of them causes a corresponding blemish or damage in one of the limbs of the Nefesh. Positive mitzvot, on the other hand, require a person to actively do something. They cause tikun (rectification) of the Nefesh. Positive mitzvot… cause tikun (rectification) of the Nefesh The complete entry of the Nefesh into the body, which is called tikun of the Nefesh, is accomplished only through the performance of mitzvot. Although sins blemish the Nefesh, they do not prevent its sparks from entering.

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A person can perform positive mitzvot, and in the same lifetime transgress negative precepts. As a result of the positive mitzvot he will be rectifying levels of soul, one after the other. The sparks of the Nefesh will be entering the body and becoming rectified. On the other hand, as a result of the negative mitzvot that he has transgressed, he will have caused blemish or damage. These will have to be atoned for, one way or the other, but they do not necessarily prevent the progress of tikun. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Reincarnation and Resurrection
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 3 What happens to a body at the time of Resurrection of the Dead, when that body, during its lifetime, has only rectified a few parts of the Nefesh? However, there are two other aspects regarding this matter. [The first aspect concerns a person] who only received a Nefesh during his first lifetime but didn't merit to completely rectify it--and then died. Since this first body did not complete the rectification of all aspects of the Nefesh, then, at the time of Resurrection of the Dead, only those parts that were rectified in the lifetime of that body return with it. Resurrection of the Dead is a fundamental principle of Judaism1. Since the body participated in the performance of mitzvot, it is only just that it should also share in the eternal reward for that performance. When this particular reincarnation resurrects, it receives only those sparks that were rectified through it… Therefore, that body too comes back to life in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead, together with those parts of the soul that were rectified during its lifetime. When this particular reincarnation resurrects, it receives only those sparks that were rectified through it. The other parts of the Nefesh return to the other bodies wherein they were rectified. Therefore, when this Nefesh reincarnates into another body to complete its tikun, it can achieve NR"N. See Section 1 for the "second possibility". When the Nefesh is completed in the second gilgul, it can become a vehicle for the unblemished Ruach and Neshama. In this respect it is like a first-time gilgul.

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However, what concerns us here is not the possibility that all three parts of the soul can be received in the second gilgul, but what happens in the time of Resurrection to the body of the first gilgul that has rectified only a few parts of the Nefesh. All the parts of the Nefesh that were rectified in the second body…belong to the second body at the time of the Resurrection… Then all the parts of the Nefesh that were rectified in the second body, together with the Ruach and Neshama, belong to the second body at the time of the Resurrection. It was in the second body that the remainder of the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama were rectified. The first body has no portion in the Ruach and Neshama, but it does have a share in part of the Nefesh, the part that was rectified with it. The remainder of the aspects [of the rectified soul] belongs to the second body. The rule is that the body of each person will be resurrected with those parts of the soul that were rectified in its lifetime. If only a few parts of Nefesh were rectified by the person of the first gilgul, then those few parts that amount to nothing more than a "minimal Nefesh" will be all that is available for the resurrection of the first body. The Rabbi will now draw a comparison between this "minimal Nefesh" and the minimal Nefesh that we learned about in the case of yibum. This is like what was explained in Sabba of Mishpatim regarding Yibum. The first body did not succeed at procreating. It only merits the individual spark of the Nefesh. This is the spark that was left inside the woman during the first intimacy. However, the rest of the Nefesh with the Ruach and the Neshama belong to the second body. We learned about yibum in 3:6. Yibum occurs when a person dies without leaving progeny in this world, and it is considered a lack of success to the extent that it is as if the first body never came into the world. The entire Nefesh that was in the first body reincarnates to a second body, and in the time of Resurrection it will arise with the second body. Only a minimal spirit called "the spirit that the husband left within his wife" is available for the resurrection of the first body. The Rabbi is comparing that minimal spirit that was left within the woman to what is discussed here, namely the few parts of the Nefesh that were rectified in the first gilgul. In both cases, in yibum and in the case discussed here, the rest of the Nefesh and the Ruach and Neshama belong to the second body that will arise at the time of Resurrection. There is an additional basis to the comparison between our case, when only a few parts of the Nefesh are rectified in the first gilgul, and that of yibum, when no progeny were left in the world. In our case, as well as yibum, the Nefesh is not bearing any fruit. In our case this is because it has no part in any Ruach or Neshama. They belong to the body of another

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gilgul. This is the secret of what is written in the Zohar (Chayei Sarah 131a): "Those bodies that were not successful are as if they never existed." This is remarkable, because [it is known that] there is no Jew who is not "filled with mitzvot like a pomegranate" (Berachot 57a). Why should it [an "unsuccessful" body] be non-existent at the time of resurrection? The main source of pleasure in the Time-to-Come is on the level of Neshama… The pomegranate is a fruit that is full of seeds. Indeed, some say that the original pomegranate had 613 seeds, corresponding to the number of positive and negative mitzvot in the Torah. The sages used it to symbolize the internal condition of the Jewish people. They declared, "Even the empty ones among you (Israel) are filled with mitzvot like a pomegranate." When a Jew does a mitzvah, he connects to and participates in all the mitzvot that were ever done throughout history. Thus, even the most insignificant of them is "filled with mitzvot like a pomegranate." How, then, can there be a body that has no part in mitzvot to justify its resurrection? However, this alludes to the idea that the main source of pleasure in the Time-to-Come is on the level of Ruach and Neshama. This first body does not even have a completed Nefesh. All it has is the spark "left in his wife by the initial intimacy." Thus, it has no pleasure and is if it doesn't exist. This person's participation in some bit of the ecstasy of the world to come is proven by the statement of the Sabba in Zohar Mishpatim, p. 100a, Sulam #112. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Double Reincarnation
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 4 All three NR"N can be achieved in a second gilgul if the ruach and neshama were not present in the first gilgul and were not consequently blemished. Concerning this, the Rabbi states in the Chapter Four, Section 3 that he wants to make two distinctions, explaining the first one, a case where most of the Nefesh is not rectified in the first gilgul. This section, however, a second case, concerns a Nefesh which is mostly rectified during the first gilgul. The first body merits to rectify the entire Nefesh, but later blemishes it. There is very little tikun left to perform. The Nefesh really belongs to the first body. This is

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the opposite of the previous case where only a small part of the Nefesh was rectified in the first gilgul. In that case the Nefesh really belongs to the body of the second gilgul. But here only a little tikun is left to do, and the Nefesh really belongs to the first body. When this Nefesh reincarnates with the Ruach and Neshama into the second body, they do so with the spark of another Nefesh in order to help them perform mitzvot. As we will see, this additional spark is the main Nefesh of the second body and it will help the first Nefesh complete its tikun while in the second body. This is called a "Gilgul Kaful" [Double Gilgul]. Rejoice my Nefesh! Rejoice my Nefesh!... It is called Double Gilgul because there are two nefashot [plural of Nefesh] in one gilgul at one time. Remember this well. However, at the time of resurrection the NR"N will return to the first body. The second body will only merit the spark of the additional Nefesh that came, since it was the main [vehicle] for it. The original Nefesh was completely rectified in the first body (and belongs to it). Thus he [the Nefesh of the second body] will have worked for another, as is alluded to by Rav Sheshet who said, "Rejoice my Nefesh! Rejoice my Nefesh! For you have I read … for you have I learned …" (Pesachim 68b). This will be explained in more detail later in this chapter. In short, he has read and learned Torah for the sake of a Nefesh that was not his own. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

The Soul of a Convert
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 5 When all three NR"N were blemished, then they must return in separate reincarnations, and the Ruach and Neshama will ensconce within the Nefesh of a convert. If a person merited his Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama, but then blemished them, the three do not return together. Rather, each one returns in a separate reincarnation. But what are the laws governing rectification of each one? …a blemished Ruach cannot join an already rectified Nefesh When a Nefesh reincarnates into a body for tikun and becomes rectified, then the Ruach is not able to join with it. As we have already mentioned, a blemished Ruach cannot join an

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already rectified Nefesh. And certainly a blemished Ruach cannot join the Nefesh before it is rectified because the Ruach can enter only after the Nefesh, which is on a lower level, is completely rectified. How to escape from this dilemma? How can a blemished Ruach reincarnate at all? …the Ruach must reincarnate alone with the Nefesh of a convert… Thus, the Ruach must reincarnate alone with the Nefesh of a convert whose Nefesh is in place of his own, and there it will become rectified. In the same way, the Neshama will come into another body together with the Nefesh of a convert. The concept of "Nefesh of the convert" has already been mentioned, and it will be mentioned further several more times. A special supplementary section is included at the end of Chapter One, Section 11 and Note 10 there. This is the secret of what is written in Sabba of Mishpatim (98b): "The Neshamot that encounter the Nefashot of converts … and they merit through them." A Ruach alone, or a Neshama alone, can only enter a body if there is a Nefesh there. Instead (of their own Nefesh) they take the Nefesh of a convert, and through it they achieve rectification. The blemished Ruchot and Neshamot (plurals of Ruach and Neshama) encounter the Nefesh of the convert, which becomes the vehicle or interface for their entry into reincarnation. "They merit through them" because they achieve rectification through this arrangement. (This entire section from the Sabba was translated and explained in Note 10 to Chapter One.) Having said this, we can answer an important question. The majority of people only merit their Nefesh. And only a small amount in these later generations ever merit to their Ruach and Neshama. Yet, we know that the son of David will not come until all the Ruchot and Neshamot are rectified (Talmud Yebamot 62a). The question of the Rabbi is based on the famous statement of the Talmud: "The son of David will not come until all the Neshamot have finished going out from the body." According to Rashi "the body" is the name for the storehouse of the souls. The souls must go out from there to enter into physical bodies in this world in order to become rectified. The Rabbi now relates this teaching specifically to the soul-levels of Ruach and Neshama. If the Ruach and Neshama do not come into physical bodies in these later generations, then how can they become rectified? Mashiach ["the son of David"] would never be able to come, G-d forbid. Now we understand that the Ruach and Neshama can reincarnate into other bodies on top of the Nefesh of a convert, and they, too, become rectified. However, when the original Nefesh eventually achieves rectification, it can receive in place of his own the Ruach of a righteous tzadik whose deeds were similar to his. This will be in

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place of his own Ruach. …in place of his own Ruach, he will receive the Ruach of a tzadik… The "original Nefesh" is the one that could not become the vehicle for its Ruach and Neshama because the latter were blemished or damaged in the first reincarnation. When this Nefesh becomes rectified in subsequent reincarnations what happens to it? Its Ruach and Neshama have gone to the Nefesh of a convert. Therefore, in place of his own Ruach, he will receive the Ruach of a tzadik. Similarly, he can achieve the Neshama of a righteous tzadik. If his Nefesh leaves this world before the original Ruach has finished its tikun, then the Nefesh can, in the meantime, accompany the Ruach of the righteous tzadik to the World-toCome and through it, receive its fitting reward 1. Once its own Ruach completes its tikun through its own reincarnation in another body, as explained above, then the Nefesh will say, "I will return to my first husband," and it will reunite with its Ruach. Likewise, once the Neshama becomes rectified, his Nefesh and Ruach will return to become one with it. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Righteous and Wicked
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 6 We will now explain the difference between a righteous person and an evil person. This will allow us to better understand the differences among the verses and the things discussed by our sages. Sometimes we see that a person only reincarnates three times, according to the esoteric meaning of the verse, "Behold, G-d does all these things, two or three times with a man" (Job 33:29). There is also the esoteric meanings of the verses, "For three sins of Israel, but for the fourth I will not return…" (Amos 2:6), and "…Who visits the sins of the fathers on the children unto the third [generation] and unto the fourth [generation]" (Ex. 20:5). Yet, it says in Sefer HaTikunim (69) that a righteous person reincarnates up to one thousand generations, and there are other sources similar to this. Thus, the question is whether a soul reincarnates up to three times and no more, or whether it can reincarnate as many as a thousand times and maybe even more? The "four generations" refers to evil people The verse itself answers the question. The "four generations" refers to evil people, as it

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says, "…Who visits the sins of the fathers… to those who hate Me." In contrast, to whom is He "…doing kindness for a thousand generations" (ibid. 6)? The same verse answers, "…to those who love Me and keep My commandments." Those who hate G-d are the evil people, to whom the four-generation limit on reincarnations applies. Those who love G-d are the righteous people, to whom "a thousand generations" of reincarnations applies. The explanation is as follows: When the Nefesh of a person comes into the world for the first time and sins, becoming blemished and forcing it to reincarnate into another body to become rectified, this is its first reincarnation. If it doesn't become rectified, then it returns in a second reincarnation. If it is not rectified then, it returns in a third reincarnation, but from then onward he will not be able to attain rectification by reincarnating again. It is then said about it that "the Nefesh will be cut off from his people," completely (Gen.17:14). This verse in Genesis is the first of many times in the Torah that the penalty of excision of the souls of the wicked is stipulated. However, this is only when a person failed to accomplish any rectification over the course of the first three gilgulim. On the other hand, if at some point during those three [reincarnations] he began the process of tikun, even a little, then he will not be cut off. It is even possible that he could return to achieve rectification over the course of a thousand generations, if necessary. In effect, the difference between the righteous and the wicked has been explained. The completely wicked will not be allowed to reincarnate more than three times. The righteous may reincarnate as many as a thousand times in order to increase merit and rectification. One who rectifies even a little is called "righteous"… Hence, one who does not achieve any rectification at all is called "evil," but one who rectifies even a little is called "righteous." All his subsequent gilgulim will complete the rectification process. To what are these words applicable? I believe that I heard from my teacher that all this is only true regarding the Nefesh, since it is from the world of Asiya that is immersed in the kelipot. That is why excision [karet] is only mentioned with respect to the Nefesh, because only it can be cut off from holiness and remain immersed in the kelipot. The verses that talk about excision always talk about the Nefesh being cut off, G-d forbid. The Ruach and Neshama are never mentioned in connection with excision. G-d…devises stratagems in order that no Nefesh should descend into the kelipot … never to

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be redeemed… However, the kelipot do not have such a strong hold over the Ruach and Neshama, which are from Yetzira and Beriya. Therefore, a person is able to rectify them without failure, although there are those that accomplish tikun quickly, and there are those who do it over a longer period of time after many reincarnations. How is excision possible? How is such a thing possible? We have already discussed the verse (Samuel II 14:14) where it is written that G-d "…devises stratagems in order that the banished ones should not be banished," that no Nefesh should descend into the kelipot and be cut off there, never to be redeemed. However, this matter can be understood in the following way: The good that was accumulated during the three reincarnations is dispersed among others. The evil that is now left isolated and alone is dissipated and destroyed. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Many Chances for the Righteous
"Gates of Reincarnation": Chapter Four, Section 7 A righteous person may reincarnate many times to cleanse his sins while he is increasing his reward, but a wicked person will be sent straight to Gehinom to "burn out" his sins. There is another difference between a righteous and an evil person that will be elucidated now, and in doing so we will be able to understand what the sages wrote regarding Elisha (who was called) Acher. Elisha ben Abuyah was one of the four rabbis who entered the "Orchard" or "PaRDeS". PaRDeS is spelled peh, reish, dalet, samech, the initial letters of peshat, remez, drush, and sod, the four levels in which Torah can be learned. They are, respectively, (1) the simple meaning, (2) the intimated meaning, (3) the expounded meaning, and (4) the secret coded meaning, which is the most mysterious level that can be known by mankind. Rabbi Akiva was one of these four rabbis who entered the realm of Kabbala on a mission to bring spiritual rectification to the world during the horrible time of the Roman occupation and oppression. Elisha also entered the PaRDeS at that time. Although he was a great Torah scholar, he had not been properly prepared for what he was to witness in the Upper Realms. As a result, he became a heretic until his dying day. For this reason he was called "Acher", meaning the "Other One". The sages in Talmud Chagigah 15b made the following statement concerning Elisha. This

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statement coincides with a broader general rule that will be considered immediately afterwards. "He (Elisha) cannot be judged because of his involvement with Torah." If a righteous person learned Torah, especially if he is one of those from the "early generations," then he is not sentenced to Gehinom. Gehinom is the Jewish equivalent of Hell, or Purgatory. A person may be sentenced to that place after death in order to purify him from the sins that he committed during life. Although it is usually a temporary punishment that does not last more than one earth year, the subjective experience may well seem interminable. The Arizal will explain in Chapter Nine, based upon the Talmud (Chagigah 27a), that the fires of Gehinom cannot affect someone who has learned Torah. Thus, in spite of the terrible sin of Acher, he could not end up in Gehinom because of his many years of Torah learning and scholarship. Nevertheless, he, as well as any other tzadik who may come under the aegis of this rule, needs to be cleansed of his sins. …there is no other tikunfor him except reincarnation He must be cleansed of his sins [to the extent] that he will be able to enter Paradise. Therefore, there is no other tikun for him except reincarnation. For each and every sin for which he did not atone through suffering during his lifetime, and for which he cannot receive punishment in Gehinom, he will have to reincarnate. He will reincarnate as many times as is necessary in order to rectify each and every one of them. The original text is obscure here. The translation is according to the generally accepted meaning. An evil person … will not need to come back to reincarnate Therefore, he will reincarnate through many gilgulim in order to atone and rectify his sins. This is not the case for an evil person who can go to Gehinom to be cleansed there of all his sins. He will not need to come back to reincarnate. Upon this teaching, the disciple and author, Rav Chaim Vital (may his memory be a blessing), asks a question. Now there is room for a question. Would it not be preferable to go to Gehinom to immediately clear all of one's sins, instead of returning through many reincarnations? Would it not be preferable to go to Gehinom to immediately clear all of one's sins? Humbly, I, Chaim, will answer this question. The Holy One, blessed is He, is Omniscient

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and knows that if an evil person reincarnates he will only add to his sins and the abundance of his transgressions will outweigh his merits. Since it is known that he has already completed the few mitzvot that are absolutely vital to the root of his Nefesh, it is better for him to be removed from the world. G-d removes him from the world, and lowers him into Gehinom to cleanse his sins, while the merit of his mitzvot remains intact. "G-d desires kindness!" However, with respect to a righteous person whose sins are less than his mitzvot, the suffering during gilgulim can cleanse them. The Rabbi is alluding to an important rule concerning reward and punishment. The Talmud defines a wicked person as one whose sins outweigh the merits of his good deeds. On the other hand, a righteous person is one whose mitzvot outweigh his guilt. Here it seems the rule is being applied to determine whether his gilgulim should continue or not. If he is deemed righteous because his mitzvot outweigh his sins, then his reincarnations will continue. His many merits will remain intact even while he is increasing them with each gilgul. His reward will be tremendous, without limit. This is along the lines of what the sages have said: "The Holy One, Blessed be He, wanted to merit Israel. Therefore, He gave them much Torah and mitzvot" (Makkot 23b). [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Story of Rav Sheshet
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Four, Section 8 The statement of Rav Sheshet, mentioned above in Section 4, is clarified by explaining who his previous gilgul was, and thereby the concept of Double Gilgul will be illustrated. Earlier we spoke of the gilgul of Rav Sheshet when discussing the concept of Double Gilgul. The Talmud says that Rav Sheshet was blind. When he studied Torah he was joyous and he would say, "Rejoice my Nefesh! Rejoice my Nefesh! For you have I read … for you have I learned!" The concept of Double Gilgul was introduced in Section 4 of this Chapter, where the statement of Rav Sheshet was also mentioned briefly. In order to understand the Ari's explanation of Rav Sheshet it is necessary to examine the original argument in the Talmud (Pesachim 68b). Do we study Torah just for ourselves…? In the Talmud, Rav Elazar challenges Rav Sheshet's statement according to its first understanding. Do we study Torah just for ourselves, as seems to be implied by Rav Sheshet, or do we study Torah, Rav Elazar asks, because it is a commandment and a form

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of worshipping the Divine, as it is written "If it were not for My covenant [i.e., the Torah,] day and night, then I would not have put the laws of heaven and earth in place" (Jeremiah 33:25)? The Talmud answers that at first a person has in mind that he is learning in order to improve himself, and then afterwards he comes to study for cosmic and altruistic reasons, like the contention of Rav Elazar. Not only the answer, but the question as well, is difficult for the Arizal, who will now explore the case of Rav Sheshet (c. 250 CE) in greater detail. This will serve as a further illustration of Double Gilgul. It seems hard to understand when they say that he was benefiting himself and not others! It is easier to understand when we contemplate the verse: "If you have become wise, you have become wise for yourself…"(Proverbs 9:12) In addition, why did he specifically say "…my Nefesh"? And, why is all of this recorded regarding Rav Sheshet and no one else? Consequently, the statement of Rav Sheshet "Rejoice my Nefesh…" still needs to be clarified. The Rabbi will now present a new insight into Rav Sheshet's statement. The letters that spell Baba change into the letters that spell Sheshet To answer these questions we require an introduction regarding his gilgul. Baba ben Buta the Pious was a student of the elder Shammai. All of his life he daily brought a Doubtful Transgression Offering. A Doubtful Transgression Offering [in Hebrew, 'Asham Safek'] is the name of a sacrifice that a person might offer in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. It is offered when a person is not sure whether he sinned or not and is explained in the Talmud, Kritot 26a. Baba ben Buta, as a consequence of his great piety, assumed that he was always in need of such atonement. He brought the offering continuously, every day, although he probably never sinned in any significant way. The main point here is to show that Baba ben Buta was an extremely pious person. It was Baba ben Buta who returned as the reincarnation of Rav Sheshet in order to complete some tikun that was required of him. Since King Herod had taken out the eyes [of Baba ben Buta], therefore he [Rav Sheshet] was also blind, as is known. The story of King Herod blinding the eyes of Baba ben Buta is related in the Talmud, Baba Batra 4a. The Rabbi is mentioning it here in order to indicate that Rav Sheshet, who was also blind, is the reincarnation of Baba ben Buta. In the form of gematria called "AT-BaSh" the letters that spell Baba change into the letters

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that spell Sheshet. The Gematria called "AT-BaSh" is a method of permutation of letters. It is derived by writing the first eleven letters of the Hebrew alphabet in a column in a descending order. The next eleven letters are written in a column next to the first column, but in ascending order. See the table below.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Alef Bet Gimel Dalet Hei Vav Zayin Chet Tet Yud Caf Tav Shin Reish Kuf Tzadi Peh Ayin Samech Nun Mem Lamed 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Now we can arrive at the explanation. A person who does not complete his tikun in his first gilgul, even if only by a small amount, must come back to complete it in a second gilgul. When he completed his Nefesh in the first gilgul except for a small amount, and he reincarnates a second time, then all the reward for the Torah and mitzvot performed during the second gilgul are for the sake of the Nefesh that came to complete its tikun. At the time of the Resurrection, the Nefesh will return to the first body within which the majority of Torah and mitzvot that were required of him were performed. It had only come into the second body in a "borrowed" way. In other words, the Nefesh that was nearly complete in its first gilgul was "borrowing" the body of the second gilgul to complete the finishing touches of its tikun. The mitzvot that he performed were for that Nefesh, and not his… Rav Sheshet knew that his Nefesh had first been in the body of Baba ben Buta, a man of great learning and well known for his piety. He only reincarnated a second time to rectify a small amount that had been left incomplete. This made his body sad, because it meant that all of his efforts were for the sake of that Nefesh, which in the end would return to that first body in the time of the Resurrection. All the benefit of the Torah that he studied and the mitzvot that he performed were for that Nefesh, and not his

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body. It was the Nefesh that had to rejoice, and not the body. Thus, he [Rav Sheshet] would say, "Rejoice my Nefesh…" and not me. "For you I read, for you I studied." It was for your benefit, and not my own. At this point the Rabbi has explained the statement of Rav Sheshet, and he has illustrated Double Gilgul. Let us review: Double Gilgul occurs when the entire Nefesh is nearly completed in the first gilgul. In order to achieve the finishing touches that it needs, this Nefesh reincarnates into a second body. In that body there is a spark of a Nefesh to whom that particular gilgul rightly belongs. However, the reward and merit of the Torah that is studied and the mitzvot that are done in that gilgul will go to that Nefesh that previously inhabited another body. In the time of the Resurrection that Nefesh will arise with the body of the first gilgul, where the majority of its Torah and mitzvot were done, and it will also take for itself all the merit that was earned in the second gilgul. The spark of the Nefesh that was the true identity of that second gilgul will be left, seemingly, with nothing. For this reason Rav Sheshet was sad. He knew that the merit of his learning was going to the Nefesh of someone else, and it will arise in the time of Resurrection with Baba ben Buta, and not with Sheshet. Therefore, it was the Nefesh that had to rejoice, and not the body, and he would say, "Rejoice my Nefesh…" and not I. "For you I read, for you I studied." It was for your benefit, and not my own. Rav Elazar demurs. Why should Rav Sheshet be sad! Do we not study Torah for altruistic reasons, and not merely to benefit ourselves? Accordingly, it is appropriate that the merit should go to someone else. Why is Rav Sheshet sad? The Talmud answers that in the first place a person also wants to benefit himself, as well as others, with his hard work and effort. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Types of Reincarnation & Ibur
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 1 There are two types of gilgulim and two types of ibur. The first type of gilgul occurs when a single Nefesh enters the body of a person at the time of birth. The second type is also possible. Two Nefashot may reincarnate together, and this is also at the time of birth. This is called "Double Gilgul" [Gilgul Kaful]. It was explained

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in the previous chapter, and in other places. Both these Nefashot [in Double Gilgul] reincarnate and come into the world together when the person's body is born. They do not separate until death. They are called one Nefesh. As one, they suffer the pain and punishments that are inflicted on the body throughout its lifetime, as well as the pain of death. Ibur, however, does not occur at birth, as we explained earlier, and there are two types. The first occurs for the benefit of the righteous tzadik himself who enters a person to complete himself with something that was missing to him [the tzadik]. The second type is for the sake of the [host] person, to assist him with Torah and mitzvot. Thus, gilgul takes place at the time of birth, and the two types are: 1) One Nefesh reincarnates into a body. 2) Two Nefashot reincarnate into the body (Double Gilgul). The two types of ibur are: 1) The soul of a righteous tzadik comes into a person because the tzadik himself is missing some tikun. This ibur is for the benefit of the tzadik. 2) The Ibur is for the benefit of the host person. The soul of the tzadik has only come to help him. Ibur does not take place at the time of birth, as the Rav will explain now. Then he will go on to further clarify some aspects of ibur. the soul of the tzadik enters and spreads throughout the entire body, just like the person's own Nefesh When he [the soul of the tzadik] comes for his own sake, then he does not enter the person until he is thirteen years old and one day. At that time the (host) person becomes obligated in Torah and mitzvot. In this way, he [the tzadik] can also rectify himself through this person, and that is why he does not enter before this time, only after the obligation of mitzvot has taken effect. At that time, the soul of the tzadik enters and spreads throughout the entire body, just like the person's own Nefesh. The two of them suffer all bodily pain together and equally. It remains there for a set time to rectify and complete that which it needs. Then, it leaves while the person is still alive, and returns to its place Above in Paradise. This completes the description here of the first type of ibur, where the soul of a tzadik comes for its own benefit to complete some tikun that was missing to it. The Rav has added here that since the soul of the tzadik is coming for itself, even though it is coming as an ibur, it also suffers the pains of bodily existence. It gains the merits of the Torah and mitzvot performed while it resides in that body. It does not suffer the obligations of any sins

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that may be committed during its residence in the body, as we learned previously. It only comes when the host is obligated Torah and mitzvot, and it leaves when it has finished with its own tikun. The second type of ibur… comes in order to help the host perform Torah and mitzvot… In the second type of ibur, discussed now, the soul of the tzadik comes for the benefit of the host and does also not arrive until the age of thirteen years and a day. It comes in order to help the host perform Torah and mitzvot; thirteen years and a day is the time when that assistance becomes useful. However, when [the soul of the tzadik] comes for the sake of the person and not for himself, then it comes of its own volition and not by coercion. Therefore, it is not forced to suffer any bodily pain at all, and it does not feel whatsoever the sufferings or afflictions that come upon [the host's body]. Furthermore, if he is pleased with the host person, then he remains; if not, then he leaves him, as it says, "Leave the tents of these evil people…" (Numbers 16:26). [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Four Souls, One Person
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 2 The Rav will now continue with a discussion of the phenomenon of more than one Nefesh in one body. We will now further clarify the subject that we began previously. The verse says, "…Visit the sins of the fathers on the children for three and four [generations]" (Ex. 20:5). This means that up to three reincarnating Nefashot can reincarnate with a new Nefesh together in one body at birth. This makes for a total of four Nefashot at one time. This is the secret of "four." Three have reincarnated from previous reincarnations, and one is a new Nefesh… The verse reads, "…Visit the sins of the fathers on the children for three and four [generations]." The esoteric meaning of the word "four" is that it sets the maximum limit on the number of souls that can inhabit a single body at one time. Of these four, three have reincarnated from previous reincarnations, and one is a new Nefesh that has not been in a body beforehand. It is also the secret of the verse "…two or three times with a man" (Job 33:29). Three Nefashot are able to reincarnate with one "man", who is this new Nefesh. However, it is not possible for more than this to reincarnate at one time. However, less than this amount is

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possible. It is possible that one Nefesh can reincarnate alone in a body; or one reincarnated Nefesh with a new Nefesh. Or, two reincarnated Nefashot by themselves can go into one body; or two reincarnated Nefashot with a new one; or three reincarnated Nefashot by themselves; or three reincarnated souls with a new one. However, more than this is not possible within one body. Those that are reincarnating together in a single body must all be of a single "root"… Know that those that are reincarnating together in a single body must all be of a single "root". This is the esoteric meaning of the verse "…he shall redeem the property of his brother" (Lev. 25:25). In other words, for one soul to redeem or help another, it must be his brother, so to speak; they must be related to each other through their roots. As we have learned already (Chapter Three, Section 2), souls come from different parts of Adam's spiritual body, and each particular location is a specific "root" from which a particular group of souls originates. This results in a resonance or connection between some souls which does not exist between souls from different roots. As a result, even though the first time gilgul has not committed any of the sins of the previous gilgulim, he will still have to cleanse the blemish and stench that resulted from their earlier sins. This will be the case if he is from a more internal [primary] level than the others, such as the sinews of Adam HaRishon, as opposed to the Flesh [which is more "external"]. The physical and spiritual body consists of four aspects. They are listed here in order from the internal to the external, from the higher to the lower, from the primary to the secondary.
• • • •

The bones with the brain marrow that is within them The sinews The flesh The skin

Concerning this is the verse "You have dressed me with skin and flesh, and with bones and sinews you have covered me." (Job 10:11) The Rav is using as an example the two middle aspects of the body: the sinews and the flesh. The sinews are more internal and primary than the flesh. The new soul…will be responsible for the well being of the entire group soul… In the example, the new soul comes from the aspect of the sinews, whereas the others that have reincarnated with him come from the exterior aspect of flesh. The new soul, although it has not shared in any of the sins of the others, will be responsible for the well being of the

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entire group soul that has reincarnated together with him. He is responsible because he is from a more primary aspect than they are, and he has the ability to rejuvenate them. This is in order to draw life to the entire root. One of the consequences of sin and repeated blemish is that one of the limbs of the spiritual body that has been affected by the sin may become atrophied. The holiness and life force may be removed from the limb in order that the other limbs do not become blemished as a result of the sin. Rectification of the sin, therefore, allows life and energy to return to the limb and rejuvenates it. In the case discussed here, this benefits the entire group of souls of the particular root that has reincarnated together. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Ibur and Growth
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 3 Ibur has similar limitations [as gilgul]. In the previous section we learned that a group of Nefashot from the same root may come together into one body, but there is a quantitative limitation to this possibility. More than four nefashot may not reincarnate together. Of the four, three are reincarnations and one is a new Nefesh. The same quantitative limitation applies to ibur as well. Up to three Nefashot can come to help a person's Nefesh. The total will then be four. More is not possible, but less is. However, those who had come in the secret of gilgul only came to help themselves, to rectify their sins, or to fulfill a mitzva they had yet to perform. The soul of a tzadik may come for its own benefit or only for the benefit of the host The last section focused on the subject of multiple gilgulim. Now we are beginning the discussion of ibur, and the Rav is reminding us here of the contrast between gilgul and ibur. In gilgul the Nefashot all come at the time of birth, and they all come to benefit themselves, to rectify some sin or perform some mitzva. In contrast, in ibur the soul of a tzadik comes into the host at the age of thirteen and one day, or later. They may come for their own benefit or only for the benefit of the host. Expanding upon the discussion of ibur, the following is an example. Consider a person who has reincarnated into a body to rectify himself. He has ten Nefashot

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in his root that are higher than himself. If he merits it, then the tenth, lowest Nefesh, which is still higher than he is, will enter him as an ibur and help him to achieve tikun. If he increases his merit then he will receive the ninth Nefesh as an ibur, and if he merits more, then the eighth Nefesh will enter. Thus, he will have received three Nefashot, and, including his own, there will be four in total. More than this is not possible. However, if he further increases his merits, then he can even receive the seventh Nefesh as well, causing the tenth Nefesh to surrender its light to the three higher iburim. There can only be four Nefashot in the body at one time. One is the host, and three are iburim [plural form of ibur]. If the fourth Nefesh above the host enters, then the lowest of those above the host must leave. This is the way it continues until he achieves the three highest Nefashot of the ten: the first, second, and third. The light of these three will be revealed in this ibur to assist him. The other seven will lose their light to them; in contrast to the light of the three upper Nefashot, they will seem as if they no longer exist. This is because only three Nefashot, in addition to the Nefesh of the person himself, are possible [in one gilgul]. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Two Sets of Three, Plus One
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 4 If the Nefesh is not rectified in the first three gilgulim, then there will be another set of three gilgulim together with the ibur of a tzadik. The verse says, "All these things G-d does, two or three times with a man" (Job 33:29). This verse was already mentioned in Section 2 in conjunction with another, "…Visit the sins of the fathers on the children for three and four [generations]." We learned that a maximum of four Nefashot can come into a single body at one time, whether in gilgul or in ibur. One is the main or host Nefesh and the other three are gilgulim or iburim. This verse, "All these things G-d does, two or three times with a man" was also mentioned there, seemingly, as a secondary source to the rule of quantitative limitation. Now, the Rav will give it a new interpretation. It must come back...but not alone since it lacks the ability to become rectified (on its own) In the first three gilgulim, the Nefesh of a person reincarnates by itself without any partnership in the body. However, if after these three times his Nefesh is still not rectified, it must come back an additional three times, but not alone since it lacks the

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ability to become rectified [on its own]. The first three gilgulim have proven, so to speak, that he cannot make it on his own. Therefore, it returns together "with a man." This is a righteous tzadik who will come as an ibur to help him and direct him in the right direction. The "man" that is mentioned in the verse refers to the soul of a tzadik who comes as an ibur to assist the host and direct him in the right path. Therefore, the verse does not say "three times," which would seemingly refer to the first three times, but rather "two or three times…." The Hebrew phrase that is translated "two or three times" is "pa'amayim shalosh". A literally accurate meaning of these words is "twice three." This teaches that during a second set of three gilgulim he will have a "man" as a partner with him. Since he did not succeed in the first set of three gilgulim, he gets a second set of three gilgulim. In this second set, however, he also gets an ibur, the soul of a tzadik, to help him. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Connected Levels of Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 5 A fascinating concept is explained in Sabba of Mishpatim regarding the body of someone who has reincarnated many times. In what body does the soul arise in the time of the Resurrection? The Secret of Servitude is a related article from our writings drawn from the Zohar. (To return to this article afterward, use the BACK arrow.) Previously, we learned there that in the time of the Resurrection the body will arise with those parts of the soul that were rectified in the lifetime of each particular body. Is the Rav just repeating himself here, or is he trying to teach something new? Furthermore, it seems at first glance that the end of this chapter consists of four disparate points without any connection to each other or to what came beforehand. However, an attempt will be made to try to present them as a unified idea (or at least the first three of them) and also tie them to the preceding subjects of this chapter.

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The souls on this chain are connected to each other… Previously, where multiple gilgulim and multiple iburim were discussed, we learned that there is a chain of souls, from higher to lower. The higher levels of soul descend as iburim to assist the lower levels to accomplish tikun. As we will see, all the various levels are also interconnected. We have already explained earlier what the Introduction to Tikunim (pg.1b) says regarding the verse, "…like a bird that wanders from her nest" (Proverbs 27:8). The Divine Presence goes down among the kelipot into exile. She is joined there by the souls of the tzadikim. And we have discussed what the Zohar says in parashat Pekudei (258a) with respect to the Shechina. She is exiled among the kelipot until her legs are immersed in impurity. The lowest sefirot of the Shechina are called her legs. They descend to the deepest place of impurity and exile among the kelipot, as the verse (Proverbs 5:5) says, "Her feet go down to Death…." We also spoke about how the souls of righteous people are exiled with the Shechina in the kelipot as well. The souls of the tzadikim, descended from the soul body of Adam, are also exiled into the realm of the kelipot. Each one of them covers a different part of the body of the Shechina, according to the part of the soul body of Adam from which they came. In earlier times the souls that are exiled with her are the sparks and sections from the levels on which the Shechina stood at that time. It is the same in every generation. The souls of these generations are from the level of the legs… In each generation the Shechina descends lower and stands on a less elevated level. The souls of each succeeding generation are the souls associated with her on each subsequent level. As she goes down to the lower levels, it is said that she descends to the feet or legs. Correspondingly, the souls of the later generations are those associated with her feet and legs. Thus, at this time in history the Shechina has already descended until the legs, and the souls of these generations are from the level of the legs. Every soul has many parts and sparks… Since all the souls were exiled among the kelipot together with the Shechina, those earlier souls that were already rectified and elevated, now they descend to direct and correct the

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lower souls in order to rectify them. Thus, we find that every soul has many parts and sparks, and they are all called a single soul, and this is true for all the souls. The main point here seems to be the stress that "they are all called a single soul." Indeed, this terminology was also used in Section 1 in reference to multiple gilgulim. The Rav wrote there, "They are called one Nefesh." The intention there, it seems, was also to stress the unity and interconnectedness of the souls, which enables them to join together in one gilgul and to assist each other to achieve tikun. Since all the souls were exiled among the kelipot, and since they are all interconnected and intermixed (as will be explained in another place) they are able to join together in gilgulim and iburim to assist and help each other. When the time for resurrection arrives, each body will take its portion of soul according to the level [that was rectified] in its time. Because of their interconnectedness they are like one soul Previously (Chapter Four, Section 3) we learned that parts of one soul that are rectified in different lifetimes will resurrect with the body in whose lifetime that part of the soul was rectified. Here, however, we are learning that many souls can come together into a single body to assist the main soul of that gilgul. Because of their interconnectedness they are like one soul. Nevertheless, in the time of Resurrection each soul will arise with the body in whose lifetime it was rectified. For example, a soul that originated from a level in close proximity to that of the soul body of Adam, which was rectified and elevated in an earlier generation, can come down into a body together with a soul from the "legs" in order to assist the latter to achieve tikun. In the time of Resurrection, that earlier soul will not be cast down to the level of Legs. It will resurrect together with the body in whose lifetime it was rectified. [Note: The following is a more specific example: The souls that derive from the Head of the soul body of Adam can be seen as one single partzuf. In other words, if we would look at the Head under a "Lurianic microscope" we would see a partzuf with 248 limbs and 365 sinews. The origin of some of the souls in that partzuf would be designated as the Head of the Head; others would be the Torso of the Head; others would be the Legs of the Head. The souls that come from the Torso of the Head are really connected to all the Torsos throughout the soul body of Adam. Thus, a soul from the Torso of the Head might come to assist a soul from the Torso of the Legs. In the same way, all the Legs are connected, etc. and etc., in such a way that all their details and particulars are interconnected and interchangeable. Nevertheless, in the time of the Resurrection they will all go back to their proper places.] [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher

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Switched Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 6 It can be that even though a person has a single, pure, and elevated Nefesh, he may become angry and it will leave him. A lesser Nefesh will then replace it. Or, he may contract a terrible sickness, and an exchange of souls may occur. Or, he may contract a debilitating illness, and his Nefesh may be exchanged and go to another person, while he receives a different Nefesh. This is the secret of what is said, "A righteous person all of his life, only to become evil in the end" (Berachot 29a). Differences consequent upon the variant levels of soul can be tremendous. Look what can happen when a person becomes angry or seriously ill. His soul can be switched from a higher one to a lower one. …the roots of their souls are from much lower places in the soul body of the human race… Then his behavior may change accordingly from moral to immoral, and to such an extent that it would be said about him, "A righteous person all of his life, only to become evil in the end." This is also true in a more general way concerning the earlier and later generations. The spiritual levels of the later generations are much lower than the earlier generations, and their behavior is much less righteous. This is because the roots of their souls are from much lower places in the soul body of the human race than those of the earlier generations. Thus, if the soul body of Adam is considered one partzuf and one lifetime, then it could also be said of it, "A righteous person all his life, only to become evil in the end." Or, just the opposite may occur. In the lifetime of individuals something may happen to cause the soul of a wicked person to be exchanged for one of a higher grade. He will then finish his life as a righteous person. Having said this, it is also possible for a woman who was originally meant to be the wife of a particular person, but his soul gets switched and she becomes the wife of the other person [into whom his soul migrated]. Several times in the Gate of Reincarnations, the relationship of man and wife has been compared to that of the soul and the body. Accordingly, it may be that the Rav is implying that souls which are switched because of some sin or sickness may be switched more or less permanently like where a wife who goes to another person. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Legs and the 10 Martyrs
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 7 It is possible for the Nefesh, Ruach, or Neshama of a person to elevate its sparks that were immersed in the depths of the kelipot. They will be rectified through him, like what was explained concerning the deaths of the Ten Political Martyrs. See there. To comprehend what is being said here it is necessary to understand the kabbalistic explanation of the Ten Political Martyrs. Following is a brief summary of what was taught in Sections 5 - 6. The Ten Political Martyrs are called, literally, the Ten Martyrs of malchut. Their souls ascended to malchut of Atzilut, which is called the Shechina. Because of their ascent it became possible, even in these later generations when spiritual power is severely diminished, to complete the rectification of the sparks that are supposed to be raised from the kelipot to the malchut of Atzilut. Historically, the time of the Ten Political Martyrs was the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. The rule of the Romans over the Land of Israel and the Jewish People was at its height. The oppression was great, violence was ubiquitous, and sin was extremely prevalent. At that time the Romans grabbed ten leaders of Israel and condemned them to death, hoping in this way to forever eliminate Israel as an independent identity, G-d forbid. The Ten Martyrs were cruelly tortured and murdered. Their martyrdom is commemorated during the prayers of Yom Kippur, and it is praiseworthy to weep over them at that time. Now, the words of the Ari (Etz Chaim 39:1, p.2:132b) will continue the description of those times from the kabbalistic point of view. The time of the Ten Political Martyrs was the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. At that time sin was so prevalent that people did not have the power to purify the sparks through prayer and to raise them up in the secret of ma'n. Whenever the sparks are rectified through our Torah, mitzvot and prayer, they ascend to the malchut of Atzilut, where they are refurbished into rectified partzufim that emanate blessing and knowledge until our world is penetrated by those good things. The beginning of this process is called the raising up of mayin nukvin [female waters, abbreviated as ma'n], and it has already been discussed somewhat in Chapter Three, Section 8. It was as if the world had no more purpose At the time of the Ten Martyrs and the destruction of the Temple, the people did not have the power to raise ma'n. It was as if the world had no more purpose. It certainly could not

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continue to endure if the purpose of Torah, mitzvot, and prayer could not be accomplished. Moreover, even the ma'n of bina descended downward and got mixed up once again among the kelipot, as it is written, "For your sins your Mother was sent away" (Isaiah 50:1). The ma'n of bina-Imma [Mother], moreover, does not normally descend to the lower realms among the kelipot. Therefore, we do not need to raise them from the kelipot back to the world of Atzilut. That this ma'n began to descend into the realm of the kelipot was another indication that the world was on the edge of destruction. The physical sufferings of the Ten Martyrs...made possible...the raising of ma'n… The holy Zohar says, furthermore, that the souls of these extraordinary tzadikim were totally pure, but their bodies were given over to the Evil Side. The Ari explains that the physical sufferings endured by the Ten Martyrs at the hands of the evil torturers made possible, once again, the raising of ma'n through prayer, mitzvot and Torah. In this way the world was saved. In addition, in Chapter 36 the Ari will explain that the physical sacrifice of the Ten Martyrs gives hope and inspiration to all the later generations. Also, because of them it is possible for all the later generations to raise ma'n. If they, through the sacrifice of their lives and the physical suffering that they endured had not opened the way for our tikunim to ascend to the Shechina, then we in these later generations would be without hope because of the intense levels of impurity from which our souls must ascend. Summary Malchut of Atzilut is called the Shechina. She is exiled from the world of Atzilut to descend among the kelipot in the lower realms. In the lower realms she is covered by the souls of the soul body of Adam that have also been exiled into the realm of the kelipot. Throughout the lower realms are strewn sparks that belong to the souls of the soul body of Adam who cover the Shechina exiled into the realm of the kelipot. When we pray, study Torah and perform mitzvot, then we release the sparks from the kelipot and they ascend to malchut of Atzilut. She receives them and returns with them to the world of Atzilut. This ascent is called Female Waters [ma'n]. When they reach the world of Atzilut they become the germs to draw down illumination from above. At this point they are comparable to the female zygote. The ability of the various levels of soul to rectify their corresponding sparks is enhanced by the interconnectedness of souls who give and receive assistance from each other. In these later generations, because of their diminished spiritual power, rectification would

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be entirely impossible if it were not for the assistance consequent upon the interconnectedness of the souls. When the spiritual level descends so low that the world is on the verge of destruction, then physical sacrifice can restore spiritual power. The classic expression of this phenomenon was the Ten Martyrs of malchut. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Return Due to Lack of Procreation
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Five, Section 8 There is a difference between someone who reincarnates because he was childless and did not perform the mitzva of procreation, and someone who reincarnates because of any other transgressions that he may have committed. Someone who reincarnates for not having procreated will not be able to return alone, but only in partnership with another. This will [also] be the case even if he is like Shimon ben Azzai who did not need to reincarnate to have children. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai is a special case in Jewish history and law. He was married to the daughter of Rebbe Akiva, but he divorced her. His love of Torah was so great and consuming that he could not share it with anyone else. Since he had accomplished the mitzvah of procreation in a previous gilgul, it was not necessary for him to reincarnate specifically to do that mitzva. The extension of his own physical existence achieved through procreation is missing Nevertheless, when he reincarnates at birth because of a different sin, or to assist someone else, or to come as an ibur during lifetime, it will not be possible to return alone, but only in partnership with another. Since he is "half of a body"; he cannot come alone. The extension of his own physical existence that would have been achieved through procreation is missing. It is as if he is only half a body. The compensation for this deficiency is that he will be born together with another soul. It could be that this is also called a "Double Gilgul," as we have discussed in previous chapters. This gilgul is not because of yibum. So it seems to the humble opinion of Chaim. The secret of yibum was discussed in Sections 6 and 7 of Chapter Three, and the last

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section of Chapter Two. The secret of yibum is a special type of gilgul that takes place when there is a lack of procreation. In yibum it is considered as if the first gilgul almost never existed. This is not the case here. Therefore, the writer, Rav Chaim Vital, may his memory be a blessing, considers that this case is not yibum but Double Gilgul. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Bringing Down New Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Six, Section 1 Now we will discuss the idea of new and old souls, which we have already discussed somewhat in the Fifth Gate, The Gate of Mitzvot, regarding the mitzva of sending away the mother bird (parashat Ki Tetze). We will also explain the origin of the root of souls. These words are a general introduction. In the source mentioned, the Gate of Mitzvot, there is a section that is directly relevant to the subjects covered here. Before we actually begin to get involved with what is being taught in this chapter, it is necessary to explain the concept of "back to back" and "face to face" unifications. Two partzufim that are on the same level are destined to unite with each other… Two partzufim that are on the same level are destined to unite with each other. The nature of their unification depends on several factors. One of the most important is the amount and quality of ma'n raised by the lower beings to the feminine aspect of the uniting supernal couple. Normally, we raise ma'n from the kelipot to malchut of Atzilut by the performance of mitzvot, the study of Torah and prayer. Malchut of Atzilut is none other than Nukva of Zeir Anpin (the consort of Z'A). Initially, she and Z'A stand Back to Back. (The reason for this will be briefly explained, with the help of G-d, in Section 2 of this chapter.) As a result of the merit that is being accrued by our mitzvot, Torah and prayer, they are able to turn to face each other face to face. Of course, in order to unite they must be face to face, and the unification that takes place at that time is called the Unification of Face to Face (Zivug Panim Be'Panim). However, what happens if sufficient ma'n has not been raised and they cannot turn towards each other face to face? The lower couple has ascended to the place of the higher couple in order to unite there… It sometimes happens that the supernal couple will unite even though sufficient ma'n has

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not been raised. In such a case the higher couple, Abba and Imma, will raise ma'n for them. The unification that ensues is not called the unification of Z'A and his Nukva, but the unification of Abba and Imma. However, this is really not an ascent because it is entirely incomplete. It is as if they have united mentally, without physical completion. Or, it might be compared to two very young children sleeping in their parents' bed. This type of unification is called Unification of Back to Back, Zivug Achor Be'Achor. Indeed, this is what takes place in special cases of divine intervention when insufficient ma'n has been aroused. This is actually what happened when Adam, the first man, was created. You can see this in the relevant verses themselves (Gen. 2:5 - 7). …G-d did not cause rain upon the earth And there was no Man to work the Land. A mist went up from the earth To water all the face of the Land. And G-d formed the Man dust from the Land…. Rashi explains that G-d "did not cause rain upon the earth" because there was no one to pray for it. Therefore, the end of the verse states that "there was no Man to work the Land." Adam was created by an act initiated from Above… In other words, there wasn't anyone to raise ma'n from below for the unification of Z'A and Nukva. Consequently, the ma'n that was necessary was raised, seemingly, on its own ("A mist went up from the earth…"). Thus, Adam was created by an act initiated from Above, because there was no one to arouse it by the raising of ma'n from below. In summary, the Unification of Back to Back takes place when there is an insufficient elevating of ma'n from below. The partzufim are not really in a condition to unify, and the unification is accomplished on a level other than their real level. In contrast, Unification of Face to Face is the normal situation. It takes place when there is a sufficient arousal of ma'n from below to above. When all the worlds were created, even the world of Atzilut, they were brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back. Afterwards they turn to come into being in the aspect of Face to Face. There is reason to think that the world of Atzilut was not brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back, but only by Face to Face. In fact, even Atzilut was first brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back. Moreover,it is the same worlds that are first brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back that are brought into being

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anew by the Unification of Face to Face. This is also true of the souls of humanity. At first they came into being in the aspect of Back to Back. These souls were born into the world by the Unification of Back to Back. There are those among them who have already been reborn by the Unification of Face to Face. The others will yet undergo that tikun. A righteous tzadik…can draw out a new soul… However, from the time of Adam until the arrival of Mashiach, the tikun will be to renew those souls that were originally Back to Back, so that they can emerge from [the aspect of] Face to Face. After they were created Back to Back, they descended with the Shechina into exile among the kelipot. However, a righteous tzadik, through an absolutely good intention, can draw out a new soul. The "new soul" mentioned here is actually the renewed soul that was at first Back to Back and has been turned to Face to Face. That is the main point of the Rav throughout this section. However, what is "an absolutely good intention " that can accomplish this renewal? The word "intention" is the standard translation of the word used in the original Hebrew text, kavana. A better translation, perhaps, is "meditation". It means the internal and highest level of Prayer. Sometimes it has been called "meditative prayer." Besides the quality of the intention itself, there are other elements that come into effect. For example, when is it happening, on Shabbat or during the week? Who is doing it? In this case the Rav says that it is a righteous tzadik. The intention must also be supercharged with the merit of Torah and mitzvot and must be done with awareness and total simplicity, as it is written, "G-d is close to all those who call upon Him in truth…" (Psalms 145:18). In other words, through this intention a soul can ascend from the kelipot to be renewed in the secret of "They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness ". (Lamentations 3:23) The soul that is being elevated from the kelipot by the person's intentions was originally created from the Unification of Back to Back. It is finally raised to a place where it will be renewed, recreated, and brought into being anew by the Unification of Face to Face. Afterwards it will descend from the aspect of Face to Face into this world. It will be the beginning of its existence, and it will be called "new." These souls are predisposed in such a way as to not sin like other souls.

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Other souls, who are in the secret of Back to Back when they enter into bodies, are likely to become involved in sin. These new souls, however, are so full of Light and spiritual power that they are predisposed not to sin at all when they enter into this world. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Two Types of New Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Six, Section 2 At this stage of history we only have the ability to draw new souls from BY'A, which are the of Neshama, Ruach, and Nefesh, as is known. BY'A is the abbreviation for the worlds of Beriya, Yetzira, and Asiya. They correspond to Neshama, Ruach, and Nefesh, respectively, as is known. It is only these levels of the soul body of Adam that can emerge as new souls, until the time of the Resurrection of the Dead. However, in the future, after the Resurrection of the Dead, higher "new souls" will descend from the world of Atzilut. They will be from the Atzilut level of the soul of Adam, which is called Zehira Ila'a [Upper Emanation], as we will explain in future discussions. This is the secret of what is written in the Zohar (Pekudei 253a), "From the time the Temple was destroyed, souls have not entered the Sanctuary of Love [Heichel Ha'ahava]." The Ari will now give this teaching of the Zohar a unique interpretation based on the topic at hand. New souls that are born from the Unification of Face to Face from Atzilut have not entered there [the Sanctuary of Love]. However, new souls from BY'A can come [into that place] even in these days after the Destruction of the Temple. All the other souls that come into the world were included in the soul body of Adam after he was created by the Unification of Back to Back. Since Zu'N are Back to Back…the kelipot are afraid to approach her face… New souls can come from BY'A, but not from Atzilut. All other souls that come into the world are old souls. They are all born from the Unification of Back to Back.

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They need to be separated from the aspect of Back to Back, and turned to Face to Face. Z'A and Nukva (abbreviated: Zu'N) are originally manifested Back to Back, as mentioned previously. The Ari explains the reason for this. The kelipot want to suck light and nourishment from Nukva. She is susceptible to them because she does not contain great light in the first place and "Her feet go down to death…" (Proverbs 5:5). If Zu'N were Face to Face, then the back of Nukva would be exposed, and the kelipot would be able to take hold there, G-d forbid. Since Zu'N are Back to Back, and her face is projected outward, the kelipot are afraid to approach her face. Also, when they are Back to Back they are joined together with one Back, like what is found sometimes among Siamese Twins. Because they are joined together by one Back the kelipot cannot insinuate themselves between them to attack the back of Nukva. The kelipot suck when there is a little bit of light, but when there is a lot of light it is their nemesis. When Zu'N receive greater light from above, then the threat from the kelipot is diminished. It is then possible to expose her back, and allow them to turn Face to Face in order to accomplish the Unification of Face to Face. However, since they were joined by one Back, in order to turn Face to Face a process that the Ari has compared to surgery must separate them. Specifically, Z'A must receive sufficient light from above to enable the shared Back to double, one for him and one for her. Then they are separated sefira by sefira, until they are two, separate, independent partzufim. This is the first stage of the process called nesira - the Separation. It is a very important concept in the Lurianic Kabbala. He gives her light and builds her up until they are both Face to Face… Nesira plays an especially important role in the intentions of the weekday meditative prayer in the word be'ahava - "in love" - which appears in the first blessing of the Standing Prayer. Z'A began with a lot of light, and Nukva with only a little. During nesira he gives her his light, and she receives an additional enormous amount from above. At that time he is asleep like an anesthetized person in an operation; he is dormant, nearly non-existent. At the end of the nesira he receives once again an influx of light directly from above. She is diminished again but is then opposite his face and not attached to his back. Little by little throughout the rest of the prayer, he gives her light and builds her up until they are both Face to Face, receiving more or less equally from above, and ready for the Unification of Face to Face. This is be'ahava - in love! It seems that the Ari has deliberately made this allusion because of his explanation of the teaching of the Zohar concerning the Sanctuary of Love. Since the old souls from the level of BY'A can enter the Sanctuary of Love, they can be separated and turned towards each other to enable the Unification of Face to Face that will give birth to them anew. The souls of Atzilut, however, cannot enter the Sanctuary of Love at this time.

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In summary, all old souls come from him [from Adam]. All old souls come from the soul body of Adam. New souls do not come from him specifically because they are new, as if they were never in the world before. Old souls from BY'A can be elevated, renewed, and reborn as new souls, even in this period from the Destruction of the Temple until the Resurrection of the Dead. New souls from the level of Atzilut will only come into the world after the Resurrection. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Division of Adam's Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Six, Section 3 [The soul of] Adam divides into 248 "limbs" just does his body. In addition, there are other aspects, such as the countless "hairs" that hang from his body. The Rav is referring to the spiritual counterpart of the body hair. Not just limbs, but even incidental aspects such as the spiritual counterparts of body hair may be the root of souls. All the sparks of the individual souls in this world are from these aspects that are within Adam. All of the specific souls and levels of souls that will later enter bodies born from Adam are called "Soul-Roots" and are drawn from these aspects of Adam. Concerning each and every limb, it is exactly as the sages understood the verse, "Where were you when I founded the earth?" (Job 38:4). This was discussed at length in Chapter Three, Section 2. The Hebrew words for "where were you" can also be construed to mean "a lifeless lump." The roots of all the souls that would descend from Adam were implanted within him… When Adam was only a lifeless lump, G-d breathed into him a living soul. At that time the roots of all the souls that would descend from Adam were implanted within him. When Job complains about his lot, G-d says to him, "Where were you when I founded the earth?" In other words, "If you do not know the root of your soul and where you were in the soul body of Adam when I breathed into him a living soul, then you do not know your own history, and, if this is so, how can you complain about what happens to you?!" We have already explained that most souls are from Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam. This statement is problematic, since there are several places in the writings of the Ari

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himself that seem to contradict it. See, for example, Benei Aharon. From that time onward, they have since divided among all people ever born. Even though we won't explain this concept in detail now, since this is not the place to do so, we will provide an example of what it means. For example, suppose that Abel is the aspect of the head of all the souls. Then Abel would be the root of all the individual sparks of human souls that are in the aspect of the head. This type of kabbalistic conception was discussed in the extended note to Chapter Five, Section 5: Connected Levels of Soul. Likewise, if our patriarch Abraham was the right arm of Adam, then all the individual sparks that belong to the right arm of Adam are included in Abraham. He will be considered the root of all of them. It is the same for every limb and hair of the soul of Adam. However, this is not the place for this discussion. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Eight Levels of Repentance
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Six, Section 4 Now we will explain the individual types of teshuva [repentance] that a person must perform, and through them you will understand a little of this analysis. In this Section the Rav is continuing the discourse that he began in the beginning of the Chapter. The souls that were created from the Unification of Back to Back are destined to return, ascend, and to be reborn in the Unification of Face to Face. In order for this to happen, eight levels of teshuva must be attained. There are eight divisions of teshuva. Each specific place in the soul body of Adam contains the roots of all the four worlds of ABY'A [i.e. Asiya, Beriya, Yetzira, Atzilut]. The teshuva discussed here concerns rectification of damage that was done by sin in the roots of the souls, in the soul body of Adam. The higher one's Soul Root, the greater the damage his sin will cause. First of all, if a person has a Nefesh from the world of Asiya and he sins, he causes a separation of (the world of) Yetzira from that of Asiya in the specific place from which the root of his soul is suspended. This person's teshuva would reunite Asiya with Yetzira on the

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level of the root of his Nefesh. Similarly, if someone who has Ruach from Yetzira sins, he will need to rejoin Yetzira to Beriya on the level of his root. Likewise, someone who has a Neshama from Beriya must reunite Beriya to Atzilut. These are the three levels of teshuva from the lower worlds of BY'A. There are five higher levels of teshuva in the world of Atzilut itself… There are five higher levels of teshuva in the world of Atzilut itself. The first is to cause the return of malchut of Atzilut to its place, which is below the yesod, in the specific level of his Soul Root, as we discussed. The information being described by the Rav here corresponds to an important introductory lesson in Etz Chaim, The Palace of the Consort of Z'A, and especially the "Gate of the Moon's Diminution," 36:1, concerning the tikun of malchut of Atzilut. In each successive stage of tikun she ascends through Atzilut until she reaches the stage of the Unification of Face to Face with Z'A. In the first stage, her starting point in Atzilut, she is below the yesod of Z'A. This is before she is a partzuf, when she is only a "point". The second (stage) is to return her to a higher place, which is nh'y, the place from which she emanated, as is known. Nh'y is the acronym for the sefirot netzach, hod and yesod. At first, Nukva of Z'A is a point under the yesod of Z'A. When she begins to grow, she becomes a full partzuf from the back of the chest of Z'A, extending downward to the end of his feet on the floor of Atzilut. This is when Zu'N are attached Back to Back, and she receives all her light from him. …then she begins to receive light that is imparted to her… The chest of Z'A is above nh'y (often described as being located 2/3 of the way up tiferet), but sometimes the Rav will designate it as nh'y. When she is only a point below yesod, she has not yet begun any tikun at all. When she begins to get tikun, then she begins to receive light that is imparted to her from Z'A. This light is transmitted to her from a point that is in the back of the chest of Z'A. Therefore, this point, which the Rav is calling nh'y, is called the point from which she has emerged, and so it is known throughout the kabbala. The third (stage) returns her to a yet higher level, to the chg't. Chg't denotes the sefirot of chesed, gevura and tiferet. She is still in the back of Z'A, although she has probably reached the apogee of her growth there, although this point is also not exactly equivalent to chg't of Z'A, but a bit higher. This is just before the nesira

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(see the end of Section 2, this chapter). The fourth (stage) is to cause her to return to a higher (level), to chb'd, which are the three mochin of Z'A. Chb'd refers to the three sefirot ofchochma, bina and daat. These are the mochin, or brains, of the partzuf, as one might surmise from the translations of these terms: wisdom-chochma, understanding-bina, and knowledge-daat. Probably, the Rav is referring here to the stage where Nukva is Face to Face with Z'A, nearly equal in stature to him, and just before Unification. At this stage, the keter of Z'A is still higher than the keter of Nukva, and she is receiving her light from him. It is referred to by the nomenclature chb'd because that term indicates the internal aspect or the Front Face of the partzuf, and it is appropriate here because they are Face to Face. There is a fifth teshuva, more essential and elevated than the rest of them… These four elevations are all within the level of Zeir Anpin. There is a fifth teshuva, more essential and elevated than the rest of them, and that is to elevate it (the malchut of Atzilut) to the level of Abba and Imma. This is the level where the Unification of Face to Face takes place. Her keter is now equivalent to the keter of Z'A. They receive their levels of keter directly from Abba and Imma. Indeed, their levels of keter were once part of the bodies of Abba and Imma. Therefore, it is appropriate to call this the level of Abba and Imma. Also, Nukva will now receive her light directly from Imma without any intermediary. This level is alluded to in Sefer HaTikunim and it is called the "Eighth Level," because Imma (i.e., bina) is the eighth from below to above. Normally, bina is called the eighth because it is the eighth sefira, counting from below to above. Here, also, it is the eighth level of teshuva. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Hidden Effects of Sin
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Six, Section 5 It is important to know that the impact of one's sin is dependent upon the level of his soul. Thus, someone whose Nefesh is from the malchut of Atzilut will cause a blemish in that level and to his soul root there. This is the case for the rest of the levels as well.

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However, if a person in a previous gilgul had a Nefesh and Ruach from Asiya and Yetzira and then sinned and blemished his Ruach, this would necessitate reincarnation into a second person. Even if only the Nefesh returned into this [second] person, when he sins he blemishes Yetzira, as if he had also received the level of Ruach. In his previous gilgul he blemished both Nefesh and Ruach. Only Nefesh reincarnates. Nevertheless, if he sins in the new gilgul, it will also blemish Yetzira, as if he had also received Ruach. Because he had Ruach in a previous gilgul he can blemish it again in his current gilgul, even though he currently only has his Nefesh. Also, when he (the second person) wants to do teshuva, he must perform a tikun as if he had a blemished Nefesh and Ruach. He only has a blemished Nefesh, but he must repair the damage as if he had both Nefesh and Ruach, even though a blemished Nefesh and Ruach cannot reincarnate together. Regarding teshuva, it is necessary to know the manner of one's gilgulim… Also regarding teshuva, it is necessary to know the manner of one's gilgulim, which we will briefly explain now based upon what we have discussed in another place. This is a continuation of the subject of teshuva, which was discussed in the last section. Suppose that a person, for example, reincarnated twenty to thirty times beforehand. He will need to know if the first ones had NR'N from BY'A, and if he blemished them. If that is the case, then all the subsequent thirty, even if the Nefesh alone entered each one, will have to rectify as if they blemished all of BY'A, since the first one that preceded all of them was a Nefesh that received light from the Neshama of Beriya. Thus, to complete his teshuva he will have to return the light that it [his soul] had in the beginning. Although Nefesh only is reincarnating in the current gilgul, he must rectify all three levels of the soul. This is because all three levels of the soul were blemished together in the first gilgulim. The reason for this is that the Nefesh received light from the higher levels when they reincarnated together. Rectification of the Nefesh includes rectification of the higher lights that had become part of her existence. And those higher lights belong to Ruach and Neshama. Furthermore, this phenomenon has very important implications for some of the things that we observe in this world. This is the esoteric meaning of the verse, "…For she has taken from the hand of G-d double for all her sins." (Isaiah 40:2). One cannot grasp such matters, but he must trust that all G-d does is righteous … Sometimes a person will commit a (relatively) light sin, but they will be very strict and very exacting with him, punishing him as if he committed a severe sin, "twice" what he did. Thus, one cannot fully fathom the ways of G-d when he sees someone experiencing this.

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One cannot grasp such matters, but he must trust that all G-d does is righteous and with justice. It seems that he is getting a double punishment, something completely disproportionate relative to the sin, but it is because he is being punished for the blemishes caused by his sin in the higher worlds of Yetzira and Beriya as well. When one who does not have this special knowledge about the roots of gilgulim sees a case of retribution that is apparently inordinate relative to the sin, he may begin to doubt, G-d forbid, the justice of the divine system of reward and punishment. Therefore, "he must trust that all G-d does is righteous and with justice." However, suppose from the first [gilgul] through the ninth of the thirty he only merited a Nefesh and a Ruach, but for the tenth [gilgul] he merited a Neshama; he then sinned and blemished it. Any sins that resulted during the first nine blemished the Ruach, and even more so, the Nefesh. However, regarding the tenth and all those after it, through the thirtieth, the blemish and tikun will also affect the Neshama. Based upon this, you should be able to figure out any other case. A person cannot do complete teshuva…until he knows his Soul-Root… Thus, we find that a person cannot do complete teshuva as it should be done until he knows his Soul-Root and the levels of gilgulim of his soul that preceded him. The Zohar, when discussing the verse, "Tell me, you whom my soul loves" (Song of Songs 1:7) is adamant about this. It discusses there at length that a person needs to know the identity of his soul, why it has come into this world, and what it needs to rectify. Obviously, this requires knowledge beyond the normal. See for example, Kol Hatur, "Remizin Kadishin." [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Three Types of Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 1 The First Type The Rav will explain in this section that there are three different types of soul. We have already explained that there are some souls that were not part of Adam's soul when it was first created. These are truly completely "new souls", whereas the souls that were already included in Adam are called "old souls" by comparison, of which there are

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two types. New souls…were never included in the soul of Adam… This is a continuation of the last chapter. The new souls are those that are being born anew from the Unification of Face to Face. Since they are new, they were never included in the soul of Adam. The old souls that were included in the soul body of Adam were born from the Unification of Back to Back, but of these the Rav is now adding that there are two types. Thus, there are three types, the first being those which were not included in Adam and which are considered to be completely new souls. The second type of soul is a result of Adam's sin, after which his limbs "fell off" and he was reduced until he was no higher than one hundred cubits. This is the secret of the verse "…And You laid Your hand upon me". (Psalms 139:5) Just as it happened to his body, so too did it happen to his soul. This is in the Talmud, Chagiga 12a. As a result of Adam's sin, G-d laid His hand upon him and diminished his stature. Before the sin, he spanned five spiritual worlds, whereas after the sin he only spanned one… Prior to Adam's sin, he was said to have been five hundred cubits high. If taken literally, then he would have been between 750 to 1000 feet high. In Kabbala, it means that before the sin, he spanned five spiritual worlds, whereas after the sin he only spanned one. We have already seen that the sparks that constituted the spiritual body of Adam fell into the kelipot. This is what it means that "his limbs fell off" and corresponds to the diminution of his physical stature as a result of the sin. However, some of the sparks remained part of him, i.e. included within him. The sparks of his soul that remained within him after the sin were necessary for Adam himself. After the sin, he fathered Cain and Abel, and, as the sages (Pirkei d'Rebbe Eliezer, Chapter 21) and the Zohar say, it was from these sparks that they came. These constitute the second type of soul. In other words, some sparks did not fall, but remained within Adam for the sake of his own existence, and most of these were transmitted to his children, Cain and Abel. These constitute the second level of souls that will be discussed in this chapter. The third level is those sparks of his soul that left him at the time of the sin and which returned to the depths of the kelipot. Note that the Rav writes explicitly that they "returned" to the depths of the kelipot. The sages alluded to them by calling them "limbs that fell off". It was from this third level that the soul of Seth, the (third) son of Adam was taken.

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[Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

New Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 2 The first level is considered to be a completely new soul. It is about such a soul that has descended into this world, born into a body, that the sages alluded to when they said, "Come and see: When a person is born they give him a Nefesh, etc., and if he merits more, etc." This is the statement appearing in the beginning of Saba of Mishpatim (Zohar, Mishpatim, p.94b). The Rav has quoted it several times, and we already learned about it in Chapter One, Section 2. Since it is a first lifetime he can achieve everything… It appeared to be a statement that applies to all first incarnations, but now it apparently applies only to first incarnations of completely new souls, those that were not originally part of Adam's soul before the sin. Since it is a first lifetime, he is able to achieve the Nefesh of Asiya until the Neshama of the Neshama of Atzilut, level after level, as it says, "…if he merits more, etc." The Neshama of the Neshama is another nomenclature for the fourth general level of Chaya. Since it is a first lifetime he can achieve everything. And this he can do without much effort. We have already explained this first level before. However, if during that time he sins and causes a blemish and dies, necessitating a return to this world, then he is called an "old gilgul". Before going on to discuss the next level the Rav comes back to the subject of new souls to make one more point, which he also taught previously in the beginning of Chapter One. As we have already explained beforehand, the Nefesh comes to him at birth, but the Ruach cannot come to him until he is thirteen years old and one day; the Neshama, cannot (come) until he is twenty years or more. In this way he advances and gains according to his deeds until he achieves the NR"N of Atzilut, according to the level of his years. In effect, there are two requirements conditioning the advance of soul from level to level: one is age, and the second is the merit of his deeds. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Sparks Retained
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 3 In this section the Rav will explain in greater detail what the second level of soul is, and he will describe an advantage of the first level over the second. The second level consists of the sparks of the soul that remained with Adam after the sin, and which he bequeathed to Cain and Abel when they were born. They are considered to be new to some extent, but not completely. When they are rectified they will be more elevated than all the other souls that fell from Adam since they had the ability to remain in Adam, and they did not fall into the kelipot. It was during the actual lifetime of Adam that he bequeathed them to his sons… When his sons Cain and Abel inherited them, it was not considered an actual gilgul as if they came from a first body that died. It was during the actual lifetime of Adam that he bequeathed them to his sons when they were born. Therefore, all the sparks that are included in Cain and Abel are considered as if they are still part of Adam himself, as if they did not fall from him. When these sparks came as part of Adam, they did not come to rectify themselves. Even though they were a part of him, they did not belong to him. Thus, they are considered as if they never came. Not all the sparks that were included in Adam fell from him, as we learned previously. Some of these soul-sparks remained within him, and he needed them for his own existence. However, others that remained within him were not needed for his own tikun, and they were transmitted to his sons, Cain and Abel. It is these that constitute the second level discussed here. Since they were not needed by Adam himself, and they also did not fall with the other old souls, they are to be considered as "somewhat new", an intermediate category between the new souls (first level) and the old souls (third level). Also, when they later came included within Cain and Abel during the lifetime of Adam, it is also not to be considered a true incarnation. They did not come for themselves (again) because they had yet to be divided into individual sparks in their own bodies. Rather, they were only included in the bodies of Cain and Abel, which was not to be considered a true incarnation. They were included in Cain and Abel, apparently, because the latter were still the roots of the entire human race that was to follow. However, they were not participants in the gilgul.

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They were just being stored there awaiting distribution. Hence, only when one of these sparks is afterwards apportioned to a body is it considered a first incarnation in the world. It is a new incarnation to some extent, but not entirely, because they did already come in Adam, Cain,and Abel. If one of these almost-new souls sins, he will have to die and reincarnate… If such a person sins and causes a blemish and dies and reincarnates, then it will be called an old gilgul. If one of these almost new souls sins, like other old souls, when he completes Nefesh from Asiya, he will have to die and reincarnate in order to get Ruach, etc.. During the first time in the world it is called a somewhat new soul, as we have explained. It can achieve the Nefesh of Asiya, the Ruach of Yetzira, the Neshama of Beriya, and the Nefesh of Atzilut. In this respect they are like new souls. If they have not yet become blemished, then they can grow all the way to Nefesh of Atzilut. However, it cannot achieve more than this, which is a difference between these second level souls and the first level souls, which can attain all the way to the Neshama of the Neshama of Atzilut. The first level souls can complete until Chaya of Atzilut, but the second level souls can complete only until Nefesh of Atzilut. Still, that is very much relative to old souls. The reason for this difference is that when Adam sinned, he lost the "Supernal Radiance" [Zehira Ila'ah, as mentioned in the Zohar, Kedoshim 83a], which is the levels of RNCh"Y of the world of Atzilut. The "Supernal Radiance" is the soul of Adam from the level of Atzilut. When he sinned the higher levels of the "Supernal Radiance" disappeared by ascending above. The only level that was left to him was the Nefesh of Atzilut. They are called the "Supernal Radiance" and rather than fall into the kelipot, which are only in the three worlds of BY"A, they were taken up to their places. Thus, from all the levels of Atzilut called "Supernal Radiance", only the Nefesh of Atzilut remained. Whenever there is sin, then the higher lights ascend and depart in order not to be taken up in the sin and sullied… This description is exactly the same as the description of one of the details of the Shattering of the Vessels. In that place also, when the vessels broke, the higher lights ascended back to where they had come from. At the same time the sparks, equivalent here to the lower lights, descended together with the broken vessels into the realm of the kelipot.

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The Rav explains, furthermore, that whenever there is sin, then the higher lights ascend and depart in order not to be sullied. Thus, when these sparks that were included in Cain and Abel come into the world now for the first time, they can only achieve through their deeds up to the level of the Nefesh of Atzilut and no more. However, completely new souls can grow from the Nefesh of Asiya to the heights of Atzilut called "Supernal Radiance". This is an advantage of the first level over the second level. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Challenge to 2nd Level Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 4 Another advantage of Level One over Level Two is the facility by which the highest levels of soul can be rectified, whereas Level Two souls can rectify the highest levels only with difficulty and effort, even though they can achieve the highest levels. There is another advantage of a new soul, which has been called "Level One". When it comes into the world for the first time it can easily attain within the same body the Nefesh of Asiya until the Neshama of the Neshama, as we have mentioned. The Nefesh will become the "dwelling place" and "throne" of the Ruach, and the Ruach to the Neshama, and so on. The main point here is that new souls can easily achieve all the highest levels. Furthermore, as new levels are attained, each previous level becomes the "dwelling place" or "throne" of the next level. This is none other than the concept of Hitlabshut, or "enclothing", which was explained in a special note at the end of Chapter Two. However, this is not the case for (the souls of) Level Two, which are the sparks that were included in Cain and Abel. Although they can achieve as high as the Nefesh of Atzilut in one lifetime, it will not be with the ease of Level One. This is what we spoke about regarding the secret of Yibum at night, and the verse,"My Nefesh has desired You at night; even (with) my Ruach that is within me will I seek for You…" (Isaiah 26:9). In Chapter Three, Section 8 we learned that a person who completes his Nefesh cannot normally receive his Ruach in the same lifetime if his Ruach has already been blemished in a previous gilgul. He will have to die and reincarnate, unless "the need is great". By meditating upon the verse, "My Nefesh has desired You at night; even (with) my Ruach that is within me will I seek for You…" when he goes to sleep at night, he can cause his Ruach to descend in place of his Nefesh. This will allow him to rectify the Ruach in the same lifetime that the tikun of the Nefesh was completed. After a Nefesh has become completely

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rectified, it leaves a person at night while he sleeps… One of the points that the Rav will add here is that the Ruach will descend in the morning in place of the Nefesh while it is clothed within the Nefesh of the convert. It cannot descend into a body without being ensconced within a Nefesh, and its own Nefesh has remained above in the Supernal Well. Therefore, as we shall see, it clothes itself in the Nefesh of the convert. In addition, the Rav has added here a new nomenclature for this phenomenon. He calls it "the secret of Yibum at night", and has mentioned it here since it is possible, through meditation at night upon the verse mentioned above, to attain all three levels of NR"N in one gilgul. After a Nefesh has become completely rectified, it leaves a person at night while he sleeps, and the Nefesh of a convert enters him in its place in the morning together with the Ruach of the man himself. At night while a person sleeps he deposits his soul Above. Normally the soul comes back the next morning to continue on with its tikun, which in the case of a completed Nefesh would not be necessary. Therefore, it remains Above, and instead the Nefesh of a convert returns in its place to make possible the tikun of the Ruach during a single lifetime. The Nefesh will be the "throne" for its own Ruach… [The Ruach] will be clothed within this Nefesh until it is completely rectified. At that point the first Nefesh will return to the body, and they remain together. The Nefesh will be the "throne" for its own Ruach. If the person merits even more afterwards, then his Nefesh and Ruach will leave him at night, and in the morning his Neshama will enter him and remain there until completely rectified. After that time, his Nefesh and Ruach will re-enter him, and the three levels will remain together. However, all of this is only with great effort and difficulty, and after focusing intently. This is the secret of the verse, "If He would take notice of him, then He would gather into Himself his Ruach and Neshama". (Job 34:14) If he will be wise, and if he knows the meditation "Yibum at Night", of which we spoke, and if he will pay attention and focus his heart, then he will be able to gather unto himself, in this body, his Ruach and Neshama without the need for further gilgulim. With the proper wisdom, understanding, and concentration, a person who might normally have required many different gilgulim to rectify his Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama can use the "Yibum at Night meditation" as a way to complete all three of them during one incarnation. In addition, another advantage of Level One souls over Level Two souls has been explained. Although Level Two souls can achieve very high levels like Level One souls,

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they can only do so with great effort and difficulty, when the need is great, and when they are proficient in the meditation called "Yibum at Night." [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Early Death of Tzadikim
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 5 People who do not know how to draw down Ruach and Neshama through the "yibum at night meditation" have to die, and if they are tzadikim who have rectified the Nefesh at an early age, then they will die young, and this applies to second level souls as well. This person must therefore die in order to rectify his Ruach in a second body… A person may completely rectify his Nefesh, but not know how to draw his Ruach to him to rectify it, as has been previously explained: leaving his Nefesh at night (in the Supernal Well) through meditation upon the verse, "My Nefesh has desired You at night…." (Isaiah 26:9) This person must therefore die in order to rectify his Ruach in a second body. When it is rectified, then his Nefesh will join him. If by this time he still does not know how to send his Ruach away at night in order to draw his Neshama to rectify it according to the previously mentioned meditation, then he will have to die a second time so that his Neshama can enter a third body to become rectified. After rectification, his Nefesh and Ruach will re-enter to join his Neshama, as discussed previously. They die at an early age since there is no reason to delay their time in this world… Remarkably, this is why some completely righteous people die early in life. They have rectified their Nefesh entirely after only a few years, but they do not know how to draw down their Ruach by sending away their Nefesh using the meditation we mentioned earlier. They die at an early age since there is no reason to delay their time in this world. There is no reason for them to remain in this world since they have completed the tikun of their Nefesh. If they would receive Ruach, then they could begin the tikun of Ruach while still in the same lifetime. However, since they do not know how to draw down their Ruach, and have no need for further rectification of the Nefesh, there isn't any reason for them to remain in this world. They leave early [so] that their Ruach may enter a second body to become rectified. The same is true for righteous people who merited their Nefesh and Ruach and rectified them, and do not know how to send them away to draw down their Neshama. This is the esoteric meaning of the verse "…They die, but not with wisdom" (Job 4:21). Sometimes people die due to a lack of wisdom, not knowing how to draw down their Ruach

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or their Neshama. However, this only applies for someone who has rectified his Nefesh, but whose Ruach and Neshama still remain blemished from the first time. It should be recalled that the Rav reverted to the discussion of the "yibum at night meditation" by way of explaining the second advantage of first level over second level souls. Their ascent can go beyond Beriya to the level of Nefesh of Atzilut… Second level souls are those that remained in Adam after his sin and were transmitted to his sons, Cain and Abel. Like first level souls, they can complete immense tikunim in one lifetime, from the Nefesh of Asiya to the Nefesh of Atzilut. However, unlike first level souls, they can only accomplish this with great difficulty and effort, and it was for this reason that the Rav reverted to the discussion of the "yibum at night meditation." However, second level souls have been somewhat blemished by the sins of Adam, Cain and Abel. They can only advance from level to level with difficulty and with the assistance of the "yibum at night meditation". We have now explained the advantages of the first level over the second level. These second level souls were blemished to some extent by the sins of Adam, Cain, and Abel, although not like those souls of the third level who fell into the realm of the kelipot. Therefore, they need the "yibum at night meditation" in order to ascend from level to level, but their ascent can go beyond Beriya to the level of Nefesh of Atzilut. In contrast, someone whose Ruach and Neshama were not previously blemished does not need the meditation in order to ascend from level to level. Someone whose Ruach and Neshama are already rectified and now completes the rectification of his Nefesh, then his Ruach and Neshama can enter to be clothed within the Nefesh since they are already rectified like it. Obviously, Ruach and Neshama do not need to enter a body if they have already been rectified. In contrast, if they are only unblemished, they will still need to come in order to complete their tikun. Thus, it is likely that the words "already rectified" written here should be understood as "not blemished". Ruach and Neshama that are unblemished, but their tikun has not yet been completed, will be able to enter and become ensconced within a rectified Nefesh. Since they are not blemished, the rectified Nefesh can become an exterior garment or throne for them. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Advantage of Level Two Souls
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 6 The growth of New Souls depends upon two factors: merit and the passage of specific time segments; but the growth of Level Two souls that were included in Cain and Abel is not limited by a time factor and depends only upon merit. Now we will explain an advantage of the second level over the first level. First level [souls] are unable to achieve NR"N all at once. If his deeds are worthy, at thirteen years he merits Ruach… The next few sentences are not easy to comprehend, but the overall intention of the Rav can be clarified. The classical commentary on Gate of Reincarnations, Benei Aharon by R' Shimon Agassi, makes a parallel between the following teaching and what is taught in Etz Chaim (25:3). It is explained there that there are two different modes for the growth of Zeir Anpin. One depends upon the passage of specific time segments, and the other does not. In the same way we will see that the growth of Level One souls depends upon two factors: one is the merit of deeds, and the second is the passage of specific numbers of years. When he is born he gets a Nefesh, when he is thirteen he gets Ruach, etc. On the other hand, the growth of Second Level souls is not limited by the time factor. They can merit from Nefesh to Chaya at one time, independent of age, and that is their advantage over first level souls. Although they [First Level souls] merit [by virtue of their deeds], it is only through the number of years [that they can achieve growth]. In other words, at birth a person merits Nefesh, and if his deeds are worthy, at thirteen years and one day he merits Ruach. When he reaches twenty years and there is sufficient merit, then the Neshama enters. This is the way it precedes until everything is completed. Clearly, the growth of Level One souls depends upon two factors: merit and age. Level Two [souls]… are not dependent upon years but rather upon actions… However, Level Two [souls] can achieve until the Nefesh of Atzilut even before the age of thirteen years and one day. When these sparks were included together within Cain and Abel, they were able to merit to all of the levels mentioned. Therefore, now as well, they are able to achieve all the levels fitting for them at one time. They are not dependent upon years but rather upon actions, including the meditation mentioned previously. Second Level souls are not dependent upon the passage of specific time segments in order to achieve growth. The reason for this is that all the sparks of Level Two souls were included in Cain and Abel. At that time had Cain and Abel not sinned they could have grown all the way from Nefesh to Chaya. This potential became inherent in their sparks, even those that would be born later on.

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However, the new souls of Level One are like those that have just been created. Their growth takes time. But once the paradigmatic pattern is established, then the passage of specific segments of time to develop is not a limitation, as the Rav has written in Etz Chaim (25:3, p.2:15a-b). Know this rule. Whenever we are talking about the growth of Zeir Anpin needing time, we are talking about its first emanation. From then onwards, after it is emanated and set up, even though it receives new mochin every day as at first, it doesn't need to wait for [the passage of specific] time. In one instance it can be done, and not over long periods of time… Therefore, new souls of Level One are dependent upon specific time segments. Level Two souls have already had the paradigmatic pattern set up. They do not need to wait for the passage of years. It appears that it is dependent upon the person's actions, and not his age… Knowing this, we can now account for two different statements that seem to differ regarding the same issue. At the beginning of parashat Mishpatim (Zohar, 94b) it says, "Come and see. When a person is born, they give him a Nefesh... If he merits more, etc." It appears that it is dependent upon the person's actions, and not his age. This refers to Second Level souls that were included in Cain and Abel, and which are called "new" in some respect. In Sabba of Mishpatim (Zohar, 98a), it seems that it is dependent upon one's age, as it says, "When he reaches thirteen years it is said about him, "…Today I have given birth to you ". (Psalms 2:7) Then they give him a Ruach. When he reaches his twentieth year, they give him a Neshama. Regarding this it says, "A son I was to my father…" (Prov. 4:3) This refers to Level One souls, which are completely new souls, and were never included in the soul of Adam. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Level Three - Splinters
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 7 The third level constitutes those souls that fell amongst the kelipot after Adam sinned, from which came his son Seth and others. These are old souls and the lowest of all of the types, because they fell from Adam and splintered into many sparks and pieces as a result of his sin. Since these souls had once been part of Adam, they are called "old", meaning from a previous gilgul. Their residence within Adam is considered a first incarnation… When they were within Adam they could have become rectified if he had not sinned. Consequently, their residence within Adam is considered a first incarnation. When any of them will come again into the body of a mortal human being, it will be the second

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incarnation of that soul. When they come back in the body of a person who later dies, the soul is considered to have incarnated twice, etc. Now, when a soul from this level comes into a body for the first time, it only has the ability to rectify a portion [of the soul] in each gilgul. The information in most of the rest of this section has already been taught previously. Indeed, this section is a wonderful summary and review of much of what has preceded it. The serious student might take the opportunity after this section to reread the preceding chapters. In the beginning only a portion of the Nefesh will come to be rectified. For example, if the Nefesh was from the malchut of the Nukva of Asiya, then rectification will be necessary until keter of Aliyah is completed. Each part must be rectified until the tikun of the entire Nefesh is completed. When this has been accomplished, then the person will die and return in a second body with the Ruach in order to complete its tikun. When that tikun is accomplished, then the person will die and return in a third body with the Neshama to achieve its tikun. When this is done, then he too will die. However, no more reincarnations will be necessary. The Nefesh…needs to reincarnate as many times as it is necessary until it achieves rectification… We have already explained that when the Ruach comes to be rectified, it does so clothed within the Nefesh of a convert. The same is true regarding the Neshama as well. Since a tainted Ruach or Neshama cannot come back clothed within a rectified Nefesh or Ruach, if the Nefesh does not complete its tikun, then it needs to reincarnate as many times as it is necessary until it achieves rectification. After that, the Ruach will come into another body with the Nefesh of a convert and will reincarnate by itself many times, until it is complete. After that, the Neshama will come by itself in yet another body, reincarnating many times, if necessary, until it is complete. If the Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama are rectified, but then the person sins causing a blemish to them, which necessitates reincarnation, as we have described, he will only be able to rectify either the Nefesh, or the Ruach, or the Neshama each time. He will have to start again, but he cannot return with all three of them. There are those that reincarnate…to rectify and guide the people of their generation … However, it may be that a person rectifies his NR"N to the heights of Atzilut, and he reincarnates, not for his own sake, but for that of another. Since he neither sinned nor caused a blemish, he can retain in this gilgul, even while still only a child, all that which he achieved previously. This is the secret of the son of Rav Hamnuna Sabba, mentioned in [Zohar] parashat Balak, and the rest of the phenomenally righteous and wise children mentioned in the> Zohar. They were complete from previous gilgulim in all their NR"N [and other parts that were already rectified].

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This is new information, but it is surprising. If he is not coming for his own sake, but for someone else, then why is he reincarnating? And if he is coming as an ibur, we have learned in Chapter Five, Section 1, and in Chapter 38 that an ibur comes only after the age of thirteen years and a day? To clarify this problem we will translate a section from Sefer HaGilgulim, the beginning of Chapter 12, where the words of the Rav are more detailed and clearer. There are those that reincarnate for the sake of others, to rectify and guide the people of their generation. Since people like these are perfect tzadikim that may have merited even the Neshama of Atzilut or similar [very high levels], they do not need to reincarnate for themselves. They only reincarnate for the needs of the hour for the sake of others, to rectify and guide the people of the generation. These people can certainly achieve all their NR"N together, at one time, and all their other parts that were already rectified [as well]. This is the reason that we find young children whose deeds are wondrous like the son of Rav Hamnuna Sabba in [Zohar] Vayechi [who is also] the child in [Zohar] parashat Balak and all the other [wonder] children [throughout the Zohar]. These did not come to complete themselves, but for others. Therefore, they achieved NR"N and all that they had accomplished beforehand in one time, and that is why they were different and wondrous in wisdom. I, Chaim the writer, am in doubt, however, regarding those who must reincarnate, but not to rectify a sin but to make up for a lacking. They had not yet fulfilled some Positive Mitzvah, as opposed to actually transgressing a Negative Mitzvah. The question here is whether they will they return with all their previously acquired levels, or not. In Sefer HaGilgulim, in the chapter just quoted the Rav answers this question in the affirmative and unequivocally. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Rescuing Spirit from the Depths
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 8 For Third Level souls, meditation in the Tachanun prayer enables the coming of the Ruach even while the Nefesh has not been completely rectified. Now we will explain the differences between Level Two and Level Three [souls]. The Ruach of Level Two, made up of sparks from Cain and Abel, cannot emerge from the depths of the kelipot until the Nefesh is rectified. Therefore, the tikun to the Ruach cannot

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occur through another person, but only through himself. He must either die, and his Nefesh and Ruach will afterwards come back in another body, as it was explained previously. Or, he can do it by himself with the meditation on the verse "My Nefesh has desired You at night…" (Isaiah 26:9, see Gate of Reincarnations 3:8). After the Nefesh is rectified it will leave, and the Ruach will come by itself to become rectified, as mentioned earlier. It is likewise with the Neshama. However, the sparks from Level Three have a different ability. Although they cannot achieve all levels in one lifetime, they can achieve tikun using the proper mediations during the Tachanun prayer. In other words, the souls of level three can grow from Nefesh to Ruach in one lifetime using the proper kavana during the Tachanun prayer. Tachanun is recited most weekdays during the Morning and Afternoon prayers and is a request for forgiveness of sins. In some communities at this time it is customary to place one's forehead on the arm for a portion of this prayer like one who is distraught and looking for forgiveness. The actual term the Rav uses in the text is "Nefilat Apayim", which means "falling on the face", and this is a common nomenclature of the prayer, as well. However, since tachanun is a more commonly known terminology these days, that term is used in the translation. He would meditate that he was entering into the lowest realms…to extract from there the remnants of holy sparks… It was once customary that the person who was praying would fall prostrate on his face during this prayer. At that time he would meditate that he was entering into the lowest realms, the realms of the kelipot, to extract from there the remnants of holy sparks on their way to rectification. In our days this practice is considered too dangerous because the soul of the one who is praying may get caught there. Therefore, at most, in some communities people place their forehead upon their arm; in other communities the prayer is merely recited in a sitting position. During the "Falling on the Face" prayer, they can meditate that they are extracting their Ruach from the depths of the kelipot. This works even if the Nefesh is not yet fully rectified to ascend in the secret of Mayin Nukvin. (The subject of Mayin Nukvin is also explained in Chapter Three, Section 8.) This meditation is in the verse, "To You, G-d, I lift up my soul…." (Psalms 25:1) In the Prayer rite practiced by the Ari, and consequently adopted by all Sephardic Jews and some of the Chasidim, this Psalm is in place of Psalm 6 as the basic text of the Tachanun Prayer. His Ruach is simultaneously being rectified in the body of another person… His Ruach can then come during his lifetime into the body of another person who is born in combination with the Nefesh of a convert. If he merits it, then it is possible to draw it into his own son born to him.

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Therefore, even while the person is rectifying his own Nefesh in his own body, his Ruach is simultaneously being rectified in the body of another person who has the Nefesh of a convert, or, if he merits it, within the body of his own son. Through the meditation of the "Falling on the Face" prayer, only the Ruach can be withdrawn from the kelipa before the rectification of the Nefesh is completed. This process of drawing out a higher level of soul before the Nefesh has completed its tikun only applies to the level of Ruach. Under no circumstances can the Neshama be drawn from the depths of the kelipot until the Nefesh and the Ruach have been completely rectified, and those people who had the Nefesh and Ruach must die. Afterwards the Neshama can come in a gilgul to achieve tikun. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Dangers of Nefilat Apayim
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 9 When the Ruach is drawn down during the Nefilat Apayim meditation while the Nefesh is still completing its tikun, then there are dangers for the one who has the Nefesh. During Resurrection of the Dead the Nefesh and the Ruach will both arise within him… There is yet another thing to be clarified regarding this matter of the Ruach and the Nefesh that was just discussed. Since they can both come into the world in separate bodies, they are judged against each other in terms of who finishes his tikun first. If the person who received the Ruach completes his tikun prior to the person with the Nefesh, then he becomes the "main one." Therefore, during Resurrection of the Dead the Nefesh and the Ruach will both arise within him. However, if the one who possessed the Nefesh finished his tikun first, then I [Rabbi Chaim Vital] do not recall what was said. However, it seems to me that I heard that during Resurrection of the Dead they arise into the body that possessed the Nefesh, since he became the main one. There is another important distinction regarding the person who took Ruach during Nefilat Apayim before the final tikun of the Nefesh. We have learned that if he completes the tikun of Ruach before the one who has Nefesh completes its tikun, then it may be that he will arise in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead with both the Ruach and the Nefesh. In such a case there exists a very serious danger for the one who had Nefesh. In such a case, if the person merits through his actions, he can draw all the good of the Ruach to himself and leave the other evil. The Nefesh will lose all his merits to the one who

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is completing Ruach… In other words, the one who had the Nefesh will lose all his merits to the one who is completing Ruach. The first will be left with evil only. Therefore, he will not arise in the time of Resurrection, and all his good and merits will go to the second one who has rectified Ruach. This is the secret of the verse "Let the evil of the wicked finish them, but You will establish the righteous…" (Psalms 7:10) One whose deeds make him evil - he will finish by taking all the evil to himself. This is what it says, "Let the evil of the wicked finish them", while all the good is taken by the righteous person whose actions have purified him. Thus, he is finished and totally established, as it says, "…You will establish the righteous." It is known that a person is a combination of good and evil, purity within kelipa. Sometimes the evil is greater than the good, and the evil that is within him must be purified until all that remains is complete good. There are several mechanisms to accomplish this purification. What the Rav is having us contemplate here, since the evil is greater than the good, seems to be one of the more unpleasant possibilities. Thus have I heard from my teacher, may his memory be blessed, though I did not merit to understand this well. However, it seems to me that it is possible for the evil of the Nefesh and the Ruach to come together into one person whose actions are evil, and for the good of the Nefesh and the Ruach to come to someone who has purified his actions, as mentioned before. Knowing this you will be able to understand in the next section the danger faced by King David. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

The Danger Faced by David
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 10 Although his Nefesh was intact, King David was in danger of losing his portion in the Resurrection of the Dead as a result of his sin with Bat Sheva because his Ruach had entered the world while his Nefesh was still completing its tikun. Knowing this, you can understand what concerned King David when he said, "Many have said, 'For my Nefesh there is no salvation for it from G-d.' Selah." (Psalms 3:3). Knowing what was taught in the previous section we will now be able to understand how

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King David could seem to be poised on the verge of destruction. It is strange that people should have spoken so badly about such a great person as King David. However, to understand this we must be precise about what is written. It is written, "…There is no salvation for it [him]." It should have been written, "…There is no salvation for it [her]" if it referred back to the word "my Nefesh" mentioned at the beginning of the verse. The Nefesh of King David…descended to the Malchut of spiritual impurity… It was written in the verse, "…There is no salvation from G-d for it." At first glance it would seem that the subject referred to by the pronoun "it" is the Nefesh of King David that has no hope of salvation because of his sin with Bat Sheva. However, the Hebrew word used for the pronoun "it" is "lo", which refers to the masculine. If "it" were referring to the Nefesh of King David, then it would have to use the feminine word "lah", because Nefesh is a feminine noun. It will now be understandable based upon what has been said. The Nefesh of King David was very elevated. As a result of the primordial sin of Adam it descended into the depths of the kelipot on the side of the Nukva [the feminine side] of the kelipot. In other words, it descended to the Malchut of spiritual impurity. Malchut is the lowest of the sefirot, and the feminine side is generally below the masculine side. Therefore, at the least, we must understand that it descended very low indeed. When David was born, it was the first time it had left the kelipot. Therefore, it began its tikun only from the level of Asiya, which is called Nefesh. The reason [for this] is that it was a gilgul from Level Three. Like all Third Level souls, the soul of King David fell from Adam into the kelipot. However, this particular soul did not begin any tikun whatsoever for many, many generations. Therefore, when it was reborn into a human body to begin the process of tikun, it had descended to the lowest possible level. We often meet the rule that the highest levels ascend to the lowest places. And things that were on the lowest levels must eventually ascend to the highest places. This is exactly the case of the soul that was born into King David. In the time of the Resurrection of the Dead there would be no salvation for the body of David… This is the secret of what is mentioned in Sabba of Mishpatim (Zohar, 103a), and many other places as well, that David was from the "feminine side" and not the "masculine side". Rather, [the origin of his soul was] in the "World of Death" that is called Nukva. Understand this. It is said of the Malchut-Nukva that "Her feet go down to death…"; this is a general characteristic of Nukva-feminine relative to the masculine in all places. Indeed, the soul of

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King David descended to such a low place that it was devoid of the ability to survive in this world even one second, but Adam gave it seventy years of his own life. Thus, it was asked there [in Saba of Mishpatim], "Why was he called 'Oved'?" Oved was the grandfather of David. He and his son, Jesse, the father of David, made possible the birth of this soul that had sunk to the lowest of levels. The name "Oved" means "devotee" or "worker". The Holy Zohar in Saba of Mishpatim compares him to someone who is working on an orchard. His name derives from the fact that he did such good work rectifying the supernal tree that becomes the line of Mashiach. "The tree was lacking, and he rectified it." (Zohar, 2:103b) In other words, Oved began the process of tikun that resulted from the sin of Adam, and the Zohar says that Jesse, David's father, continued the process, paving the way for King David to become king and prototype of Mashiach. However, since the tikun was not complete, the ability of the soul of David to grow was limited in its first lifetime. It [the soul of David] was immersed in the depths of the kelipot of the Nukva. Since this was the case, David was only able to acquire his Nefesh, leaving his Ruach to come in the body of another person. When David sinned with Bat Sheva, he blemished his Nefesh. Although the Talmud teaches that David did not commit any formal sin, his behavior throughout the incident of Bat Sheva was so dismal and disappointing for someone on the level that he had already attained that it amounted to a very serious setback to his spiritual progress. As a result, it became possible for the one who possessed his Ruach to merit completion of its tikun before David could rectify his Nefesh. In the time of the Resurrection of the Dead there would be no salvation for the body of David. The other body belonging to the one who had the Ruach will take both the Nefesh and the Ruach. Consequently, this phenomenon that was originally considered a blessing becomes a curse. Originally it was considered a good thing that the Ruach can be made through kavana to descend into a second body to be rectified there while the Nefesh is still undergoing tikun in the first body. Nevertheless, there is a danger in this phenomenon to the body and person of the Nefesh, as we have learned. The one with the Ruach might finish its tikun first, and come to take both the Ruach and the Nefesh in the time of Resurrection of the Dead. Apparently this upheaval can occur if the evil committed by one with such an important and high Nefesh is serious enough, or if he repeats the evil consistently enough. However, the Nefesh itself will not be damaged, only the body. This is why he said, "there is no salvation for it [lo - meaning him]," and not, "there is no salvation for it [lah- meaning her]."

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"There is no salvation for it (lo-him)," refers to the body of David, and not to his Nefesh, which would require a feminine pronoun. This is the way the verse goes. "Many say…" - that since there is only a Nefesh within me, she has no hope in the body of David at the time of the Resurrection of the Dead. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Transferring Merit
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Seven, Section 11 One can lose his portion in the Resurrection of the Dead by transference of all the good to one soul partner and transference of all the evil to the other one. There is another explanation to the verse mentioned above, "Let the evil of the wicked finish them, but You will establish the righteous…" (Psalms 7:10) It can sometimes happen that a person's Nefesh will not enter him wholly and completely. Some of the good with most of the evil that is within it will go into the body of another person. The one who is mostly good will have the ability to draw all of the good to himself… These two will then be friends. The one who is mostly good will have the ability to draw all of the good to himself. The entire portion of evil will be banished to the mostly-evil person. Regarding the second person it says, "Let the evil of the wicked finish them…." Concerning the first person it says, "…You will establish the righteous", along the lines of what was said in the first explanation. It might also be that both of them are equally balanced. If one of them commits a sin, and definitely if the second one also performs a mitzvah, then he will overcome his friend. He will begin to draw the good to himself little by little until the good is completely by him, and the evil is completely by the other one. The Rav will now provide an explanation for a difficult passage in the Talmud, which will also describe how the good was completely taken from a person, who was then left with only evil. With this you can understand what the sages meant when they wrote, "Ahab was balanced," (Sanhedrin 102b) and when it says, "All the hosts of Heaven stood by his right and his left" (Kings I, 22), which was said regarding King Ahab. Although the evil sometimes overpowered him…still the Nefesh itself was half good and half bad… The Talmud teaches that the heavenly tribunal met to decide what to do with King Ahab. The angels that stood on the left were prosecutors demanding punishment. The angels that stood on the right were defenders recalling merit. The Rav brings the teaching of the

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Talmud that Ahab was balanced and that he had the ability to repent and rectify all his sins until he murdered Nevot (Kings I, 21). It was the spirit of Nevot that decided the judgment against Ahab and led him to destruction. (Ibid. 22) Is this not amazing? It says that the lightest sin of Ahab was like the worst sin of Jeroboam. The prophet many times writes that not only was King Jeroboam a sinner, but he also caused the entire nation to sin. It was he who built the golden calves in Bet El and Dan, which eventually caused the exile and disappearance of the Ten Tribes of Israel. In one place the Talmud states that the lightest sins of Ahab were equal to the worst sins of Jeroboam. Yet, on the same page the Talmud teaches, as we have read, that Ahab was equally balanced! The Talmud seems to contradict itself. How could they call him "balanced"?! Rather, it is like this. His actions were not balanced, but rather they leaned in the direction of guilt. However, his Nefesh was balanced - half good and half bad. Although the evil sometimes overpowered him and he worshipped idols, still the Nefesh itself was half good and half bad. Thus, it could be that at the same time that a person's actions are terrible and horribly sinful, his Nefesh could still retain a large repository of good, and the balance sheet of his gilgul could still finish in tikun. This is very encouraging. Therefore, G-d did not reject him completely, but rather wanted him to repent. He might do good. And that is why Elijah the Prophet chased after him, in order to bring him back in teshuva until the incident of Nevot from the Jezreel Valley. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Why Souls Reincarnate
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Eight This short chapter consists of this section only. The list of reasons for reincarnation given here is not intended to be exhaustive, but it is interesting because of the interplay between the male and female aspects of souls that is described herein. There are several reasons for the reincarnation of souls. It can be because a person sinned against the Torah and must return to rectify it. It can be to perform a mitzvah he previously had not completed. A third reason is for the sake of another individual, to guide and rectify him. In the first scenario, he can easily sin since he originally transgressed. In the second case,

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he is less likely to sin. In the third, he certainly will not sin. Sometimes he will reincarnate in order to marry his soul-mate…. There are other reasons as well. Sometimes he will reincarnate in order to marry his soulmate because he did not merit to do so the first time. Sometimes he may have already married his soul-mate, but he sinned and must return to rectify it, as was explained above. In this case he will come back alone, as Sabba of Mishpatim has written (Zohar 105b) on the verse, "If he came by himself…" (Ex. 21:3). Sometimes he has merits, and even though she does not need to reincarnate she returns with him. This is the secret of the verse, "…his wife will go out with him" (ibid.). The last two possibilities are opposite of each other. Either he sinned alone and returns alone without his soul mate, or he may have merit and she will return with him even though she has no need to reincarnate on her own. Sometimes, a person did not merit to take his soul-mate the first time, but a wife comes along for him according to his deeds. Among the souls of all the women in the world, there are none as close to him as this woman, even though she is not his actual soul-mate. When he sins and reincarnates, he will do so with this woman, even though she does not need to reincarnate for herself, and even though she is not his actual soul-mate. Furthermore, there are some roots of souls, men and their feminine soul-mates, who have fallen off into the kelipot. It is possible that the males will be able to leave the kelipot into this world, but their female consorts cannot go out at all until Mashiach comes. We have already learned that the female aspect is more susceptible to negative forces than the male because "…Her feet go down to death". Now they are sunk and given over into the authority of the female kelipa. We have already learned beforehand that the feminine aspect of the kelipa is lower and more deeply in trouble. Thus, the female aspects of these souls are in the lowest of places, and they cannot get out. I have forgotten if her name (i.e. the name of the female kelipa) is "Igrit" daughter of Machlat, or "Naamah" mother of Sheidim. "Sheidim" is also the Hebrew word for "demons", and no doubt this fact is applicable here. Indeed, all the female souls of the entire root of Hur, son of Miriam, cannot leave until Mashiach comes. Miriam is the sister of Moses, our teacher. Hur appears in the Book of Exodus, Chapters 17 and 24. He was also the grandfather of Bezalel, who knew how to permutate the letters by which the world was created, and consequently was the chief artisan in the construction of

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the Tabernacle. I believe that I heard from my teacher that Aaron the Priest did not marry his soul-mate, since he was close to the root of the soul of Hur, son of Miriam, his sister. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Floating Towers
"Gate of Reincarnations": Introduction to Chapter Nine Chapter Nine involves one of the four hundred questions that Doeg and Achitophel asked concerning "the Tower Floating in the Air". The sources for this extraordinary image, "the Tower Floating in the Air", are in the Talmud and the Zohar. In Talmud, Chagiga 15b the number of questions asked by Doeg and Achitophel is "three hundred". In Talmud Sanhedrin 106a two numbers, three hundred and four hundred are both recorded. In the Zohar (II:102a) the number of questions is "four hundred", and that is the number that the Arizal favors. The following is the text of the Talmud, Chagiga: Samuel found Rabbi Yehuda leaning against a doorpost and weeping. He said to him, "Keen scholar, why are you crying?" He replied, "Is it a small matter what is written concerning the Rabbis? …Where is he who counted? Where is he who weighed? Where is he that counted the towers? (Isaiah 33:18) "Where is he who counted" refers to scholars who counted all the letters in the Torah. "Where is he who weighed" refers to those who weighed the laws of the Torah to determine which are heavy and which are light. "Where is he that counted the towers" alludes to those that taught three hundred laws concerning a Tower Floating in the Air. Erudition to Obscure and Confound The Laws of Spiritual Purity and Defilement are the most difficult, obscure and esoteric in all Jewish Law. One of the main sections of this category of Law is taught in Mishna Ohalot, and it is one of the most difficult and one of the most obscure. Indeed, in these days, centuries after the destruction of the Temple, nearly all of these laws are no longer practiced, and the scholars who are proficient in them are few. Mishnah Ohalot, Chapter Four, teaches about "a tower standing in the air". It refers to a tower (a small portable closet resting on thin legs) standing outside, under the roof of the sky, as opposed to a tower located within another building. Nevertheless, according to Rashi (Chagiga15b), the leading commentator of the Talmud and Bible, and based upon his

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supreme authority, the "tower standing in the air" is none other than our "Tower Floating in the Air". [Rashi does provide another alternative interpretation, but it is hardly less esoteric than the one that will be discussed here. According to the alternative interpretation "the tower floating in the air" refers to the top of the Hebrew letter lamed which protrudes like a tower above all the other letters.] Doeg and Achitophel …desired…to disclose esoteric secrets for selfish and impure reasons... When does its contents remain undefiled in opposition to the environment surrounding it? If it contains something defiled, under what circumstances does it defile the surrounding environment? These are some of the questions concerning this section of Mishna Ohalot. In brief, "those that taught three hundred laws concerning a Tower Floating in the Air" refers to those that were proficient in a very difficult section of Jewish Law. It is a section that was also obscure and esoteric, even in the days of the Talmud, even in the days of King David. These scholars were few and great, and Rabbi Yehuda was crying over their disappearance. Rabbi Ami said, "Three hundred questions were asked by Doeg and Achitophel concerning a Tower Floating in the Air." In Talmud Sanhedrin this teaching is also stated in the name of Rabbi Ami, but the number of questions recorded there is "four hundred". These questions were asked by Doeg and Achitophel who have in common, in addition to their keen intellects, implacable enmity to King David, the prototype of Mashiach. They were not motivated by the pursuit of truth. Rather, they desired to confound and obscure, to disclose esoteric secrets for selfish and impure reasons, and especially to use their erudition as a weapon against David, the Messiah King. Asking these four hundred questions on the three hundred laws concerning a Tower Floating in the Air, they are, so to speak, the devil quoting Scriptures. This view is supported by the text in Talmud Sanhedrin: Rabbi Ami said, "Four hundred questions were asked by Doeg and Achitophel concerning a Tower Floating in the Air, and none of them were answered." Rabba said, "Is it such a great thing to ask questions! In the years of Rabbi Yuda they only studied the Laws of Damages." Rashi explains there (in Tractate Sanhedrin) that "G-d wants [the service] of the heart," and not impure erudition. Rabba's statement is intended to disparage the greatness of men like Doeg and Achitophel who use their sharp minds in such a negative way - to ask four hundred confounding questions. In contrast, in the generation of Rabbi Yuda the esoteric Laws of Spiritual Defilement were not even studied, but only the straightforward, practical Laws of Damages.

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Spiritual Defilement Entering the Line of King David? Furthermore, in the Mishna Ohalot that begins with "the tower that is standing in the air", the main theme is the rule that spiritual defilement "goes out, but it doesn't go in". Thus, if there is something defiled inside the tower, then it's influence will go out, under certain circumstances, to defile objects in the environment around the tower. However, if the impurity is outside, it will not enter into the tower to defile objects that are within it. Doeg and Achitophel wanted to prove otherwise; and in the same way to claim that something entered into the gilgul of King David or his antecedents that made him ineligible for kingship. It was far from outlandish to suppose that there really was something seriously wrong in the line of King David. Come and see who his antecedents were. From the side of his ancestress, Ruth the Moabite woman, there was the incestuous relationship between Lot and his daughters (which is just about the lowest of the low) as well as the law that prohibits Moabites from converting into the congregation of Israel. His father's line was also full of problems. First there was Er and Onan, Judah and Tamar. Afterwards came the story of Elimelech and Naomi, their two sons Machlon and Chilyon, and the strange "levirate" marriage (yibum) of Boaz and Ruth. These difficulties, by the way, are some of the subject matter dealt with by the Sabba in Zohar, Mishpatim, which is the section that will be briefly introduced in this introduction. Moreover, mystery and doubt surrounded the birth of David. His father, Jesse, had separated from his wife after the birth of their seventh son. How did she come to be pregnant once again, and according to her, impregnated by her husband who didn't remember a thing? Finally, the incident of David with Bat Sheva belongs in this category as well (see 7:10) since it also served as a prominent argument for those who wanted to derail the Davidic dynasty. In addition, there is another interpretation of "the Tower Floating in the Air" that it refers to the erected, male sexual organ. In this case the questions of Doeg and Achitophel refer to the complicated and questionable sexual history of the Davidic line as outlined here. The purpose of their questions, accordingly, is the same as what has been explained. According to Doeg and Achitophel something entered into the gilgul of King David or his antecedents that made him ineligible for kingship. Who Were Doeg and Achitophel? Doeg, in addition to being the head of the Sanhedrin (the ancient court and legislature of Israel) also commanded the special police of King Saul. In that capacity he pursued David relentlessly, and of all the advisers of King Saul he was the most insistent that David had to be eliminated. The authority of the court to annul vows…floats in the air… When David appeared out of obscurity to kill Goliath, King Saul began to inquire after his identity and the lineage of his family. Doeg answered, "Before you inquire about the lineage of his family, inquire whether they are even allowed to be members of the congregation?" Since one of the matriarchs of the family is Ruth the Moabite woman,

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according to Doeg (the Edomite), her ancestors are not even allowed to be part of the Jewish people. In this way he wanted to banish David from any position of leadership despite the fact that permission for a Moabite woman (as opposed to a man) to enter the congregation had already been decided by several courts before his time. Achitophel was the wisest of all counselors in the generation of King David. Had Absalom, King David' son, followed the advice of Achitophel when he rebelled against his father, then David's cause would have been lost and the King would have been killed. Indeed, it may be that the entire rebellion was the design of Achitophel, and Absalom was just a helpless dupe against a force like that. Many divisions of soldiers fighting for Absalom did not threaten David as much as Achitophel joining the ranks of the rebellion. For this reason David prayed special prayers, and he sent special, secret agents to infiltrate the ranks of Absalom's counselors for the specific purpose of frustrating the advice of Achitophel. It is not insignificant that King David is the prototype of Mashiach, and these two, Doeg and Achitophel, with their great minds and keen perceptions, were the most implacable and most dangerous of his enemies. Typical of secret agents working behind the lines, with these questions they wanted to confound and confuse, hoping in that way to cast doubts upon the legitimacy of the Davidic dynasty. Furthermore, they wanted to uncover a secret weakness in the root of King David's soul, a defilement or impurity in his gilgul, or in the gilgulim of his antecedents. In this way they hoped to gain the power to stop the Redemption. Floating in the Air With Nothing to Rest Upon There is another possible interpretation to the four hundred questions of Doeg and Achitophel on the Tower Floating in the Air. Mishna Nedarim 10a makes the following statement: "(The annulment of) Vows are floating in the air and they do not have anything to anchor upon…." In other words, the body of law concerning the authority of the court to annul vows does not have any scriptural source to rest upon, and it is not anchored in any scriptural source although it has become established law. It floats in the air. King Solomon, the wisest of all men, answered all…of the 400 questions… The decision to allow a Moabite woman to convert and enter the congregation may be comparable. The scriptural source for this ruling is questionable. It was established on the authority of the Oral Torah. The courts of Boaz and Samuel the Prophet ruled accordingly, and it was finally established once again by the Sanhedrin in the time of King David. Doeg and Achitophel asked four hundred questions in the attempt to nullify this ruling. Although their logic was impeccable and could not be disproved until the time of Solomon, King David's son, the courts consistently ruled against them because there was a tradition that took precedence over their logic. That, too, is a Tower Floating in the Air. The Sabba Enters the Place of 400 Questions As mentioned previously, the number of difficulties and questions raised by Doeg and

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Achitophel, according to the Zohar, is not three but four hundred. The Holy Zohar also says that King David's son, King Solomon, the wisest of all men, answered all of them. Furthermore, in the Zohar the Sabba of Mishpatim also asks and answers some of them, or at least one of them. In the middle of this section, it is stated explicitly that the Sabba has entered into the place of the 400 questions. Some of the text that records it will follow. (Indeed, it may be that the entire text of the Sabba in Zohar, Mishpatim, from its beginning, is really part of the four hundred questions. See "The Riddle of the Saba") However, before we can translate and explain the explicit text we must first recall something that was learned previously. There is a phenomenon called "the spirit that is left within the woman" as a result of the first intimate relationship with her husband. This spirit remains within her at all times. However, what happens when her first husband dies, she remarries, and the spirit of her second husband enters within her? This is one of the four hundred questions. Say your thing, Sabba. The Holy King is here… Come and see. How high are the awesome and mighty [things] the Holy King does. Who can speak about them? His spirit is flopping around within her womb like a snake, and it quarrels with the other spirit of the second husband that has entered… When the second husband comes and puts his spirit into this vessel, the first spirit quarrels with this spirit that has entered, and they cannot settle down together. For this reason the woman does not settle down properly with her second husband. The first spirit knocks around within her; she always remembers him, and cries and grieves for him because his spirit is flopping around within her womb like a snake, and it quarrels with the other spirit of the second husband that has entered. If this spirit that has entered pushes out the first one, then the first one goes its way. Sometimes the first one pushes out the second, and quarrels with it until he takes it out from the world. And that is why we have learned that a man should not marry a woman who has had two husbands die on her because the Angel of Death is strong within her. People do not realize that it is this spirit [of the first husband] that has conquered the other spirit of the second [husband], and that is why nobody should get mixed up with her… If the spirit of the first husband is strong enough to conquer and push out the second spirit, and consequently the second husband dies as well, then it is not advisable for any third man to marry her. It is likely that what has happened to the second husband will happen to the third as well. Therefore, tradition suggests that a man should not marry a woman who has had two husbands die on her (unless special banishing meditations are performed). However, if the second spirit that has entered overpowers and conquers the first one, then the first spirit goes out from there and goes on its way. To where does it go, and what

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happens to it? O' Sabba, Sabba [he says to himself] what have you done? You thought you would say a few words and get out of this, but now you have entered a place that no one else has entered since the day that Doeg and Achitophel made those difficulties. They asked four hundred questions concerning the Tower Floating in the Air, but no one could answer any of them until King Solomon came along and clarified each one of them exactly. Sabba, Sabba, will you reveal this supernal secret that was hidden? What have you done? "Sabba, Sabba, you should have watched yourself in the first place, but now, Sabba, is not the time to hide out. Get your courage back! Where does the spirit that leaves [her] go?" He began to cry… The spirit that goes out [from her] on its way wanders through the world, and it is not known. It goes to the grave of that man [the first husband from whence it came], and from there it wanders about the world. It appears to people in dreams who see in their dreams an image like that man… Thus it wanders in the world and constantly visits that grave until the time when the [soul-]spirits visit the graves of bodies. The second spirit, the soul-spirit, is a part of the soul of the person who has died, in this case the first husband. The time when the spirits of the soul visit the graves of the bodies is, for example, on the day of the yahrzeit, the yearly anniversary of the day when the person died. It is customary that descendants and students visit the graves of the departed on the yahrzeit day to pray there because it is a time when their prayers can receive assistance and power from the spirits of the departed ones. At such a propitious time the spirit that was left within the woman by the first husband and has gone out from her to wander in the world meets the spirit of the soul of the first husband from whence it has come. This spirit joins with its main spirit, which clothes itself within it. The wandering spirit joins the main spirit of the soul that has come down to the grave. The former, the wandering spirit, becomes an exterior addendum to the latter, until the soulspirit returns to its place. When it (the main spirit) goes into its place, it divests itself of it (the wandering spirit), but there is a place for it among the palaces of Paradise, or just outside of them, and there [the spirit] shelters - each one according to its ways. When the spirits visit this world, when those that have died are needed among the living, then they ensconce within these spirits. There are times of trouble when the living need the

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assistance of the spirits of the deceased… In other words, there are times of trouble when the living need the assistance of the spirits of the deceased. In such times, the spirits of the deceased are able to communicate with the world of the living through the interface of these minor spirits that have been sheltering "among the palaces of Paradise, or just outside of them". Accordingly, it would seem that there is a happy ending to this story; the spirit drawn from the first husband that was left within the woman, which was banished as a consequence of her second marriage and made to wander through the world, has become the interface enabling communication between the spirits of the souls with the world of the living. However, the Sabba rejects this contention. Perhaps you will say that it has been an advantage to the spirit, and this woman has benefited everyone. It is not so! If she did not marry another one, and if the first spirit had not been pushed out from before the other, then it would have had a different advantage, and it would not have had to wander in the world as it did. And it was not necessary for the living of this world that it should wander as it did here and there. Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Yossi challenge the Sabba'sposition on this issue with the following question: "If that is the case, then the second union of this woman was not a good thing, but you said that [the rule is that] one man is pushed out by another man." The Sabba himself taught us a rule that applies to these matters: one spirit is pushed out by another. Therefore, it is quite natural that the first spirit should be pushed out from before the second. It is not a calamity, and it should not be looked at in a negative way. Now, one of them will ask him another, stronger and more compelling question: "And I say, maybe the second husband that married this woman is really her soul-mate, and the first one was not her real soul-mate. The second belongs to her, and when the time came the first one was pushed out from before him." "Therefore, Sabba, pushing out the first spirit was not only natural; it was also just!" The Sabba answers: It is certainly that way! The first spirit that was in this woman is never pushed out unless the second is her soul-mate. And in all the cases where the second is pushed out from before the first ones, it is the first ones that are the soul-mates and not the others. That is why they cannot abide together, and the second spirit is pushed out from before the first one. Consequently, it is said about someone who marries a widow that he doesn't know his soul [i.e. he doesn't know what he is doing] "Because the net is spread for no reason…"

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(Proverbs 1:17). He does not know if she is his soul mate or not. The Sabba now introduces an entirely new possibility that coincides with his own preference in these matters: One Husband, No More There is a widow who does not remarry. Even if her soul-mate comes along, but she does not want to remarry, G-d does not coerce her with force. He prepares another woman for the man, and He does not enter into harsh judgment with this one in this world, even if she never has any children, because a woman is not commanded "Be fruitful and multiply..." (Gen. 1:22), as is known. Thus, even if her first husband who has died was not her soul mate, and the second, potential husband is her soul mate, the Sabba nevertheless prefers that the woman refrain from marrying. Yibum There is one major instance where the Sabba will agree that a woman should remarry after the death of her first husband, and the Torah just about obligates it as well. It is the case of "yibum" (levirate marriage), where the first husband has died without leaving any progeny in the world. The brother of the deceased first husband (the woman's brother-in-law) is designated by the Torah to marry the widow. This act of yibum will liberate the spirit that was left within her by the first intimate relationship with her first husband and build living progeny in the name of the deceased. Now, the foundations of the Davidic dynasty are the yibum of Tamar by Judah and the yibum of Ruth by Boaz. Both these relationships were questionable and susceptible to the challenges of Doeg and Achitophel. They are the Tower Floating in the Air. Judah was not the brother-in-law of Tamar, but her father-in-law. Ruth was a Moabite woman, and her legitimate entry into the congregation was questionable, let alone that she should become the mother of the royal house. Furthermore, even if her marriage to Machlon, the son of Elimelech, was legitimate, Boaz was not his brother but his father's cousin. What kind of yibum is that? The spirit that was left within the woman by her first husband may well have been flopping around within Tamar and Ruth, but did these unorthodox types of yibum free those spirits and build them up? Could these relationships build the foundations of the genealogy of the kings of Israel and Messiah? Around these issues Doeg and Achitophel ask four hundred confounding questions, such as what happens to the spirit of the first husband. These are the four hundred questions of Doeg and Achitofel on the Tower Floating in the Air. The discussion of the points touched upon here goes on and on in the inimitable way of the Zohar and the Sabba. Obviously, the Sabba was quite reluctant to reveal these things. For

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us it is not so much of a problem since we do not understand too much of the Zohar anyway, but now the Holy Ari comes and tells us that he too will be revealing one of the four hundred questions! Chapter Nine is one of the four hundred questions that Doeg and Achitophel asked concerning "the Tower Floating in the Air." Like the Sabba, the subject of Chapter Nine will be illicit sexual relationships (in particular, that of homosexuality), how they effect gilgulim, and how the sparks that fell into the kelipot because of the sin are ultimately redeemed. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Reincarnation Discrimination
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Nine, Section 1 Men must reincarnate to clear their sins because they study Torah and cannot go to Gehinom, whereas women are not thus protected by the study of Torah and can purify their sins in Gehinom. Gilgulim really only apply to men and not to women. This is the esoteric meaning of the verse, "A generation goes and a generation comes, but the earth remains stationary forever" (Ecclesiastes 1:4). "A generation goes and a generation comes…" refers to men who reincarnate. However, women are referred to as "earth"; they are forever stationary. [In other words] they do not return in gilgul. Throughout Jewish literature in general, and Kabbala in particular, the earth is considered an aspect and personification of the feminine. (See, for example, Shaarei Ora, 1, by Rabbi Yosef Gikatlia.) Malchut is the preeminent female aspect of the sefirot, and one of her attributes is "earth". Furthermore, the entire section in the Torah concerning illicit sexual relationships is associated with the "earth", its settlement, and exile from it (G-d forbid). For example, it is written, "And you shall guard all My statutes and all My laws, and the Land that I brought you there to settle it shall not spit you out" (Lev. 20:22). The earth…takes the place of the widow who is not marrying the brother-in-law… Similarly, if the brother-in-law does not perform the mitzvah of yibum, then he and his brother's widow perform the mitzvah of chalitza; in chalitza, the "earth" plays a prominent role. He stamps his foot upon the ground, she throws his shoe upon the ground, and finally she spits upon the ground. And the Zohar explains that the earth here takes the place of the widow who is not marrying the brother-in-law to allow the soul of the deceased to come back in gilgul through her. The Ari has explained the indication from the verse that informs us that men reincarnate and not women. Now, he will give a reason for it, and it is the first reason for this distinction that he is providing here (according to the text of Sefer Hagilgulim and Bnei

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Aharon). The reason is that men are commanded with the mitzvah to get involved with the study of Torah. [Therefore] they cannot enter Gehinom because the fire of Gehinom cannot affect them, as it says regarding Elisha son of Abuya. He was not judged because he learned Torah, but they did not give him the World-to-Come either, since he had sinned. This is taught in Talmud Chagiga 15b, and we have already learned about it in Chapter 4:7. We learned there that the Torah protects against the fires of Gehinom. Therefore, those that learn Torah must reincarnate in order to get purified of their sins. Now we learn, for the same reason, only men reincarnate and not women. Thus, they [men] must reincarnate to erase their sins in place of Gehinom. Women, on the other hand, who are not [commanded to be] involved with Torah, can enter Gehinom to erase their sins, and they do not need to reincarnate. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Cross-Gender Soul Migration
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Nine, Section 2 Because of sins such as homosexuality a male soul might reincarnate into a woman's body, and such a woman will not be able to give birth without great merit and the entry of a feminine soul into her as an ibur. Although women do not reincarnate, they can sometimes come as an ibur into women, together with sparks of new, feminine souls. There is another possibility when they come as an ibur in some other woman. If that woman conceives, becomes pregnant and gives birth to a girl, then the one that came as an ibur might reincarnate as an actual gilgul in that daughter who was just born. The Ari will return to this phenomenon further in this section. Sometimes a man may reincarnate into the body of a woman because of a sin, such as homosexuality… Sometimes a man may reincarnate into the body of a woman because of a sin, such as homosexuality or something similar. This woman who has received the soul of a man will not be able to conceive and become pregnant. This is a serious punishment. Barren women usually suffer tremendously. This is because she lacks [the ability] to raise Mayin Nukvin, and she cannot receive

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Mayin Duchrin. The concept of Mayin Nukvin (M"N), "Female Waters", was explained somewhat in Chapter 3:8. Its counterpart is Mayin Duchrin (M"D), "Male Waters" or juices that flow from above to below, such as the sperm that is emitted during marital intimacy. In Kabbala, this term refers to all the light and blessing that flow downward from Above. Obviously, the physical bodies of the partners must be able to function normally in order for procreation to happen. The Ari is adding here that some similar function must also take place in the soul bodies. Souls have masculine and feminine aspects, as it is written, "…He created them male and female" (Gen. 1:27). Furthermore, the rule in the Kabbala is that This World is a sort of reflection of what is contained in the spiritual roots (despite the anomaly under consideration here). Thus, the female soul must also be able to emit juices of M"N and lubrications that draw downward to herself the M"D of the masculine soul. The male soul that is within her cannot…become pregnant or give birth… In this anomalous case, however, as a result of sin, the soul that is within the female body is not feminine, but male. The female body in this case will be able to function normally in a biological sense, to emit female juices and lubrications. However, the male soul that is within her cannot do so. The consequence will be that this woman cannot become pregnant or give birth. This woman will need great merit to enable her to become pregnant and give birth. The only way it can be done is that some other feminine soul must enter her as an ibur. In partnership they can raise M"N, conceive and give birth. One has a female body; the other is a female soul. She cannot give birth to boys, but only to girls… However, she cannot give birth to sons for two reasons. The first is [as follows:] There is a verse that says, "…If a woman puts forth seed, and a male child is born" (Lev. 12:2). In the Talmud (Berachot 60a, also Nidda) it is said, "If a woman 'puts forth seed' first, then a boy will be born. If the man puts forth seed first, then a girl will be born." In this case, the woman is a male, just like her husband. In this case, whichever one biologically "puts forth seed" first, in the spiritual realm both partners are masculine souls, and it will always be the male who puts forth seed first. Therefore, the child must be female. She cannot give birth to boys, but only to girls. At the time that she gives birth, that feminine soul enters into the fetus… The second reason is that the feminine soul that has entered her does so only as an

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ibur in order to help her become pregnant and give birth. Once this woman gives birth, that soul does not need to stay there any longer for no reason. At the time that she gives birth, that [feminine] soul enters into the fetus as an actual gilgul, and not as an ibur, like it was at first. That is why the child that is born must be female and not male. The child that is born will be the gilgul of the feminine soul that entered the mother as an ibur. Since the feminine soul is not itself tainted with any sin of illicit sexual relations, she must enter a feminine body. Therefore, the child will be a female. In summary, any woman whose soul is a masculine soul, as explained beforehand, cannot give birth to a male, but only to a female. The female child that is born will be the same feminine soul that originally entered to help out. In Chapter 38, the Ari will actually relate that the first wife of Rabbi Chaim Vital was the gilgul of a soul of the type discussed here in this section. That is why she could not give birth to a son. Rabbi Shmuel Vital, the son of Rabbi Chaim, through whom the Lurianic tradition was transmitted, was the son of Rabbi Chaim's second wife, who was actually his soul mate. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Male Souls and Male Sons
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Nine, Section 3 This section continues the previous one, where a masculine soul reincarnated as a woman because of a sin, such as homosexuality, and this woman cannot give birth unless a feminine soul comes to be an ibur within her. In the last section, we learned that in this case of a feminine soul being an ibur within a woman whose soul is masculine, the child that will be born will be a girl. The feminine soul that came as an ibur will become the soul of that daughter in a full-fledged gilgul. If there is surprisingly great merit, then it is sometimes possible that at the time that child is born, the feminine soul that was there as an ibur will depart and go on its way. A masculine soul will then enter the fetus and the child will be a male. Afterwards, it will be impossible for this woman to give birth another time, unless that same feminine soul returns to be an ibur within the woman as at first. Whether the child that is born is male or female, it will be impossible for that woman to give birth another time. Her soul is masculine, and she cannot give birth without the feminine soul that comes to assist her as an ibur. However, that feminine ibur is no longer

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together with her. If the child that was born is a girl, then the feminine ibur has become the child's soul as a gilgul. If the child is a boy, then the feminine ibur has gone on her way to allow the child to be born as a male. The woman can only become pregnant again if that feminine soul leaves the daughter to become once again an ibur in the mother… In either case, it will be impossible for this woman to give birth another time, unless that same feminine soul returns to be an ibur within the woman once again as at first. However, this presents a serious difficulty if the child that was born was a girl and the feminine ibur has become the child's soul. Therefore, if the first child was a daughter, then this girl will have to die, and maybe the feminine soul will return to be an ibur within the woman, as it was beforehand. If this woman whose soul is really masculine is going to have any other pregnancy after the birth of a daughter, then that girl will die first. This is because the feminine ibur that makes possible this woman's pregnancies has become the soul of the daughter. The woman can only become pregnant again if that feminine soul leaves the daughter to become once again an ibur in the mother. Then she will conceive, become pregnant and give birth to a daughter whose soul will be the feminine soul that was there as an ibur. This sequence of ibur and gilgul can go on many times, and the laws applicable to it will always be the same. However, if she gave birth to a boy, then the child does not need to die. The feminine soul that was an ibur within her has gone on her way at the time of birth, as mentioned previously. That [feminine soul that was an ibur] must return a second time to be an ibur within her [the woman] in order that she will conceive and give birth to a girl. The feminine soul that was an ibur needs to return again to this woman to help her become pregnant again because the feminine soul needs to enter a gilgul in a feminine body. The first time a boy was born; maybe the second time a girl will be born. This also needs great merit! It is also sometimes possible, although a girl is born first, that the daughter does not need to die. Even though there will be another pregnancy, it is also possible that the first daughter does not need to die. It is possible that a different feminine soul will come to be an ibur within that woman, and she will conceive and give birth to a girl, and this soul will reincarnate within her as a fullfledged gilgul. No soul enters the body of a man or a woman in their lifetime, unless there is a great affinity between them…

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This woman with a masculine soul had an ibur of a feminine soul. Consequently, she conceived and gave birth to a girl. The feminine soul that was an ibur becomes the soul of the daughter. Then a different, second feminine soul becomes a second ibur within the woman whose soul is masculine. She becomes pregnant and gives birth a second time. The second child is also a girl. The second feminine soul that was the second ibur becomes the soul of the second child. It is possible that these elements can interchange in this way pregnancy after pregnancy whenever this woman conceives. However, this phenomenon also needs great merit and a powerful miracle. This is because of a fundamental lesson that we have concerning the secret of ibur. No soul enters the body of a man or a woman in their lifetime, unless there is a great affinity between them. This woman whose root is a masculine soul needs an ibur of a feminine soul. This feminine soul must contain all the qualities that are needed for this ibur. In addition, it has to have an affinity or similarity to her. Consequently, this requires great merit, and all the more so if she has to come in ibur several times, as explained. And it is an even greater [miracle] to find many feminine souls with the right conditions, and they will also come as an ibur, each one at a different time! This needs much merit and great miracles! [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Fathers and Teachers
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Ten, Section 1 The father gives a portion of his soul to the son, and the teacher gives part of his spirit to the student. It makes no difference: if a man marries his soul mate or if he takes another woman who is not his soul mate, he can father children that are sparks of souls from his own root, or souls from a different root. The father gives a portion of his soul to his children. The mother also gives a portion to her children, but her role in gilgulim is not as relevant as that of the father. This portion becomes an exterior garment to the soul of the son. According to the Kabbala, everything in Creation has two aspects: "Light" and "Vessel". When we are talking about humans, for example, these two aspects are called "body" and "soul". When we are talking about partzufim, the aspect of Light is usually called "mochin",

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but here we are going to also use the original term "Light". (Actually, the Light itself has three aspects: Light, mochin and tzelamim-images, but these details do not concern us here.) Although everything has these two aspects of Light and Vessel, there is another third aspect, which lies intermediate between the Light and the Vessel. It is called the "Levush", or "Garment", because it is an external garment to the Light. This garment is interior to the vessels which comprise the limbs of the partzuf, but it is called Levush because it is the garment of the Light and Mochin. It covers them and dims them to eliminate the possibility that the vessels might break because of the great magnitude of light entering into them. The father gives a portion of his soul to his children… This Levush or garment is actually the NHY (the sefirot of netzach, hod and yesod) of the Higher Partzuf. For example, let us say that the Lower Partzuf is Zeir Anpin. We will call the Higher Partzuf "Imma", but in the realm of the soul this description applies to the relationship of father and son as well. (See Otzrot Chaim, Aifah Shelaimah, p.34a, bet.) The light of Imma that is within its three lower sefirot, NHY, ascends upward into its own tiferet, leaving the vessels of NHY empty. Then the Light or mochin that is being transmitted to Zeir Anpin from above through Imma enters into the vessels of NHY of Imma. The vessels of NHY of Imma become the garment for the Light of Zeir Anpin, and in that configuration they enter into the Vessels of Zeir Anpin. Afterwards, Imma grows new NHY for her own Light of NHY. The ChaBaD of the Light of Zeir Anpin enters into the ChaBaD of the Vessels of Zeir Anpin. The ChaGaT of the Light of Zeir Anpin enters into the ChaGaT of the Vessels of Zeir Anpin. The NHY of the Light of Zeir Anpin enters into the NHY of the Vessels of Zeir Anpin. However, the Garment of the Light of Zeir Anpin, which is the NHY of Imma, is always situated between the Light and the Vessels. (A section of Etz Chaim, Gate 20, Chapter 3, is relevant to this description.) Each of the Nefesh-Ruach-Neshama has five partzufim, and each partzuf consists of 613 limbs… In our text the Arizal wrote, "The father gives a portion of his soul to his children, and this portion becomes an exterior garment to the soul of the son." The portion that was part of the father's soul is the NHY of the father's soul. It becomes a garment for the soul of the son. (See Appendix 20:3.) (This portion that became an exterior garment to the soul of the son) helps him and guides him down the proper path. For this reason, a son is obligated to honor his father.

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The father gives up a part of himself for the sake of his son. Therefore, the son is obligated to honor the father. However, if there is less than five hundred levels difference between the soul of the father and that of the son, then the portion of the father's soul will remain with the son's even in the time of Mashiach. We have already learned that each of the NR"N (Nefesh-Ruach-Neshama) has five partzufim, and each partzuf consists of 613 limbs. These are called "major roots". Now, it will be explained with the help of G-d in Gate of Reincarnations 11:2 that each one of these limbs, or major roots, has 600,000 branches that are called "minor roots." Each spark is a whole soul in itself that must enter the world in gilgul, each one in its time, in order to achieve tikun… In addition, each one of the 613 major roots consists of 613 sparks. These are called "major sparks," and they may divide into 600,000 minor sparks, according to need. Thus, there is a maximum of 613 x 600,000 minor sparks in each and every partzuf. This number, by the way, is 367.8 million. Each spark is a whole soul in itself that must enter the world in gilgul, each one in its time, in order to achieve tikun. Thus, each one of the roots and sparks of each partzuf have a place, or level, in the general hierarchy of souls. The levels of two different souls may be close to each other in this hierarchy, or far apart. If the distance between them is more than 500 levels, then the portion of the father's soul given to the son will remain with the son's soul even in the time of Mashiach. Nevertheless, in the time of Resurrection of the Dead or in the World-to-Come everything returns back to its root. They will separate completely. If there is less than five hundred levels difference between the soul of the father and that of the son, they will remain together even in the time of Mashiach. However, in the time of Resurrection of the Dead or in the World-to-Come, when everything returns back to its root, they will separate completely. On the other hand, if there is a difference between them of five hundred levels, or more than five hundred levels, then the lesser will be nullified within the greater. They will permanently unite forever, and they will never separate. The two of them will become one root. This is in regards of a father with a son. A teacher gives some of his spirit to his student… Regarding a teacher and his student, we have already explained that a teacher gives some of his spirit to his student, like a father does to a son.

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This does not refer to the Ruach (often translated as "spirit") that is one of the NR"N. Rather, it refers to a minor ruach. In effect, the Arizal does not consider the information transmitted by the teacher to the student as a mere ethereal, non-entity. Rather, it is something that is real; it has content and substance, and it endures forever. However, it is a more forceful connection. The spirit stays with the student forever, and they never separate. This is the esoteric meaning of the joining of the Nefesh of David with the Nefesh of Jonathan. The joining of the souls of David and Jonathan was also mentioned earlier in 3:1 in a different context. It was based there on the verse from Samuel I 18:1. Here, the connection to the verse is more general and less explicit. This is the reason that more respect is due to a teacher than to a father. There are many laws in regarding respect due to a teacher and to a father. The teacher referred to here is called a "Rebbe Muvhak," which is defined as someone from whom the student has learned most of his wisdom. In our generation it is very difficult to imagine the relationship between a student and a Rebbe Muvhak. In general, more respect is due to a teacher, i.e. a Rebbe Muvhak, than to a father. For example, if a person's Rebbe Muvhak and father were both captured by pirates, and he only has money to redeem one of them, then the Rebbe Muvhak takes precedence. It is the same if he can only save the lost or stolen property of one of them. The Talmud provides a simple reason; one's father has given him life in This World, while one's teacher gives him eternal life in the World to Come. (Baba Metzia 33a, and see Book of Knowledge, Rambam, "The Laws of Talmud Torah," 5:1) However, there is an exception to the rule, when the father is also a scholar, and all the more so if he is also the son's teacher or the teacher's teacher. What is the case if the teacher of the student is also his son? Then they are doubly bound together, because the same one is his teacher and his son. If there is less than five hundred levels difference between them, then they are (permanently) bound together to each other. This is according to what was taught in this section previously: "If there is a difference between them of five hundred levels or less…they will permanently unite forever, and they will never separate. The two of them will become one root." The father (is bound) with the son because he (the son) is the teacher, and the son is bound with the father because he is his father. The two are bound to each other, this one to that one, and that one to this one, from both sides. In one respect this one is higher, and in another respect that one is higher. Nevertheless, they bind together, become one root, and "the lesser will be nullified" and subsumed within

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the greater. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

From Parents to Children
"Gates of Reincarnation": Chapter Ten, Section 2 We will speak further about children born to fathers. Obviously, children are born to fathers and mothers, but the Arizal is specifying here the father only. The reason will become clear at the end of the section when he talks about Asael. In some children, the dominating driving force comes from the father, and sometimes to an extreme degree. When a man unites with his wife in intimacy, from the energy of the father there is drawn the son's Surrounding Light. Also, the aspect of Internal Light is drawn from the energy of the mother. It was mentioned earlier that all things consist of two aspects, Light and Vessel. These two also consist of two aspects each. There is the internal part of a vessel, and the external part. Similarly, there are two aspects of Light; they are the Internal Light and the Surrounding Light. The Internal Light is the aspect of light that enters into the vessel. It is contained within the vessel under pressure because it cannot easily expand outward. The Surrounding Light, on the other hand, does not enter into the vessel, but hovers around it. It is much less concentrated because it is not contained within the limited space of the vessel, although it is always connected and associated with the vessel, and always shines upon it. The amount of light that enters into the vessel is always much more limited than the Surrounding Light… Also, the amount of light that enters into the vessel is always much more limited than the Surrounding Light which is not forced into a limited space. Therefore, the Surrounding Light is considered greater and of a higher quality than the Internal Light. That is why it is the Surrounding Light that brings about miracles, whereas normal, everyday affairs are in the province of the Internal Light. The process of transmission from parent to son is the same irrespective of whether it is Surrounding Light or Internal Light. The Light is clothed within the NHY of the soul of the parent, as was taught in the previous section. Now, since the Surrounding Light is greater, it is associated with the sefira of the right side, which is also the higher one, called chochma and Abba. Correspondingly, the Internal Light

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is associated with bina, called Imma. Now, at the time of their unification it is possible that both parents will concentrate upon the mitzvah and holiness. The mitzvah is what we have been commanded "…And G-d said to them, 'Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it'" (Gen. 1:28). The intimacy that derives from the long-term relationship of husband and wife is also considered by many to be part of the completion of the mitzvah. The characteristics and qualities of the children depend upon the thoughts and behavior of the parents at the time of conception… The mitzvah should be done in purity and holiness, and in that way it increases the holiness of husband and wife, and it increases holiness throughout the world. This is a very important subject in the Kabbala, but this is not the place to even begin the subject. In addition to the laws of Family Purity that must be known, the reader may also refer to the Shulchan Aruch, Even Ha'ezer #25 concerning the set and setting of the mitzvah, and to the important kabbalistic book ascribed to the Ramban (Nachmanidies), called Da'at Kedusha. Now, the Arizal is adding here the well-known Kabbalistic rule that when the mitzvah is performed with purity and holiness and proper thoughts, then it also increases the holiness of the offspring. Another important, associated Kabbalistic rule is that the characteristics and qualities of the children depend upon the thoughts and behavior of the parents at the time of conception. Alternatively, the concentration of both of them may not be for the sake of the mitzvah, but for their own pleasure, or for evil. Marital intimacy without pleasure is just as bad as when the partners are only thinking about satisfying their own physical desire for stimulation and pleasure. Indeed, children born from intercourse where there was no pleasure are likely to be damaged physically or mentally. On the other hand, the desire that the partner's have for each other is a positive factor in the determination of the child's level of intelligence. However, when their thoughts and concentration are only on physical pleasure then the quality of their unification plummets downward towards zero. In addition, such people are likely to do other things that are wrong: in the preparation for their meeting, in the setting of the intimacy, and in the human dynamics of their relationship. Thus, their unification can actually, eventually, take place in the realm of evil, G-d forbid. They give birth to devils! Alternatively, the concentration of the father might be for good, whereas that of the mother is bad, or vice versa. If both of them are thinking about (the holiness) of the mitzvah, then the child will be a perfect tzadik in Surrounding Light and in Internal Light. If the intentions of both of them were for evil (purposes), then the child will be completely evil in Surrounding

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Light and in Internal Light. If the father's intentions were for good, but that of the mother was bad, then the Surrounding Light of the child will be righteous, but the Internal Light will be wicked. With the passage of time the Surrounding Light will overcome the Internal Light, and he will be completely righteous. This is because the Surrounding Light includes the Internal Light, and it [the Surrounding Light] will overturn it to purify it. The Surrounding Light includes the Internal Light because they were originally like one light. Some of the original light entered into the vessel, but most of it remained outside. Thus, the light that is inside the vessel was once included within the greater light that remained outside. There are some children who are very sharp and they cannot stay still, whereas some children are lazy and move very heavily… Since the Surrounding Light is greater than the Internal Light, the former will conquer the latter and change it entirely, if necessary, into something good. The quality of the two Lights, in turn, will influence the child's character and behavior, and even many of the things that will happen to him throughout his life. If the father's intentions are for evil, but the mother's is for good, then the Surrounding Light will be bad and the Internal Light good. However, after a time the Surrounding Light that is bad will overcome the good Internal Light and it will also become bad. Nevertheless, it seems from the following words of the Arizal that the situation is not clearcut black and white. There are degrees. There are other factors. If you want to know if the power of the father or of the mother will dominate, then you can recognize it by the lightness or heaviness of the son. It is not clear-cut that the power of the father always dominates. There are other factors that alter the determination. It is possible for the power of the mother to sometimes dominate. These other factors, however, are not the subject of the Arizal here. Rather, he wants to describe now how it can be known if the light coming from the father will dominate, or vice versa, and the consequences upon the child. The Internal Light is limited and it is not dynamic, but the Surrounding Light moves around outside and propels a person to the place that it wants. Consequently, if you see a person who is "light like an eagle and runs like a deer" in all his activities and quick in all his work, it is because the Surrounding Light that comes from the energy of the father dominates over him. Yehudah ben Tayma said, "Be bold like a panther, light like an eagle, swift as a deer and strong like a lion to do the will of your Father who is in Heaven" (Mishna Avot 5:20). On the other hand, if you see someone who is lazy and moves heavily, it teaches that it is

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the Internal Light from the side of the mother that is dominant. Now, everything goes according to their deeds, by which I mean that if the father's intention at the time of intercourse was for the mitzvah, then this child will be quick to do the work of Heaven, and he will be very great in Torah. However, if his father's intentions were [only] for his own enjoyment, then he will be quick in the tasks of this world. The opposite is also true. If he is slow moving, when his mother's intention was for the mitzvah, then he will be lazy to do the work of this world. However, if her concentration was not upon the mitzvah, then the son will be lazy in the work of Heaven. Having said this it is possible to understand why there are some children who are very sharp and they cannot stay still, whereas some children are lazy and move very heavily. The children of the first group are those heavily influenced by the Surrounding Light. The second are those influenced by the Internal Light. High magnitudes of Surrounding Light…can produce a power capable of overriding natural law… This is the reason that Asa-el the brother of Yoav was unfathomably light upon his feet. The story of Asa-el the brother of Yoav is told in Chapter Two of Samuel II. The sages said that he could run over the stalks of grass without bending them. In other words, he ran so swiftly that his weight never came to rest upon the surface. Before it could rest, he was already gone from there. It seems to us that the sages are speaking here metaphorically. However, the Arizal is insisting that we take their words here literally. Definitely a Midrash of the Sages cannot digress from its simple meaning. However, with what was mentioned here it is understandable. The energy of his father was overdominating, and there was no maternal energy within him at all. The Surrounding Light was totally augmented within him, and he was almost able to fly through the air. It seems to me that the point of the Arizal here is to teach that high magnitudes of Surrounding Light, combined with proper intentions and thought patterns at the time of conception, can produce a power capable of overriding natural law and provide an instrument for wondrous miracles. (End of Chapter Ten) [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Summary of the Soul
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Eleven, Section 1 Shmuel [the son of Rabbi Chaim Vital and editor of the Writings of the Ari] says: I found an essay that is a brief summary of the entire subject of gilgul, and it seems to me that it is a choice selection of everything that has been said about the subject. It contains what a person absolutely needs to know in order that he may accomplish rectification. Here, the categories of souls are detailed. The content of this section has already been written explicitly, or it was implicit in the first sections of Chapter One; see the extensive commentary that has been included there, and especially the tables of correspondences. There are four Worlds, and they are [nicknamed] ABY"A [Atzilut, Beriya, Yetzira, and Asiya]. Each world consists of five partzufim. They are Arich Anpin, Abba and Imma, Zeir Anpin and Nukva of Zeir Anpin. However, there is an incongruity concerning them. This is new information. The souls of human beings are different than all the other aspects contained within the four worlds… Each of the three worlds of BY"A equals one [of the three lower partzufim] of Atzilut Imma, Zeir Anpin or Nukva. However, there are not two worlds above BY"A that replicate Abba and Arich Anpin of Atzilut because [those levels] are very hidden. Each one of the three lower worlds is "equal" to one of the three lower partzufim of Atzilut. The two higher partzufim do not have such a correspondence. Although the Ari does not spell it out, the realm of Souls has the same incongruity. Chaya and Yechida do not enter into the body or fit into any of its vessels. The Souls of human beings are different than all the other aspects contained within the four worlds of ABY"A because they are the secret of "You are children to the Lord your G-d…" (Deut. 14:1) There is a deeper…connection between the Souls and the Creator than there is between the Worlds and the Creator… There is a deeper, more immediate and more intimate connection between the Souls and the Creator than there is between the Worlds and the Creator. The relationship of the Creator to the Souls is like that of father to son. In other respects, however, the realm of the Souls is a replicate of the Worlds. The realm of Souls is a replicate of the Worlds, in general and in particular.

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The section that follows is comparable to a meditation in which the serious student should be so proficient in these categories that he can review them by heart even when he is falling asleep. Souls from Atzilut The souls that are from the World of Atzilut divide into five categories corresponding to the five partzufim of Atzilut. Those that are drawn from A"A are called "Yechida". Those from Abba are called "Chaya". Those from Imma are called "Neshama". Those from Z"A are called "Ruach". Those from Nukva are called "Nefesh". They are all divisions of Atzilut. Afterwards, come lower ones. There are those that are drawn from the world of Beriya, and they are called the "Neshama [that is] from Beriya". Those from Yetzira are all called the "Ruach [that is] from Yetzira". Those from Asiya are called the "Nefesh [that is] from Asiya". Those that are drawn from Imma of Atzilut are called "Neshama of Atzilut"; those that are drawn from the World of Beriya are called "Neshama of Beriya". In the same way, those that are drawn from Zeir Anpin of Atzilut are called the "Ruach of Atzilut"; those that are drawn from the World of Yetzira are called the "Ruach of Yetzira". Those that are drawn from Nukva of Atzilut are called the "Nefesh of Atzilut"; those that are drawn from the World of Asiya are called the "Nefesh of Asiya". This is in general, but there are also details, as follows. Souls from Arich Anpin of Atzilut The souls that come from Arich Anpin of Atzilut divide into five categories: From Keter of Arich Anpin is what is called the "Yechida of Yechida". From its Chochma is what is called the "Chaya of Yechida". From its Bina is what is called the "Neshama of Yechida". From its Six Extremities is what is called the "Ruach of Yechida". From its Malchut is what is called the "Nefesh of Yechida". All these five categories are, in general, "Yechida". The five aspects of Chaya that come from Abba of Atzilut divide in the very same way, and they are all called "Chaya". It is the same with the five categories of Neshama that come from Imma, and they are all called "Neshama".

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It is the same with the five categories of Ruach from Zeir Anpin, and they are all called "Ruach". It is the same with the five categories of Nefesh from Nukva, and they are all called the "Nefesh of Atzilut". These are all the categories of Atzilut. Now come the categories of BY"A. Souls from the categories of BY"A It is the same with the three worlds of BY"A, but all five divisions of each world are only equivalent to one of the partzufim of Atzilut, as already mentioned. The Neshamas that are from Arich Anpin of Beriya are called the "Yechida of Beriya". Those from Abba are called "Chaya". Those from Imma are called "Neshama". Those from Zeir Anpin are called "Ruach". Those from Nukva of Beriya are called the "Nefesh of the Neshama [that is] from Beriya". All these five categories that are from the five partzufim of Beriya are called the "Neshama that is from Beriya". All five of them equal the five categories of Neshama of Atzilut. Similarly, the souls from the five partzufim of Yetzira divide into the Yechida, Chaya, Neshama, Ruach and Nefesh. They are all called the "Ruach [that is] from Yetzira". They are equal to the five categories of Ruach of Atzilut. Similarly, the souls from the five partzufim of Asiya divide into the Yechida, Chaya, Neshama, Ruach and Nefesh. They are all called the "Nefesh [that is] from Asiya". They are equal to the five categories of Nefesh of Atzilut. We have already learned (Gate of Reincarnations 1:4) that each of these five can also be subdivided into five more. Theoretically, there is no final level of subdivision. Nevertheless, the Ari will provide specific numbers in the next section. Before going on, it is worthwhile to summarize: The Nefesh, in general, is from Asiya. The Ruach, in general, is from Yetzira. The Neshama, in general, is from Beriya. They correspond to particular partzufim in Atzilut: Nukva, Zeir Anpin and Imma, respectively. These, in turn, are the Nefesh-Ruach-Neshama [NR"N] of Atzilut. Chaya, on the other hand, does not derive from Atzilut in general, but only from Abba of Atzilut. It is the same with Yechida, which is not ascribed here to Atzilut or to Adam Kadmon in general, but to Arich Anpin of Atzilut only. Behold, souls have been explained in general and in particular.

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[Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Roots and Sparks
"Gate of Reincarnations": Chapter Eleven, Section 2 This section describes the divisions of souls into Roots and Sparks, and the minimum and maximum number of roots and sparks that must go through gilgul to achieve tikun. All these levels of Soul that were mentioned [in the previous section] were included within Adam. Adam was composed of 248 limbs and 365 sinews, even in the aspect of Souls, and every particular that was mentioned was divided in this way. Each particular partzuf that was mentioned in the last section is a soul body of Adam. It has already been discussed in Gate of Reincarnations 3:2 that each partzuf divides into 248 limbs and 365 sinews (613). The Yechida of Atzilut divides into 613 limbs and sinews. Each limb or sinew is called a "Root". Similarly, each one of the aspects of Chaya, or Neshama, or Ruach, or Nefesh of Atzilut divides into 613 roots. Similarly, each one of the five partzufim of Beriya divide into 613 roots, and they are all called the Neshama of Beriya. It is the same with each of the five partzufim of Yetzira, and each of the five partzufim of Asiya. The 613 roots of each partzuf are the major Roots. Furthermore, it is possible that each one of these divisions divides into a greater number of particulars as a result of the sin of Adam and other creatures. It is impossible for any partzuf to have less than 613 major roots... All of these major roots together fragment into as many as 600,000 minor roots, as we have already learned in Gate or Reincarnations 10:1, and which the Ari will explain momentarily. The result of Adam's sin was that it became more difficult for people to achieve tikun. Therefore, more gilgulim became necessary in order to complete tikun. In order to clarify this subject we will begin with the example of Nukva of Asiya, and you will be able to infer from there all the others. Nukva of Asiya is divided into 613 limbs and sinews. They are classified as 613 major roots. It is impossible to have less. Each one of these roots is never less than 613 sparks, and each one of them is one whole

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soul. They are called "613 Major Sparks". It is impossible for any partzuf to have less than 613 major roots. It is also impossible that any root will have less than 613 major sparks. Thus, the minimum number of souls that must go through the process of gilgul to achieve tikun is 613 x 613 in each and every partzuf of the soul-body of Adam. The larger the defect that strikes the major root, the greater will be the number of minor roots that it divides into... Now, because of blemish they fragment into a greater number of particulars. The 613 major roots may fragment into as many as 600,000 minor roots. They cannot be more than that, but less than that is possible. It is also not necessary that every major root divide into the same number like each other. This is because everything depends upon the blemish. The larger the defect that strikes the major root, the greater will be the number of minor roots that it divides into. There are some major roots that divide into a thousand minor roots, and some into a hundred, etc. However, all the 613 major roots together cannot divide into more than 600,000 minor roots. There is a maximum number of 600,000 minor roots that are grouped in sets of various sizes. Each one of these sets is called a major root, and there are 613 major roots. It is the same way with each of the 613 Sparks in each and every one of the 613 major roots. Each Spark divides into a number of Sparks. There is a Major Spark that divides into a thousand Minor Sparks, and there are those that divide into a hundred, and so on. However, all the 613 Major Sparks, in their entirety, do not divide into more than 600,000 Minor Sparks. There are 600,000 minor sparks, and they are also grouped in sets of various sizes. Each one of these sets is called a major spark, and there are 613 major sparks in each one of the major roots. Each of the 613 major roots contains 613 major sparks, but these major sparks, as we have seen, fragment into as many as 600,000 minor sparks. Thus, the maximum number of sparks in each and every partzuf is 613 x 600,000. 613 major roots → 600,000 minor roots ↓ expands into 613 major sparks → 600,000 minor sparks [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

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Root and Spark Dynamics
"Gates of Reincarnation": Chapter Eleven, Section 3 This section is based on the previous one, but the Ari will add two new aspects: the model of dynamic development, and an explanation in detail of how it works. In addition, he will change some of the terminology that was introduced in the previous section. First of all, in the previous section we learned that the 613 Major Roots become by fragmentation, as a result of sin and blemish, 600,000 Minor Roots. The 600,000 Minor Roots are not subdivisions of the 613 Major Roots. Rather, the 613 are divided into smaller units. 600,000 is the maximum number that may be reached. That is what we mean when we say that the 613 Major Roots become or fragment into 600,000 Minor Roots. The symbol we will use for this phenomenon is: →, i.e.: 613 Major Roots → 600,000 Minor Roots Each one of the 613 Major Roots divides into 613 Major Sparks. In this case we mean subdivision. We will use the following symbol for it: ↓, i.e.: 613 Major Roots ↓ 613 Major Sparks Each and every one of the 613 Major Roots is itself composed of 613 Major Sparks. In other words, there are 613 X 613 Major Sparks Adam was the progenitor of all the roots and sparks The 613 Major Sparks divide into 600,000 Minor Sparks. Once again, here we are not talking about subdivision, but fragmentation. The 613 Major Sparks are divided into smaller units than their original division. Thus, they will constitute, without their number having changed at all, a maximum of 600,000. The 613 Major Sparks become 600,000 Minor Sparks, i.e.: 613 Major Sparks → 600,000 Minor Sparks In this section the Ari will switch the terminology, which will become the following: 613 Major Roots → 600,000 Major Sparks ↓

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613 Minor Roots → 600,000 Minor Sparks Nevertheless, it remains the same that the first, general category of 613 Major Roots subdivides (↓) into 613 particulars. In the previous section these 613 particulars were called Majors Sparks. In this section they are called, instead, Minor Roots. In either case, each one of the 613 Major Roots ultimately becomes 600,000 Minor Sparks as a result of subdivision (↓) and further fragmentation (→). In either case, the number of Minor Sparks constituting the original partzuf, remains the same: 613 x 600,000. The Ari will now add new information, what is being called here "dynamic development." Furthermore, you need to know that all the 613 Major Roots of Nukva of Asiya fragment in the following way: We have been using Nukva of Asiya as an example. Since she is a partzuf, she consists of 613 Major Roots. They fragment in the following way: First, there is one soul, Adam, who is the progenitor of all of them and includes all of them. Adam was the progenitor of all the roots and sparks that were described previously, and all of them were included within him. Afterwards, they are all included within the 3 Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Afterwards, they are all included within the 12 Tribes. Afterwards, they divide into 70 Souls. Afterwards, these 70 Souls divide into as many as 600,000 Major Sparks. This dynamic development parallels the historical development of Israel The Ari is describing the dynamic development of one partzuf, Adam, into 600,000 Major Sparks (keeping in mind what was introduced at the beginning of this section: 613 Major Roots → 600,000 Major Sparks). Since it is a partzuf, it is in the secret of 613. How does that 613 become 600,000? This is the dynamic development being described here, but it is starting with 1 because in this case there is no difference between 1 and 613. One partzuf is composed of 613 limbs and sinews. In other words, 613 = 1.

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The Ari is describing the dynamic development of one partzuf, Adam, into 600,000 Major Sparks (keeping in mind what was introduced at the beginning of this section: 613 Major Roots --> 600,000 Major Sparks). Since it is a partzuf, it is in the secret of 613. How does that 613 become 600,000? This is the dynamic development being described here, but it is starting with 1 because in this case there is no difference between 1 and 613. One partzuf is composed of 613 limbs and sinews. In other words, 613 = 1.

The description of this dynamic development parallels the historical development of Israel as it is described in the Torah. First, the Torah tells us the story of Adam. Then it focuses upon the lives of the 3 Patriarchs. The last patriarch, Jacob, gives birth to 12 sons who are the forefathers of the 12 Tribes. When the family of Jacob descends into Egypt, they number 70 Souls (Ex.1:5). When the people of Israel are liberated from bondage, coming out from Egypt to stand at Mt. Sinai and receive the Torah, then they number 600,000. (Although this is an approximate, rounded-off number, it is the number actually recorded by the Torah in Exodus 12:37 when the count of Israel is first given, and all subsequent literature uses it.) In the same way, each one of the 613 Major Roots is made (↓) into a partzuf that is comprised of 613 (Minor Roots). They then fragment (→), as has been explained, until 600,000 Minor Sparks.

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Each one of the 613 Minor Roots fragments into as many as 600,000 Minor Sparks. For example, Adam contained all the 613 Major Roots of the entire partzuf of Nukva of Asiya. The left shoulder of Adam is one Major Root, and it is a whole partzuf. The left shoulder of Adam is one of the 613 Major Roots of Adam. It is a whole partzuf. In itself it consists of 613 limbs and sinews. The left shoulder is the partzuf, or Root, called "Kayin", Hebrew for "Cain". According to what was written in the introduction to this section, each Major Root subdivides into 613 Minor Roots. Thus, the Major Root of Kayin should subdivide into 613 Minor Roots. However, note the number that the author teaches now. It (the left shoulder) divides into no more than 70 Minor Roots. When the Ari uses the system of dynamic development, he does not start with the number 613. He does not say that one Major Root such as the left shoulder subdivides (↓) into 613 Minor Roots, although that would be an accurate statement. However, when he uses the system of dynamic development, the number 613 is equivalent to 1, to one whole partzuf. In this case the left shoulder of Adam, which is one of the Major Roots subdivides (↓) into 613 limbs or 1 partzuf --> 3 Patriarchs --> 12 Tribes --> 70 Souls. Thus, each one of the 613 Major Roots subdivides into 70 Minor Roots, and they are the 70 particular Souls of the Minor Root. He does not go on to say that it fragments into 600,000 because on that level it is no longer called "Root", but "Spark". These 70 (Minor) Roots comprise the 613 limbs and sinews of this partzuf. This one Major Root has 3 Patriarchs that include all of it, and then 12 Tribes, and then 70 Souls into 600,000 Minor Sparks. These 70 Minor Roots comprise the 613 limbs and sinews of the one partzuf that is the left shoulder of Adam. The 613 limbs and sinews do not subdivide into the 70 Minor Roots. They are merely reorganized into these 70 sets. All these 70 Minor Roots fragment (→) into 600,000 Minor Sparks. They do not subdivide (↓) into 600,000 each. The 70 become (→) 600,000, but their name changes from Root to Spark. Kayin consists of this one Major Root that includes 70 Minor Roots comprised of 600,000 Minor Sparks. He is just like Adam (in the following respect). This one Major Root (called "Kayin") has 3 Patriarchs that include all of it, and then 12 Tribes, and then 70 Souls. Afterwards, they fragment into 600,000 Minor Sparks.

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Thus, the partzuf of Adam contained 613 limbs and sinews. One of them was the Left Shoulder, which is the Major Root called Kayin. It is one of the 613 subdivisions () of the Nukva of Asiya of Adam. This Major Root, Kayin, subdivided into 70 Minor Roots, which further fragmented into 600,000 Minor Sparks. The Ari will now go on to explain the second new aspect of this section. How do the 70 Minor Roots become 600,000 Minor Sparks? Now, I will explain the fragmentation of the 70 Minor Roots. It has already been made clear that all of them together fragment (→) into 600,000 Minor Sparks. Each one of the 70 Minor Roots contains 613 internal sparks and an unspecified number of external sparks Note how the Ari uses the phrase that "all of them together" divide into 600,000 Minor Sparks. They do not subdivide into that number, but all of them together are reorganized into that larger number. However, each Root among them is not necessarily an equal number of Sparks as any of the other ones. Each one of the 70 Minor Roots has an average of 8,571 Minor Sparks. But this number is an average. Some of the 70 Minor Roots have more; and some of the 70 have less. All together they equal a maximum of 600,000. The only thing concerning them that is equivalent is the following. Each one of the (70) Roots divides (↓) into 613 Sparks that are internal and essential. Of the average 8,571 there are 613 Sparks that are internal and essential. Each one of the 70 Minor Roots contains 613 internal and essential Sparks, no matter what the actual number of Sparks are contained by that Root. These are the Torah scholars in this Root. Developing around them are the branches, who are the householders and masses. These are without any specific number.

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The 70 Minor Roots can become a maximum of 600,000 Minor Sparks. We will review the Ari's description of how it happens. One Major Root has subdivided into 70 Minor Roots. Each one of the 70 Minor Roots contains 613 internal sparks and an unspecified number of external sparks. The internal sparks are the saints, scholars and students of wisdom of the root; the external sparks are the masses - the farmers, merchants and householders of the root. All of these Sparks all together, the internal ones and the external ones, of all the 70 Minor Roots all together, equal 600,000 maximum.

In the left-hand column of the accompanying table you see the 613 limbs and sinews that comprise one of the Minor Roots of the left shoulder of Adam (or any other one of the Minor Roots). These 613 are the talmedei chachamim, the "students of wisdom" of the Root. Each one of these develops an indefinite amount of branch sparks. These are the masses of the Root. All together, in all the 70 Minor Roots, there are not more than 600,000 sparks. Thus, each Major Root in Adam has subdivided into 613 (one partzuf) according to one way of looking at it, into 70 Minor Roots according to another way of looking at it, and finally into 600,000 Minor Sparks. None of these viewpoints is contradictory.

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The left shoulder is one Major Root of Adam, and it is called Kayin. One of the 70 Minor Roots of this limb is the Heel of the Left Leg of the general partzuf that is the Root of Kayin. In this Minor Root (the Heel of the Left Leg) there are 613 Sparks. All of these are students of wisdom. In Chapter 38 the Ari will identify some of these 613 internal sparks of the Heel of the Left Leg of the Left Shoulder of Nukva of Asiya of Adam. In general, all other human souls develop out from the 613 internal, essential sparks, as shown in the table. All the other Sparks of human souls develop around them. These are those that do mitzvot, the merchants and the peasants. Of these there are no specific number. The only requirement is that all the Sparks of these 70 Minor Roots that comprise this one Major Root not exceed the number of 600,000 Minor Sparks. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Flesh, Tendons and Bones
"Gate of Reincarnations" - Chapter Eleven, Section 4 The model described in the previous sections exists on three parallel levels at the same time: Flesh, Giddim and Bones. You should also know that every limb is composed of Flesh, Giddim and Bones. These giddim (tendons) of the limbs are not the same as the 365 giddim (sinews). The Hebrew word "giddim" is normally translated as "tendons" or "sinews." Elsewhere we have always translated it as "sinews," and that is probably the best translation for the intention of the Ari. However, here we have preferred to leave "giddim" without translation to emphasize the distinction between the two different concepts of giddim that will be explained now. First, there is the Flesh. Above them are the Giddim. Above them are the Bones… In every partzuf there are 248 limbs and 365 sinews - giddim. Sometimes we refer to them, in short, as 613 limbs. The giddim-tendons under discussion here, however, refer to an intermediate level of the body structure situated between the flesh, which is external to it, and the bones, or (more specifically) the bone marrow, which is internal to it. Together they comprise three separate, parallel, congruent and equal partzufim. The only difference between them is that one is more internal, and the other is more external. Consequently, the 613 sparks, who are the students of wisdom of this Heel (of the Left Leg of the Left Shoulder) consist of three divisions. These are, as already mentioned, the Flesh,

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Giddim and Bones. It is the same for the other [external] sparks who are the active people, as explained previously. They divide into the same three divisions. It is interesting to note the term the Ari uses here to describe the external sparks. They are the "active people". Similarly, in the last section he called them "those that do mitzvot". These terms are in opposition to the students of the wise, the scholars and saints, who are seen as more sedentary and contemplative, whose accomplishments are in the realm of the mind more than that of action and deeds. Nevertheless, it seems obvious that these terms are relative and not absolute. The Torah scholars certainly perform mitzvot and act in the world when they must, but the center of gravity for them is more in the mind than in action. Similarly, the householders, merchants, farmers and all the other masses certainly have intellectual accomplishments. Furthermore, since the time of the Baal Shem Tov, and even before that, it is not uncommon for the Torah scholars and saints to be hidden among the common people. Their order is as follows. First, there is the Flesh. Above them are the Giddim. Above them are the Bones, because of the marrow that is within them as opposed to the hard substance that comprises the bones themselves. The Ari always calls the marrow of the bones "mo'ach"or "mochin". These are the "brains", equivalent to the Light, the internal and highest part of every partzuf. See Chapter One and Appendix 42:1. Thus, the partzuf of Nukva of Asiya has been explained. It was entirely included within Adam. You can infer from it all other particulars, even [as far] as Arich Anpin of Atzilut. In the previous section it was stated that Adam is the partzuf of Nukva of Asiya. Here it is stated explicitly that Nukva of Asiya is one of the partzufim of Adam! It should be obvious to students by now that these are one and the same. Adam is a composite of the partzufim, and each partzuf is in the image of Adam. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Specific and General Connections
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Eleven, Section 5 There are two types of interconnectedness between the souls that the Ari calls "specific" and "general". First he will explain specific interconnectedness, then general. We will call them "vertical" and "horizontal" respectively.

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Now we will explain the attachments of a person's soul in all the worlds, and this is according to what the Sages said about the verse, "Where were you when I founded the earth…?" (Job 38:4) This verse was first expounded in Chapter 3:2. Its relationship to the material that is being described here will be explained later on. Meanwhile, the Ari is continuing from where he left off in the last section. There is a soul that is a spark from one of the sparks of the Left Heel, which is one Minor Root of the 70 Minor Roots in the Major Root that is the Left Shoulder of the partzuf of Adam Harishon from Nukva of Asiya. Details pinpointing a site somewhere in the supernal worlds of the ethereal realms are often called by modern kabbalists addresses… To fully understand the following, one should understand the previous chapters. These long lists of details pinpointing a site somewhere in the supernal worlds of the ethereal realms are often called by modern kabbalists "addresses". The long addresses of pages or sites on the internet, which may be more familiar to the modern reader, may be compared to them. The person's soul (that is from that place in Nukva of Asiya) will also be attached to the same place in the partzuf of Zeir Anpin of Asiya, and in Imma of Asiya, and so on, until the Highest Height, which is the Heel of the Left Leg, one of the Minor Roots of the 70 Minor Roots of the Major Root that is the Left Shoulder of Arich Anpin of Atzilut. The only difference between this address and the address first given above in the previous paragraph is as follows. The first address was a specific place (a spark of the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder) in Nukva of Asiya. In the Highest Height the address is the same specific place, but in Arich Anpin of Atzilut. "Highest Height" is a term denoting the highest place beyond which we do not specify any more details. For example, in Kavanot it usually refers to the highest place in Adam Kadmon (A"b - S"ag of A"K). Here, however, it refers to Arich Anpin of Atzilut. All these sections are called "one soul". This specific aspect, the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder, in each partzuf in each world makes one soul. The specifics for the world of Atzilut (from top to bottom) are as follows.

Minor Root of Major Root Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder

Specific Partzuf of Arich Anpin of Abba

General Partzuf of Arich Anpin of Arich Anpin

Soul Yechida Chaya of Yechida of Yechida

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Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder

of Imma of Zeir Anpin of Nukva of Arich Anpin of Abba of Imma of Zeir Anpin of Nukva of Arich Anpin of Abba of Imma of Zeir Anpin of Nukva of Arich Anpin of Abba of Imma of Zeir Anpin

of Arich Anpin of Arich Anpin of Arich Anpin of Abba of Abba of Abba of Abba of Abba of Imma of Imma of Imma of Imma of Imma of Zeir Anpin of Zeir Anpin of Zeir Anpin of Zeir Anpin

Neshama Ruach Nefesh Yechida Chaya Neshama Ruach Nefesh Yechida Chaya Neshama Ruach Nefesh Yechida Chaya Neshama Ruach

of Yechida of Yechida of Yechida of Chaya of Chaya of Chaya of Chaya of Chaya of Neshama of Neshama of Neshama of Neshama of Neshama of Ruach of Ruach of Ruach of Ruach

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Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder Left Heel of the Left Shoulder

of Nukva of Arich Anpin of Abba of Imma of Zeir Anpin of Nukva

of Zeir Anpin of Nukva of Nukva of Nukva of Nukva of Nukva

Nefesh Yechida Chaya Neshama Ruach Nefesh

of Ruach of Nefesh of Nefesh of Nefesh of Nefesh of Nefesh

This is for the world of Atzilut. It is exactly the same for the levels of Nefesh, Ruach and Neshama from the lower three worlds of Beriya, Yetzira and Asiya. If one would "extract", so to speak, all the specific aspects and put them together to form "one soul", then they would constitute one partzuf. The aspects from the world of Asiya would be the lowest part of the partzuf, for example, the legs. The aspects of Yetzira would constitute a higher place in the partzuf, and so on, until the Yechida of Arich Anpin of Atzilut, which would be the top of the crown of the head. All together they constitute one partzuf and one soul. At the same time each one is the left heel of the left shoulder of the specific partzuf of Adam to which it corresponds. This person ascends and takes his portion from all of them, from the end to the head. First, he takes his portion - the Heel etc. - of Nukva of Asiya, which is called the Nefesh of the Nefesh. Then he ascends and takes [the next portion] until he takes his portion in Arich Anpin of Asiya, in its aspect of Heel, etc. Then all the parts of his Nefesh from the world of Asiya are complete. His portion, obviously, is always the Heel of the Left Shoulder of the partzuf of each level in each world. It is the same with his Ruach, which is from Yetzira, and so on, until he ascends to take his portion in the Heel…of Arich Anpin of Atzilut. Then his Yechida from the world of Atzilut is completed and all the parts of his soul are finished. This is the "minute detail" concerning the attachment of a person's soul. This is specific interconnectedness. The entire partzuf of the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder consists of that specific place on each level of the vertical hierarchy from the bottom of Asiya to the top of Atzilut. That is why we have called it "vertical". The Ari has called it here "minute detail". They are called one soul because they are close to each other…

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(There are, by the way, three major schools of thought that emanate from the teachings of the Holy Ari. They are the schools of the Baal Shem Tov, the Vilna Gaon, and the Rashash (Rabbi Sar Shalom Mizrachi). The latter founded the Sephardic school of meditative prayer, called "Kavanot". It is also called the system of "pertai peratim" - the Hebrew phrase used here that has been translated as "minute detail.") However, there is another general aspect. The general aspect concerns the other soul-sparks from the specific Minor Root. In the case that the Ari has been discussing in this chapter, it is the Left Heel. All the sparks of the Left Heel that are situated nearby to each other in a cluster are one of the Minor Roots of the Left Shoulder. Thus, all the sparks of the Left Heel, together, form one partzuf, or one soul, as the Ari will now explain. It has been explained that the soul of a person is only the specific, detailed Nefesh. It is not the intention of the Ari here to exclude Ruach, Neshama, etc. Rather, he wants to say that "one soul" consists of exactly the same, specific detailed place in all the worlds, as has been explained beforehand. Nevertheless, in general, all the individual soul-sparks constituting the Heel of the partzuf of the Major Root called "Kayin" [Hebrew for "Cain"], which is the Left Shoulder of Adam, all together are called one, entire Major Soul. As mentioned previously, there are 613 major souls in each of the Major Roots, and this entire Heel is one of the 613 major souls in the Root of the Left Shoulder that is one Major Root. In other words, all the sparks in the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder are also called "one soul". This is in general. They are called "one soul" because they are close to each other, and together they constitute one partzuf. In the case of minute detail that was discussed previously, one soul, or partzuf, was formed because the specifics occupied the exact same position in each of the hierarchical, "vertical" levels of soul. The relationship here, on the other hand, may be called "horizontal". It is based on proximity and position within the same partzuf. The advantage of specifying this will be explained later on. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Team Work

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Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 6 The sparks that are grouped together within one Minor Root, such as the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder, assist each other, and they are also influenced by each other for the good and the bad. The previous section ended describing the concept of general, horizontal proximity of souls grouped together within one partzuf such as the Minor Root that is the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder. All the soul-sparks grouped together within the Left Heel are "one soul". The Ari said that this is a great advantage, and now he is going to explain what that advantage is. Now that the subject of souls and their positions has been clarified, we will explain the laws concerning them. It has been explained previously that a person is not complete until he rectifies and merits in his lifetime to take Yechida of Arich of Atzilut. It was previously taught (Gates of Reincarnation 2:1) that a person who completes his Nefesh-Ruach-Neshama does not need to reincarnate any more. The Benai Aharon explains that he does not need to reincarnate in a new gilgul, but he still has to complete his Chaya and Yechida, either through ibur or in the gilgul of his Neshama. However, if he only merits taking the aspect of Asiya, then this person merits taking the whole Nefesh of the entire world of Asiya, in general. It is the same with all the other levels until he finally completes them. A person's tikun depends upon many things, such as performance of all the positive mitzvot and occupation with Torah… In other words, once he finally completes his tikun in the world of Asiya, then he merits all of the Nefesh. It is the same for his Ruach from Yetzira, his Neshama from Beriya and the parts of his soul from Atzilut as well. This is the case, as we have learned, even though his soul is attached to a very specific place. Once he achieves rectification of that specific place, then it is tantamount to having achieved the whole Nefesh, the whole Ruach, etc. Now, a person's tikun depends upon many things, such as performance of all the positive mitzvot and occupation with Torah. As he increases these things, his tikun becomes complete, and he merits to achieve all the parts of his soul. In the next section the Ari will explain that positive mitzvot rectify the external partzuf, equivalent to Nefesh, whereas the main tikun of the internal partzuf, equivalent to Ruach, is accomplished through occupation with the Torah. (For further relevant background about the uniqueness of occupation with Torah as opposed to all the other positive mitzvot see especially Tanya 1:4-5 and further in this chapter, Gates of Reincarnation 11:10.) Furthermore, some explanation of the term "occupation with Torah" is necessary. It would seem more simple and straightforward to say "study of Torah". However, occupation with Torah is a broader term. Although study of Torah comprises most of it, occupation with Torah, nevertheless, includes more things, many of which are not themselves positive mitzvot. For example, there is going to and from the place of study, or writing books of

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Torah, and most importantly, there is teaching and making it possible for others to study. Relevant to this last and vitally important point, a section of the Code of Jewish Law (Shulchan Aruch) Yoreh De'ah 246:1 will be translated and explained in notes at the end of this chapter. When he sins, G-d forbid, and transgresses any of the 365 negative mitzvot, then he blemishes parts of his soul accordingly, even if he has performed many positive mitzvot. The essence of tikun or blemish concerns the place where the individual spark that is his soul is attached… A person should not think that some of his many mitzvot will cancel out his transgressions, and what is left over will be his profit. Rather, each act is recompensed separately. A person's transgressions are paid off first, and then he can enjoy eternal reward for all his mitzvot. In the same way, blemishes caused to the parts of a person's soul must be rectified. They do not cancel any of his merits, and his merits do not automatically erase any of the defects. The tikun [that a person accomplishes] or its opposite, which is blemish, affects the place to where his soul is attached, and not any other place. This is according to what we have learned previously. The essence of tikun or blemish concerns the place where the individual spark that is his soul is attached. However, he does rectify or blemish, G-d forbid, all the sparks that are close to him. The sparks that are his close relatives, who are influenced by him, and who influence him, are those that are with him in the same cluster, such as the Left Heel of the Left Shoulder. Each one of them is not considered whole or fully rectified until there does not remain a single spark…that is not entirely completed… For example, if someone from the Left Heel of the partzuf that is the Left Shoulder, the Root called Kayin [Hebrew for "Cain"], accomplishes tikun, then he causes a tikun for all the sparks of that Heel. If he causes a blemish, then he blemishes all of them, even though all the tikun that was required of those individual sparks was finished. Each one of them is not considered whole or fully rectified until there does not remain a single spark, whether a big one or a little one, among all the sparks of the Heel that is not entirely completed. The entire Heel is called a spark of one major soul. Even if Samuel the Prophet, may he rest in peace, be one of them, none of these sparks are called whole until all the sparks of this Heel, even the worst among them, are completely rectified. Consequently, all come to help a blemished spark to achieve tikun in this world. Since the final tikun of all of them depends upon the progress and completion of each and every one of them, they all come to the assistance of blemished sparks. Obviously, this is a tremendous advantage to those that need help.

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The other sparks of the Left Shoulder, however, do not get any tikun or blemish because of the sparks of the Heel. The other sparks of the Left Shoulder that are not part of the root that is the Left Heel do not get any tikun or blemish from the accomplishments or distortions performed by the sparks of the Left Heel. The general rule [stated here] concerns every one of the Minor Roots within a limb that is a Major Root among the 613 Major Roots in the partzuf of Adam. Each one of these Minor Roots is called "one major soul", and they all help each other. In other words, the sparks grouped together in one major soul all help each other to achieve tikun, and that is the advantage of the general, horizontal clustering of all these sparks into one major soul. However, one defect does not blemish all the levels in all the worlds. There is a blemish that flaws his Nefesh from the realm of Asiya, and there is a blemish that flaws his Ruach in Yetzira, etc. If his individual spark blemishes within Asiya, then all the sparks of this Heel within Asiya become defaced like him. It is the same in all the other worlds. Finally, it is obvious that the main reward and punishment goes to the individual spark [that became rectified or blemished]. However, the shefa [i.e. illumination] that is drawn down to the sparks of this Heel is diminished because of the individual spark's blemish. Alternately, the shefa-illumination that is drawn down to the sparks of the Heel will be increased because of the individual spark's tikun. It seems to me that this is the first time in Gate of Reincarnations that we are encountering the word "shefa", which is usually translated as "illumination", although it is a very important concept in the Kabbala. It has already been taught that according to the Kabbala everything consists of two aspects, the Light and the Vessel. The Light must come down into the vessel to fill it, vitalize it, purify it, cause it to grow and reach wholeness. We said that this Light is also called "mochin", literally "brains". Actually, it has several other names as well, but the most general term for it, including mochin of various types and sizes, is "shefa" - illumination. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

General Rectification and Blemish

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Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 7 Tikun for the Nefesh is accomplished through the performance of positive mitzvot, and blemish of the Nefesh is caused by transgression, but for the Ruach the emphasis is on occupation with the Torah and its study. We will now explain rectification and blemish in detail. We will begin with the rectification of Nefesh, that is from the world of Asiya, which is the lowest of all of them and enters into a person first at the time of birth. You already know that no higher portion can enter until the lower part completes its tikun. First, all the parts of the Nefesh, that is from Asiya, must enter and complete their tikun. Afterwards, the parts of the Ruach, that is from Yetzira, can begin to enter within him. When they are completed, then the Neshama, that is from Beriya, will begin to enter until everything is finished. However, there are conditions and distinctions concerning all this as will be explained in this, the eighth gate, called the Gate of Reincarnations. It seems that this general introduction ought to appear at the beginning of the book! However, keep in mind what Reb Shmuel the son of Rabbi Chaim Vital, the editor and redactor of the Eight Gates, wrote in the beginning of this chapter. This chapter is a sort of abridgement of the entire subject of gilgulim. Therefore, it makes sense that this introduction appears here. Occupation with Torah acquires Ruach…. Nevertheless, it is also worthwhile to keep in mind an important rule concerning all Torah knowledge. Subjects, descriptions and stories of the Torah are not necessarily presented in a chronological order. Events that occur at a later time may very well appear before the presentation of other events or descriptions that precede them. Similarly, sometimes what you need to know first to understand the "beginning" will not appear until later. This is because the Torah is an open or "infinite system" (if such a combination of words is permissible). The tikun of a person who merits to the Nefesh of Asiya is through the performance of positive mitzvot whose number is 248. Blemish is a result of [positive mitzvot] that were not fulfilled, or because of transgression of one of the 365 negative mitzvot. Blemish caused by one of the positive mitzvot that was not fulfilled, applies when both the opportunity and the obligation were present, but he transgressed and did not do what was incumbent upon him to do. In the next section the Ari will discuss mitzvot where the opportunity or obligation were not present.

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Occupation with Torah acquires Ruach that is from Yetzira, as will be explained. This statement is somewhat problematic, and needs to be understood by broadening our conceptual categories. The Benei Aharon (11:31) has also pointed this out. For example, if occupation with Torah alone rectifies Ruach, then a person who is working on his Ruach should be exempt from the active performance of all the other mitzvot!? To answer this problem consider the following. It is the teaching of the Ari in Etz Chaim 40:2, but the words quoted are those of the Benei Aharon (ibid.). All practical mitzvot (like tzitzit, tefillin, eating matzah, sukkah, etc.) rectify the External (Partzuf). Mitzvot that are performed through speech, such as prayer and occupation with Torah, rectify the Internal (partzuf). The External Partzuf is a partzuf just like the Internal Partzuf. It, too, has Vessels and Light, or mochin. The two are equivalent and parallel. The only difference between them is one is external and the other is internal. Relative to each other they are equivalent to Nefesh (External) and Ruach (Internal) relative to each other. Thus, on every level there are the External and Internal aspects, or what can be called the Nefesh and Ruach of that level. The Nefesh/External partzuf of any level is rectified by the performance of practical mitzvot, whereas the Ruach/Internal partzuf is rectified by the mitzvot pertaining to speech and thought. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Categories of Positive Mitzvot
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 8 There are five categories of positive mitzvot with some additional subsections, and each one has a different law concerning the requirement of gilgul when a person does not perform one of the mitzvot from that category. The 248 positive mitzvot are divided into five categories…. In this section we will explain four of the five categories. Because of the length of the explanation, description of the fifth category, which is one particular mitzvah, will be left until the next section. The accompanying Table will make understanding of this section easier. The numbers in parentheses refer to it. A person must perform all the 613 mitzvot. If he is missing even one of them, then his Nefesh is deficient by the amount of the mitzvah that is missing.

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However, the 248 positive mitzvot are divided into five categories: (1) First, there are mitzvot that may be impossible for him to do, such as the mitzvot that pertain to the time when the Holy Temple was existing. An example of these is sacrifices. For these, a person does not return in gilgul to fulfill them. What advantage would there be in gilgul? Even when he returns in gilgul, he would still not be able to perform them. However, when the Holy Temple is rebuilt, then he will be able to fulfill them. When the Holy Temple is rebuilt, then he can return in gilgul to do them. (2) Second, there are those mitzvot that he can perform, such as tzitzit, tefillin and the like. If he does not do them, then he must necessarily return to reincarnate [even] many times, until he fulfills all of them. Because of his refusal…he has also blemished his soul, which requires extra purification…. It is important to note that the Ari is not talking here about a person who could have done any of these mitzvot but refused to do them. Such a person was discussed in the last section. Because of his refusal, he must not only reincarnate to do the mitzvot that he is missing, but he has also blemished his soul, which requires extra purification. In contrast, throughout this section we are dealing with people who did not perform mitzvot because they were not able to do so. In Jewish Law, a person who is prevented by overpowering circumstances from fulfilling mitzvot is called "anous", someone who is coerced. Thus, this second category includes people who did not do mitzvot such as tzitzit or tefillin because they were prevented as an anous from doing so. They must reincarnate to complete what is missing to them. In addition, there are different gradations of anous. The mitzvot of the first category, those pertaining to the service in the Holy Temple, are entirely impossible of performance during our days. Concerning them, an individual gilgul is totally anous. It is the exact opposite with mitzvot of the second category. They are least likely to be impeded by overriding circumstances of anous. Throughout the rest of this section we will be dealing with milder degrees of anous.

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Now, we go back to the case of the second category where a person did not do mitzvot, such as tzitzit or tefillin, and he must reincarnate in order to fulfill the missing mitzvot. In this gilgul [to fulfill missing mitzvot], for someone who has already reincarnated and performed some mitzvot, it is sufficient that he fulfills those mitzvot that are missing to him, which he had never fulfilled at all. However, a person who reincarnates for this reason can sin or bring about other transgressions. (3) Third, there are those mitzvot that he is not obligated to perform unless the circumstances [of the mitzvah] come to him. Examples are Teruma [Donations], Tithes and Shiluach Hakan. He must necessarily reincarnate to fulfill them…. Shiluach Hakan is the mitzvah of chasing away the mother bird before a person takes for himself the pigeons or the eggs that are in the nest. This mitzvah is only applicable when he comes across the nest unexpectedly. If he knows the nest with pigeons or eggs is there and he goes to it, then the mitzvah does not apply. It only applies if he happens upon it. The mitzvah of Teruma is the giving of one percent of the agricultural produce in the Land

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of Israel to support the Priests. According to one rabbinical opinion this mitzvah and the mitzvah of Tithes apply in our times. Even according to the alternative opinion, many hold that when the majority of the Jewish People live in the Land of Israel, then this mitzvah will be applicable once again. However, this is only relevant if a person grows agricultural produce in the Land of Israel. If he doesn't, then the circumstances of the mitzvah do not apply to him, and he is not required to run out and become a farmer in the Land of Israel (although in these days he could do that more easily than in previous times). He is not obligated to run after them, but he must necessarily reincarnate to fulfill them. In the first category are mitzvot that he could not perform at this time, under any circumstances. In the second category are mitzvot that the circumstances are right for the performance of the mitzvah, but he was prevented from doing it by some other reason. In this, the third category, are mitzvot that he could perform if the circumstances are right, and if they are, then he must perform them. However, the circumstances never present themselves, and the Halachah does not require him to run after them, to roam the fields until he comes upon a mother bird and her nest, to cross the ocean to buy land in Israel and become a farmer in order to give Teruma, etc. However, if he has not performed them in a previous gilgul, or in this one, then he must reincarnate in a new gilgul in order to fulfill them. However, since he needs to reincarnate only for this reason [to fulfill the mitzvah], then he is assured that he will not sin in the second gilgul. Since he needs to reincarnate only to fulfill a mitzvah of the third category, then he is assured that he will not sin. (4) The fourth category consists of those mitzvot that he cannot do unless G-d forcibly puts him in a position to do one of them. Examples are Redemption of the first born son, Yibum, Chalitza…. If the circumstances of the mitzvah are presented to him, but he does not do them, then he must necessarily reincarnate…. In this category are mitzvot that he cannot perform, even if he would run after them. There is no guarantee that he will attain the circumstances of the mitzvah by running after them because it is not entirely up to him. For example, even if he were to marry one woman after another there is no guarantee that any one of them would give birth to a first born son. Similarly, if his brother dies without leaving progeny in the world, he can perform either the mitzvah of Yibum or the mitzvah of Chalitza. He cannot perform both. Furthermore, this category includes mitzvot whose circumstances no one wants to attain, or whose circumstances people normally run away from rather than towards it, like the death of his brother. This will be clear in the Ari's next example as well. [Another example of a mitzvah from the fourth category is] giving a bill of divorcement. He is not obligated to divorce his wife unless he dislikes her, as everyone knows. [Even

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then] it is hard to divorce, and the altar sheds tears. According to the words of the Ari here, a person who dislikes his wife should divorce her and not transgress the mitzvah of "Love your neighbor like yourself" (Lev. 19:18). There are rabbinical opinions, however, that a person should not divorce his wife for any reason, except adultery. Neither are situations that people pursue or have any desire to attain. Furthermore, even if a person has no great love for his wife, it is still hard to divorce because of children or other reasons. Finally, it has been taught (Gittin 90b, Zohar II:102b) that the altar sheds tears when a man divorces the bride of youth. We may learn from here that the circumstances of divorce are no great boon to the well being of the universe. The altar makes peace between G-d and humanity, and it laments the lack of peace among the divorcing couple. Although divorce by giving a bill of divorcement is a mitzvah of the Torah when necessary, it is nevertheless not a situation that people seek out or pursue. There is a distinction concerning these [mizvot] and those like them. He does not return to reincarnate if the opportunity to do one of them has not presented itself. He will merely come as an ibur, temporarily, until it is fulfilled, and then he will depart immediately. (4a) However, if the circumstances of the mitzvah are presented to him, but he does not do them, then he must necessarily reincarnate. If the circumstances of the mitzvah are present, but he does not do them because of some other reason that prevents him, then he must reincarnate. In this case I do not remember what my Master said, whether he is guaranteed not to sin as in the third category, or not. He must return in gilgul, but he is guaranteed not to sin…. Since he was not obligated, in the first place, to run after the mitzvah, as in the third category, then the law concerning him is like the law of the third category. In that case he would be guaranteed not to sin in his second gilgul. Or alternatively, since the mitzvah was before him, unlike the third category, but like the second category, and he did not do it, then the law pertaining to him will be gilgul like the second category where there is no guarantee not to sin. (3a) I am also in doubt concerning other mitzvot, especially those where a person is not obligated to run after them, such as ma'akeh or shiluach hakan, etc. The mitzvah of ma'akeh is the commandment to the owner of a house to build a fence around the roof of it in order that someone on the roof will not fall off. "When you build a new house, you shall make a fence around your roof; and do not bring blood into your house if someone falls from there" (Deut. 22:8). Like shiluach hakan, it is one of the mitzvot of the third category where a person is not obligated to run after it. In this case, he is not obligated to go buy a house just to put a fence around the roof.

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[What is the law] if a person ran to do them, but did not succeed? For example, he was poor and could not buy a house to build a fence. In this case he is more of an anous than in the previous examples of the third category. In those examples he did not run after the mitzvah to try to do it. Here, he did, but still he did not achieve the circumstances to enable him to perform it. Do we say that he is called an anous and ibur is sufficient for him, or does he need an actual gilgul? In this case, is he like a person who does not do a mitzvah of the fourth category because the full circumstances of the mitzvah never presented themselves? He is like a person who never had a first born son to redeem. This is a high level of anous. He does not need to return in a full-fledged gilgul, but it is sufficient for him to come as an ibur and fulfill the mitzvah in that way. Or alternatively, since the mitzvah that is missing is from the third category, then its judgment remains as one from the third category and he must return in gilgul, but he is guaranteed not to sin. In another place we wrote that it appears that he is exempt from gilgul, and ibur is enough for him. On the other hand, it is possible that he does reincarnate, but G-d arranges that the circumstances to do the mitzvah are definitely given to him. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Obligation of Procreation
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 9 The mitzvah of procreation has a special status and it is a category in itself. The fifth category is one particular mitzvah, the mitzvah of procreation. This is the mitzvah to father children, as it is written, "…Be fruitful and multiply" (Gen. 1:28). It is a mitzvah that a person is obligated to run after it to fulfill it, and he is also capable of fulfilling it. It may happen that a person marries, but the couple does not succeed in giving birth to children. According to Benei Aharon, the judgment described here applies to that person because most men are capable of fathering children. It also applies to men whose children

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have all died and they do not have any other surviving progeny in the world. On the other hand, someone who does not marry at all is not included within this category, but his fate is worse, according to the Benei Aharon. He cites proof from the explanation of the Talmud (Berachot 10a) on the verse "In those days Hezekiah was sick unto death, and Isaiah the son of Amotz came to him and said, 'Thus said the Lord… you will die, and not live.'" (Isaiah 38:1) What have you to do with the secrets of G-d? What you have been commanded, you need to do…. The Talmud asks the following question. If he said to him that "you will die", why does he also say that he will "not live"? It answers that Isaiah said to him, "you will die" in this world and you will "not live" in the next world. Hezekiah asks why his punishment is so severe. Isaiah answers that it is because Hezekiah never married and never fulfilled the mitzvah of procreation, and although Hezekiah foresaw that his children would turn out bad, it was no excuse. "What have you to do with the secrets of G-d? What you have been commanded, you need to do, and G-d will do what pleases Him." This one has stringency beyond all the other mitzvot, as will be explained. Gilgul does not satisfy the deficiency of someone who dies without children, and he did not fulfill it [the mitzvah]. Gilgul of one sort or another, or even ibur, does satisfy the need of someone who dies while he is missing any of the other mitzvot, as it was taught in the last section. This is not the case for "someone who dies without children, and he did not fulfill it." The repeated phrase, "and he did not fulfill it", seems to exclude those who fulfilled the mitzvah in a previous gilgul, as we learned concerning Ben Azai in Gate of Reincarnations 5:8. The sparks of the soul of the one who dies without children will enter into the body of the second gilgul…. Concerning all the others that reincarnate because they are missing some mitzvah, each and every one of their bodies will arise and come back to life in the time of the Resurrection. The sparks of his soul that will enter within [each body at the time of Resurrection of the Dead] will correspond to the amount of mitzvot that were done in the lifetime of that body. However, the sparks of the soul of the one who dies without children will enter into the body of the second gilgul, and this is esoteric yibum. In other words, the body will not gain any merit from any of the other mitzvot done in its

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lifetime. All the merit and rectified soul sparks will go to the body of the next gilgul. Then he will fulfill the mitzvah of procreation. Concerning the first body that did not fulfill it, there will be nothing to enter into it except that first spirit that was left within his wife from their first intimate relationship when he married her. There is a minor spirit that is transmitted from the man to the woman at the time of her first intimate relationship with her husband. This minor spirit is a derivation from the soul of the man. Some of its "adventures" have already been discussed in the introduction to Chapter Nine, in the subsection called "The Sabba Enters Into the Place of the 400 Questions." As we learned there also, at the time of Resurrection of the Dead it is only this minor spirit that is available to vitalize and enter the body of the person who did not fulfill the mitzvah of procreation. All the other soul sparks that may have been rectified in that gilgul go the body of the next gilgul that did fulfill the mitzvah. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

he 613 Mitzvahs and Torah Study
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 10 The levels involved in the study of Torah called PaRDeS, and the levels of Action, Speech and Thought concerning all the 613 mitzvot and the general distribution of the mitzvot will be explained. The sixth category is [also] a particular mitzvah. It is occupation with the Torah. The mitzvah of studying Torah is equivalent to all the other mitzvot…. In the beginning of the previous section when the Ari began his discourse on the positive mitzvot he wrote that they were divided into five categories. He did not include this sixth category of studying Torah and being occupied with it. Previously he had described the laws of gilgulim relevant to the five categories of mitzvot when they are not fulfilled. Here, however, he is only going to tell us that the mitzvah of studying Torah is equivalent to all the other mitzvot and it must be accomplished on four levels, as if they were four separate mitzvot. If any one of the levels is missing, then the person must reincarnate in order to fulfill it. He does not tell us what will be the law of the gilgul since that has already been explained beforehand. It is equal weight with all the others, as the Sages have said "The study of Torah is equivalent to all of them." (Kedushin 39b) It has four ways whose mnemonic device is PaRDeS: Peshat, Remez, Derush, and Sod.

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In other words, the Torah must be studied and understood on four different levels. It is worthwhile to note that it is said that each one of these four levels also has four levels of "PaRDeS" understanding. A person must go out of his way to occupy himself with all of them as much as his intellect is capable of grasping. He must seek out a rabbi to teach it to him, and if he is missing any one of them relative to what he could have beheld, then he will have to reincarnate because of it. Everyone's ability to understand PaRDeS is different, but there is an aspect of PaRDeS relevant to every level of soul. …a person must fulfill all the 613 mitzvot in Action and in Speech, as well. Furthermore, it is necessary to know that a person must fulfill all the 613 mitzvot in Action and in Speech, as well. This is similar to what the Sages said: "Anyone involved with [reading] the section of Olah is considered as if he actually sacrificed an Olah" (Menachot 110a). It is the same with Thought. An Olah is a "free-will offering". This was one of the types of sacrifices offered in the Holy Temple. The simple meaning of the Sages' remark is that reading and studying of the Torah, especially its relevant sections, has been substituted for the Temple sacrifices which can no longer be performed in Action since the Destruction of the Temple. However, if Torah Study and prayer were a complete substitute for the Temple sacrifices, then the practice of sacrifices would never have had to be prevalent. Instead of the Temple and the activities performed in the Temple, reading of Torah would have been sufficient. Since this was not the case, it must be that each period was characterized by concentration on a different tikun - according to our example, the Olah in Action during the time of the Holy Temple, and the Olah in Speech during our times. And may the Holy Temple be rebuilt speedily in our days. Now, there are three levels of Torah, and all the 613 mitzvot exist on all three of these levels. They are Action, Speech and Thought. They are like three parallel and equal partzufim, and each partzuf consists of 613 limbs corresponding to the 613 mitzvot of that level. Needless to say, the level of Thought is the most internal of the three, and the level of Action is the most external. Each one of the 613 mitzvot can be classified into one of these three levels…. In addition, each one of the 613 mitzvot can be classified into one of these three levels. Some or most mitzvot, like tefillin or charity primarily exist in the realm of Action. Some, like the study of Torah or prayer, primarily exist in the realm of Speech. Some, like the fear of G-d or the love of G-d, primarily exist in the realm of Thought. Nevertheless, each one also pertains to the other two realms as well. For example, the mitzvot of tefillin or charity have to be studied in the Torah. Thus, they also exist in the realm of Speech. Similarly, a

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person should come at some point in his life to think about these mitzvot before he does them, or while he is doing them, or while he is studying them, etc. Thus, these mitzvot also exist in the realm of Thought. It is the same with the mitzvot like study of Torah and prayer that exist primarily in the realm of Speech. A person needs to physically go to the Study Hall or the Synagogue, he needs to turn the pages of the book or make specified genuflections and other movements during prayer. Even the movement of his speech organs is a physical act. Similarly, a person who fears G-d and loves Him will do things and say things, over and beyond the physical shapes of the mitzvot, that reflect his attitudes towards the Almighty and His creation. Thus, all the 613 mitzvot exist on all three levels of Action, Speech and Thought at the same time. Furthermore, it must be known that there are 613 mitzvot distributed among the 613 limbs and sinews of Adam. These are called the 613 Major Roots. Each limb has particular mitzvot that pertain to it. This is like the sayings of the Sages listed in Talmud Shabbat 118b, from which we learn that the rabbis each had mitzvot that were especially dear to them from among all the others, and which they were especially strict and diligent to perform. The following is one example: In the Left Shoulder there are 11 positive mitzvot and 15 negative mitzvot…. Rabbi Yosef asked Rabbi Yosef the son of Rabbah, "Which is the mitzvah that your father was especially careful in its performance?" "In tzitzit…" he answered him. "One day [my father] was ascending a staircase and a thread of his tzitzit was torn off. He did not move from the place until the thread was replaced." Nevertheless, we shall see that Rabbi Chaim Vital does not necessarily accept this easy explanation to the words of the Holy Ari. In the Left Shoulder there are 11 positive mitzvot and 15 negative mitzvot that pertain to it. Everyone who is from this shoulder is obligated to fulfill these mitzvot more than all the other 613. There is an obvious problem here. If more than one mitzvah pertain to one limb, then there will not be enough to go around! First, it should be known that there is a Mishna (Ohalot 1:8) that lists the 248 limbs of the body. There the Left Shoulder, by the way, consists of 4 limbs. Nevertheless, the Ari has already written in another place that the distribution of the mitzvot is not like the divisions of the limbs in Ohalot. The mitzvot correspond to a different aspect of the limbs and not to

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their actual structure per se. It is not entirely clear to me what is this special obligation concerning the particular mitzvot of the limb in opposition to all the rest of the 613, since everyone is obligated to fulfill all the 613 mitzvot. Moreover, I heard from my Teacher, may he rest in peace, that there are sparks that have been preceded by [other] sparks from the Root of his soul who fulfilled all the mitzvot. In contrast, there are sparks that have been preceded by sparks [from the Root of his soul] who did not fulfill the mitzvot that he also has not yet fulfilled. The first type consists of sparks that are preceded by other sparks from the same Root. Those that preceded already fulfilled the mitzvot that the new one has to fulfill. It seems obvious that he will have an easier tikun because of the accomplishments of those that preceded him. In contrast, the second type consists of sparks that have also been preceded by other sparks from the same Root. However, here the preceding sparks did not fulfill the mitzvot that the new one has come to do. It seems obvious that he will have a harder tikun than those of the first type because he is like someone who is breaking new ground. Nevertheless, here too, it seems that Rabbi Chaim does not accept this seemingly obvious explanation. However, I do not know what the difference between them is. In the last section of this chapter, the Benei Aharon will suggest a solution to this difficulty. Performance of the positive mitzvot has now been explained. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Repenting Over Negative Mitzvahst
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 11 The laws of gilgulim concerning transgression of some of the negative mitzvot will be explained here. The negative mitzvot will now be explained. There are negative mitzvot that teshuva [repentance] and Yom Kippur make atonement for them.

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Transgression of negative mitzvot requires atonement or purification from the blemish of the sin. This is accomplished, in the first place, by teshuva and Yom Kippur. The unique and special grace of Yom Kippur is that its arrival brings atonement from sin for the people of Israel when it is accompanied by teshuva. There are severe transgressions, for which there is no atonement until his death…. The word "teshuva", which means repentance, comes from the root that means "to return". In other words, he turned from a good way to a bad way, and now he is returning to the good way. At the essence of teshuva is "viduy" - confession of sins. However, there are many other laws and details involved in teshuva. The following are the words of the Rambam in The Book of Knowledge, "The Laws of Teshuva," 1:4: …If a person transgresses positive mitzvot that do not incur the penalty of excision, and he does teshuva, then he does not move from that spot until they forgive him… If he transgresses negative mitzvot that do not incur the penalty of excision or a death penalty imposed by the court, and he repents, then his repentance is suspended and Yom Kippur makes atonement…. If he does transgress mitzvot whose penalty is excision or court-ordered death, and he repents, then his repentance and Yom Kippur are suspended until sufferings that come to him make the final atonement…. When is the (preceding) applicable? (It only applies when) he did not profane the Name of G-d at the time of the transgression. However, if he did profane the Name of G-d, even though he did teshuva and Yom Kippur arrives, and his repentance is enduring, and sufferings have come upon him, he does not attain complete atonement until he dies. All three - repentance, Yom Kippur and sufferings - are all suspended, and death atones…. There are those that entail excision or a court-imposed death penalty, which also require sufferings for atonement. However, there are severe transgressions, for which there is no atonement until his death. Among these there are [two] divisions. Non-believers and those who deny the prophetic authority of the Torah…must reincarnate…. The translation here has followed the Benei Aharon in line with the Laws of Teshuva quoted above. Now, the Ari will explain the first type of severe transgression where atonement is put off until death. [The first division includes] a transgression [which incurs the penalty] that his body is destroyed and it does not arise in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead. And [this type includes] those that have no portion in the World to Come, such as non-believers

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and those who deny the prophetic authority of the Torah. In this class, the Nefesh [of the person] must reincarnate to rectify what he sinned, but the first body is destroyed and lost. The Talmud in Avoda Zara 18a and Sanhedrin 91a records those transgressions that entail the loss of their portion in the World to Come and/or failure to arise in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead. The souls of people who commit these transgressions must reincarnate to rectify what they sinned. However, for their bodies there is no future. They do not arise in the time of Resurrection of the Dead and they have no future in the World to Come. Any merit that they had from the first will go to the second gilgul. However, if he [the sinner] does not fit within this category, then his first body is not lost. A person who causes someone else to transgress…must come as an ibur with the reincarnating one until the sin is rectified…. In other words, this type of sinner, even though it is a severe sin such as profaning the Name, does have a portion in the Resurrection of the Dead and in the World to Come. Therefore, his first body is not lost, but it will arise in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead with those parts of the Nefesh that were rectified in its lifetime. Nevertheless, his Nefesh has to reincarnate into a second body together with a spark from his Root who enters there and who is the "owner" of that body. With him, the reincarnated one will be rectified. He [the reincarnated one] is called a "guest" - and not the "host". This is the law of gilgul concerning the second type of severe transgression, when the sinner has a portion in the Resurrection of the Dead and the World to Come. Meanwhile, he will reincarnate as a "guest" into a second body, and in the time of Resurrection of the Dead he will return to the first body. The Ari will now add another detail. However, a person who causes someone else to transgress a sin that requires reincarnation, yet this person did not himself sin, must come as an ibur with the reincarnating one until the sin is rectified, and then the one who caused the sin can leave there. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Unique Mitzvah for Each Soul Root
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 12 Some parts of soul are rectified by the performance of all 613 mitzvot, and some parts are rectified by the mitzvot pertaining to one's soul Root, and to explain this the "Meditation on

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the Interconnections and Interweaving of the Worlds" will be reviewed. The Ari will now revert to the topic that was left off at the end of Section 10. He wrote that there are particular mitzvot pertaining to every limb, and a person is more responsible for the particular mitzvot pertaining to the limb that is his Root than he is for all of the other 613 mitzvot. We saw there that this statement of the Holy Ari gave Rabbi Chaim difficulty because everyone is responsible to fulfill all the 613 mitzvot. Therefore, Rabbi Chaim asked, "What is unique about the particular mitzvot of the Root? " Although there are particular mitzvot pertaining to each limb, all the 613 mitzvot must be completed…. He did not accept there the easy answer of extra, special, added responsibility for the particular mitzvot of the Root. Now, we will see that he wants to connect this statement of the Holy Ari with the introductory teaching that we learned in 1:4, see there. Nevertheless, the answer that he posits here is very difficult to understand. The truth is that he wants to somewhat "hide, even while he is revealing" a very important teaching, as we shall see, with the help of G-d. In order to make sense of the words we will have recourse to the commentary of Benei Aharon, which is based upon the "Meditation on the Interconnections and Interweaving of the Worlds." It is not sufficient for a person to rectify the particular place where his soul is attached above. He must rectify all the parts of Asiya and Yetzira, etc. As we have learned many times throughout the Gate of Reincarnations, it is not possible for a person to receive Ruach from Yetzira until he rectifies all of the Nefesh from Asiya. In the same way he cannot receive Neshama until all of Ruach is rectified. In order to rectify each one of these levels of soul in its entirety he must do all the 613 mitzvot. Because of this, Rabbi Chaim Vital seemingly did not understand the teaching of the Holy Ari that a person has to fulfill the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root of his soul, and these are more relevant to him than the other 613 mitzvot. This helps to explain what I wrote here. This helps to explain the contradiction between what he wrote in the previous section and the rule that a person has to rectify all the parts of Asiya, etc. Although there are particular mitzvot pertaining to each limb, all the 613 mitzvot must be completed. It seems to me now that the explanation is in a different way, as follows. Before we go on to translate and explain the new explanation given by Rabbi Chaim Vital, it will be worthwhile to briefly review the "Meditation on the Interconnections and Interweaving of the Worlds." Afterwards, we will refer to the commentary of the Benei Aharon on this section and translate some of it:

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On the Interconnections and Interweaving of the Worlds In the "minute detail" system of the Rashash (Rabbi Shalom Sharabi) there are meditations on this deep teaching in three and even four dimensions, but I will start with a prosaic, two dimensional description of it, which my teacher often used:
• • • •

There is a farmer who has 4 cucumbers. There is a farmer who has 4 tomatoes. There is a farmer who has 4 onions. There is a farmer who has 4 stalks of lettuce.

They can each eat their own produce to their hearts' content. But that is boring. They want variety. They want a salad. What do they do? The one who has cucumbers gives…
• • •

One to the tomato man One to the onion man One to the lettuce man.

The one who has tomatoes gives…
• • •

One to the cucumber man One to the onion man One to the lettuce man.

The one who has onions gives…
• • •

One to the cucumber man One to the tomato man One to the lettuce man.

The one who has lettuce gives…
• • •

One stalk to the cucumber man One stalk to the tomato man One stalk to the onion man.

Thus, each one of them has a tasty salad. Each one has one cucumber, one tomato, one onion and one stalk of lettuce. It is hard to believe that such a prosaic example can contain such an important secret, but obviously, a profound teaching about social cohesion, unity and love, is implied here. The same concept is depicted in Kabbalistic terms by the following Diagram 11:12 - 1.

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With the help of G-d we will now translate and explain the words of the text. From here to the end of the section it will be worthwhile for the student to refer to Diagram 11:12 - 2 below. If a person's Nefesh is, for example, from Nukva of Asiya. Since the Ari is talking about Nefesh, this place in the diagram below is the bottom row Nefesh of Asiya. The place, Nukva of Asiya, is the lowest line of that row, marked in Diagram 11:12 - 2 "Nf."

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It is not enough for him to rectify only this section in order to enable Ruach from Nukva of Yetzira to enter within him. It is not enough for him to rectify the row, Nf of Nefesh of Asiya, in order to ascend to the rectification of Nf of Ruach from Yetzira. Indeed, this is what we might have thought after reviewing Gate of Reincarnations, Chapter 1:4. Now, the Ari is revealing new information. He will have to rectify all the parts of Nefesh that are from his portion of Asiya: the Nefesh from Malchut of Zeir Anpin that is from Asiya, for example, and the Malchut of Imma, Abba and Arich of Asiya. In other words, he will have to rectify the Malchut, or Nf, of all the cells on the bottom row: the Nf of Ruach of Yetzira on the bottom row, Nefesh from Asiya,

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the Nf of Neshama of Beriya on the bottom row, Nefesh from Asiya, the Nf of Chaya of Atzilut on the bottom row, Nefesh from Asiya. Only then will he be ready to ascend to Ruach (the second row) because only then will he have finished his Nefesh. All these are parts of his entire Nefesh. They are the NRNCh"Y of Asiya, and all together they are called one whole Nefesh from Asiya. Then he can begin to acquire his portion of the Nefesh that is within Ruach of Asiya. Then he can begin to acquire Ruach. In this example he is from the aspect of Nukveh. Therefore, he will rectify all the Nf places in the cells of the second row. The explanation of the Benei Aharon: In Asiya there is the NRNCh"Y of Nefesh of itself (i.e. NRNCh"Y of Nefesh of Nefesh) and they are external to everything. Ensconced within them is the NRNCh"Y of Yetzira. Ensconced within them is the NRNCh"Y of Beriya, and within them is the NRNCh"Y of Atzilut. The Nefesh of Nefesh itself is acquired by the performance of all the 613 mitzvot…. There are those that acquire only the NRNCh"Y from Asiya, which are external to everything. There are those that enter further within and acquire the NRNCh"Y of Yetzira that is within Asiya. There are those that enter further within and acquire the NRNCh"Y of Beriya that is within Yetzira that is within Asiya. There are those that enter all the way within and acquire the NRNCh"Y of Atzilut that is within the Beriya that is within Yetzira that is within Asiya. All these levels that are acquired are all called Nefesh from Asiya, even the Atzilut that is ensconced there. It is not the real Atzilut because the real Atzilut cannot come to a person until he completes the real NR"N from Beriya, Yetzira and Asiya. Therefore, there is the Ruach of Yetzira that is ensconced within Asiya, and there is the real Ruach from Yetzira. Rabbi Chaim Vital is talking about the Ruach of Yetzira that is ensconced within Asiya. [It is acquired by the particular mitzvot that pertain to the limb that is his Root.] The Holy Ari is dealing with the real Ruach that is from Yetzira. (In our diagram it is the second cell on the second row, outlined in black.) It is only acquired when all the levels of Nefesh are complete by accomplishment of all the 613 mitzvot.

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[Thus, the contradiction has been solved, and it is to be understood in the following way: The Ruach, Neshama and Chaya of the Nefesh are acquired by performance of the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root. The Nefesh of Nefesh itself is acquired by the performance of all the 613 mitzvot. It is the same with the next level of Ruach. The Ruach of Ruach is acquired by the performance of all the 613 mitzvot. The Nefesh and Neshama and Chaya of Ruach are acquired by performance of the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root. The NRNCh"Y of Neshama of Neshama is acquired by doing all the 613 mitzvot. The Nefesh, Ruach and Chaya of Neshama are acquired by doing the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root. And it is the same with Chaya and Yechida.] In conclusion… In conclusion, both statements are true. Some parts of the soul are rectified only by performance of all the 613 mitzvot. These are the Nefesh of Nefesh from Asiya, the Ruach of Ruach from Yetzira, the Neshama of Neshama from Beriya and the Chaya (and Yechida) of Chaya (and Yechida) from Atzilut. In addition, each person rectifies one of the NRNCh"Y aspects of each of these places, but the rectification of each place is accomplished only through performance of all the 613 mitzvot. However, there are other parts of the soul that are rectified through performance of the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root of the soul. These are the RNCh"Y of Nefesh, the Nefesh and NCh"Y of Ruach, the N"R and Ch"Y of Neshama, etc. It can also be seen that in essence this explanation is the same as the simple, easy explanation that Rabbi Chaim Vital seemingly rejected at first. In other words, everyone must fulfill all the 613 mitzvot, but there are some mitzvot for which each person has extra, special, added responsibility. These are the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root of the soul of that person. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

Categories of Positive Mitzvahs
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 13 Three concepts concerning which mitzvot repair each of the Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama, respectively. Although the subject of Ruach and Neshama was already discussed previously, we will

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now explain it. The rectification of the Ruach that is from the world of Yetzira is through involvement with Torah according to Jewish Law, in the Oral Torah of Mishnah and Talmud, for the sake of itself. The Ruach that is part of the general Nefesh, Ruach, Neshama, is rectified by the particular mitzvot pertaining to the Root. These mitzvot exist on three levels of Action, Speech and Thought, which therefore includes the study of Torah insofar as it relates to these mitzvot. The mitzvah of involvement with Torah also applies to the general Ruach. It is rectified by performance of all the 613 mitzvot, which all exist on the levels of Speech and Thought as well as Action, as we have seen. Furthermore, one of the 613 mitzvot is the study of Torah. The reason the Ari prefers the phrase "occupation with Torah," as opposed to "study of Torah" was explained in Gate of Reincarnations (Chapter 11, Section 6). Midrash…brings about the Tikun of the world of Beriya…. Furthermore, it is well known that there are two divisions of Torah: the Written Torah, which is comprised of the 24 books of the Bible, and the Oral Torah. The main part of the Oral Torah deals with Jewish law, which is called "halachah". It is comprised, for the most part, of the Talmud, which contains two or three parts. First, there is the Mishnah, written around 170 C.E., approximately 100 years after the destruction of the Holy Temple. The second part is the Babylonian Gemara, written down around the year 550 C.E. It consists, for the most part, of discussions and analyses of the Mishnah, although the discussions often stray into topics that are far from the original Mishnah. Finally, on these texts there are hundreds and thousands of commentaries that have been written down over the course of centuries since the redaction of the Talmud until today. The most important of these, probably, are Rashi's explanation of the Bible and Talmud, the Rambam's compilation of the final legal decisions of the Talmud arranged according to topic and not necessarily according to the order of the Talmud, and the Shulchan Aruch, the Code of Jewish Law, written in the middle of the 16th Century by Rabbi Yosef Karo and appended by Rabbi Moshe Isserles about 15 years later. There is another major category of material within the Talmud called "aggadata". It consists of stories, legends, myths and ethical lessons. In the same class are the Midrashim, especially the Midrash Rabbah. It seems from the wording of the Ari here that these are included in the next category of Torah, that which brings about the Tikun of the world of Beriya. Rectification of the Neshama that is from Beriya is through knowledge of the Inner Torah…the Kabbala…. "For the sake of itself" means that the mitzvah, in this case occupation with the Torah, is not done for ulterior motives such as money, personal glory, to be called Rabbi or Master,

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etc., or for the sake of amassing power and control over other people. The rectification of the Neshama that is from Beriya is through knowledge of the Inner Torah, its secrets and the sod, which are contained in the wisdom of the Zohar. These are generally called the Kabbala. In another place we wrote that someone who does positive mitzvot without kavana rectifies the world of Asiya, which is the Nefesh. The word kavana means "intention", or concentration to direct the mind to specific thoughts, Holy Names or Letters, which are the inner dimensions of a mitzvah. The word includes the basic intention of the mitzvah. For example, if I put on tefillin I am obviously doing it because G-d commanded me in the Torah to do it (although the possibility does exist that I am doing it because someone else is watching me). However, I can do the act of wearing tefillin without any further thought. On the other hand, I can think before doing it that I am putting on tefillin because G-d commanded me to do so and maybe even add that He wrote in the Torah specific verses that constitute the command, etc. These are also called kavana. There is a special resonance between the world of Asiya…and the legs…. Thus, someone who does positive mitzvot without kavana is fulfilling the form of the mitzvot, which is essential. Although something is missing from his performance, he is rectifying Nefesh. Someone who is occupied with Torah, but without kavana, rectifies Yetzira, which is Ruach. Someone who does a mitzvah, or who is occupied with Torah, with kavana, rectifies Beriya, which is Neshama. According to this second description, mitzvot and Torah accomplish the tikun of Nefesh and Ruach respectively. The tikun of Neshama, on the other hand, is accomplished by kavana. In another place I wrote that an advantage for someone whose Neshama comes from Beriya is attachment of Thought to the names Sag, Eh-yeh YaHO [yud, hei, vav], and Eh-yeh Asher Eh-yeh. These Holy Names are objects of meditation to assist accomplishment of the tikun of Beriya. Occupation with Torah in the realm of Speech is an advantage to the Ruach that comes from Yetzira. Performance of the mitzvot in Action is an advantage to the Nefesh that comes from Asiya.

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This is especially the case concerning those mitzvot that depend upon walking with the legs, such as visiting the sick, accompanying guests and the dead. When considering a partzuf it is common to divide it into three segments. The head, including the mochin-brains corresponds to the Chochma-Bina-Daat (known as "Chabad") of the partzuf. The torso and two arms are Chesed-Gevura-Tiferet ("Chagat"). The lower part of the body is Netzach-Hod-Yesod ("NaHY"). Similarly, the three realms of Thought, Speech and Action also correspond to Chabad, Chagat, Nahy, respectively. Thus, there is a special resonance between the world of Asiya (Action), the realm of Action and the legs. [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.

Four Types of Reincarnations
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Eleven, Section 14 Four types of gigulim are explained. In order for the Nefesh to become whole to ascend to its place, there are two conditions. The first is called tikun of the completion of the Nefesh, which is fulfillment of all the 248 positive mitzvot. The second is tikun of the blemish of the Nefesh if it transgressed any of the 365 negative mitzvot. Furthermore, it is known that the Ruach cannot enter the body until the Nefesh is complete in these two parts. The Ari will now go on to delineate four laws that govern the phenomenon of gilgulim. [Firstly], a Nefesh could be one particular spark that cannot be divided further. If it were a smaller unit than this, it could not be called a "whole Nefesh". In other words, it is one of the 600,000 Minor Sparks of one Major Root. Theoretically, things could be divided into smaller and smaller units ad infinitum. However, if this soul were divided into something smaller than this final soul unit called a "spark", then it could not be called a whole Nefesh. Afterwards, if the person sins, the blemish is not accounted to the Nefesh but only to the Ruach…. If this [spark of soul] becomes complete in the two conditions that were mentioned, then it is called a whole Nefesh and it is ready to receive Ruach. Afterwards, if the

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person sins, the blemish is not accounted to the Nefesh but only to the Ruach. Secondly, even if she is complete with all 248 positive mitzvot, but in the lifetime of a body she transgressed one of those sins that prevent resurrection of the dead, then this Nefesh will reincarnate into a second body by herself. She will rectify the damage of this transgression there, but the mitzvot were already done. In other words, the purpose of her gilgul into this second body is rectification of the transgression for which the first body is denied resurrection. In the second body this Spark of Nefesh does not need to accomplish mitzvot because she has already completed them. Afterwards, in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead she will enter the second body, but the first body will be wiped out from the world…. Afterwards, in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead she will enter the second body, but the first body will be wiped out from the world. This is even more so if she did not complete all the 248 positive mitzvot in the first body. Thirdly, she did not complete all the 248 positive mitzvot in the first body, but she was not damaged by any transgression. Or, she was blemished by a transgression, but not one of those that cause destruction of the body in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead. Then all of her will reincarnate into a full gilgul in a second body. It is a full gilgul, not an ibur or a Double gilgul. The main point here is that the Spark of Nefesh totally reincarnates into a second body. Although mitzvot were performed in the first body, and that body will arise with the merit of those mitzvot in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead, the entire Spark must meanwhile reincarnate into the second body wherein its tally of mitzvot will be completed. Afterwards, in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead, that [Spark of] Nefesh will be divided into parts, even though no single part among them will be called a whole Nefesh, as explained previously. Those fractions did perform positive mitzvot that were accounted to them. They will return with the first body in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead because those mitzvot were fulfilled within it. In the time of the Resurrection of the Dead each body arises with a complement of soul equivalent to the mitzvot that were performed in its lifetime. Nevertheless, these fractions need to reincarnate into a second body. Since they do not constitute one whole Nefesh, they must also exist within the second body when it is fulfilling the mitzvot that were missing. If she transgressed some prohibition in the first body, then she will rectify it now in the second body. She will bear suffering and the pain of death together with it [the second body].

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The fractions in the second body that do the mitzvot which were missing will arise in the time of the Resurrection of the Dead with the second body wherein they were done. Any transgression that blemishes the second body will not affect the first fractions. If the complement of 248 positive mitzvot is completed in the second body, and it is also not damaged by any transgression, then the Ruach will also enter into it [the second body] in its lifetime. Similarly, after the Resurrection of the Dead the Ruach will enter into the second body together with those fractions of Nefesh. Fourthly, the Nefesh completed all the 248 positive mitzvot in the first body, but she was blemished by a slight transgression. She will reincarnate with another, newer Nefesh. The Ari does not mean new souls of the first type discussed in previous chapters. These are souls of the second and even the third type, but they were never in the world beforehand, never blemished, and certainly they were never united in a single body together with the soul that is reincarnating. Both sparks of Nefesh must actually be from the same Root…. This is called Double Gilgul. She will receive pains of suffering and death as a punishment for her [previous] transgression, but she will not be punished for the transgressions committed in the second body. However, she will receive reward for the mitzvot done in the second body. In the time of the Resurrection of the Dead she will return to the first body. The newer Nefesh, which is the main one of the second body, will take that body. If the newer Nefesh were not from the same Root as the first Nefesh, then she would not reincarnate together with it. Both sparks of Nefesh must actually be from the same Root. This reincarnation of the first Nefesh [in Double Gilgul] is also called ibur to some extent because she does not get punishments for the transgressions of the second body, and in the end she will return in the Resurrection of the Dead with the first body. The same applies to the third category when some parts of the Nefesh that were already rectified reincarnate with her other parts into a second body. The reincarnation of the rectified parts is called an ibur to some extent for the same reason. It is called an ibur to some extent because the rectified parts do not suffer from the sins that are committed in the lifetime of the second body. Beforehand the Ari called the reincarnation of the third category a "full gilgul", but this was because they come at birth and they do not leave until death, and in these respects it is not like ibur. It appears to me that the fourth category is not a "full gilgul" for the Nefesh. Rather, it stays there only as long as it needs to fulfill the blemish of the first body. The reincarnating Nefesh of the fourth category (Double Gilgul) comes at birth, but it does

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not need to stay until death. [She leaves] because she bears the suffering and pains of the second body. The Ari wrote previously about the fourth category that "she will receive pains of suffering and death as a punishment for her (previous) transgression, but she will not be punished for the transgressions committed in the second body." In other words, once she rectifies her blemishes from the previous gilgul, she does not need to stay in the second body. Her debt has been paid, and she does not need to suffer the pains attached to the death of the second body. When she is completed she goes out while he [the person of the second body] is still alive, and she goes Above. This contradicts what the Ari wrote in "Gate of Reincarnations" 5:1: "They do not separate until death. They are called one Nefesh. As one they suffer the pain and punishments that are inflicted on the body throughout its lifetime, as well as the pain of death." In most cases the first Nefesh does not complete its tikun until it also suffers the pain of death of the second body…. In Double Gilgul the first Nefesh reincarnates together with a second Nefesh into a second body because of some minor blemish, or to fulfill something missing to it from the first gilgul. Once she has completed that task, she does not need to suffer the pains and tribulations of the second body including the pain of death. However, the Benei Aharon suggests (and this clears up all the seeming contradictions) that in most cases the first Nefesh does not complete its tikun until it also suffers the pain of death of the second body. If she does not complete her punishment until death of the second body, then she will stay there until she suffers the pain of death. That is why it is called "an ibur that is like a gilgul". It is the same with the third category. The first fractions [of Sparks that were rectified] stay there in the sod of full gilgul until the mitzvot that were missing are fulfilled. When they are completed, they go out while [the person of the second gilgul] is still alive. This statement is obviously difficult. The whole idea of the third category is that the first fractions of the Spark that were rectified in the first gilgul must reincarnate with the fractions of the Spark that are still missing tikun, and the Ari explicitly called them a "full gilgul".

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In Section 10 of this Chapter the Ari wrote the following: "There are sparks that have been preceded by (other) sparks from the Root of his soul who fulfilled all the mitzvot. In contrast, there are sparks that have been preceded by sparks (from the Root of his soul) who did not fulfill the mitzvot that he also has not yet fulfilled." According to the Benei Aharon, this statement applies to the fractions of Sparks that are being discussed here. Sometimes there are fractions that must fulfill mitzvot that were already accomplished by some of its other fractions. When they fulfill those mitzvot, then the first fractions no longer need to stay. On the other hand, the fractions that fulfilled mitzvot that have not been repeated by later fractions will have to stay until the end. Furthermore, according to the Benei Aharon, the entire statement of the Ari in Section 10 that has been quoted belongs here, and not there. In other words, the difference between preceding sparks that fulfilled mitzvot and preceding sparks that didn't applies to fractions of sparks, and not whole sparks. Although this solution is not easily acceptable, it does remove the doubt that the Ari expressed there concerning application of the statement to whole sparks. Also, this solution seems to be somewhat vindicated by the following words of the Ari. If no [fraction of] spark among the preceding sparks has [ever] fulfilled the missing mitzvot, and they are from the same Root of his soul, then they need to come in full gilgul until the day of death. However, if the preceding sparks did fulfill the mitzvot, then it is sufficient to reincarnate as an ibur that is like a gilgul. In other words, it is sufficient to come as an ibur that is like a gilgul. It is like a gilgul because it is from birth. It is like an ibur because these fractions may leave when the new sparks perform the mitzvot that the first sparks already accomplished. In another place it has been explained that for the need of fulfilling a mitzvah an ibur might be sufficient. See for example the following from Section 8 of this Chapter: "The fourth category consists of those mitzvot that he cannot do unless G-d forcibly puts him in a position to do one of them. Examples are Redemption of the first born son, Yibum, Chalitzah, giving a bill of divorcement…. There is a distinction concerning these (mitzvot) and those like them. He does not return to reincarnate if the opportunity to do one of them has not presented itself. He will merely come as an ibur, temporarily, until it is fulfilled, and then he will depart immediately." Shmuel [Vital] says: All this I have gathered and sifted repeatedly from the sheaves that my Father, my Master bundled. It is the finest sifted flour. Among all the lessons

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on the reincarnation of souls it is the clearest explanation. It is necessary now to also quote what the Benei Aharon wrote in this place. "I have reviewed what was written until here, and I made a revised edition. From here onwards I did not have the opportunity, and it has remained (as I wrote it) originally. In a few places I made notes and some minor changes." May the Rock of Israel save us from errors…! [Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.]

New Incarnation for 'Gate of Incarnations!'
By Yerachmiel Tilles "Gate of Incarnations" is the translation of one of the main collections of teachings of the holy Ari of Tzefat, Rabbi Yitzchak Luria. The translation by Yitzchak Bar Chaim of the text of Shaar Gilgulim that KabbalaOnline edited and annotated was subsequently published in California by ThirtySevenBooks.com, but without our commentary. We completed posting recently on this new version of our site the first eleven chapters with our annotations and commentary, as produced for us by a prominent student of Kabbalah in Jerusalem, Rabbi Shabtai Teicher. Unfortunately, R. Shabtai passed away this past year may his soul be elevated and his memory be for a blessing -- before the work could be completed. Now the torch has been passed. Nearly all the rest of the manuscript has been gone over and adorned with lucid, detailed explanations by Rabbi Perets Auerbach, also a resident of Jerusalem and a noted teacher in English of Zohar, Ari Kabbalah, and Chasidut. We will post the three sections of chapter 12 in the week between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, and continue with the two sections of chapter 13 in the week following Simchat Torah. After that we hope to publish one chapter per week (although the very long chapters will be split over several weeks), until the completion, chapter 40. Eventually, G-d willing, we will make the entire manuscript available as an E-book through our daughter store site. Your comments along the way will be most welcome.

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Old & New Souls: A Review
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twelve, Section 1 We have already explained that all souls were part of Adam, and that when he sinned, his limbs "fell off" and his stature was reduced. The key to properly understanding this is that the body is modeled after the soul. Each one of the physical parts is an embodiment of a part of the soul. The soul of Adam is a grand collective, all-encompassing entity that includes all the souls of mankind. Sin, by definition, separates the self from G-d. Accordingly, the original sin separated the souls from their root in Adam on the side of holiness, and caused them to fall to the sitra achra. Limbs are what a person uses to act. The limbs were used to do the sin, therefore they were primarily what fell. In some way, to a lesser degree, all the parts of the body participated, therefore something of them also fell. The Arizal mentions "limbs" because it was mostly them. On a deeper level: It was the lower sefirot that fell in the shattering of the vessels. From them come the limbs. The sin increased the breakage, therefore the corresponding aspect within Adam "broke" and fell. Man is created in the Divine image. This was not just a one time model. Rather, it means that there is continuous connection. All the time, everything any human being does affect a corresponding aspect of Divinity above. Sin causes that the Infinite Light is impeded, in different ways to varying degrees, in its transmission to the world. According to the nature of the defect, that part of the body that transgressed causes a complication in its root in Divinity above. Therefore, it is specifically as if G-d's hand, the level affected by the sin, was used to reduce Adam. Furthermore, we explained... in chapter seven, section 1 ...that most of the souls fell down into the depths of the kelipot, and that only a few remained with him; this is the secret of the "100 cubits" that the Sages speak about in reference to the verse, "And You laid Your hand upon me" (Psalms 139:5). The Rabbis teach that Adam was originally the first skyscraper - he was as tall as the heavens. After he sinned, G-d placed His hand upon him and diminished his posture to a

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mere hundred cubits - approximately two hundred feet. The underlying goal of the redemption process is to eventually restore man to his royal, divine privilege of full and free access to the King's palace…. This is primarily meant as an allegory to teach us what primordial man was, and what became of him. Every bit of Creation was for his sake, from top to bottom. His spirit therefore reached up and spanned from the highest heights of Atzilut to the lowest levels of where Asiya was - and then the sin diminished his connection above. He was left only with the ability to reach up to the hundred levels of the sefirot of Beriya, with only limited access to Atzilut. The Rabbis use the anthropomorphic parable of G-d's hand that did this to express that Adam fell from Atzilut, the world that draws from the upper three sefirot, to Beriya/Yetzira/Asiya - the worlds that draw from the lower seven, which manifest primarily through the hands. The underlying goal of the redemption process is to eventually restore man to his royal, divine privilege of full and free access to the King's palace - Atzilut, the place of only bliss (Chagiga). Now the Arizal will enumerate the different levels of souls within Adam's collective soul. Originally, some new souls which had yet to come into the world were part of Adam, and these are called "authentic new souls". And below them was another level, made up of the souls that remained a part of him and which did not fall off. They are also considered to be "new", but not in comparison to the first level. Zeir Anpin and Nukva are the root spiritual archetype that Adam and Eve are modeled after…. After the death of Adam, they were separated from him. When these souls from Level Two enter a body in reincarnation, they are still called "new". The reason being that the creation of Adam occurred as a result of an Upper Pairing [called "zivug elyon", occurring in a manner of] being back-to-back. These concepts are enumerated elsewhere. There are two primary unifications in the partzufim, Abba and Imma, and Zeir Anpin and Nukva. The former is an upper unification, the latter a lower unification (Etz Chaim, Shaar Abba v'Imma, see Likutei Moharan 11:1). Zeir Anpin and Nukva are the root spiritual archetype that Adam and Eve are modeled after. Therefore the primal human souls needed to come from their unification. The nature of their unification accordingly establishes the entire nature of mankind. The Arizal explains that Zeir Anpin and Nukva were originally created back to back. Nukva is the lowest level on the side of holiness; the kelipot are immediately beneath it and are as parasites that seek to suck energy and life force. The front side of Nukva emanates too

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much light for the kelipot to take; the only place that they are able to grab from is the back of Nukva. In order to prevent this, G-d made Zeir Anpin and Nukva back to back. The vulnerable back side of Nukva was thus protected, the bright front side that was left facing the kelipot disallowed them nourishment (Etz Chaim, Shaar Ma'N/Ma'D; Shaar A'K 8). The proper full state of unification of any pair of partzufim is only face to face…. The proper full state of unification of any pair of partzufim is only face to face. That way the light is directly transmitted between them and flows in full force. The purpose of Creation was for humankind. The question is, couldn't G-d the Almighty have set things up in such a way that Zeir Anpin and Nukva could have unified in the highest fashion, face to face, in order to make His choice creature, who is the point of it all? The answer is that G-d specifically positioned things like this. The stage is set for man to be born into a world of tests, where things don't flow so smoothly. The souls are brought into existence from a state of back to back, causing them to experience the divine light indirectly. Work is required to change this. Thus man is not spiritually unemployed. There is another important lesson to be learned from the configuration of the initial unification. Here it is called the "upper" pairing. The reason for this is as follows: In truth, there can be no unification back to back. When a face to face pairing cannot occur below in the home of Zeir Anpin and Nukva, the Supernal Emanator raises them up to the place of their as if it were "parents", Abba and Imma. There, beyond the reach of the kelipot, unification can occur with no fear (ibid.). When a person is down and out, then specifically there is a great light and inspiration that lies inside of that situation…. What comes out is that Zeir Anpin and Nukva end up uniting in a much higher place than their own. The fact that they must come to this as a means of refuge to be saved from the kelipot caused that the great light of this place did not shine to them openly. It did however plant a hidden seed. As a result, when a person is down and out, then specifically there is a great light and inspiration that lies inside of that situation. If one seeks G-d from that place, it can result in a very deep connection (Likutei Moharan 2-12). From all of this we can begin to understand the entire idea behind the Gate of Reincarnations. Understanding in general how the souls were brought about grants insight into their general nature and purpose. Understanding specifics leads the individual to grasp details about his own soul root and what to do for its rectification. The more specifics one knows, the more one will be enabled to fix himself. For this reason, every chapter of this work is called an "introduction". Each section features introductory principles that teach how to recognize one's soul root and, based on that, how to go about its repair. Adam's soul was…the granddaddy of all souls…. Here, the Arizal explains the different degrees of souls in terms of their station in the

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original, collective soul of Adam. There are new souls and old souls, and there are rungs within each of these categories unto themselves. As the lesson progresses, we will see the significance of these categories. Therefore, until it returns to come [into the world] when that category of Upper Pairing is face-to-face, then it is as if they have come to the world for the first time, and it is so called "new". If, after the death of Adam, a soul does not merit to come another time into the world except during a zivug that is back-to-back, then it will still be considered to have come the first time. This is even though it did not come at a time of a face-to-face zivug, since at least it came after the death of Adam. The first entry of Adam's soul was not considered an official one, since it is the granddaddy of all souls. The souls that follow are considered new, irrelevant of which zivug they originate from. This can be compared to the preface of a book, that is not counted as chapter One. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

New Souls, Levels Three & Four
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Twelve, Section 2 (This is a continuation from Chapter 12, Section One.) Below this level there is a third one, and these are the those that remained with Adam, which his sons Cain and Abel inherited when they were born. It is like Level Two because they were also part of Cain and Abel. They are not considered to have come for the first time, since they did not come to Cain and Abel after the death of Adam, but rather they inherited them during his lifetime. Therefore, their inclusion in Cain and Abel is not even considered a first time, and instead they are considered as if they are still a part of Adam. While the fruit is still on a living tree…it is looked at as being one with the tree…. As long as a person is alive, there is an aspect that his children are counted as part of him. After death, children are considered to be separate. This can be likened to a tree that bears fruit. While the fruit is still on a living tree, even though the fruit has its own identity, it is looked at as being one with the tree. After the tree dies, it attains a full separate identity. The reason why children are reckoned as being part of the parents is that the parents actually give them a piece of their soul (as taught later in Gates of Reincarnations). Thus

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the expression: "a chip off the old block". Once the parents' soul departs to the next world, this oneness is no longer apparent. Any of these souls that come back to the world after Cain and Abel have died, even at a time of a back-to-back zivug, will be considered to have entered the world for the first time, and would therefore be called "new". After that, when the person dies and the souls come back to the world, they are said to have reincarnated. That is, they have come back a second time. The newer the soul is, the purer it is…. Even though this level is very similar to Level Two, still, these lesser souls which were contained in Cain and Abel are considered to be a separate level from those which remained with Adam himself. They are not considered as new as those of Level Two. The newer the soul is, the purer it is, and the higher its energy level. New souls will be more fine-tuned to holiness, and will also be more intensely spiritual. Level Four souls are those which fell from Adam into the depths of the kelipot and are called "old souls". This is even when they come into the world for the first time, since then they are considered to be "old souls" that have reincarnated. The more one focuses on living from the soul, the more one transcends time…. The kelipot/Other Side is run by our good old friend the Evil Inclination/Devil/Angel of Death (the Talmud tells that they are all the same character). He is called an "old, foolish king" (Ecclesiastes 4:13). The foundational principle of his entire operation is age and oldness. He tries to make a person feel old, set in their ways, and unable to change. Everything in front of our eyes, including the body itself, heads towards death and decapitation. This comes from age taking hold and setting in. This comes from being subject to time. The root of the soul is above time (Likutei Moharan 33:5). The more one focuses on living from the soul, the more one transcends time (Likutei Moharan 2-61). In simple terms, this means that a spiritually oriented person can more easily renew and change himself. Also, even the good things that such a person does that do not require change, he does with freshness and vigor. In addition, his consciousness is infused with enthusiasm and enabled to constantly seek to ascend to higher levels. Someone's true age is determined by their state of consciousness…. The Baal Shem Tov teaches that a person is where his mind is. One of the many things that this means is that someone's true age is determined by their state of consciousness (ibid.). There are people who are very old that are really very young, and vice versa. The greatest youth potion is to take a dose of mind expansion. For example: Meditate on the presence of G-d, and how His omnipotence fills and permeates your being. This is one method of

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renewing the awareness and elevating it to a transcendent state. It draws a rejuvenating light to the soul that can invigorate the psyche and grant a true taste of what eternal life means. (Likutei Moharan 21:11) New souls have less trouble renewing themselves. Within this category itself, the higher the class of soul, the easier it will it to find to transcend time and live in a state of indefinite, elongated youth. Does this mean that old souls should just throw in the towel and resign themselves to a life of senior citizenship? Most certainly not! In Song of Songs, an exquisite, allegorical love song between the collective root of all souls and G-d, she (this soul of souls) says to Him, "I stored new ones, also old ones, for You, my Beloved" (Songs 7:14). "Renew as an eagle your youth" (Psalms 103:5). The lowest grade, oldest souls through acting spiritually in their bodies can be reborn as babies. Coming out of more difficulty, their renewal process is especially beloved and precious to G-d. Learn to know and understand your soul root. From that place rectify and elevate.… After this comes Level Five, which is the lowest of all of them. These enter the bodies of converts. Later on, the Arizal adds another piece of the puzzle and tells us that they are from Malchut, the lowest level, whereas the other souls are from Zeir Anpin, a step above. This requires clarification, because there are other places that seem to say that the souls of the converts are actually higher (Likutim 10:2,215,228). "Not with you alone do I establish this covenant…but with he who is here, standing with us today, before G-d your L-rd, and (also) with he who is not with us today." (Deut. 29:13,14) Further on in this work, the Arizal explains that the six hundred thousand people that were present by the giving of the Torah were the embodiment of six hundred thousand grand soul roots from which all the successive souls that would be come to the world are drawn. "Not with…he who is here, standing with us" means those branches of the roots that were not yet born into the world. Also included was the soul of every convert. They were all there at the giving of the Torah, and they all entered the covenant. Their soul is born into a secular lifestyle. Its root connection to the Torah from days of yore draws it back. Precisely in the low, far off places, lie the highest lights…. The reason why the souls of the converts must specifically come from the lowest spiritual level is in order to afford their start into a secular lifestyle. This causes that the inherent holiness in their soul is able to bear the clothing of divinity in a material oriented setting. Eventually, the innate connection surfaces and draws them to a spiritual lifestyle. If their souls would have come from a higher place, they would not be able to pass through the intermediary stage of disconnection. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Low Souls, High Potentials
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Twelve, Section 3 All the souls mentioned above, with the exception of Level One, which are the real new souls, are similar inasmuch as they all fell into the depths of the kelipot. However, they did not all fall to the same level. For the Level Two souls which remained with Adam only have one blemish as a result of Adam's sin. Those which went to Cain and Abel have two blemishes: Adam's sin and the sins of Cain and Abel, which are mentioned in Sefer HaTikunim, Tikun 90. Personalities…are an outgrowth of a person's soul root…. This is very important thing to know. Personalities are not primarily a product of environment. Rather, they are an outgrowth of a person's soul root. Each person is born with certain tendencies because of their soul's root in Adam and his sons and its position in them. For example, a soul that comes from the hand of Cain that killed Abel will be naturally tended towards violence. All men are not created equal. G-d is "the place of the world" (Talmud). He sees each one's soul root and what headspace and place they are in. Based on this, He judges in the scale of merit and helps each person along in their rectification process (Likutei Moharan 2-8). The individual's obligation is to do his best from his unique place. The lesson is that there is no reason to be upset if you have negative tendencies. The measure of success is determined by how much a person tries to rectify from the point that he starts from. This Gate of Reincarnations is aimed at teaching how to fathom the soul root, what it needs to fix, and how to do it. When the time comes for a soul to leave the kelipot and enter this world, it must first come as an ibur into the "stomach of the Upper Female Malchut" in order to be purified and cleansed from the filth of the kelipot, within which they were held. Everything below is modeled after…transcendental sources…. The "stomach of the Upper Female Malchut" is a reference to the Malchut of Atzilut from which Jewish souls are said to come. Before there can be birth through a woman in this world, the soul must be planted in and born through the supernal feminine aspect. This is a prime example of how everything below is modeled after and comes from transcendental sources. The conception and birth process is a designed to prepare the soul for its descent to the world. A certain head start is given, and the rest is left to do throughout a lifetime.

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However, the duration of time for which they remain there is not the same for each soul. Rather, it will depend upon its ability and merit to remain there until it is are purified completely and renewed. This is the order of the five levels. With respect to the first level, the truly new souls, they can remain within the "Malchut within the secret of the fetal stage" for a period of twelve months, after which time they will descend into a body in this world. Thus, we find women whose term of pregnancy is twelve months, as mentioned in the Talmud regarding a certain incident where he remained twelve months, and Rava decided kosher. A man had been away for twelve months after which time his wife gave birth. The question was: did she become pregnant from another man nine months earlier, or was the fetus from the husband, conceived twelve months prior to the birth? Rava decided that, without evidence to the contrary, the latter was the case (Yevamot 80b), and thus the child was legitimate and kosher. This comes to show that there is some expression in the physical world of this spiritual reality of a twelve month gestation period for the birth of the soul. Level Two souls which remained with Adam and which are considered new to some degree have the ability to remain within the Malchut for nine months before coming into the world. Level Three souls of Cain and Abel are also considered new on some level, but they have two blemishes. As a result, they can only remain in the stomach of Malchut for a seven month period of time. Only the higher grade souls can take more purification…. Level Four - the rest of the souls that fell off Adam down into the kelipot - even though they have left the kelipot and now descend into this world for the first time, nevertheless they are like the rest of the previous levels that have come a second time. They are considered to be old and reincarnated souls. Therefore, whether from Level Four which have come for the first time, or from the previous levels that have come for the second time or more, they only remain in the stomach of the Malchut for forty days, the time it takes to form the fetus. After that, they descend into this world. Level Five souls, those of converts, only remain in the stomach of the Malchut for three days, the time it takes for the seed to fertilize. After that, they come into this world. The Zohar (Shlach 168, Lik.2-72) teaches that their souls come from the union of the righteous, starting with Abraham and Sarah, which do not result in physical conception. Their souls are only a short time in the supernal feminine aspect; they require another step of processing to be actualized. Depending upon the amount of time spent within the "Malchut within the secret of the fetal stage", that is how great their light will be and their purification from the effects of the kelipot. If so, on the contrary, precisely the lower grade souls are the ones that should stay in the

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Malchut longer, not shorter?! It takes stamina to bear a cleaning. Only the higher grade souls can take more purification. The lower the class soul, the less it can be refined before birth. The more it then requires purification in this world. Again, externally, these souls are worse off. In the deepest sense, these souls are the special channels through which the most awesome revelations are brought into the world. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Within The Malchut
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Thirteen, Section One Those souls that leave the Kelipot and which are elevated into the world of holiness b’sod ibur (in the secret of the embryonic state)... The Kelipot are the source of death. The souls that fell there must initially undergo a spiritual rebirthing process in order to be prepared to enter this world through physical birth. Their first stage on the good side is embryonic. What place then is there for a human being of flesh and blood to come along and try to change things with his little prayer?! ...as we spoke about, do so only as a result of the prayers of the Jewish people. G-d is absolutely omnipotent and all-knowing, and there are reasons why He makes things the way they are. What place then is there for a human being of flesh and blood to come along and try to change things with his little prayer?! Nonetheless, the Torah tells us in many places that G-d wants our prayer. The Rabbis teach, "the Holy One Blessed be He desires the prayers of the righteous". The simple reason for this is that He wants us to use our free will and make an awakening from below. He therefore sometimes sets things up specifically not the way He really wants them, as if it were hoping and expecting that we should pray and thereby change them. From here we see that this does not only apply to the physical plane, but even to the spiritual plane. We also see the great responsibility that rests upon us to pray with full feeling and intent. You never know how many souls may be dependent upon your words… Rabbi Nachman teaches that the main life force is drawn through prayer (Likutei Moharan 9:1). Thus prayer enlivens not on only unborn souls, but also the person himself. "Wisdom enlivens its owners" (Ecclesiastes 7:12), "a person is where his mind is" (Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov). There are people that go through life never graduating from the embryonic state of mind. Prayer is the key to open the soul to expanded consciousness. Renewing the

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mind renews the entire the being. Certain special, high caliber mitzvot make Yichudim to the same degree as meditations. …b’sod M"N… "Mayn Nukvin," or "Female Waters," which refers to the sparks that are elevated from the level of Malchut when Torah is learned and mitzvot are performed. It is dependent by our awakening from below. …as it is known, or through a "yichud" (supernal unification)… The Divine names and their corresponding attributes are the vehicles through which G-d transmits His Divinity to us. In general, they are affected by our actions below. Above the world of action is the universe of thought. There are systems of meditating on Divine names that make the supernal unifications happen more intensely than actions. One of the major accomplishments of the unifications is that they free souls from the kelipot and prepare them to be born. …that a righteous person… In truth, even a wicked person causes unifications to happen at the time that he does something good. But the elite, upper unifications that come about through meditation are not made to a powerful, significant degree unless the person is worthy. …causes in this world, as discussed in Sha’ar Ruach HaKodesh regarding Yichudim. Or, they can leave when a person performs a mitzvah in this world… Certain special, high caliber mitzvot make Yichudim to the same degree as meditations. Sometimes, souls, as a result of a certain blemish in the lower levels... Take note! The original sin caused many souls to fall to bad places and this causes them to experience many difficulties in their carnations. These are from the wondrous ways of G-d, why different people start from different spiritual places. The main thing is not to indulge in feeling bad when encountering in oneself natural tendencies towards evil. A repairman doesn’t look at the broken washing machine as evil - just something that requires fixing. The same attitude must be exercised in regards to oneself. …or because of their own blemish that resulted from a transgression while they were in this world, descend into the depths of Kelipot. If the opportunity arises for a particular soul to be elevated from the Kelipot and to enter the Malchut for rectification, then that soul in the Malchut has the ability to seize blemished souls before they descend to the Kelipot, and bring them up into the "stomach" of the Malchut, b’sod ibur. Once anyone merits to start to enter into the side of holiness, he brings other souls along.

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The fact that the first soul has left the Kelipot and is already within the Malchut for rectification gives it the ability to save other souls that may be destined for the Kelipot for one of the reasons mentioned. This is a great principle: Once anyone merits to start to enter into the side of holiness, he brings other souls along. The responsibility to choose good is greatly expanded by the realization that everything anyone does affects everyone else. There they will be rectified, after which they will come into the world. This is because while the soul is in the stomach of the Malchut, it is constantly elevating M"N, and as a result of the M"N that is elevated, it is able to elevate souls as well. However, this is not possible unless it places a "spirit" in it, that is the soul which is first in the Malchut gives ability to the blemished soul, and it becomes enclothed in this spirit and rectified. The underlying principle here is that "all Israel are responsible for one another" (Talmud). The souls share a grand collective root, and it is just one big soul family. They are therefore automatically enabled to help each other. This spirit remains with it until the time of resurrection, at which time it is separated from it. At that time every single last spark will be rectified. The ensuing result will be that every soul and spark will return to its own place and real root. Important to learn from this, until the ultimate rectification, sparks, souls, and people are not always in their real place. If you feel out of place, whether in your job, or with the people around you…, know that sometimes, in truth, things aren’t the way they are supposed to be. There are very deep reasons why it is like that, and awesome rectifications are made. What is left for us is to have simple faith that G-d the omnipotent, all-knowing One knows what He’s doing. The more faith one can muster up under such circumstances, the higher the unifications and rectifications that are made. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Soul Splits
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Fourteen When we speak of a certain person reincarnating into other people, we must not make the mistake of thinking that this refers to the "original soul." Rather, a person’s soul can divide into an unlimited amount of roots… The spiritual realm is … boundless

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The spiritual realm is by nature boundless. From each root comes out a different potential. One should therefore never limit one’s abilities. Even though in this incarnation you come from a specific root which can manifest certain abilities, and others not, that root is connected to a grand soul central that branches into other roots that possess other abilities. When a person lives a spiritual life, he is close to the grand root, and is therefore able to access the abilities of the other roots that share his mutual grand source. Never underestimate yourself and what you might be capable of doing. Rather strive to always be more spiritual, so that your potentials will open and flow. …and within a single root there is an unlimited amount of sparks… How then does anyone ever become fully rectified? Firstly, for this reason many people share the same one of these soul roots. But still, even if a thousand people share one source, how can they, or even a million people, possibly deal with an unlimited, infinite amount of sparks?! The answer is that the soul comes from endless, boundless, immeasurable places. Even after it enters the finite plane, it does not lose connection with those places. In fact, its entirety does not descend, and part of it actually still remains there. This is expressed by the aforementioned piece of Zohar about every righteous person having two souls, one above, one below. What comes out of this is that a person comes from a root of countless sparks because his actions have infinite proportions and can really deal with and fix an unlimited amount of sparks! The sparks that are not yet rectified … return, while those that are rectified ascend to their fitting level …and each gilgul rectifies some of those sparks. Thus, it is the sparks that are not yet rectified that return, while those that are rectified ascend to their fitting level, where they will remain It has to be like this, otherwise people would never become rectified, because they would constantly destroy what they fixed up, and no one would ever get anywhere. "It does not rest upon you to finish the work, yet you are not free to be exempt from it" (Pirkei Avot). Based on the above, it means that you don’t have to finish fixing all of your soul’s sparks in one lifetime. Simply do diligently what’s in front of you at the moment, and, step by step, everything will be rectified. This, in fact, is the matter of Nadav and Avihu who reincarnated many times, as was explained on the posuk, "Let there be double of your spirit for me" (Kings II 2:9). For, in

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the beginning Nadav and Avihu were in Elijah, and after that in Elisha, aside from the other gilgulim. In other words, the "double spirit" was Nadav and Avihu, which Elisha wanted to inherit from Elijah. This is not just a random example. As will be seen from later in this work, the entire world depends upon the rectification of these special souls. The example of Nadav and Avihu is used here to hint to us that knowing about them aids in comprehending how to bring Mashiach. Elisha was a combination of two levels. After all, Nadav and Avihu came from the same root and many sparks were affected by them. Thus, as a result of each gilgul, many sparks and portions of their root were rectified. However, the sparks that were not rectified were the ones that Elisha asked of Elijah; those that were already rectified ascended to their fitting place. Therefore, Elisha was a combination of two levels. The main spark of his soul came from Yosef , as is known and he also possessed part of the root of Nadav and Avihu, from the level of Cain. As Rabbi Nachman taught, G-d never does the same thing twice (Sichot Rabbi Nachman). Even when He sends a soul again to the world, it comes back with different parts. Here a new combination is made; Yosef is merged with Nadav and his brother. This type of fusion is usually made between souls that are close in root. Most of the souls branch out of either Cain or Abel. The Cain root comes from the world of Tohu [chaos]. The Abel root comes from the world of Tikun [rectification]. Nadav and Avihu come from netzach and hod. These sefirot are as a pair. Nadav and Avihu come from netzach and hod. These sefirot are as a pair, that are ' one that is two', and they are the root of the firstborn's double portion. Thus netzach and hod are called two parts of one body (Zohar), and they always identify as two halves of a unit that cannot function without each other - the blades of a scissors, the lips, wings… Therefore Yosef, who always associates with doubledness (see Gen. 41:32,43), and who reclaimed his double right, became hooked to Nadav and Avihu, who are rooted in the source of the firstborn's double share. This relationship connection is hinted to in the Torah when it describes their lineage, "And these are the names of the children of Aaron: the firstborn is Nadav…" (Num. 3:2). Elsewhere, when the Torah relates a family tree, it does not go out of its way to say that so and so is the firstborn, because it is automatically understood by the order of the names mentioned who has this privilege. Here this is emphasized to hint to the fact that this is a classic, archetype case per se, par excellence of firstbornhood. The Zohar reveals that Pinchas merited great longevity. He lived for generations and eventually became the illustrious prophet Elijah (Kings 1-19:10,14). When his time came to leave the world, he was told by G-d to anoint Elisha in his place. As part of the deal of

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taking the position, Elisha asked for an inheritance. "Let there "na" [please] be a double portion of your spirit to me" (Kings 2-2:9). The Ari.. explains that he was asking for Elijah's bi-soul portion of Nadav and Avihu. This is hinted to in the polite wording of his request. "NA" [please] is the first letters of their names (Likutei Torah). "Revival comes through Elijah, of good memory" (Avoda Zara). This is a result of his special power to unify and harmonize above and below. Therefore is the gematria of his name fifty-two, which equals twice the tetragrammaton, representing the union that is brought about through him between the Divinity that is found above and below. For this reason, Elijah himself, whose soul was in perfect union with his body, did not have to die (Kings II 2:11). The main Messianic light is in the Cain root, played out through Mashiach the son of Yosef, and Mashiach the son of David The main Messianic light is in the Cain root. In the grand redemption process, it plays out through Mashiach the son of Yosef, and Mashiach the son of David, who come primarily from this root. Therefore did this process have to express through their children. The souls of Nadav and Avihu, from netzach and hod, share the same source as the two Messianic roots. Moreover, they actually energize them and channel to them their light. Also, part of the secret of netzoch and hod's unity is that each is included within the other. Therefore, even though intrinsically Mashiach the son of David is rooted in Nadav/netzoch, and Mashiach the son of Yosef comes from Avihu/hod, nonetheless they each contain each other. Elisha the prophet was a major, milestone stage in this unfolding soul procession from its Mashiach the son of Yosef aspect. This is the real, intrinsic reason why Yosef teamed with him, to help it along all the more. From the mutual inclusion aspect, he possessed Nadav and Avihu. (Thus they are "two that are four" (Shabbat 1:1, Shavuot 1:1), which itself comes from the two names subnames YH and VH, of four letters, within the tetragrammaton, YHVH, itself. This teaches that the two Messiahs each inclusive of two souls, will reveal all aspects of Divinity, on all levels...) Another reason why these souls were wielded together: The special upper, premium, deluxe part of Cain comes from the "zihara eilah" - the supernal effulgence of Adam. It is the brilliant, higher section of his soul, which he inherited to his sons. Nadav and Avihu, and also Yosef, drew from this level. Together they granted to the world a special connection to this higher light and the expanded consciousness it brings, which leads to redemption and the revival that follows. The prophet Samuel was also a major step of this process. He received the souls of Nadav and Avihu before Elisha. The Rabbis teach that Samuel was in some sense equal to Moses and Aaron together (Psalms 99:6). The Ari explains that Moses and Aaron are from netzoch and hod. Harboring the souls of Nadav and Avihu, who are also from this level, accordingly

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makes him like them. Empowered by [the souls of Nadav and Avihu], Samuel anointed King David, thus opening a channel for the Mashiach the son of David aspect to flow to the world. Empowered by these souls, Samuel anointed King David, thus opening a channel for the Mashiach the son of David aspect to flow to the world. His name "Elisha" indicated this, for with respect to Cain it says, "To Cain and his offering God did not pay favorable attention [in Hebrew, "lo sha’ah"]" (Gen. 4:5), because of his sin. However, Elisha rectified the sin of Cain, and thus is called "Elisha," since G-d heeded and accepted him. The letters of "lo sha’ah" (lamed-aleph, shin-ayin-heh) can be turned into "Eli Sha’ah" (aleph-lamed-yud, shin, ayin-heh), [meaning "to me (G-d) paid favorable attention."] The root word for attentive favor is "sha'ah". Its gematria is three hundred and seventy. [shin-300 + ayin-70 = 370] It refers to the three hundred and seventy 'lights of the face' that shine from Arich, the highest partzuf, through which G-d as if smiles upon His creatures (Zohar Idra Raba Zutra, Eitz Chayim Shaar Tlot Rashin). One way of describing the goal and point of the entire Torah is to seek and strive for a Divine smile. Cain, who must attain special closeness to G-d, is especially in need of favor and smile. To him, it is not a luxury, but an absolute necessity. Because of the "husk must precede the fruit principle", he must to some degree go through the opposite. He cares so much about having G-d's goodwill and favor that he is hypersensitive to anything that might look as if he is being pushed away and not accepted. Thus he requires constant validation and is easily discouraged. Rejection is his greatest crisis, acceptance is his greatest joy. King David's entire essence is to always look for G-d and seek His favor. This comes from his messianic root in Cain. He had the lower part of the Mashiach soul, which will return (with the upper part) and lead the whole world to thirst for G-d and perpetually seek His goodwill Elisha paved the way for the individual to turn deep rooted feelings of rejection and discouragement into a thirst to enthusiastically quest for the Divine favor by successfully balancing and integrating the awesome energies of Yosef and Nadav and Avihu, Thus, since he originated from the spark of the Cain root, he also wanted the sparks of Nadav and Avihu to join him, as it says, "Let there be double your spirit for me." He merited them because of the spark of Cain that he already possessed. In spiritual space, closeness is determined by similarity (Derech Hashem, Sulam intro). The likeness of these bits of Cain brought them close until they fused into one incarnation. Nonetheless, each of the souls retains its qualities. Sometimes they can be contradictory. This is significant for us to know. A person should not be fazed if he sees diverse tendencies and traits in his personality.

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A person should not be fazed if he sees diverse tendencies and traits in his personality. When G-d puts things together, He knows every single detail of what it will mean. Thus He has some special reasons why He sometimes merges souls that have different perspectives into one human being. Somehow, the dynamic of the inner conflict helps the self grow into something much greater than otherwise. Nadav and Avihu were extremely ascetic creatures who never cared to get married (Zohar parashat Acharei Mot) or have much to do with worldliness, in any shape or form. Yosef was a ladies' man. The Midrash tells that he was so handsome that the women who were in his presence lost hold of what they were doing, to the point of cutting their hands instead of the bread. The Zohar explains that Yosef is rooted in yesod, the sefira that attaches male and female in procreation. This manifested below in him having tremendous beauty and charisma (Gen. 39:4,6,21), causing him to be very attractive and desirable. It's not problematic that they both come from Cain. It is an expansive soul source that includes many things. From this you can make the necessary connections and understand all reinincarnations throughout history. Hence, it is never the rectified sparks that reincarnate, but rather those sparks that have yet to be rectified. And so we are never spiritually unemployed. This is wonderful –"Man was born to work" (Chagiga). [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Souls Saving Souls
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Thirteen, Section 2 If the soul that remains in the 'stomach' of the Malchut b’ibur is on the level of those souls that remain for twelve months, having their capacity, then even the blemished soul which remains with it will stay there for twelve months like it. This is so even if it is from the lowest level of souls, that of the souls of converts, which normally remain only three days. Higher souls can elevate lower ones to their level Again we see that the inter-relationship of the souls allows them to help each other. Furthermore, higher souls can elevate lower ones to their level. This is an example of the principle, "it is good for the righteous, it is good for his neighbor" (Chagiga). Likewise, if the first one is only of those that remain nine or seven months, and the other one is even lesser, for example, from those that remain only forty days or three days, then they too will remain there either nine months or seven months like it. If the opposite is the

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case and the first one is only from those souls that remain nine months, and the one that remains with it is of those that normally remain for twelve months, then both will remain twelve months. In general, it follows the larger time. "The good quality is greater" (Talmud). Therefore it always goes after the higher soul, even if it is the blemished one. I am in doubt regarding what I heard from my teacher about when a new soul from the level of Cain and Abel, whose time is seven months, remains with a soul from Adam, an old soul which has been to the world twice and whose duration is nine months. Do we say that the seven-month soul, since the second soul now helping with rectification is a nine-month soul, also remains for nine months? Each of these souls has its forte. The new soul is new, the old soul, in this case, is longer inside the belly of the Malchut, and accordingly receives more purification. It is not clear which is higher. It could be that in this case, it works in a way that they are mutually beneficial to each other. As we have said, a soul can prevent another soul from descending to the Kelipot by giving a spirit to it. If you have a friend who you know is spiritually in a bad place, give him some inspiration. This process can be triggered also by souls already in the flesh to each other. If you have a friend who you know is spiritually in a bad place, give him some inspiration. It is actually a type of good spirit that rests on the person (Zohar Teruma, Likutei Moharan 31:9) and can energize him to get out. As a result of the "partnership," they have the combined ability to prevent a third soul from descending to the Kelipot when the second soul gives a spirit to it. It can work this way for up to ten souls, each being joined to the other, until the tenth soul has a spirit from the first soul, as well as from all the other nine souls that preceded it. The spiritual effect of good energy is collective. In this case it works up to ten. Ten is a unit that ascends to the next power, i.e., a graduation from the plane of individuals to the allencompassing collective level. Again, the same affect can come into play in the physical plane when people awaken each other. Thus we find the concept of group repentance (Sh.). Thus we find that the first soul has given nine spirits to the nine souls under it; the second eight spirits, etc. The tenth has only its own, because there are none below it to receive from it. It’s not lonely at the top! All the souls beneath are as its children. It stands alone in terms of stature. As a result of this, the nine souls are "obligated" to the first one, which is like a father for

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all of them, guiding and rectifying them vis-à-vis the spirit it has given to each of them. Consequently, it has a portion in all the mitzvot they perform and a portion in the good they will receive... The mitzva of helping someone out to be spiritual and do good is like a seed that grows into a beautiful tree that constantly makes fruit. Thus it is written, "Light is sown for the righteous…" (Psalms 97:11). The mitzva of helping someone out to be spiritual and do good is like a seed that grows into a beautiful tree that constantly makes fruit. Even after its planter dies, it continues to grow and produce. When the soul ascends to its place in heaven, its mitzvot live on and enable it to amass more reward and ascend constantly to higher places. ...and he is duty-bound to direct them in the correct path. All of the souls are like one big organism. If something is wrong with the foot, the hand cannot ignore it, because they are part of the same body. It’s not just a nice thing to help others - it’s really mandatory. And we have to realize that it’s just really helping ourselves. Sometimes members of the same soul family live in different parts of the world. How can they help each other? This is especially an issue for a central, big daddy, father soul, upon whom rests an absolute duty to correct the souls that branch out of him (Likutei Moharan 56:3). The spiritual web-network transcends time and space. The spiritual web-network transcends time and space. Any good act that anyone does affects and can even ignite (if powerful enough) all the souls that share the root of the doer. (And also the opposite) Especially words can have a very strong influence. A person on one side of the world who speaks words of truth from an expanded state of mind. This broadcasts on the "net" and can awaken someone on the other side of the world (Likutei Moharan 17:5). This can even affect someone from a different root, but generally, the primary influence will be to those of the same root. A primary factor that facilitates the success of this process is good energy and relations between people. This creates calm "air" to allow the spiritual waves to broadcast unhindered (ibid). With this we can understand a story about the Baal Shem Tov. He was once very upset at one his students, as if he had committed murder. The student asked his teacher why he was so perturbed. The Baal Shem Tov told him that he had gotten angry, and this triggered someone from his soul family to kill someone. As this book carries on, it will reveal more and more details about how the soul infrastructure works and the incurring responsibilities that stem from it. However, they have no share in his actions and therefore they have no obligation to direct

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him, in spite of the fact that the second soul and the eight that follow it are obligated to it. Parents have to guide children and not vice versa. This is the sod [secret] of what the Sages taught and what the Maimonedes wrote ("Laws of Neighbors," Chapter Three): If five gardens receive water from one spring and the spring becomes damaged, all of them must repair it with the upper one. That is, the one closest to the river, which receives the water first. The gardens lower down are like the souls that follow after the first one. The case is speaking where the gardens are set up in such a way that the water must pass through one to get to another. It is thus similar to our domino soul arrangement case at hand. Even though the upper garden is close to the water source and does not suffer from its being damaged and lack of flow, since the water must pass through it to get to the other gardens, it is also held responsible to pay for repairs. Important to remind ourselves: Even though the upper garden/soul is obligated to contribute to the repairs, the lower gardens/souls must certainly also do their share to fix the spring! One should not rely on someone on a high level to do the fixing to the extent of not working on himself. When the Ari. says "this is the sod", it comes to tell us that he is not just bringing a parable or comparison to better depict his lesson. Rather he comes to point out that his revelation is actually the underlying principle and the intended secret meaning of that case. The Zohar tells us, "all of the issues of the Tanaim and Amoraim [the Rabbis of the Talmud] are arranged upon the secrets of the Torah". Every seemingly mundane case in the Talmud in reality contains the deepest mysteries. the souls are often referred to …as trees that grow in the Garden of Eden In order to understand better this apparent mundane squabble of who has to pay for the plumbing bill, we need to preface that the souls are often referred to in the Zohar as trees that grow in the garden, referring to the Garden of Eden. The Shechina is allegorized to mother earth from which all grows. The trees are the souls/children it produces. They are all born into a utopian state of non-stop awareness of the Divine light, which is the central theme of paradise. Taking this idea a step further, together with the concept that "man is a world in miniature" (Zohar), the souls themselves can be viewed as gardens. The trees that grow in it are its mitzvot, as seen above, about "Light is sown…". The spring is the source of the Infinite Light that flows to the souls and waters them with consciousness. If one of them sinned, it causes a breakage in the piping system. This affects all of the souls from that root, and they all have to work together to fix it, even the ones that didn’t sin. there is no righteous person in the entire world who does not have two souls It must be this way, for there is no righteous person in the entire world who does not have

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two souls, as mentioned in the Zohar (Noach) with respect to the verse, "These are the generations of Noach: Noach," and likewise, "Moses, Moses," and, "Samuel, Samuel," etc., where the name is mentioned twice. Often in the Bible, when a righteous person is called by G-d, the name is called twice. In the simple explanation, this is said to indicate endearment of the righteous person being summoned. However, now the Ari is explaining that this alludes on a Sod-level to the double soul of each righteous person. The analogy here needs to be understood. The case at hand is about a master soul that saves others that branch out from its root. To support this idea, the Ari. brings the teaching that each individual has a soul above that is aligned with his soul below? The soul beneath is as a child of the soul above. G-d calls the righteous twice, measure for measure, because they function and actively relate to Him from both souls. He starts by calling the upper soul, and it in turn activates the lower soul. Similarly, the parent soul of a cluster can affect and ignite its children beneath. One who is not so in contact with his higher self/upper soul, will have a lesser affect on the souls that are in turn beneath him. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Impurity Leads To Sin
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Fifteen, Section 1 Now we will explain the reason why sometimes great and righteous people are the sons of completely evil people, like Abraham who was the son of Terach, a priest of idol worship who made idols for the world and caused people to stumble. We will then be able to understand why the kelipot cause man to sin to the extent that the Temple was destroyed, the blessed Shechina was exiled amongst the nations, and G-d was angered. As a result of the sin of Adam, all the souls fell into the depths. The sod is that as a result of the sin of Adam, all the souls fell into the depths of the kelipot. The Zohar explains that today also, sins cause souls to be given over to and taken captive by the kelipot. From this we see the great responsibility we have for our actions. (If one has already caused damage, it's never too late to repair. The Hebrew word for repentance is 'teshuva', it literally means to return. It refers to the restoration of the souls to the side of holiness.) The kelipot themselves are the remainder of the 'zuhama' [dirt] and 'pesolet'

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[extraneous material]… "Zuhama" usually refers to the profound and indelible spiritual impurity imparted to mankind by the Original Snake. "Pesolet" is usually a type of unusable waste product, which in this case is also the aspect of spiritual impurity within creation. Both of these terms are used in reference to the negative forces. They came into being through the shattering of the vessels, from the broken pieces. Therefore, all of the things that come out of them have an aspect of being extraneous and tend to be unclean. …separated out from that which was holy, at the time the "kings" of Edom died, as we explained. This refers to the "breaking of the vessels," the shattering of the pre-creation sefirot which resulted in the World of Tohu, the state of existence just prior to the first day of creation. Before the initial rectification of creation, the sefirot had yet to be named chesed, gevura, etc. Instead, they are referred to by the names of the kings of Edom, as listed at the end of parashat Vayishlach (Gen. 36:31-40). The kelipot are called the "level of death" The kelipot themselves are actually called the "level of death," whereas holiness is the "Living G-d" and "King of the world." Therefore, they [the kelipot] chase after holiness which is called "life" in order to feed from them and survive. Evil has no intrinsic existence of its own and therefore must derive its sustenance from the side of holiness. As long as something from the side of holiness is among [the kelipot], they are able to derive sustenance and can survive. The moment the source of holiness leaves them, they die. Therefore, they pursue holy sources and cause the holy soul of man to sin, since this brings the holy soul to enter their "vicinity." When someone sins, it opens the spiritual door for impurity to envelope the person and his soul.This allows the kelipot to derive nourishment from the soul's energy field. For example, sometimes one may feel depleted and down, fatigued and unhealthy – for no psychological or physically diagnosable reason. The real cause is the person's own bad actions. They generate an unholy energy that becomes attached to him. It becomes like a leech that sucks sustenance from the soul. Once this happens they can draw sustenance from it, since something holy can never be severed from its holy source; the Creator always tries to save those who stray from disappearing altogether—even a small spark from a holy soul. This is what King David requested, "I have strayed like a lost sheep – seek your servant"

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(Psalms 119:176). Just as a sheperd looks for a lost member of his flock, so does G-d quest after us. A prayer to be sought by G-d helps hurry this up. It also increases the person's awareness of G-d while he is away in the lost place itself. G-d continues to sustain the soul from His holy place while it is within the kelipot. Therefore, G-d continues to sustain the soul from His holy place while it is within the kelipot, and from that sustenance the kelipot draw benefit as well. For this reason, they chase after a person to cause him to sin, like one who troubles himself to find food and for whom there is no disgrace in stealing since he is famished. Thus does it say, "sin crouches at the door, and to you is its desire" (Gen. 4:7). [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Escaping the Clutches of the Impurities
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Fifteen, Section 3 The greater the soul, the more the kelipot will benefit. Returning to the topic, while the Shechina is among them for the sake of the souls that are there, it is impossible that the kelipot not benefit. Therefore, they cause them [the kelipot ] to remain amongst them, and they continue to be sustained as a result of their presence. And, the greater the soul, the more the kelipot will benefit. The greater the soul, the higher the degree of intensity is its energy. It is thus a 'big investment' that reaps for them high dividends. Thus, when a particular soul is very important, they will not allow it to leave them, and [the kelipot will] make every effort to defile it, in order to prevent it from leaving. Sometimes, they fear that a certain righteous person will do an important mitzvah and cause a soul to be removed from amongst them, and [they] draw it out through his seed from a holy union with his wife. Every union accomplishes something. Even when there is no conception, it is not for naught, and great rectifications can be made. Souls can be redeemed and liberated. The power of the union to do this depends upon the purity of the intentions of the couple. They accuse this soul before G-d in order to cause it to enter the defiled seed. Therefore, when they see a certain evil person who has become completely blemished and has forsaken his purpose, they try very hard to accuse this soul before G-d in order to cause

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it to enter the defiled seed, so that it will further destroy itself. Rather than the righteous soul enter the product of the unholy union, the kelipot urge G-d to send the blemished soul instead to become even more blemished. This, in turn, will cause it to become even more blemished and forever unable to leave them. Forever here means until the kelipot are eternally obliterated. G-d desires the repentance of even the greatest sinner rather than see a soul destroyed However, G-d considers how to prevent those which stray from being pushed off completely, specifically those souls which are still pure and special. G-d desires the repentance of even the greatest sinner rather than see a soul destroyed, G-d forbid. If matter is not destroyed, how much more so a soul! However, one who has seriously defiled his soul will have to undergo a greater transformation process. In general, sin soils the soul and causes it to need a cleaning. The dirtier it is, the more of a cleaning it requires. There is a point where it becomes so dirty that the washing machine won't help any more. The garment needs to be set on fire. Through being burned, the unclean molecules connect with their root in the Infinite Light and are rejuvenated to assume a new identity. This is a parable for the soul. Its being destroyed means that its energy is transformed, and is made into something good. Though He heeds their [the kelipot's] voice and places such souls in an evil place, after time the kelipot weaken their grasp. thinking they have won control over the seemingly lost soul. This is a type of decoy tactic. G-d created a system in order to set the stage for free will. In order to keep the system going, He as if it were plays by His own rules. Therefore, He as if it were must allow the sitra achra to have its place and power. He plays around within system within the rules of the system to usurp the kelipot. However, it is then that G-d helps the soul to rise up from the dust of its sin… This is what King David means when he praises saying, "from the garbage heaps He lifts up the destitute…" (Psalms 113:7). Each and every soul is pure and holy. …and impurity, to become "kosher" once again through its actions, like pearls that are cleansed and whose appearance becomes fitting to the eyes of all. This is a foundational principle. Each and every soul is pure and holy. Any mistake anyone makes is not who they really are. At the bottom of the self lies a precious diamond. It just

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requires polishing. Not only is the soul rectified, but even the one who fathered it also merits from the repentance of the son, like we see in the case of Job who was the gilgul of Terach, the father of Abraham who repented because of Abraham. Abraham’s spiritual accomplishments acted as a merit for Terach which brought Divine assistance so that Terach could eventually repent. This is based on the Zohar, "a son gives merit to the father (posthumously)". The Ari. says here, we see that this applies not only in regards to the merit of the parents, but it goes a step further. The children can energize the parents' soul to be reincarnated into a good lifetime and change their destiny for the better. G-d tricks the kelipot, in order to save those who stray from being pushed off completely. This concept will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 38. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Divine Presence in Exile
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Fifteen, Section 2 When the Temple was destroyed, the Shechina was exiled among the kelipot. When the Temple was destroyed, the Shechina was exiled among the kelipot because the souls were also exiled among them, and they lack the ability to extricate themselves, being blemished by their sins. Therefore, the Shechina, of which it is said, "The L-rd your G-d is (like) a consuming fire" (Deut. 4:24)… Fire can be used in a positive way, to destroy the negative and the unwanted. In this sense, the Divine Presence is like fire, because it eradicates evil from the world. …entered the kelipot in order to gather the sparks of the souls within them, to separate and elevate… This hints to the three step process of retrieving good from its captivity in the other side. 'Hachna'ah' (subjugation), 'havdala' (separation). As soon as the Shechina enters the other side, the intense light of the Presence automatically subdues the kelipot – hachna'ah. Then a separation must then be made between the good spark there and the negative energies surrounding it – havdala. After this processing, the spark is ready to arise and exit that place - hamtaka. (The ultimate expression of this principle hachnah-havdala-hamtaka will come when G-d comes and slaughters the angel of death (Poem at end of Passover Hagada). The Ba'al

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Shem Tov explains that slaughtering is done by a knife that cuts and separates something. The name of the angel of death is S"M plus E-L, a Divine name. The latter part will be severed from the former piece and the hidden Divinity in death itself shall be revealed and shine out forever!) …them to a place of holiness and renew them for life in this world, in the bodies of people. This is the sod of the Shechina in exile. This is perhaps the greatest expression of G-d's love for us: that he exiles his own Divine Presence into the negative side in order to help us retrieve the lost sparks of our own souls. In addition, there are some people that have fallen so far away that they themselves are actually mostly in the sitra achra. The Shechina descends to be with them there also (Likutei Moharan 33,2-12). This grants them the ability to connect to G-d even from the deepest, darkest, lowest places, affording them an opportunity to repent and get out. Since the destruction G-d sits and makes matches. Since the destruction of the Temple, this is what God has been doing. The Talmud teaches that since the destruction G-d sits and makes matches (Avoda Zara). The simple explanation is that He puts couples together in marriage. A step deeper, this means that He helps raise the fallen sparks out of the sitra achra, in order to couple them with the soul that they belong to. This is an important, true perspective on marriage: Each one of the couple is actually a lost, fallen soul part relative to the other. Therefore does the Talmud call finding a mate looking for a lost article (Kidushin 2b). Until such time as all the souls that fell amongst the kelipot of "Adam Bli’al" [the despicable man]… Man is in the Divine image (Gen. 1:27). This means that his soul and body are modeled after a type of spiritual archetype. One reason G-d created humankind is to give to us and to relate to us. The Infinite Light is too much for finite creatures to bear. It unites and clothes itself in the sefirot. The way they are arranged is the root blueprint that man is formed after. Thus, in their highest source state they are called the world of "Adam Kadmon" – "Primordial Man" (Eitz Chayim Shaar Adam Kadmon). When Adam committed the primordial sin, it created an antithesis. This is the Adam Bliya'al that the Ari is referring to here. They are both called Adam. This is teach the human Adam, and all of his descendents for generations on, that he now has the choice to be attached to and draw from a spiritual source Adam on the side of holiness, or the one on the other side of the fence. Sins give sparks to the wrong place. The "bliya'al" can also be interpreted as "Adam bli-ole," which means "man without yoke,"

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that is without the yoke of Heaven. Therefore, it is a term that refers to the side of unholiness and licentiousness. …intermixed there from the head unto the feet… through the entire structure of impurity, which mirrors the ten sefirot on the side of holiness. Keter, the highest sefira, expresses through the head, malchut the lowest sefira expresses through the feet. About this state of complete admixture the prophet bemoans, "from head to foot there is no soundness, wound and sore…" (Isaiah 27:6). The ultimate stage of rectification is called "the heels of Mashiach" …have been gathered even from as low as the feet… There is a great secret in this. About the Shechina, it allegorically says, "and she lay by his feet until the morning" (Ruth 3:16). This comes to describe the state of exile. The Divine Presence descends to lay down low in the most down and out places, in order to redeem the most fallen, outcast, dispersed sparks. For this reason, the ultimate stage of rectification is called "the heels of Mashiach" (Sota). This process occurs all the time, in many ways, especially in the order of the day. Every night, the Shechina descends to the kelipot to retrieve the lost souls and sparks. At midnight, it begins to arise, little by little, until the morning, when it comes out completely. For this reason, every new daybreak is a sort of miniature liberation, and the final redemption is called sunrise (Isaiah). …Mashiach will not be revealed… G-d did not create a broken world for Himself to fix – the job is left for us to do. Every spark is precious and must be raised out of the kelipot. And each one must be elevated through our using free choice to do good. Until we finish our awakening from below, the sparks cannot be fixed, and Mashiach, as it were, cannot come. This explains the answer that the Mashiach himself gave to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levy when he asked him, "When is the Master coming?". He replied, "Today – if you'll listen to His voice!" (Sanhedrin). If we would only give ourselves over to fully serve G-d, the rectification process could be mega accelerated, and Mashiach could come right away! …nor will the Jewish people be redeemed. This is what the Zohar says (Pekudei 258): "Until the feet come to the feet…" The lowest level of holiness is prone to fall. As it says, "her feet descend to death" (Chagiga). Mashiach will come when the fallen feet are raised up "to the feet"– back to the place, on the side of holiness, where they are supposed to be. On a deeper level, this can be interpreted to refer to the sitra achra itself. Opposite the ten sefirot, there are "ten crowns of impurity" (Zohar). The malchut is the lowest of them, and it is therefore the feet of the kelipot. As it were, G-d Himself pays the godfather his check

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(Likutei Moharan 2-11, see Zohar the parable of the king who hired a criminal to test his son…). The messianic period is an anteroom that leads to the ultimate perfection of the resurrection. Then will be fulfilled what is said, "and His kingdom rules (and is revealed) over all (even the sitra achra)" (Chagiga), "and You enliven them all (even the kelipot)" (Nehemiah 9:6), "and death (the kelipot) will be swallowed forever" (Chagiga). This means that the feet of the sitra achra itself shall be raised out of negativity to stand 'head and shoulders' equal to the feet of the side of holiness. Through this, we will be granted to see retroactively the holiness that was hidden in the other side all along. …as it says, "They stood on their legs on that day on the Mount of Olives" (Zechariah 14:4). This verse speaks of the final redemption. That is why it concludes, "and to G-d (alone) shall be the kingship". The fact that the Torah juxtaposes these topics shows that the in order for the redemption to be finished, the feet must be fixed. Mount Olives is significant because it is the place from which the resurrection will commence. The verse then means the same thing that the above Zohar teaches: resurrection will sprout when the lowest levels are elevated to the side of holiness. The result will be that the whole world, from top to bottom, will see that G-d is King. However, the Shechina does not gather them except as a result of the actions of those below and their prayers, b’sod, "Give strength to G-d" (Psalms 68:35). When we do mitzvot we are said to strengthen the hand of God to rectify creation, and just the opposite, God forbid, when we sin. This is the system that God has established for the sake of our own free-will. In order to set the stage for this to work, He as if imposes it upon Himself. From this little bit we can understand the concept of the Shechina in general. It comes from the root word 'shachen' – a neighbor. G-d is most certainly completely omnipotent, imminent and transcending – at the same time – all of the time. He is absolutely, intrinsically perfect and infinite. However, the degree of His revelation to our consciousness is not fixed, and it depends upon our actions. This manifestation of His Presence to our awareness is what we call the Shechina. G-d is essentially almighty and all powerful. The strength that we, as it were, need to give Him is the shining of His countenance to our own mentality. As an act of love, He left this up to us, so that it could be something that we earn, and thereby appreciate and enjoy properly. According to the extent of the actions of those below, the souls can be drawn out. Thus, if the entire Jewish people were to repent then the Shechina would be able to take all the souls out in one instance. In other words, Mashiach’s arrival could be hastened, as it says, "'The smallest shall

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become a thousand and the least, a mighty nation; I am the L-rd, in its time, I will hasten it' (Isaiah 60:22). If they are worthy, I will hasten it; if they are not worthy, it will be in its time" (Rashi Sanhedrin 98a). Repentance energizes the Shechina to retrieve the lost souls and sparks. Thus does the Zohar teach, "This issue (of the redemption) depends upon nothing but repentance". As mentioned, teshuva [repentance] is "teshuv-H": the letter that represents the Shechina. Repentance energizes the Shechina to retrieve the lost souls and sparks. On the other hand, our sins weaken G-d (so-to-speak), as it says, "You weakened the Rock that bore you" (Deut. 32:18). They cause a hiding of His Presence from the world. This secret is told to us through the medium of G-d being to us as a rock. On the simple level, this reiterates to us the fact that G-d is really steadfast and unchanging, and the problems caused by any sin are really only to ourselves. A step deeper, this comes to teach the underlying principle of why what we do is so important. Josef was blessed by Jacob his father, "… from there he was nourished by the Rock of Israel" (Gen.). The souls are called a 'chalek Eloka mema'al' – a piece of Divinity from above. A little pebble hewn and quarried is a part of the entire mountain. As if it were, we are a 'chip of the old block' from upstairs. Thus, at the soul source, father and son are one. The word for rock, "even", is by way of remez (hint), a type of compound word - av/ben father/son. In the pre-creation stage, all that would ever be was included in potential. This is like the state of the child included in the father's mind prior to conception (Tanya 1;2). As if it were, everything is included in G-d's mind. Thus do the Rabbis speak of creation as having arose in Divine thought (Menachot). There, reality basks in brilliant light. It all waits to express and shine. After the actual is separated from the potential, it comes out and manifests the root light that it was attached to above. Sin causes the actual to ascend and be re-included above. It thus reverses the creation process and destroys the world (Likutei Moharan 66). In order to allow free will to continue, the sinner and the world around him appears to go on. If one had spiritual eyes to see what is really happening, he would see the life force depart from the evil-doer. This lack of Divinity shining below is called, relative to us, as if a weakening of G-d. One way of describing our job in a nutshell is that we must manifest outwardly this inner connection. Sin causes the opposite of this. Therefore it as if it were weakens the root rock connection. In short, if you want G-d – you gotta rock! Once the souls are able to leave the kelipot, then the Shechina can remove them. After removing their life force, the kelipot then die…

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The negative forces are parasites. They cannot exist without nourishment from their very enemies. As soon as they are suspended from drawing energy, they are nullified. …and the evil person is consumed like smoke. There is great depth to this comparison. E=mc squared. Matter does not become destroyed, just transformed. The same applies to evil. It does not need to be eradicated, just adjusted. All we need to do is to turn it into its proper form. This is the concept of sublimation. . In order to set the stage for free choice, there must be things in the world that look [bad]. This underlying principle comes out especially in regards to loving G-d. As seen from the Rabbi's interpretation of the verse, "'And you shall love G-d your L-rd, with all of your heart…'. 'With all of your heart' – with both of your inclinations, the good one and the bad one" (Brachot). The Torah chose to here show us this principle by the mitzvah of loving G-d, because love is the root force that makes this happen. This can be understood based on the verse "the world is built (on) lovingkindness" (Psalms 89:3). The root of creation was the pure, altruistic Divine desire to give good (Derech Hashem). Because this is the underlying, axiomatic energy of all existence, it automatically implants and programs the base essence of everything to be good. In order to set the stage for free choice, there must be things in the world that look like the opposite. However, since at the bottom of all things lies love, it is always possible to transfer any given thing back to this innate source. Moreover, at the end of days, this will indeed happen in a complete, grandiose, glorious way. "'On that day, G-d will be one, and His name one' (Zechariah). Isn't He one now? (Indeed He is! But now this is not apparent. Because now,) on good tidings (things that we feel to be positive,) we bless 'He is good and does good'. On bad tidings (things that we experience as being negative,) we bless 'He is the truthful Judge'. But in time to come (it will always be experientially clear that everything is for the best. Therefore we will) always (bless) 'He is good and does good'" (Brachot 54a). All of creation will completely assume its true nature of love and good. In this lies the secret of how to turn the evil inclination into good. The Hebrew word for love is 'ahavah'. It relates to the root 'yahav' – to give. The intrinsic nature of the good inclination is to give, for the opposite the opposite. A person has to learn to take the selfish energy of his negative tendencies and turn them into giving Another explanation: "Smoke" is 'oshan' (OShN). It is the first letters (an acronym) of olom-shana-nefesh, the time-space-soul continuum. The ability of evil to masquerade and appear as bad comes from the fact that our minds are underneath time and space. When something goes up in smoke, it forfeits its revealed aspect of manifestation to the soul through the mediums of time and space. It thereby comes closer to its root above in the ultimate purpose, i.e., the Divine love inside. Therefore does the Ari. tell us that the wicked will be consumed like smoke, to teach that even the negative energy amassed by someone through an entire lifetime of evil will be transformed to good. The kelipot which are called 'death' will be 'swallowed' in a single moment.

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This is the sod of the verse, "Death will be swallowed forever" (Isaiah 25:8), for the kelipot which are called 'death' will be 'swallowed' in a single moment… Food becomes the eater (Likutei Moharan). Contrary to popular opinion, it's not "you are what you eat", rather "what you eat becomes what you are". The kelipot will be swallowed and digested by the side of holiness and thereby also turned to good. …since the Shechina together with the Soul-Sparks that were among them will have left them. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Fulfilling All 613 Commandments
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Sixteen, Section 1 Doing [mitzvahs] unites one with the body of the king Man is a microcosm of the universe (Zohar). He is modeled after the Divine image. By way of anthropomorphosis and spiritual parable, the mitzvahs are called as if "limbs of the king" (Zohar). Doing them unites one with the body of the king (Tanya). Each limb of the soul is modeled after a Divine limb, so to speak, i.e., a mitzvah. Doing the mitzvahs connects every limb with its source. This enlivens the soul and makes it shine. A person must somehow or another fulfill all the mitzvahs in order to have the complete connection to G-d through all the channels of the self that he was created to attain. However, someone whose soul is not new, but one that has reincarnated and returned to this world, only has to complete those mitzvahs it has yet to fulfill in previous gilgulim. Thus, the fulfillment of the 613 Mitzvahs may take place over the course of all the gilgulim. With this we can understand why in the Talmud we learn of certain Torah scholars who were careful with respect to a particular mitzvah more than other mitzvahs, while another scholar was careful regarding a different mitzvah (Megillah 28a). For example, one Talmudic rabbi asked his colleague, "In what mitzvah was your father most careful?"… The one who this posed question was interested in determining the tzadik's soul root and the focal point of its rectification. The more we understand about the tzadik's angle in spirituality, the more we have a handle to learn from him and to emulate his ways. …and he answered, the mitzvah of tzitzit, or tefillin, or something of that nature. Why does the Ari mention this? It must be that he is hinting to us the general principles

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upon which understanding about being careful with a certain mitzvah relative to one's tailor-made tikun has to do with. The commandments were given to refine and heal the soul. The commandments were given to refine and heal the soul. They do this by connecting the self to varied channels of G-d's light. The mitzvah of tefillin draws to the soul primarily an internal light, as opposed to tzitzit, which brings a surrounding light. (Shaar Hakedusha Tefillin & Tzitzit) Internal light affects and expands the consciousness awareness. Surrounding light affects the sub-consciousness more. Depending upon the soul-root and its specific need of rectification, it will accordingly require being careful with a certain mitzvah. The mentioning of "tzitzit or tefillin, or something of that nature" comes to teach that the general principle underneath determining what one needs is either a mitzvah that brings internal light or surrounding light. However, this would seem to contradict the mishna that says, "Be [as] careful with a light mitzvah as you would be with a serious one!" (Pirkei Avot 2:1). The sod is that every scholar is careful with the particular mitzvah that is missing from his previous gilgulim, either all of it, or part of it. This means to say that even though some mitzvahs are intrinsically less important, a person may still have to give special attention to their fulfillment, more than others that are usually more important, because they may be necessary for his specific rectification. This is also the sod of what we find in the Talmud where one person focused on a particular character trait, while another focused on a different one. For example, they asked one person, "To what do you owe your long life?" and he answered, "All of my life I was never particular about my honor." There are many Rabbis who were asked this and gave varied responses. The Ari brings this answer out of all of them. He also leaves out the name of the one who said it. This comes to teach that even though a certain rabbi was extra careful with this, it is something that is necessary for everyone to be especially careful about. Honor belongs to G-d, as it says "G-d reigns, He clothed Himself in honor" (Psalms 92:1), and "…for My honor I created it" (Isaiah 43:7). The job of man is to do everything for the Divine honor. If a person tries to take honor for himself, this destroys the world and causes the Shechina to depart. As the sages teach "Anyone who is proud, G-d (then) says, "I am not able to live in the world with him'" (Talmud). All negative qualities are rooted in some type of ego. From it comes a person's will to be exacting about his honor. One who can get past this hurdle will have a much easier time conquering all other bad qualities. Hence, each one worked on a certain trait that remained lacking from his previous gilgulim.

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Personality qualities are from the deepest expressions of the soul. Personality qualities are from the deepest expressions of the soul. Therefore is it of paramount importance to fix them. The entire person is made up of traits. Therefore did Rabbi Nachman write his "Book of Qualities": Most people decide most of what they do from traits, more than from logic. This leaves room to rationalize. In order to be truly righteous, one must cleanse and refine the qualities. This is like polishing the soul, and makes it to shine. There is a major difference between one whose previous soul-sparks from his soul-root fulfilled all the 613 Mitzvahs to one whose soul-sparks did not as well. We will explain this further on. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Completing the "Orchard"
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Sixteen, Section 2 If there are mitzvahs that a person is able to fulfill and the opportunity arises to do so and he does not fulfill them, or if he has the ability to bring them about and yet doesn’t, then he will have to reincarnate until he completes them. Take an opportunity to do something good when it presents itself. It is therefore very important to take an opportunity to do something good when it presents itself. It could save having to go through a whole other lifetime! However, regarding mitzvahs he cannot perform without G-d creating the necessary circumstances, such as redeeming the first born son, yibum or chalitza, divorce, and similar, it will depend. For example, if G-d did create the necessary circumstances to fulfill any of them and he did not [fulfill that mitzvah], then he will have to reincarnate to fulfill which ever one he could have fulfilled but did not. However, if the occasion did not arise to fulfill them, then he will not have to reincarnate to perform them, but rather, he will only come back b’sod ibur into a person who is undergoing that particular mitzvah and fulfill his obligation that way. Once the mitzvah has been completed, then he will return to his place. Then there is a third level, which is the mitzvahs which cannot be performed today, such as sacrifices. Yet, we have stated that every person must fulfill all 613 mitzvahs and reincarnate until he does so! Thus, at this time he would not have to reincarnate for their

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sake since they cannot be performed. However, after Mashiach arrives and the Temple is re-built, may it be so speedily in our days, he will reincarnate in order to perform those particular mitzvahs . "I will have to record this in my ledger for when the Temple returns" Rebbi Yishmael, son of Elisha the High Priest, hinted to this when, after tilting the lamp on Shabbat night, he said, "I will have to record this in my ledger for when the Temple returns, so that I will then bring a substantial Sin-Offering" (Shabbat 12b). He accidentally did a type of lighting fire, which is forbidden on Shabbat (Ex. 35:3). Why did he record something in order to do something that could not be done? It must be that he knew that even if the Temple would not end up being rebuilt in his days (as it wasn't) that he would someday be able to bring the sacrifice, in a reincarnation. From the mitzvahs that are not obligatory, such as reciting Shema Yisrael or tefillin… These mitzvahs need to be done every day – how can he speak of them as being optional? "Not obligatory" here does not mean that you don't have to do them. Rather it means that not doing them does not incur serious punishment. This is because the lack of fulfilling positive commandments is not as punishable as the transgression of negative commandments. …there are mitzvahs that one need not pursue, such as sending away the mother bird, or putting up a parapet [on a roof], and which he may also have been prevented from completing. However, since he was not told to pursue and fulfill them, though the person will have to reincarnate he will definitely not sin in the upcoming gilgul. This means to say that he will be protected from heaven in that lifetime, since he only came back to fix something that was never an absolute obligation. However, if the mitzvah did present itself and he did not want to perform it, then he must reincarnate and in this case, there will be no guarantee that he will not sin. Since the gravity of what he did was greater, the consequences are greater. He must come back without a guarantee of being protected. However, one who actually transgresses and is thereby forced to reincarnate will most definitely sin again. This needs to be understood in stages: The soul is intrinsically a pure simple light. No matter what bad deeds a person falls into, it does not affect his essence. However, it does taint the external aspects of the soul. This can be compared to a brilliant diamond. Even if it falls into the mud, it still really retains its beauty. The dirt only occupies the surface and prevents the light from shining out. As soon as the dirt is cleaned off, it resumes all of its

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glory. The world was created for free will. A person must therefore bear the consequences of his actions. If he soiled his soul, he comes back in that state. It is his job - and actual claim to fame - to cleanse himself. However, he must know that he's not starting with a clean slate, rather from being in the negative. Therefore he will have certainly tendencies to do bad. This is what the Ari means by saying he will sin again. The person must be strong to withstand the test. A person must fulfill all the 613 Mitzvahs in deed, verbally, and in thought. Not only this, but a person must fulfill all the 613 Mitzvahs in deed, verbally, and in thought, .. These are the three garments of the soul (Tanya). They come from the three triads of the sefirot. Thought comes from chaba"d – chachma/bina/da'at, speech comes from chaga"t – chesed/gevura/tiferet, deed comes from neh"i – netzoch/hod/yesod. In order for the connection to be complete, it must be from all of our attributes to all of Gd's. "I am to my beloved, and my beloved is to me" (Songs of Songs 6:2). Just as the simple Infinite light expresses to us, above to below, through these garments of the sefirot, so does the simple light of the soul express and connect to G-d through its counterpart clothes: thought, word, and deed, below to above. …as the Sages have said on the verse, "This is the law for the Burnt-Offering and the MealOffering" (Lev. 7:37): Anyone who learns the section of the Burnt-Offering is like one who offered it (Menachot 110a). They were indicating that a person is obligated to fulfill all 613 Mitzvahs verbally, and in thought as well. The simple explanation of this teaching is that even when there is no Temple, there is some way that we can, as if, bring the sacrifices. When you learn about something, its root energy above is activated and channeled to the world. (How much it is activated depends upon how deeply you engage in delving into it.) The same applies to meditating. There is even some category that doing something through learning and meditation is actually higher than doing in deed. The faculty of thought is higher than that of action. Some tzadikim are so able to be focused in the world of thought that they are able to make the rectification and fulfill their obligation through thought alone. Thus we found that Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai was exempt from doing mitzvahs because of his exalted level of meditation and learning. The Ari comes to point out a lesson hidden and hinted in this rabbinical teaching, that there is an obligation to do all the mitzvahs also in thought and speech. If thought and speech were only optional, they would not be powerful enough to fuel a makeshift, 'winged' fulfillment of the mitzvahs when deed is not possible.

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A person must learn Torah on four levels. If a person fails to fulfill all 613 Mitzvahs on all three levels of deed, speech, and thought, then he will have to reincarnate until he does. As well, a person must learn Torah on four levels, alluded to by the word "PaRDeS," which stands for "Peshat," "Remez," "Drash," and "Sod." He will have to reincarnate until he does. As explained in Chapter 11, that there are four primary levels of interpreting the Torah: Pshat (simple understanding), remez (hint), drash (exegetical), and sod (secret). Learning Torah is the foundational root of all of the other mitzvahs. The comparison of the need to fulfill everything in thought word and deed to the necessity of learning the entire Torah comes to show that learning corresponds to all of the commandments (Pe'ah). The depth and breadth of the mind and heart must be connected to G-d. One does this through learning the whole Torah, to its full length and width. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Six Hundred Thousand Souls
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Seventeen, Section 1 As we have already said, a person is obligated to learn Torah on all four levels. Now, there are only 600,000 souls… The [souls] all come from the six sefirot. They correspond to the six days and the six directions of the world. They all come from the six sefirot. There are stages in the evolution of the descent of the souls into the world. First there were the three patriarchs. Then there were the seventy souls of the house of Jacob (Ex. 1:5). The sixty myriads of souls come next, due to miraculous fertility during the centuries in Egypt. But don't we see a lot more Jews than six hundred thousand roaming the face of the earth?! How could there be only six hundred thousand? The answer is that each one is like a grand tree root from which stems out many branches/souls. Thus many people in bodies share the same soul root. If you feel especially connected with certain individuals, this is a sign that you share with them a mutual source. …and the Torah itself is the source of all Jewish souls.. Therefore there are six hundred thousand letters in the Torah (Zohar).

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…the place from which they are "hewn." Each letter is a source and channel for a soul root to evolve from. The sages view this as if a rock hewn from a mountain. Therefore, there are 600,000 explanations on the level of "Peshat," on the level of "Remez," on the level of "Drash," and on the level of "Sod." From this we see how important each individual is! Each of these souls has its own original, custom made connection to the four ways of learning. Therefore, no matter how much Torah has already been written, there is always place for you to come along and give the world new ideas! The Torah and the souls are one. At root level, the Torah and the souls are one (Zohar). Thus, for every one of the 600,000 explanations there is one Jewish soul, and in the Timeto-Come each will know Torah according to the explanation that corresponds to the root of his soul. In the Garden of Eden, after a person has died he will understand all of it. If so, why should one toil to understand the Torah in this world? The answer is, the more one learns and the deeper one understands, the higher level he starts learning at in the after life. Furthermore, every night when a person goes to sleep he 'deposits' his soul above. The one who merits to ascend above… Later the Ari enumerates what one can do to gain this privilege. that day the specific verse 'shone' in him more than other days. …is taught the explanation upon which his soul-root is based, the extent to which depends upon what he accomplished that day, either a verse or a particular parasha, because that day the specific verse 'shone' in him more than other days. Since his soul is rooted in that verse , when he accomplishes something positive, it is a reflection and revelation of the verse itself. Thus it says about the words Torah, "they are our life, and we will meditate in them day and night" (Joshua 1:8). One who has eyes can see everything going on around in its root in the Torah. This greatly deepens the consciousness and the level of life. Another night, a different verse will shine in his soul, based upon his actions that day, always according to the explanation upon which his root is dependent. Originally a great, awesome light shined that spanned the far-flung ends of creation. G-d

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saw that not everyone would be fit to enjoy such a light. He therefore hid it (Breishit Raba 3:6). Nonetheless, a little bit of this light must shine to the world every day, or the universe could not endure (Zohar). Each day is a gift from G-d and comes to us with its own secrets, derived from the bit of light allotted to the day. Every night my teacher used to look at the forehead of the students standing before him, on the side upon which his soul dwelled and illuminated… The soul manifests at different times in different parts of the body. …and determine which verse shone more in that person. He would then explain a portion of the explanation of that verse, according to that which was relevant to his soul. Even one who is not himself pure enough to merit to such revelation alone can still benefit from this level through being connected to a true tzadik. Before the person would go to sleep, he would concentrate on that which was partially explained to him. He would also recite the verse in order that when his soul ascended for the night they (in heaven) would teach him the completion of the explanation. This would purify the soul and allow it to keep ascending to even higher levels, where more would be revealed to him, though his body may not have sensed anything upon awakening. The Vilna Gaon teaches that there are certain boundless levels of Torah that the soul cannot perceive while clothed in the limiting body. In order to enable the soul to access these levels, G-d created sleep. The soul leaves the body and is thereby allowed to perceive in its intrinsic, full capacity. Even though this level does not necessarily reach the conscious awareness, the light of it enlivens and invigorates the person to a higher degree of spirituality. Also, if one merits, sparks of what he learned trickle into his daily state of mind. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Soul-Roots in the Shoulders
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Seventeen, Section 2 The 600,000 explanations of Torah include the levels of Peshat, Agada… A term usually used for the Midrashic sections of the Talmud, but, which can apply to all midrashim. There is not one Jewish soul that does not include all four levels [of explanations] …and Kabbalah, and are alluded to by the letters of the word "Pardes" [pei-reish-

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dalet-sod]. There is not one Jewish soul that does not include all four levels, but there are some souls that can grasp [only] two levels of explanations while others can grasp even more. The soul of Moses was able to grasp all 600,000 explanations of Torah, as the Sages indicated when they wrote that he knew even that which every student would [eventually] innovate (Megillah 19b). This was because his soul incorporated all 600,000 Jewish souls. Moses is the grand soul-root of Israel. All the souls, for all generations, that branch out of him, are existentially as his students. He therefore automatically knows each person's special Torah portion and the novelties that come with it. Likewise, the rest of the wise men of Israel will grasp according to the amount of souls included within each. One time, a person came before my teacher who looked at him and spoke to him about a certain matter. I am writing about it here in case one can make connections and understand other matters regarding the performance of mitzvahs. This is what he wrote for him. With regard to both positive and negative mitzvahs, there are those which are considered "masculine" and some which are considered "feminine." The positive commandments come from the male, active movement in the soul, as opposed to the negative commandments which come from the female, passive motion. All of the 248 limbs of the souls of Adam are comprised of what is called "flesh," "tendons," and "bones," as is known. The flesh and the bones are the positive mitzvahs of that limb and the tendons are the negative mitzvahs. Later, with the help of God, we will explain that these tendons are not included in those that comprise the 365 Tendons. He told him that the root from which his soul was taken was the left-shoulder limb of Adam, from the level of the partzuf of Leah standing behind him. The number of mitzvahs in that limb called the left-shoulder are eleven positive mitzvahs, the numerical value of vav-hei (VH), the last two letters of the Tetragramaton. Their gematria is equal to "katef" [shoulder], in a manner called "Haka’a" [collision] A form of gematria that takes the letters and 'throws' them at each other in the 'collision' of multiplication. The letters are the basic building blocks of existence. We can accordingly look at them as the 'atoms' of the root spiritual plane from which all comes. The process here outlined can thus be viewed as a type of 'atomic letter collider'. As we will see, the results are indeed explosive.

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"Hit" [multiply] vav-yud-vav [the expanded form of the vav of the Tetragramaton - 22] and hei-yud [the expanded form of the hei - 15] i.e., 22 times 15 and they equal shinlamed [330]; vav-vav [then take another form of vav expansion: 12] times hei-yud [15] and they equal kuf-pei [180]; for a [sum] total of tav-kuf-yud [510]. Subtract eleven, the number of vav-hei [VH itself]… The root letter values of this equation are not included in the final tally. The reason for this is that the point of this spiritual formula is to utilize the energies extracted by multiplication. …and what remains is tav-kuf [500] with the "kollel" [plus one]… There is always an option to add one to the numerical value of any word. The gematria of the word tells us how many inner lights energize it. Then there is a singular surrounding light that encompasses all of those energies. It can therefore always be added. …the gematria of "katef". – The idea is that we see how the energies that comprise the shoulder come out of the power of vav-hei/eleven. This shows an inherent connection between vav-hei, the number eleven, positive commandments, and the shoulder [being that there are 11 positive commandments in the shoulder – Ed. Note] There are ten sefirot on the side of holiness. Eleven represents the next step down - i.e. the spark that intentionally exiles and descends to the sitra achra in order to provide it with its necessary life force (Shaar Hakedusha Ketoret, Shichrut Shel Purim) From vav-hei comes the lower seven sefirot. They span until malchut, who is the secret agent central. It periodically descends to redeem its exiled sparks. vav-hei is thus the battery that energizes the revelation of Divinity in all of the far-flung, outcast corners of existence. Every positive commandment possesses this power. They therefore are all drawn from vavhei, the root energy for this. This is in line with the teaching of the Ramban that the main acquisition of perfection is through the positive commandments, whereas the negative commandments are designed to guard the soul from bad energies. Through fulfilling the positive mitzvoth, manifestation of G-dliness spreads through all of reality. However, there are fifteen negative mitzvahs in the Shoulder Limb, like the first two letters of the Tetragramaton (yud-hei). As the Sages said (in explanation of the verse "This is 'shmi' [in Hebrew, My name] forever, and this is 'zichri' [the way I am to be mentioned] for all generations" (Ex. 3:15). yud-hei [15] with "shmi" [350, equals] 365, and vav-hei [11] with "zichri" [237, My mention, equals] 248 (Zohar 1:24a). These two letters also total the gematria of "katef," in the following way: yud-vav-daled [20] times hei-yud [15] equals 300; yud-vav-daled [20] times hei-hei [10] equals 200, for a total of 500, the gematria of "katef." This demonstrates an inherent linkage between yud-hei, number fifteen, negative

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commandments, and the shoulder [being that there are 15 negative commandments in the shoulder – Ed. Note] From yud-hei come the upper three sefirot (Eitz Chayim). They are the source of the mental faculties. The negative commandments are primarily to protect the soul from falling into the sitra achra. "The eyes of the sage are in his head" (Ecclesiastes 2:14). "The beginning of wisdom is fear of G-d" (Psalms 111:10). yud-hei is higher than vav-hei. On the outside, action seems to accomplish more than passiveness. On the inside, there are times that the opposite turns out to be true. No matter how much you do, that's as far as it goes - whatever was done was done, and no more. When you don't do anything, it is certainly less, because you have accomplished nothing. However, there is a positive aspect to doing nothing. Only through not doing—that is, through 'doing' the negative commandments does one connect with infinity. How does one do them? When they come to hand (Talmud). If someone never has the opportunity to commit murder, he gets no reward for having not killed. However, if the opportunity presents itself to kill someone that one wants to kill, this is called 'fulfilling' the mitzvah not to murder. At that time, one connects with the infinite aspect of nothingness that lies underneath the simple zero. This elevates the soul to connection with Divinity far beyond what it accomplishes by doing. And this is the secret of why the negative commandments are rooted above the positive commandments. This is hinted to in "a woman (the negative commandments) of valor is the crown of her husband (the positive commandments)" (Chagiga). Through the simple aspect of guarding the negative commandments, the soul is saved from falling into the kelipot. The positive commandments come up every day, and it is through actively doing them that the soul draws and connects with G-d's light. However, when the negative commandments do come into play, in a hidden way, they give the soul access to rare, precious, boundless levels that compliment and augment the lights of the positive commandments. The Ari specifically chose to explain the mitzvahs of the shoulder. What remains to be understood, is the connection of all this to the shoulder. And, in general, we need to understand why the Ari specifically chose to explain the mitzvahs of the shoulder, when each limb has mitzvahs that come from it. As mentioned, most souls stem from the grand Cain and Abel roots. Later we will be told that they themselves are rooted in the right and left shoulder of their father Adam. Since these roots that are found in the shoulder include most of humanity, the Ari here uses them as the classic example of limbs that mitzvahs come from. And for this reason itself we find the Tetragramaton hinted to in the number of mitzvahs in the shoulder, for it shows that the point of the souls' creation and succeeding obligation to fulfill mitzvahs is in order to reach complete attachment to G-d. It is the mitzvahs that provide access to G-dliness through connecting us with the medium of His name – the Divinity conductor. However, we still need to fathom why G-d made the Cain and Abel centrals rooted in the

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shoulder?! There are three parts of the mind, drawn from chochma, bina, da'at. From chochma and bina come certain abilities. Da'at does not add anything; rather it fuses these right/left mental powers (Likutei Torah by Ba'al HaTanya). Curiously enough, the Ari. calls the right and left side of the mind 'itran d'da'at' – the crowns of the mind. From this is comes that chochma and bina clothe the two shoulders of Arich Anpin. The light of these two shoulder roots descends and energies the mentality as two crowns. They are called crowns because they come from the surrounding light, which always surrounds and crowns the level beneath it. The original test was with the tree of knowledge. Therefore the whole soul-scenario focuses around the source of knowledge, the mind. The rectification of the mind is made through drawing to it the surrounding lights (Likutei Moharan 21:11). Therefore are the soul centrals rooted in the shoulders, the source of drawing these lights to the mind. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Male & Female Mitzvahs
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Seventeen, Section 3 The ten negative mitzvahs, hinted to by the letter yud are masculine, and the five remaining hinted to by the letter hei are feminine. Yud and hei are male and female relative to each other. The reason for this is that yud-hei are male and female relative to each other. Being the first two letters of the name, they are called the upper unification. Even though the negative commandments are primarily feminine, male and female aspects exist within and relative to themselves, in their own infrastructure. The six positive mitzvahs alluded to by the letter vav are masculine, whereas the five alluded to by the last hei are feminine. The same relationship between yud-hei above is found by vav-hei below in the lower unification. I did not receive from my teacher knowledge of what the ten masculine negative mitzvahs are, but these are the five remaining feminine mitzvahs referred to by the first hei: 1. Do not murder, which includes not embarrassing a person in public, since [when one is shamed,] the red [blood in his face] goes and leaves him [looking]

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white. It is therefore [considered] a form of spilling blood. 2. Do not steal, a warning regarding things of monetary value. 3. Do not cook a kid [meat] in its mother’s milk. 4. Do not eat [forbidden] fat. 5. Do not eat blood. These are the six positive mitzvahs of the letter vav: 1. Your brother shall live with you; this is like the mitzvah to give tzedakah and it means to seek out a way to be able to live together without financial hardship. 2. Eat tithes of the second year [ma’aser sheni] in Jerusalem. 3. Make a parapet for your roof. 4. Procreate and fill the land. 5. Circumcise your son. 6. Love your neighbor as yourself. The five feminine positive mitzvahs alluded to by the final hei are: 1. Lend to a poor person, and the way to recall this is, "If you will lend money to My people …" (Ex. 22:24); don’t read "im" [if], rather read "aim" [mother]. (Hei is the maternal letter, thus this mitzvah associates with it.) 2. Tzitzit, and included in this is to put it on the shoulder, for as we mentioned the root of this particular soul was from the shoulder. 3. Send away the mother bird, and your reminder is: Surely send away the mother bird. 4. Keep the Shemita year. 5. Remember the exodus from Egypt. A person who does not learn Torah blemishes the sefira of tiferet. A person who does not learn Torah blemishes the sefira of tiferet, since in each of the Four Worlds of ABY"A Torah is on the level of tiferet.

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There are four levels and their pneumonic is, "PaRDeS" for: Peshat, Remez, Drash, and Sod. A person who merits to enter the depths of these four levels, merits, in the end, to all of the levels. And with respect to him it says, "He will do (special things) for one who waits for Him." (Isaiah 64:3). This verse is referring to the pleasures of the World-to-Come. However, the one who does not want to learn Torah, even the simple meaning of the verses, blemishes tiferet of Asiya. One who does not wish to pursue proofs for a Torah matter [i.e., Hints], blemishes the tiferet of Yetzira. One who does not learn the exegetical teachings of the Torah [Drash] blemishes the tiferet of Beriyah. And, one who does not learn the mysteries of Torah [Sod] blemishes the tiferet of Atzilut. These high levels all depend upon little man below. When one learns, he draws to them nourishing, sustaining light. If not, they are left lacking. Learning Torah is not a mental exercise. It is not a way of amassing data. It is a spiritual process that illuminates the self and all the worlds dependent upon it, each according to his soul root. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Levels Within Levels
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Eighteen, Section 1 We have already discussed the Four Worlds and the order ABY"A [Atzilut, Beriya, Yetzira, and Asiya]. Each world contains its own set of four. Each world contains its own set of four. For example, within the world of Atzilut, Abba is called "Atzilut," Imma is called "Beriya," Zeir Anpin is called "Yetzira," and Nukva is called "Asiya." It is the same in each world. Each world has its own ten sefirot that divide into their respective partzufim. When looking at the whole picture - relative to each other - Atzilut expresses the partzuf of Abba, Beriya of Imma, Zeir Anpin of Yetzira, and Nukva of Asiya. However, the level of Arich Anpin is quite hidden and not referred to. It draws from Keter, the highest sefira, which is too lofty to be revealed. Likewise, Adam Kadmon and yechida, the corresponding world and soul level, are hidden and rarely even mentioned. (Eitz Chayim, Shaar Adam Kadmon)

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Neshamot come from the level of Atzilut, ruchin kadishin [holy spirits] from the level of Beriya, [standard] angels from the level of Yetzira, and ofanim [wheel angels] come from the level of Asiya. Man below contains all the worlds, and in the beginning he receives the Nefesh of Asiya. If he does not merit Ruach [the rung above] because of a transgression that blemished his Nefesh, and as a result of his actions he entered the kelipot, then they say to him, "The fly preceded you [in creation; it was made on day five, man on day six. so as to keep man ever humble] and [moreover] is better than you!" (Sanhedrin 38a). This is because the fly does not do anything to blemish Above and does not enter the kelipot. Just as the fly is a pest to man, so is man a nuisance to the world when he sins. Just as the fly is a pest to man, so is man a nuisance to the world when he sins. Transgression existentially places the soul in the realm of the sitra achra, Conversely, one who fulfills God's will automatically ascends to attain higher soul levels. However, if he does not sin or blemish his Nefesh, then he will be on the level of the ofanim. Ofanim is the plural form of ofan, which means wheel. These angels are so called because they are the lowest level in the Divine chariot and through them the higher angels act. They are thus to the chariot as wheels. The Divine chariot is the spiritual mechanism that G-d uses to transmit His will to the universe. The Nefesh, like the ofanim, is like the 'wheels' of one's being. The underlying reasons behind the actions are not revealed to the wheel. Wheels are steered; the driver decides and does the steering. The Ruach is in the driver's seat. One who nullifies himself and fulfills G-d's will without understanding merits a Ruach and graduates to the level of knowing why G-d does through him what He does. We see in many places from the Zohar and Ari that everyone is supposed to strive to attain Ruach. A person might only merit his Nefesh and yet he can be more important and special than one who already has his Ruach. That is, the Nefesh or even Ruach of the general Ruach. This is because, as we have explained, each world incorporates four [levels], and that even the Nefesh of Asiya has the levels of NR"N and Neshama of Neshama [chaya]. Thus, the four levels of Asiya are only called Nefesh in general. Hence, if the person happens to be from the Neshama of Asiya and has begun rectification, then the level of the Neshama of the general Ruach of Yetzira will shine within him.

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Since he is from the level of the Neshama, it is that level in every world that he must rectify. Having already begun rectification on one level can activate the next level. This applies even though it has yet to become completely enclothed within him, for, as we have already taught, it is impossible for the Ruach of Yetzira to be completely enclothed in a person until he has rectified his Nefesh in all portions of Asiya completely. Nevertheless, it can shine within him. Striving for something above where one presently is, grants a connecting cable to it. Striving for something above where one presently is, grants a connecting cable to it. This provides light and energy to enjoy even before one actually fully attains it. A person can be from the Nefesh of Asiya, and also have a Nefesh of Yetzira, called the "Nefesh of Ruach" as mentioned. This person is certainly on a lower level than the first. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Righteous & Rectification
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Eighteen, Section 2 One who arises to Atzilut takes a quantum leap. A person can also achieve until the Nefesh of Atzilut, that is, the malchut of Atzilut... Atzilut is a world that is all Divinity. One who arises to it takes a quantum leap. ...and even higher than all the levels of Atzilut. A human being of flesh and blood can ascend to ever infinitely higher levels of G-dliness! If a person merits Ruach from yesod of Atzilut then he will be called "Ish Elo-him" (Psalms 90:1) [lit. Man of God - The Torah uses this term in reference to Moses. According to how much one emulates Moses, one can merit to draw the awesome level of Ruach of Zeir Anpin of Atzilut and be a G-dly person on whom the Shechina rests, and merit constant access to Divine inspiration.] "husband of the Matroness'" (Zohar) Regarding him it says, "A Tzadik rules upon the fear of the L-rd" (Samuel II 23:3). The Rabbis learn from this that "G-d decrees, and the tzadik [can nonetheless nullify it]. The tzadik decrees, and G-d fulfills [it]" (Moed Katan 16b). G-d willingly grants the tzadik this awesome power measure for measure. Because he ruled over his own desire and

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nullified himself to G-d, G-d in turn as if nullifies Himself to the tzadik. The root level through which the 'husband of the mistress' gives to his wife is our present topic sefira - yesod of Atzilut. It is clothed primarily in Joseph. He therefore is the grand example of "tzadik rules over fear of the L-rd". Thus we see that Pharaoh gave him rulership over all of Egypt (Gen. 41:40-44). In addition, there were cases when Pharaoh himself was forced to listen to him, and simply said "go to Joseph and do whatever he says (Ibid 41:55, see Rashi). The kingdom below is like the kingdom above. "The kingdom below is like the kingdom above."(Brachot) Being the viceroy below gave Joseph status to lord it over the worlds above – second to G-d alone. Everyone has a point of Joseph inside. Through this point, every person can actually nullify harsh decrees, and perpetrate good ones (Likutei Moharan 34:2). It all depends upon how much one merits to guard the covenant and the expression of yesod in his body. For, just as there is the righteous person who, upon his death, ascends in the secret of M"N1 to the malchut of Atzilut, there is also the righteous person who ascends in the secret of M"D to the yesod of Atzilut. The Zohar teaches that a person cleaves to G-d in the afterlife the same way he cleaved to G-d in life. One whose primary service was from Nefesh, and thereby activated malchut, will thus trigger that level in his death. One who was more yesod oriented will awaken that when he departs. Regarding this, you can understand what is written in the Zohar (Parashat Teruma 166b) on the verse, "Light is sown for the righteous" (Psalms 97:11) - A light that is already sown. A person progressively creates his quarters in the next world by his actions everyday. We can look at the world as a garden. Everything anyone does is as a seed planted. These seeds take root and grow. When you come to the afterlife, you reap the fruits of what you did – for better or worse. Good deeds plant light, bad actions sow darkness. Good deeds plant light, bad actions sow darkness. Just as seeds grow into trees that continue to grow and produce fruit, so the repercussions of one's actions continue to produce light or darkness in the universe. This is one way of understanding the Rabbis' statement "a mitzvah draws a mitzvah, a sin draws a sin" (Avot) This means that after the destruction of the Temple, Zeir Anpin became separated from Nukva, and that the 'supernal gardener', which is yesod, no longer plants his 'garden' [malchut].

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One of the expressions of the yesod/malchut relationship is that of a gardener to his garden. Rather, his garden becomes planted by itself, from the after-growths that went out and were planted in the beginning; they return and seed it. The mitzvahs one does energize the soul to hold on to G-d even at a time when he is not able to do much. The 'after-growths' are the souls of the righteous, which the gardener planted in the supernal garden before the destruction, after which they sprouted. After they return, and later leave this world. They ascend in the secret of M"N to the malchut of Atzilut, or in the secret of M"D to yesod—the 'supernal gardener', and there is a re-planting. This is the secret of the verse, "Light is sown for the righteous." In other words, lights that are already sown from the beginning, in the supernal garden, return on their own and become re-planted, since there is no new seed [after the destruction]. The destruction of the Holy Temple disrupted the unification above. There is no new flow of 'seed' - reproduction of spiritual lights. Accordingly, the process of the sefirot redeeming and purifying the sparks and bringing creation to fulfillment is stifled during the time of exile. Nonetheless, righteous people can still maintain that process through their lives and subsequently, their deaths. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Yabok and Rectification
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Eighteen, Section 3 A man who only performs [positive] mitzvahs merits the Nefesh called "Asiya". However, he is similar to a woman whose husband has gone overseas and has left her without clothing, food, or drink. He is like the Shechina that sits in exile and darkness while her house lays in ruin. That is what a Nefesh of a person is like without a Ruach, which is its husband, so-to-speak: without light and intelligence for understanding. He is similar to a woman whose husband has gone overseas and has left her without clothing, food, or drink. Nefesh is drawn from malchut, the sefira of action. Spiritual intelligence starts from Ruach and up. If this person then strives to learn Torah constantly and teach the oral law for altruistic motives, he will merit Ruach from Yetzira. He will be like the woman whose husband has arrived to live with her forever in her house — clothing her, feeding her, giving her to

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drink, and elevating her. Such is one to whom Ruach comes and dwells within his Nefesh, filling it with the spirit of wisdom, elevating the Nefesh from Asiya to Yetzira. If a person then endeavors to learn the 'hidden wisdom' — the secrets of Torah — then he will merit to receive a Neshama from Beriya, It will shine from within the Ruach, and cause even greater ascent. Then he is called 'adam shalaim' [a complete man] to which the verse refers when it says: God made man in His image. (Gen. 1:26) Learning kabala causes the inner light of the soul to shine forth. The secret is as follows: when a person only possesses Nefesh then he is only affected by the name Aleph-Dalet-Nun-Yud [ADNY]. This is the name that energizes malchut, the lowest sefira. When he learns Torah altruistically, then he merits Ruach, which comes from the name Yud-Hei-Vav-Hei [YHVH]. This name enlivens tiferet, the source of Ruach. When he learns the mysteries of Torah, then he merits Neshama, and he will draw down strength and blessing from the Name Aleph-Hei-Yud-Hei [AHYH]. This name gives strength to bina, the source of Neshama. Now, when all three names come together in the person they total the gematria of 'yabok' ADNY (= 65) + YHVH (= 26) + AHYH (= 21) = 112 = YBK (= 112). The same name, YBK, is an eastern tributary of the Jordan River, located about half-way between the Kineret and the Dead Sea. This is the river that Jacob crossed over the night he fought with the Angel of Eisav and had his name (unofficially) changed to "Israel" (Gen. 32:23), representing his personal perfection. Through the power of this Divine name, he was able to ascend to a higher level. This name is used for elevation as it is composed of the three names ADNY, YHVH, and AHYH, which correspond to Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama, the successively higher aspects of the soul. Jacob went so far as to reach such a level that he required a higher name. The Talmud (Berachot) teaches that his original name remained. Jacob is his name from the Nefesh aspect of his being; Israel is the name of the Neshama aspect. Rectification of the soul is personal redemption. With respect to him it says, "God save! May the King answer us on the day we call."

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(Psalms 20:10) at the time of the redemption; rectification of the soul is personal redemption. [This verse in Hebrew: ye’anainu b’yom karainu] has the head-letters YBK [i.e. yabok] One merits redemption through repenting, through the Divine names YBK and BKY. Then the person will have Nefesh from Asiya, Ruach from Yetzira, and Neshama from Beriya. If he will further rectify himself, he can then achieve the three from Yetzira. If he rectifies himself even more, he can receive the three from Beriya, and after further rectification, the three from Atzilut as well. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Four Elementals
Gate of Reincarnations - Chapter Eighteen, Section 4 Regarding created beings, there are four elementals… Present day science claims that there are over a hundred elements. In fact, it is not a contradiction. These four grand elements have many sub-divisions. …and their pneumonic is alef-reish-mem-ayin… One whose predominant quality is love will merit worlds of resplendent seas and water castles. whose gematria is 310. This is the number of worlds that the righteous inherit in the worldto-come. The significance of this is that each of these worlds has in it the four elements. The nature of each individual's set of worlds depends upon how he blended the elements in his service of G-d while alive. For example, love manifests primarily from the element of water. One whose predominant quality is love will merit worlds of resplendent seas and water castles.1 …which stands for 'aish' [fire], 'Ruach' [wind], 'mayim' [water], and 'afar' [dust]. They are themselves an expression of the four letters of the the tetragrammaton as explained in the Zohar (Vaera 23b). From these four elements, which are hinted to by the four letters of the Tetragrammaton, all of physical creation was brought into existence. The Infinite light shines to the four letters, and they shine to the four sides of the Divine

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chariot, which in turn shine to the four elements and the four angels in charge of them (Sefer Yetzira). Eventually, it all progressively descends and cascades down to become the four elements of the universe Furthermore, the four letters of the tetragrammaton combine to make twelve permutations (Sefer Yetzira)... A set of four members can be combined in sixteen ways (4x4). However, since one of the letters of the tetragrammaton (the hei) is repeated, it only combines twelve ways (4x3). ...and they continue to create even more combinations, each different from the other, in level and in number, until they total 600,000. Each combination itself expands into further permutations, and they in turn expand more, until the total equals the amount of soul roots. Each name is a direct channel of Divinity. "The souls are one with G-d." (Zohar). There are therefore the same amount of soul roots as the names that channel Divinity. The tetragrammaton is the intrinsic name. There are actually infinite categories of names. The tetragrammaton is however the intrinsic name; therefore the essential soul roots come from it. These six hundred thousand combinations also have among them the four elements, and this is what allows various different combinations, which result in an unlimited amount of different creations — all from the four elements. However, [the] uniqueness [of any given name, or part of creation drawn from a name] will be based upon its predominant element, as the Rambam writes in [the first book of Mishna Torah], Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah, Chapter Four. The souls of man, which are from the four [spiritual] elements, as mentioned. From the elements come all of the quality traits. Tanya (Chapter 1) explains which traits come from which elements. This is the key to rectifying the personality The main job of a person in the world is to purify all of his qualities from their bad aspect (Shaar Kedusha). Fire must be cleansed from manifesting as anger, to be left as pure holy passion. Water needs to be purified from being drawn after lust, leaving it to shine in the soul as Divine delight. Wind must be separated from its negative aspect of energizing pride and idol chatter, to be left as a calm spirit. Dust requires cleansing from expressing as laziness and depression, to remain a channel for a proper measure of stoicism in the psyche. Each of the four elements, in all of their combinations, total six hundred thousand. Therefore they divide into many parts, according to the permutations, each part being called a complete partzuf called 'man' [his supernal root]. This is a term for a complete spiritual organism, composed of two hundred and forty eight

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spirit limbs and three hundred and sixty fix spirit veins. The division is unlimited. With this you can understand the secret of gilgul which is the reincarnation of the 'parts', and the arrival of each will depend upon the time appropriate for it. When G-d reincarnates a soul, a different Ruach is paired with a different Nefesh. "When G-d reincarnates a soul, a different Ruach is paired with a different Nefesh." (Sichot HaRan). This causes a different element dynamic in the personality. It is done in a specific manner, tailor made to suit the needs of what that person must be tested with and what he must accomplish in that given lifetime. In a past lifetime one who rectified the quality of love, might have to come back to rectify fear. The simple lesson of all this is how important it is to take advantage of where one is at any given moment, to use it to its fullest. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach

Different Levels Of Souls
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Nineteen, Section 1 We have explained elsewhere that the difference between the souls of angels and that of man is that these [man] come from the zivug of 'haneshikin ha'elyonim' [lit. supernal kisses; unification of chochma and bina]... The point of creation is the soul of man. The interaction and pairing of sefirot takes place on different levels within their structure. Different types of souls result from different variations. The point of creation is the soul of man. It therefore comes from the loftiest unifications. Kisses come from face to face. The word for face is 'panim', which also means within. The soul within shines out through the face. This deepest part of a person radiates love to another by means of a kiss. For this itself the soul is created from the uniting of the deepest levels above as if in a loving kiss. This equips it to be ready by nature to unite with its Maker in the deepest manner. This is the secret of The Song of Songs. It is a love story between God and the soul. It so begins, "Let Him kiss me with the kisses of His mouth" (Song of Songs 1:2). Rashi explains that it is the soul's supplication for Divine inspiration and prophecy - the highest connection to God. …whereas these [angels] come from the lower zivug [which occurs] in yesod.

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This is called as if 'zivuk gufani', lit. physical unification. It is so coined relatively, because it happens in the lowest place of the sefirot of any given partzuf.1 Likewise, souls stem from the internal part of the worlds and angels from the external part of the worlds. (Eitz Chayim, Shaar Hakavannot Shabbat) There are countless levels of soul roots in between. Many kinds of souls come from the 'zivug ha'olam elyon', lit. upper world pairing, but due to a blemish are forced to descend. The descent however is not necessarily the same for each; there are many different levels to which a soul can descend as a result of a blemish. The blemish can come from the soul's mistakes while it was incarnated or from damage caused by the Original Sin.2 There are two groups, the first being those which descend because of a blemish and come into this world on the level to which they have descended. The second are those souls whose roots are on the same level at which they enter this world. Therefore, the status of each is not the same. The main tikun is at night. However, the main tikun is still at night when one 'deposits' his soul by saying upon lying down, "In Your hand I entrust my spirit" (Psalms 31:6). At that time, the soul is elevated through a higher level of zivug and then returns as a new creation, in the secret of "They are new every morning" (Lamentations 3:23). A person can go from level to level this way until he reaches his actual root and achieves completion. Alternatively, this can occur in the secret of nefilat apayim [lit. "supplication while bending", penitential prayers recited after the Amida] upon reciting the verse, "To You G-d I lift up my soul" (Psalms 25:1). Through this he is able to ascend from level to level according to his deeds until his root. One who is a scholar and finds himself doing dishes at the moment needs to return to his scholarly pursuits. Likewise, a soul that has fallen to a lower station within the sefirot naturally needs to return to its higher source. This is one way of expressing what its rectification is about. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Examples of Different Soul Levels
Gate of Reincarnations, Chapter Nineteen, Section 2 An example could be a soul which originated above, perhaps in the world of Atzilut, but which descended because of a blemish to the world of Asiya, the level from which it entered a body. It can, through good deeds, ascend back to the world of Atzilut, and through the zivug of Atzilut he can do all of this while still alive and no longer need to reincarnate. One can ascend during daytime while performing nefilat apayim in the morning because at that time Jacob has a zivug with Rachel who is called 'akeret haBayis' [the mainstay of the house - meaning that Rachel is the main wife of Jacob]… "The patriarchs are the very merkava (lit. Divine chariot)" (Midrash). i.e., they are an embodiment and expression of the supernal partzufim in this world. Moreover, the manner in which they pair below reflects the way it is above. These zivugim will be discussed at length in chapter 26. Prayer starts by relating to the lowest levels of Asiya and ... climaxes by connecting to Atzilut. The point is that at the time when there is coupling above, the soul can, through its intentions, latch onto this and as if 'hitch a ride' uptown. The underlying process that occurs throughout the order of the daily prayers is the unification of partzufim. This gives birth to light and Divine flow from which come all the spiritual and physical sustenance to the universe. Prayer starts by relating to the lowest levels of Asiya and progressively rises. The standing Amida prayer climaxes by connecting to Atzilut. Where do you go from the top? To the bottom. The succeeding nefilat apayim prayer takes us beneath Asiya to the sitra achra. By virtue of having reached such a lofty place, we are empowered to go to the lowest place and redeem sparks that fell there. Relative to the individual, one is enabled to elevate the fallen parts of his own soul and restore them to himself. This liberates the soul to ascend back to its roots. …since it is the tenth sefira in Atzilut - the main sefira of the ten of Atzilut. "First in thought, last in deed."1 The sefira progression is an enfolding from above to below of Providence. Malchut, the last stop, is the point of it all. Only through it can the lights of the other sefirot come to fruition. Just as all the male energies can only reproduce through the woman. However, if a soul is rooted below and wants to become elevated higher than its root through good deeds, it can only do so at night through the verse, "In Your hand I entrust my soul," as mentioned above. For, the highest form of elevation is one whose root is above, and after descending ascends once again. At night time, there is a zivug between Jacob and

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Leah which is not included in the ten sefirot, but is the backside aspect of the malchut of tevuna, as is known. Sometimes unofficial help can help the most. A level that exists outside of the ten sefirot per se is not bound to ascend through their hierarchy and can therefore end up in a higher place.2 The main rectification process of the shattering of the vessels involved the wielding of the sefirot into partzufim. (Eitz Chayim, Shaar Shvirat Hakeilim) An entire infrastructure was created. For reasons explained elsewhere, a small system was also created outside of the main structure. The sefira of bina became the partzuf Imma. Its light is too great to be directly transmitted to the lower realms. It operates through a sub/quasi-partzuf at its bottom called tevuna. Some of its light is further filtered by the partzuf of Leah. It stands at malchut, the lowest point of tevuna, at its back. It is so designed to relate to 'backside levels' - those who have fallen away from G-d to as if the 'backside' of Providence, outside of its system. If one wants to experience direct relationship to G-d, one must act at all times as if He is here. Certainly the Divine omniscience is absolute at all times. How it manifests to us depends upon what we do. If one wants to experience direct relationship to G-d, one must act at all times as if He is here, as in, "I set G-d before me continuously" (Psalms 16:8). This concept was opened to the world through Leah. The Torah tells that she lacked beauty (Berachot) Moreover, the Rabbis tell that people would say that she is destined to marry Esau, who was known to be wicked. (Talmud) She so found herself in a 'backside situation', one in which Providence seemed to place her behind the game. She did not despair. She constantly cried and prayed for help. She ended up marrying the righteous Jacob and giving birth to some of his best offspring. She so merited to be the embodiment of this spiritual root above. And so each one who to serve G-d from amidst any backside sort of situation merits to draw the energy of this partzuf, which can result in a catapulting to lofty heights.3 What is similar between them, however, is that all souls can be elevated from level to level, without limit, as a result of one’s deeds - providing one has this intention. What comes out of this is very inspiring: Not only can a person return home to his lost soul root - he can supersede it and ascend to an even higher place! It all depends upon one's actions. The first step is to find out who you are. This requires time alone in communion with G-d. One examines his deeds and judges them before G-d. Measure for measure, G-d reciprocates and relates more and more to the person, revealing things about Himself. Once an understanding of the intrinsic soul root is attained, one can then learn about the specific

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things necessary to return to it. After reaching it, one can strive for rungs above... [Samuel says: Since I mentioned the matter of angels, I will write a small introduction regarding the issue. The angels of Beriya are greater than the souls of righteous people from the world of Yetzira. Likewise, the angels of Yetzira are greater than the souls from Asiya. However, the souls of Beriya are greater than the angels of Beriya itself and how much more so than the angels of Yetzira. The same is true of Yetzira and Asiya. The souls from the Keter of Beriya are greater than the angels from the Keter of Beriya. However, the angels from the Keter of Beriya are greater than the souls from the Chochma of Beriya, and this is the way it is throughout.] [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

First and Second Soul-Mates
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty, Section 1 In the Introduction to Chapter Nine, we discussed whether or not women reincarnate as men do. Regarding this topic in the first chapter of Sotah (2a) in reference to the verse, "G-d settles the individuals into a house [i.e. family], He releases those bound in fetters" (Psalms 68:7), the Sages of speak of a first and second soul-mate. Pairing people is as difficult as the splitting of the Red Sea. Hence, when it says, "pairing people is as difficult as the splitting of the Red Sea," it refers to the second soul-mate. However, the understanding of a first and second soul-mate cannot be according to the simple definition since in many instances we see that the second marriage is better than the first. Rather, we learn the explanation from The Saba of Mishpatim1 on the verse, "If he was married then his wife will go out with him" (Ex. 21:3). That is, when a person is new and in the world for the first time, then his soul-mate is born with him, and when it comes time to marry, they [Heaven] arrange the moment, making it simple for them to meet. As the Talmud says, before a man is born it is declared in Heaven who he will marry. However,, the Ari explains that this refers to when he comes into the world the first time, and it is only during this lifetime that Heaven arranges events to make the finding and marrying of one’s soul-mate as simple as possible. However, if a man sins and needs to reincarnate as a result, then the verse "his wife will go out with him" applies to him, as it says in Saba of Mishpatim, that is, she will reincarnate as well for his good. Nevertheless, when the time comes to get married, they will not assist them and he will only succeed after great effort. Since he was forced to reincarnate as a

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result of his sin there will be those who will accuse him and want to prevent her from being available to him, and they will cause fighting. It is a test of faith to plow forward nonetheless and seek G-d from amidst the concealment. Providence will not openly work in his favor since he has returned as a result of previous sins which create accusers who work against him. Truthfully, in such case G-d is also working to help the person, but in a hidden manner. It is a test of faith to plow forward nonetheless and seek G-d from amidst the concealment. This is what it means when it says, "pairing people is as difficult as the splitting of the Red Sea" - it is a reference to the second zivug. Hence, in actuality she is his real soul-mate who he has already married in his previous gilgul and thus now, in this new gilgul, it is their second zivug. In other words, she herself is the first wife but it is the second time she is marrying him. This is why it does not say the "second soul-mate" (zivug sheinis) but rather the "second-time pairing" (zivug sheini). The former would refer to a different wife and not the same woman herself. Thus, it can happen that a man can marry a woman quickly and without any difficulty or argument. Yet, another man may fight the entire time with his future wife until marriage, after which time there is finally peace, proving that she is indeed his soul-mate, but that it was the second zivug. Only had there been no peace after marriage could we assume that she is not his zivug. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Men, Not Women, Reincarnate
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty, Section 2 As we have said earlier, principally the concept of Gilgul applies to men and not to women, since the latter are punishable in Purgatory in the World-to-Come, which is not the case for men who learn Torah. (Shmuel says: This is the secret "revealed with Me" (Deut. 32:34) regarding the verse, "Behold, G-d does all these things with man two or three times" (Job 33:29); it is the secret of gilgul as it says "with man," that is with man and not with woman.) The secret of gilgul is the letter vav The reason is because the secret of gilgul is the letter vav, which hints to the six [spiritual] extremities [chesed, gevura, tiferet, netzach, hod, yesod].

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They are the source above of the six directions below. The form of the letter vav is as a line from top to bottom. This represents its connecting quality. it is also a prefix used to mean 'and'. It relates to gilgul to show that all of the souls' lifetimes are interconnected and are actually an unfolding process of its abilities. It also teaches partly why there is reincarnation; why one lifetime isn't enough: to allow the soul to span all of creation in its relationship to its Maker. And so one incarnation the souls expresses a primarily chesed link (of love) above and to fellows. Another lifetime features a predominant gevura link (of fear)... with respect to which it says, "Six years shall you work" (Ex. 21:2), as mentioned in the Zohar (Zohar III Pinchas 215b). The 'work' of the verse refers to the soul's labor of rectifying itself and the world through elevating the fallen sparks. The letter yud hints to galgal [wheel]. (Says Shmuel: It seems to me that the yud referred to here is the last letter of the name, ADNY (65). Therefore GLGL/galgal, which has a gematria of 66, equals this name with the kollel.) With the letter vav it becomes GLGVL/gilgul. 'The wheel of life' circles from death to life and vise versa. 'The wheel of life' circles from death to life and vise versa. The form of yud is a dot, which is conceptually a circle. The name ADNY enlivens malchut (At.Ch.Sh.HaShms), the last sefira that they all lead to. It in turn ascends back up in a circle to bind with keter, the highest sefira. This is an expression of the wheel of life within the sefirot. From this actually comes the wheel that we orbit in. The general idea behind this is that the soul toils through conceptual years of work, just as a slave labors six years. Through this it eventually reaches malchut – where the buck stops. Therefore is it and the slave freed in the sabbatical. For malchut ascends to keter, the source of infinity and freedom... Sh’vi’it [the sabbatical year] however, corresponds to malchut and is thus feminine, and therefore does not reincarnate, as it says, "In the Seventh Year he shall go out for free" (Ex. 21:2). The vav of gilgul alludes to the six sefirot of Zeir Anpin, the masculine partzuf. Therefore,

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it is also an allusion to the fact that only men come back in gilgul. Nevertheless, sometimes a woman will reincarnate for the sake of her husband who must reincarnate, as mentioned in Saba of Mishpatim on the verse, "If he was married then his wife will go out with him" (Ex. 21:3). [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Wives, Brothers, & Friends
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty, Section 3 A talmid chacham who stood out in his generation because of his wisdom but sinned and reincarnated, there are certain types of sins1 for which his wisdom will be hidden and not recognizable at all in the next gilgul. Similarly, all those who learn Torah in this generation are on the level of the generation of the wilderness, with respect to whom it says, "As in the days of leaving Egypt I will show you wonders" (Michah 7:15), alluded to in the verse, "Behold, you shall die with your fathers and this people will rise up" (Deut. 31:16). This last verse was said by Moses, the soul root of all the people in the wilderness. The juxtaposition of "this people shall rise up" to his death hints to the returning of his and their souls to coming generations in gilgul. Moses brought the Torah to the world. His entire generation was centered on Torah learning. (Zohar) They are therefore called 'the generation of knowledge'. In general, in each succeeding generation, those who fully devote themselves to learning share their soul root.2 Their wives will dominate them since originally when the Mixed Multitude [that came out of Egypt with the Jews] made the golden calf, these men did not protest. (Ex. 32:3) The women, however, did not want to give their gold earrings to build the calf. (Midrash Raba on Ex. 32:2) They therefore now dominate their husbands. If two souls from the same root reincarnate into co-existing brothers or friends, then the two of them will be inclined to hate each other and fight, though they may not know why. "Even though they don’t see, their mazel does", Even though we may not be consciously aware of our spiritual realities, on some level we can sense such things through something called mazel (Meg. 3a) - the guardian angel that accompanies each person. (Rashi Baba Kama) and each will want to draw from the root more than his spiritual counterpart, so they will

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find themselves jealous of each other. However, if through Divine inspiration they would see that they come from the same root, then they would come to love one another even though they live at the same time. As we find by David and Saul, that there was strife between them, even they came from the same root. (See Likutei Maharan) Yet David cared very deeply about Saul. However, the souls of righteous people who have already died greatly desire to rectify and bring completion to the souls of people living in this world who come from their root. For there is nothing more they can do to become even more complete, so jealousy is irrelevant, as the verse says, "For, there is no deed nor planning... in the grave to which you are going" (Eccl. 9:10). Quite the contrary, there is great benefit for them in the good deeds performed by living people who share their root. In order to ascend spiritually, it is necessary to descend. (Likutei Maharan II 12) However, once one leaves the world, there is no free will and nothing to bring one down. It requires a certain going down for a soul in the next world to relate to the living. They are very happy to do this, for it facilitates a special degree of elevation. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Rectification, Moses, Generation of the desert, & Mashiach
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty, Section 4 We have already mentioned that as a result of the sin of Cain and Abel, the souls became mixed into the kelipot and that this is called, 'the mixture of good and evil'. From that time onward, the souls have been undergoing a process of birur from within the kelipot, just as silver is smelted from the dregs. This process will continue until all the souls that fell into the 248 limbs of 'Adam HaBliya'al'1 ['the despicable man'] are separated out from the full length of its being, which is until the bottom of 'Adam d’Kedusha' ['the man of holiness'] which overlaps with the legs of Adam d’Kelipa 2 ['the man of the husks']. This is hinted to in the Zohar. (Pekudei) Until the "feet [of the sitra achra are elevated to] reach the [level of the] feet [of kedusha]", as it is written, "On that day, his feet will stand on the Mount of Olives..." (Zachariah 14:4). The souls fell all the way down to the feet of the sitra achra. When they are all purified, elevated, and extracted from the kelipot., the 'feet' of the sitra achra will stand 'head and shoulders with the side of kedusha.

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This happens through the concept of 'olives', which kabala associates with wisdom, the source power that lifts up the sparks. "They are all elevated through wisdom,"(Zohar) through the elevating 'mountain' energy, as we find that the Torah was given specifically on a mountain (Midrash). Once the separation of all the souls has been completed, Adam d’kelipa, the spiritual dregs which is only removed through [good] deeds, will collapse on its own and be absorbed to the point of "bal yira’eh" ["not to be seen"] and "bal yimatzeh" ["not to be found"]. These terms refer to the Pesach law of ridding oneself completely of all leavening which causes the dough to rise and is attributed to represent the rising of the ego, the root dynamic of the sitra achra (Tanya). It must be eradicated to the point of "not being seen" and "not being found" within the heart. This vanquishes the kelipot from the world. For holiness is the life [energy] that results from separating from spiritual impurity which is called death. Therefore, they will no longer have any life and will disappear like smoke, as it says, "Bila hamaves lanetsach [Death will be swallowed forever]" (Isaiah 25:8). But this will not be until all of the souls are separated out. The first letters of each word, combined together spell HBL – Hevel, Abel's Hebrew name. Abel is Moses, who reincarnates into every generation to separate out the souls from amongst the spiritual dregs. The acronym alludes to the fact that only when all of his incarnations are complete will the Mashiach come and death be swallowed forever. Now you can understand the meaning of, "Behold, you shall die with your fathers, and this people will rise up" (Deut. 31:16), which is considered one of the verses that has no apparent clarity as to which way to be interpreted. (Yoma 56a) However, it can be explained with the words "rise up" referring to that which comes before and after them, and really both explanations are true. The way the words "rise up" appear in the verse they can either refer to Moses, who will lay down with his fathers and once again rise up, or to the people who will rise up after he has died. This is why the Talmud has difficulty interpreting this verse definitively. The Ari shows how both interpretations are intended and true. For in the future Moses himself will reincarnate and return to the last generation. As it says, "you will die with your fathers and rise up". However, in the final generation, the "generation of the desert" will also reincarnate with the Mixed Multitude. And this is also said by the verse, "this people will rise up." Hence, there is not a single generation in which Moses does not return. In the secret meaning of, "The sun [i.e. the shining of the soul] rises [i.e. is born] and the sun sets [i.e. dies]" (Eccl. 1:5) and, "A generation goes and another [i.e. however the same souls] comes [back]" (Eccl. 1:4) - in

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order to rectify that generation. Thus, the generation of the desert along with the Mixed Multitude reincarnate in the final generation, [hinted to by] "as in the days of leaving Egypt" (Michah 7:15). Moses as well will arise among them, since they are all from the secret of da’at: Moses, generation of the desert, and the Mixed Multitude, as we explained in [our commentary on the Torah portion] Shemot.3 This is why the verse concludes, "to where they go there" which has the letters: MShH [Moses, in Hebrew 'Mosheh'], since Moses will reincarnate with them. This is the secret why in that generation every Torah scholar will be dominated by his wife. They are from the generation of the desert, and the wives did not give their earrings for the [golden] calf while the men did and sinned. (Shmuel says: We wrote about this earlier.) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Redeeming Good
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty, Section 5 Know that as a result of Adam’s sin, good and evil became intermixed. Therefore, sometimes a little of the good of the Nefesh of a righteous person can be in an evil person, and a little evil can be found in the righteous person. This is the meaning of, "There are some righteous people who are reached by [can perform] acts of the wicked" (Eccl. 8:14). Thus you find some righteous people who sin in ways that even evil people do not, and just the opposite: evil people can be particular about specific mitzvahs all of their lives. You find some righteous people who sin in ways that even evil people do not. From this you can also understand the concept of a 'tzaddik gamur' [a completely righteous person], 'rasha gamur' [a completely evil person], and 'beinoni' [an average person.] Each one is the product of a different combination of good sparks and bad sparks. This is no contradiction to free will. It only comes to explain people's tendencies. The final choice of one's spiritual status always remains with the person. Furthermore, the way in which one transgresses or performs mitzvahs will also depend upon the level of the sparks he has received, from which limb [of the inclusive soul of Adam] they have came, and whether or not they are good or evil. This will affect a person’s desire to perform mitzvahs and can explain why they pursue

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mitzvahs more than other people. Thus, the Sefer HaBahir insists that a person pursue the guilty in order to find merit for them1, like one who runs after [saving] his own life. This is because the evil person, whom the righteous person pursues to find merit, may possess good sparks that the righteous person lacks, while he himself may have received the evil person’s bad sparks. However, through a loving relationship, he [the righteous person] can extract the good sparks from him and achieve completion, while giving away the bad sparks and completing the other's evil. This is the secret meaning of, "The righteous person takes his portion and that of his friend in the Garden of Eden; the wicked one takes his portion and that of his friend in Purgatory". (Chagigah 15a) Who could be your enemy when one is supposed to love everyone? This is also the meaning of, "If your enemy is hungry, feed him bread" (Proverbs 25:21), for it says, "When you see the donkey of your enemy" (Ex. 23:5). [Who could be your enemy when one is supposed to love everyone? Hence] it must be referring to an evil person who hates God, as it says, "Those who hate You G-d, I hate" (Psalms 139:21). Yet it says, "If your enemy is hungry, feed him bread." Thus it means, for the sake of the good spark that is in him which drives him to do good, feed him the bread of Torah and mitzvahs and cause him merit. For the "coals," that is the bad sparks within you, which you "pour on his head" (Proverbs 25:21) by joining with him - they will [thereby be] removed from you. The tsadik magnetizes the spark by feeding it good. The tsadik has to retrieve the sparks that really belong to his soul. Yet how can he extract the little good found in a wicked person and leave him empty? The Ari says, "for the sake of the good spark that is in him which drives him to do good, feed him the bread of Torah and mitzvahs and cause him merit". The tsadik magnetizes the spark by feeding it good. Even though he takes it away, he gives other sparks to the wicked person in its place. This can result in inspiring him to turn over a new leaf. (See Likutei Maharan 282) This is also like what is written, "The goat shall bear all the sins upon it into a desolate land" (Lev. 16:22). That is, the good sparks in it shall be removed and G-d shall repay them to you and make you completely good and him completely evil.2 For, as the sages say, "Don’t read ‘repay you,’ but rather ‘He will complete you’". For God, since He is good, will not mention His Name in conjunction with the wicked, as it says, "through the coals of fire that you pour on his head" (Proverbs 25:21). However, with respect to good, He will mention His Name, as it says, "G-d will repay you" (Ibid.) - because he does this good. Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, is set aside for forgiveness. Part of the way it works is through this that God looks at the good and judges in the scale of merit. He reckons that all of the sins really don't come from us, rather from the evil inclination, represented by the goat. He bears all the sins (Lev. 16:22) and is send away, to be pushed down the mountain. All the sins are thereby dissolved.

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[Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Foundation of Teshuvah
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-One, Section 1 Teshuvah is a function of Imma and gilgul is a function of Abba.1 Therefore, anyone who sins and does teshuvah, Imma Ila’a [Supernal Imma] - which is called teshuvah rectifies the blemish, which is sufficient. If he does not do teshuvah, then he will have to reincarnate to rectify his sins. However, if he does not do teshuvah, then he will have to reincarnate to rectify his sins, a function of Abba which is called 'machshava' [thought].2 With respect to this it says, "He thinks thoughts [devises means, in Hebrew, 'choshaiv machshavot'] so that he who is banished is not cast away from Him." (Samuel II 14:14), since by bringing him back in gilgul he rectifies his transgression. The point is that G-d in His love is so concerned about fixing the soul that He always provides a means for its repair. The best thing is if one takes the initiative to fix himself through teshuvah. If not, Providence still steps in and shuffles the life-cycle. This requires an even greater juggling of destiny than if one repents. Therefore, it comes from Abba, a higher source than Imma.3 We will now explain the concept of teshuvah, since we already began in chapter six discussing the steps of teshuvah, of which there are eight. However, here we will discuss it in another manner, and in the process explain the statement of Rabbi Matya ben Cheresh in the last chapter of Yoma (86a), regarding the four divisions of atonement: One who transgresses a positive mitzvah and repents, etc. In general, TShVShH/teshuvah means 'TShVSh-H/teshuv-hei' [restore hei].4 (Zohar) For, as is well known, man incorporates all the worlds. Even though he may not presently merit all of them - perhaps only the nefesh of Asiya - still, he is created with the potential to achieve all of them through his actions - all those [levels] that [become] dependent upon him [as he grows]. According to his actions, he can achieve either Yetzira, Beriya, or, Atzilut. This is the secret of the verse, "He creates the ruach of man within him" (Zachariah 12:1). As the Midrash says, "The nefesh of a person grows while it is within him". The soul of a person grows while it is within him. A person needs to train and educate himself in order to literally raise his own spirit. "Train a child according to his way" (Proverbs 24:6). One needs to learn the nature of his soul and

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what speaks to it. This means uplifting the soul in the manner that works for it. For some this means increased self-discipline. For others it means to ease up and increase patience. At times both are necessary at the same time. Prayer is imperative to help call the shot and know at each time what will be productive and conducive to growth. It all depends upon this idea of ‘tashuv H [restore hei]’: Restore malchut to G-d, the true King of Kings. Self-awareness comes from malchut. The ego separates the self from God. Repentance means realizing that its not me – it's all G-d. This restores the soul to its source in Divinity. However, there is a great difference between one who merits one level as opposed to another level, and this leads to another principle: The nefesh of a person includes 248 limbs and 365 tendons, as does the ruach and neshama. When a person sins he causes blemish to the limbs of his nefesh or ruach or neshama. This gives reason to always be careful what one does with his limbs in all actions. Whatever happens below so causes the parallel to happen above. (Zohar II Teruma) Moreover, the state of the body by the revival of the dead is determined by what one does here while alive. If someone defected in a limb it will be incomplete in the next world. (Mishne Berura Introduction) For example, one who withheld his hand from giving charity might get up from the grave handless. A general precautionary remedy is to always be giving and loving.5 The extent of his sin will depend upon what he has thus far achieved: if he has only his nefesh then he will blemish the nefesh, if ruach then ruach, if neshamah then neshamah. So, according to the greatness of a person’s nefesh is the strength of a person’s evil inclination. As the Talmud says, "Anyone who is greater than his friend his evil inclination is [accordingly] greater."(Sukka 52b) Anyone who is greater than his friend - his evil inclination is greater. Therefore, it is not at all surprising if at times great people seem to fall into terrible things. Rabbi Nachman states that the public is mistaken in certain issues. For one, they think that a tzadik cannot make a mistake. And if for some reason he does, he is not anymore a tzadik… The truth is, "The bigger they are, the higher they fall." "The purpose of descent is for ascent." (Ba'al Shem Tov) "Seven [times] falls the tzadik and gets up." (Proverbs 24:16). Were it not that he fell he would not have gotten up. One who gets up after stumbling stands up stronger than he did before. The reason is because G-d made a counterpart for everything, and therefore just as there is ABY"A on the side of holiness so too is there on the side of the kelipot as well. This is the secret of, "The wicked one watches for the righteous" (Psalms 37:32) - because he wants to

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mimic the side of holiness, like a monkey does a man. The as-if equal aligning of the sitra achra opposite the kedusha preserves the necessary balance of free will. (See Likutei Moharan II 11) One is alerted not to follow the impersonation, rather to constantly look for the real thing. The Zohar provides the monkey parable to describe the whole workings of the sitra achra. Realizing this, one is alerted not to follow the impersonation, rather to constantly look for the real thing. (Likutei Moharan) In simple terms, the heart is to always look for the honor of God, in every thought/word/deed - and not for the honor of the ego. (Likutei Moharan 6) Rabbi Elchonon Wasserman used to say that Darwin was only able to entertain his theory because he never saw a real tzadik. For if he had, he would have experienced the real truth of how the true plateau of man is so far above, aloof, and removed from even the most sophisticated similar animal that there is no place for any supposition that he comes from it. Nonetheless, every falsity must contain some light and have some source in truth. (Midrash Raba) The order of the supernal worlds is arranged in an order of the evolution principle. One level is as if born and evolving from the level above it. They so develop and progress coming to a climax in this world.6 The chained cascading downward order of rungs features the inner Divine light clothed more and more as it descends. The final product is this world of dense physicality. It is rock bottom where the buck stops. It becomes the arena for free will. The stage is set for man to reverse direction and ascend back up through the worlds. The Torah is God’s prescribed formula for "reverse evolution." It guides a person step by step to ascend to higher and higher levels of revelation of Divinity. The material nature thereby becomes elevated and cleansed. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Causing Defect to the Name of G-d
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-One, Section 2 Now you can appreciate the impact of Adam’s sin, which caused destruction and blemish in all the worlds for all generations. It is based upon what we have said, that according to the greatness of the soul is the extent of the damage. Adam’s sin caused destruction and blemish in all the worlds for all generations. Therefore, a 'light' sin by completely righteous and pious people, such as Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai, is considered as severe as many sins by another person. Thus, one who only

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possesses nefesh of Asiya can only cause damage to Asiya, since that is as far as his hand can reach. Therefore, he only has to do teshuvah on the level of Asiya, since that is all he damaged. The example of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai is specific. For one, he is one of the outstanding characters of the grand root of Cain, which is an underlying theme of this whole compilation [Gates of Reincarnation]. Furthermore, an intrinsic quality of this root is to sometimes seem very pious and yet be quite the opposite.1 Also, Rabbi Yochanan was known to be entirely righteous, yet he is reported as having approached death with great trepidation, not being sure if he would thereafter be led to Heaven or to Purgatory. (Berachot 28b) The reason is here explained: According to his towering plateau - even a small defect is considered serious. According to his towering plateau - even a small defect is considered serious. What comes out of this is that one must constantly scrutinize his actions. (See Mesilot Yesharim, 'Zehirut') If ascending causes you to be put under a microscope and subject to rigid standards (Yevamot 121b), why try at all?! The answer is that the benefits of the ascent are well worth it. The higher you go, the higher state of consciousness you achieve. We have already spoken about how the four letters of Havayah divide into four worlds ABY"A, and that each letter divides again. The letter yud corresponds to Atzilut and [links] to the expansion of YHVH that equals 72 [YVD HY VYV HY]. The letter hei corresponds to Beriya and [aligns with the expansion that] equals 63 [YVD HY VAV HY]. The vav corresponds to Yetzira and [associates with the expansion that] equals 45 [YVD HA VAV HA]. The [final] hei corresponds to Asiya and [connects to the expansion that] equals 52 [YVD HH VV HH]. G-d enlivens everything by way of His Names. "G-d and His Name are One" (Zachariah 14:9). "And You enliven them all" (Hagiga). G-d enlivens everything by way of His Names. YHVH is the central Name. It literally means ‘Existence Giver’. Its varied expansions are the batteries for all the worlds. And it does not stop at this. Each detail within each world derives its life-force from the expansions. In short - from the most colossal macrocosmic to the most infinitesimal microcosmic - all of reality derives its actuality from the Infinite Light clothed in the worlds via the medium2 of the Names. The light dons the Names and is one with them. (Tanya) Therefore, by calling God through them His light is drawn and manifest to a person. Just as by calling a person his attention is drawn. (Likutei Moharan 56:3) The worlds dividing out into YHVH, with all of their details, is aligned according to the root archetype source format of the supernal Divine Chariot. It has four sides, with four angels flanking them. "Each angel has four-faces, each face has four wings3 unto itself."

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(Ezekiel 1:6) So the Names branch out, expand, and cascade to being a root above for every single bit of reality below. This means that whatever anyone is doing at any given moment in any place in any situation is all sourced in complex combinations of the Divine Name infrastructure. (Likutei Moharan 6, end) To better grasp the idea of how and what Names do what: Different pies have different filling. Even if they have the same base, the taste and effect vary according to the filling. So the grand intrinsic Name YHVH is the basis of existence. Its manifestation in each part of existence varies according to how it is ‘filled’, otherwise called its expansions. ‘Yud-filling’ is quite delicious and is the highest of expansions. ‘Yud-filling’ is quite delicious and is the highest of expansions. Yud was used to create the world-to-come because of its lofty root. It so is always used for filling of the expansion that enlivens the highest of worlds/levels. Aleph is next in line. Last is hei. (Shaaar HaKavanot Pesach) The Name YVD HY VYV HY-A"B/72 is filled with yud's and so enlivens the highest world Atzilut. Beriya the world beneath is powered by YVD HY VAV HY-S"G/63. Two of its letters are filled with yud, but one is filled with aleph, denoting a descent in the intensity of Divinity from the realm above it. Yetzira is the next world down and is energized by YVD HA VAV HA-M"H/45. All its letters feature aleph-filling. Last on the rung is Asiya, which fueled by YVD HH VV HH-B"N/52 – hei's. In every case, there are filling letters that are constantly the same, but the quality of the name is determined by the ones that are subject to change. (Eitz Chayim, Shaar Otzrot Chaim) But if the very base of the pie is changed, all the more so is it different. There are infinite Names through which the Divine light expresses and runs the world. They all draw from the basic theme of YHVH/Existence-Giver, but each with its own nuance. For example, the Name EHYH. It means "I will be" and is the special existence-giving power of selfrenewal. (Zohar, Likutei Moharan 6) Meditating on it draws on the soul revitalization, rejuvenation, and the power to change… Therefore if a person damages all four worlds it is as if he damages the great Name! This is the secret of the verse, "They went out and saw the carcasses of those who sinned in Me" (Isaiah 66:24). That is literally against My name - each one according to the level of his soul, as explained. Picturing the letters can stir to take inventory and repair. Elsewhere, the Ari explains that when one meditates on YHVH and has a problem in depicting the Name, it is a sign that he has caused defect in that letter by committing a sin

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that damaged that level. (Etz Chayim, Shaar Ruach Hakodesh) It so serves as a type of check to trouble-shoot spiritual defects. All sins affect all of the letters, but each one is primarily rooted in one of letters. Picturing the letters can stir to take inventory and repair. "His Name partners with our name." (Midrash) "‘Living-soul’ is its name" (Gen. 2:19). One receives their allotted portion of manifest Divinity and life-force by way of his name. According to how one affects God’s names by his actions, so is his own name a receptacle for the flow from above. Hence, when a person does teshuvah he rectifies His great name - all four letters. This is the secret of the ‘four divisions of atonement’ and the teshuvah for four types of sins. For four [types of] sins cause damage to the four letters of Havayah, and the four kinds of teshuvah and atonement rectify the four letters of Havayah. As mentioned, any given mistake causes damage in the Names. But there are certain transgressions that are primary and as if roots for all the others that disturb a letter. All types of forgiveness come from the four grand letters. They divide and group in the four progressive categories that come from them. Learning their workings helps provide guidelines and a path of self-rectification. What comes out is that one can fix everything. Revelation of the Name is then able to manifest and shine to the self. From this comes expanded consciousness. (Likutei Moharan II 67) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Four Levels of Shechina in Exile
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-One, Section 3 Having said this, we will explain what it means when it says: "If a person violated a positive mitzvah [and repents], he does not move without being forgiven." (Yoma 86a) However, before explaining this, we must first return to the idea that teshuvah means 'teshuv-hei' [returning the letter hei]1 and the four divisions of teshuvah. To begin with, sometimes the world of Asiya - which corresponds to the bottom hei descends to the first three sefirot [upper triad] of the kelipot. This concept is called galut [of the] Shechina . The letters of the tetragrammaton branch into the sefirot. The final hei associates with malchut, the sefira of the Shechina - the revelation of G-d's Presence as King of His world. If the sin is more serious, the person can cause Asiya to go down as far as the three

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middle sefirot of the kelipot, and if more severe, then as far as the three that follow. If the sin is even more serious, Asiya can descend to the 'malchut harashah' [evil kingdom], the tenth sefira of the kelipot. These are the four levels to which the Shechina/Asiya can go into exile within the kelipot. The last defect is what gives rulership to the kingdom of the other side. Although the other lesser defects still contribute to the cause. One may decide to go on a diet, but find himself violating it. Often a person finds it hard to control himself. One may decide to go on a diet, but find himself violating it. This comes from the lower, subsidiary parts of the self rebelling and taking command in place of listening to the mind. The general principle is that repentance really fixes. One who repents automatically usurps the rebels and puts them in their place. He will merit to Divine honor resting upon him that no one will even question him. (Likutei Moharan 6) Learning Torah empowers the true kingship. It strengthens the good inclination and automatically the evil kingdom falls. (Likutei Moharan 1) It is a path to re-instating the true self to its royal regal reign over the being. Therefore was the prayer enacted, thrice a day: "Restore us oh Father to Your Torah, and draw us close to Your service - and bring us (thereby) back to You in perfect repentance." (Daily Amida prayer) Rabbi Nachman emphasizes that if even the worst person would set for themselves an established time to learn Torah every day, it would bring them out of the most terrible habits and liberate them to make complete self-improvement. (Sichot HaRan) However, someone who causes defect to Yetzira, Beriya, or Atzilut does not cause them to go down into the kelipot since the kelipot are lower than the world of Asiya. Instead, Yetzira descends to the world of Asiya, to the level of the first three sefirot, then to the middle three sefirot, and after that to the three sefirot beneath these - finally to malchut of Asiya. These are the four levels to which Yetzira can descend within Asiya. They are called the 'exile of Yetzira', since it went from a higher level of holiness to a lesser one. They are called the 'exile of Yetzira.' Exile is a relative state of death. (Hachinuch) One who descends from his level as if dies. (Zohar III Naso Idra Raba) In the same manner, Beriya can descend four levels within Yetzira which is called 'galut [of] Beriya'. Atzilut can descend to Beriya, which is called 'galut [of] Atzilut'. The four categories of levels themselves that we mentioned are [all generally] called galut [of the] Shechina. The concept of ‘Shechina’ is the concentrated root revelation of Divinity. It finds expression in each realm according to its parameters. It can so accordingly be conceptually in a state of exile within each realm. The ‘descent’ means either a lessening of the intensity

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of the concentration of Shechina light, or complete hiding. The principle that emerges is that there are four categories, and each contains four types that is four worlds and correspondingly four general types of teshuvah. Within each world there are also four specific types of teshuvah. We will now explain the first one, and from it explain four others. They all correspond to the four expansions in each world unto itself. According to what a person does, so does he draw upon himself the Divine Names. (Likutei Moharan 6, end) Also, each world is composed of four major quadrants, which branch out from the Names: The world itself, chambers within it, angels, and souls. (Eitz Chayim) To begin with, when the Talmud writes, "When a person transgresses a positive mitzvah and then returns [does teshuvah] etc." it is talking about if he damaged Asiya. When he repents he is immediately forgiven. For by transgressing a positive mitzvah he causes hei/malchut of Asiya to descend and separate from tiferet, making it to only descend to the first three of the kelipot. Transgressing a positive commandment...causes a lack of light in the worlds. ‘Transgressing’ a positive commandment refers to a lack of doing something.2 This causes a lack of light in the worlds. Like someone who didn’t make lunch, leaving the family deprived of nourishment. This lack is not as bad as actually getting up and damaging something, like someone who demolishes the family’s house. The damage caused by lack is generally the least and only causes problems in the lowest of worlds. This needs to be understood, for Nachmanides teaches that the main acquiring of perfection is through doing the positive commandments, whereas the idea behind the prohibitions is to simply protect one’s level? Indeed both are true. When looking at what actually elevates a person, the positive commandments are primary. However, in terms of our discussion about one who violated the precepts, the damage caused by transgressing prohibitions is worse. And this itself is the reason why the whole premise behind them is protection. One who is in a state of self-nullification...has no bounds. One who does something, no matter how much he does, can only do what he can do - and no more. A creature of limitation can so only do so much, whereas in the aspect of passive nothingness, there are no limitations. One who is in a state of self-nullification can so relate to and draw upon limitless energies that expand to eternity - for he has no bounds. Yet the main acquiring of completion is through the positive commandments. Guarding the prohibitions grants connection to levels of limitlessness that cannot be accessed except through negation. But actual light is drawn to the soul and the universe through getting up

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and fulfilling the positive precepts. The 248 positive commandments associate with "My remembrance" and VH, the letters from which come the lower seven sefirot. The 365 prohibitions correspond to "My Name" and YH, the source of the upper sefirot. Doing mitzvot draws light to the lower sefirot and sustains the world. Refraining from doing bad attaches the soul to the higher reality. In terms of repentance, the damage done by transgressing a negative commandment is repairable through teshuvah - just as a repair man can come and fix things. But what about the light that was not drawn down through the lacking of positive action - how can that ever be fixed? Rabbi Shneur Zalman explains that this is idea of the Zohar’s teaching about penitents: "That they draw it [the light] with extra power." This means that they can actually ascend to draw from the Infinite being Who sends a new ray/line/thread of His Divine light into the empty vacuum. They so can fix everything.3 What comes out is that each has its own advantage. It is important to note that one can only be considered as having ‘fulfilled’ a prohibition if it comes to his hand to transgress it. If he then withstands the test, it counts to his credit as if having ‘done’ the negative command.(Talmud) It is easy to repent and become immediately rectified. Hence, it is easy to repent and become immediately rectified. For as is known, the first three sefirot of the kelipot can also transform to holiness. Which is the secret of what the Sages say, "The Jordan [river] also takes from this one and gives to another." (Baba Metziya 22a) The Talmud is talking about how a river can cause one person’s property to go to another by washing it off shore and down the river. This is used as an analogy for the top three sefirot of the kelipot being brought over to the side of holiness. Heaven causes this to happen because it is revealed above that for some reason the property really belongs to the new party. And so, relatively, it is considered to be brought out of the kelipot - the supposed ‘owner’, and transferred to holiness - the rightful owner. Therefore he can immediately return in teshuvah and malchut can ascend to its place and rejoin tiferet. This is called teshuvah - tashuv-hei. This is the first level within Asiya. In the parable of the Zohar, this is akin to restoring an estranged, captive wife to her husband. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Levels of Teshuvah
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-One, Section 4a The second level within Asiya is when tiferet becomes disconnected from bina as well, in a way that causes Asiya to descend to the first three sefirot of the kelipot. It is caused by the transgression of a positive mitzvah. This teshuvah is also called teshuv-hei, since it causes the lower hei/malchut to be reconnected to the upper hei/bina – [in turn] allowing tiferet to ascend as well. The third level with respect to Asiya is when a person transgresses a positive mitzvah in such a way as to damage bina and cause it to descend, [thereby causing] Asiya to descend to the last three sefirot of the kelipot. When he repents, it is also considered tashuv-hei, since teshuvah is from bina and its [power] goes down [and extends] until malchut. Then malchut and tiferet will return [together], for bina descending causes them to join, and this [itself] is teshuvah. Bride and groom unite under a chupah. They embody tiferet and malchut. The light of bina descends to engulf and unite them. (Tefilat Kol HaShanah, Drushin LiChatanah) It is clothed in the chupah that is used for the marriage ceremony. In order for opposites to unite, an energy that transcends them both must be drawn. In order for opposites to unite, an energy that transcends them both must be drawn. (Likutei Torah, Baal HaTanya) This is part of the reason why teshuvah comes from bina, the eighth sefira, the transcending force of this universe of seven days/directions.1 The fourth level is when a person transgresses a positive mitzvah in such a way as to damage chochma, causing it to separate from keter. When such a person repents it is also teshuvah/tashuv-hei, since he causes the upper hei to return to keter, at which time chochma will ascend with it. We have now explained the first division of atonement. One example of this is when someone learns Torah in manner of amassing data without reverence for G-d. "The Torah comes out from chochma." (Zohar) This means the place from which it is revealed. But its hidden source is keter. In order to access the true light of the Torah, one must draw from these places. This involves learning with reverence for G-d and also that the learning experience be geared to be an uplifting of consciousness. This concept poignantly expresses what is considered to be an underlying cause of the

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desolation of the land of Israel after the destruction of the first Temple. "‘So says G-d, because they abandoned My Torah…’ [This means that] they did not bless on the Torah first [before their Torah learning]." (Nedarim 81a) It is the blessing on the Torah that draws from keter, the first of levels, into chochma. The word brachah literally means a fountain of the light of the Infinite One shining into chochma. One who does not do this lacks the fulfillment of the root of the positive commandments. This is the idea behind the fourth level of not doing a positive commandment. The second division of atonement is when a person violates a negative mitzvah, for which his teshuvah is 'suspended' [does not evoke immediate forgiveness], and so for which Yom Kippur must atone. This is because the person sinned and damaged Yetzira, specifically the level of tiferet, causing malchut to separate, as well as the six sefirot of Yetzira. His simple repentance only reaches to malchut and therefore he needs the engine of Yom Kippur to fuel and propel his teshuvah up to repair Yetzira. It is important to note that there are deeper degrees of teshuvah that indeed by themselves ascend to Yetzirah and even above, to mend. This applies to the following divisions of atonement that require other things with teshuvah to repair. The deeper one digs in his heart to return to G-d, the greater the velocity and the higher the teshuvah will reach. The deeper one digs in his heart to return to G-d, the greater the velocity and the higher the teshuvah will reach. Therefore, "nothing stands before teshuvah". (Yerushalmi Pe'ah, Chapter 1) The underlying idea is that the common denominator of bina and teshuvah both draw from bina. As mentioned, teshuvah is the grand transcending energy of existence. The secret of its power to repair is that it is the pure, pristine, untainted source in the universe. Anything can so be fixed by harnessing this amazing energy. The only issue is how much of this energy needs to be drawn to fix a specific mistake. The greater the mistake, the more needs to be drawn, as we find in actual cases of those who did the worst things and repaired everything through teshuvah. ( Avodah Zara, Gittin) When this person repents, then malchut returns to its place in the secret of teshuvah/tashuv-hei. However, regarding the six sefirot, a void remains among them, and though it [malchut] wants to rise and bond with them, it cannot and will not be able to until the light of Beriya [bina] comes, which is called 'Yom Kippur'. This is what is meant by, "his teshuvah is suspended and Yom Kippur atones." "A day one repents is above time...and so is Yom Kippur above time." (Likutei Moharan) Once someone did something and etched it into reality, how can they possibly change it? It must be that the power of repentance draws from a higher reality. And so the Sages teach,

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"Teshuvah preceded the world". (Breishit Raba 1:4) Coming from a deeper dimension, it affords the ability to enter the master booth and edit the film of Life. In order to access this awesome power, one must go to a deeper dimension of the self. Change in such a place evokes a tremor of change in the depths of existence/reality. Within this level, there are also the four levels we mentioned with respect to Asiya, except that all of them are in the secret of Yetzira descending into Asiya and not into the kelipot. The third level of atonement is when a person commits a sin whose punishment is kareit [excision]2, which blemishes Beriya. KRT/kareit comes from KTR/keter - for its damage reaches to there, and from there the person is cut off. Perhaps here things are being said in relative terms. For the Ari here mentions the world of Beriya in terms of its association with chochma, and bina and Atzilut with keter, while elsewhere Beriya identifies with bina alone and Atzilut only with chochma. The effect of chillul Hashem is worse than that of sins involving kareit and is therefore described as reaching until keter. Kareit issues, which are not as bad, are described as coming to a notch lower, chochma and bina. This however doesn't mean to say that they have no line to keter also. The brit [covenant] God established with people is as if from His highest self3 - keter. Different mistakes cause different problems. Some do not go so deeply as to disturb the brit. There are however those that do. This is the idea of our category at hand. The brilliant light of keter becomes kareit. This is a prime example of how raw energy can be utilized either way.4 As seen from here, teshuvah helps even for such deep disturbances. When he repents, Yom Kippur is also [only able to] suspend [his atonement]. For tiferet and malchut cannot return to their places until suffering comes from Abba and Imma, which has the effect of purging sin. In the secret of, "YH [G-d] has much chastised me" (Psalms 118:18). "YH" refers to Abba and Imma. Also in the secret of "From the straits I called YH" (Psalms 118:5). From these come trouble and suffering. There are four levels here as well. As mentioned previously, the yud of G-d’s Name corresponds to Atzilut /chochma /Abba, the following hei corresponding to Beriya/bina/Imma. Chochma and bina, the eighth and ninth sefirot, transcend our world of seven days/directions from the seven lower sefirot. As said, the simple meaning of this is that the secret of how suffering actually fixes and is good comes from a source above this world. Suffering purges a person of sins that the lowest degree of teshuvah has not.

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Suffering purges a person of sins that the lowest degree of teshuvah has not. It is a function of Providence emanating from chochma and bina. As mentioned, it is important to note that the amount of suffering necessary for rectification all depends upon the degree of teshuvah; the greater the teshuvah, the less pain necessary to make repair. What do chochma and bina have to do with suffering? The world was created for love. (Psalms 81:3) There is nonetheless an opposite movement planted in the inner workings of the universe which is designed to ultimately bring about the greatest expression of love. One who made mistakes, damages and soils his soul and makes it unfit to receive this love. Suffering cleanses and restores the soul to its full fitness. Chochma and bina are the source mental faculties. The lower sefirot are the source of both the emotions and the time/space continuum. This means that from their perspective, ‘good’ and ‘bad’ are determined by what is experienced in the moment. In terms of the moment, suffering is felt as being not good. In order to appreciate the gift of good that it grants the soul, one needs to transcend the small limited picture of the moment. This is why the tikun of suffering is drawn from chochma and bina which transcend the moment/world/limited outlook. The fourth division of atonement is when a person commits 'chillul Hashem' [profanes the name of G-d], which has the effect of damaging Atzilut, also called the 'world of [eternal] life' - since there is no death there. Yet he caused[some aspect of] death in the world of life and eternity, and therefore his teshuvah and Yom Kippur suspend [punishment], since none of the three worlds can ascend there - until the day of his death, measure-for-measure. This [then] completely atones for him, and there are also four levels here. Dishonoring the Divine Name...shakes the foundations of existence. "All that I created - for My honor I created, formed - indeed made…" (Isaiah 43:7). Dishonoring the Divine Name does the opposite and shakes the foundations of existence. This is how it touches the untouchable place, Atzilut. Even though it is intrinsically a place of such pure high light no damage can affect it, chillul Hashem/ profanation of G-d's Name can at least masquerade to reach there because it is so serious a sin. The literal meaning of the word chillul comes from challal, literally meaning empty. Challal is also used to refer to a corpse, devoid of soul. The implication is very deep. This word is further associated with the concept of the challal hapanoi [empty vacuum], the original empty space that was made to facilitate reality. (Eitz Chaim, Likutei Moharan 49) A line of light was drawn into the vacuum; from it everything was made. As said, the purpose of this is for the Divine glory. Dishonor, as it were, cloaks and removes the shining of the line of light, leaving an ‘empty vacuum’, hence chillul Hashem.5 Now it can be understood why removing of the soul of one committed this sin repairs it. Measure for measure, he caused challal/vacuum above; therefore, the same happens to him. This however doesn't means to say that there are no other means of repair. The simplest

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alternative, which is actually sweet and easy, is for someone to increase in honoring and sanctifying G-d’s name. Give Him a good reputation in any and every way that you can; "that the Name of Heaven should become beloved through you." (Yoma 86:1) A deeper form of repair is through deep teshuvah. One who caused a concealment of the deepest aspect of Divinity needs to return to G-d from the deepest aspect of self. This involves teshuvah from great love and mesirut nefesh/self-sacrifice. Measure for measure, G-d reciprocates and restores his missing light and honor.6 Giving the deepest inner self evokes that level to come down from Above. Moreover, "great are repentants for they draw light with extra power". (Zohar) The light restored is actually greater than what was removed. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Three Different Kinds of Sin
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-One, Section 4b Now we will also explain the differences between cheit [iniquity], avon [transgression], and pesha [rebellious sin]. Pesha is when a person recognizes his Master, and yet rebels against Him to cause anger. Pesha is when a person recognizes his Master, and yet rebels against Him to cause anger. This causes the kelipot to take all of the ShPA/'shefa' [spiritual sustenance], which shares the same letters of PShA/'pesha' , except re-arranged. So the shefa does then not come down to the Jewish people at all. [It is 'rearranged' and given into the wrong hands - the sitra achra.] This comes from the Sefer Yetzira. It also mentions there ONG/oneg [delight] which permutates to NGO/nega [leprosy]. It is a great lesson in how ‘every man digs his own grave’. The same Divine flux granted to the person that could have been utilized for good and would have resulted in delight instead was used for bad and digs the person a grave of problems - relative states of death. Avon is when a person does whatever he wants, but not to anger G-d, but just to enjoy forbidden things he desires. This also causes the kelipot to take the shefa that flows down, except that after they take it they eventually return and leave a little of the shefa for us as well. This is the secret of exile [during which a minimum amount of spiritual sustenance makes it through]. The world was made from the Torah and for the sake of fulfilling it. One of the problems of exile is that it switches the proper order. The world was made from

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the Torah and for the sake of fulfilling it. The Divine flow then comes to its target audience on the side of holiness. The sitra achra receives afterwards and is subsidiary. This is the fitting order. If the sitra achra is as if on top and receives first, this gives it license to act as the main thing. When redemption comes everyone will see the truth and the king will be restored to his royal status and the servant to his place. This will help you to understand two statements of the Sages in the last chapter of Yoma (86b), the first being: "Great is teshuvah, for it transforms deliberate sins into accidental ones". This is talking about the level of sin called pesha, which causes the kelipot to take all the shefa for themselves. However, as a result of teshuvah, he can cause the kelipot to later surrender that shefa [back] to us. teshuvah can fix even such things. Measure for measure; if the person fully rebelled, he loses all his shefa. The discovery here is that teshuvah can fix even such things. The other opinion is that the deliberate transgressions become merits. This is talking about the level of avon, sins for the sake of fulfilling desires. When a person repents for such sins, he prevents the kelipot from taking any shefa at all, [And] even that which they originally took for themselves [is restored to holiness]. Teshuvah can go so far that even rebellious sins can be turned into actual merits. Of it says the Prophet, "I will heal their backslidings, I will love them freely" (Haggai), It is a Divine magic gift that can change and transform truckloads of mistakes into masses of good energy [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Rectification of the Wicked & the Righteous
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 1 Regarding the punishment in this world of the souls of wicked people, they have to reincarnate many times to rectify their sins, and there is almost no person who can avoid these gilgulim. After they die, the wicked enter Purgatory and receive punishment there to atone for their sins, and their judgment lasts twelve months. Their souls get pushed from gilgul to gilgul until their sins have been cleansed a little. There are wicked people of whom the verse says, "And may He hurl away the soul of

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you enemies as one shoots a stone from a slingshot" (Samuel I 25:29); they don’t yet merit to enter Purgatory after their deaths to cleanse their sins. Rather, their souls get pushed from gilgul to gilgul until their sins have been cleansed a little[, just enough] to allow them to enter Purgatory for twelve months to atone. There is no set time for this, sometimes they can continue in gilgulim for ten, one hundred, or even one thousand years - depending upon to what extent they sinned previously. Though Purgatory is not a place one looks forward to, once a person requires atonement it becomes a necessity. However, even to enter Purgatory one must not have slipped to too low a spiritual level because if he has, he will first require gilgulim to raise him to a level that can allow him to enter Purgatory and achieve his final atonement. However, righteous people and Torah scholars can never be affected by the fires of Purgatory, as it is written regarding Elisha: "He cannot be judged because of his involvement with Torah". (Chagiga 15b) Therefore, they need to reincarnate in this world to cleanse their sins for, "There is no righteous person in the world who does good and does not sin" (Eccl. 7:20). Torah-learning provides a special protection against the rectifying "flames" of Purgatory, which creates a problem for a Torah scholar in need of rectification. Therefore, he has no alternative but to complete all of his tikunim through gilgulim instead. A righteous person after he leaves this world is able to ascend to great heights in the world-to-come, but not all at once. Immediately after his death they punish him to rid him of his more severe sins, after which time they place him past the first division. When the time comes to ascend to a higher partition, they return him [to this world] to receive more punishment, this time for the lighter sins, after which he can ascend to the second level. Then he will finally be able to ascend to his true, fitting section in paradise. After that, they return him again to be punished for the minutiae of the law - the 'hairsbreadth' that he did not carry out, according to the secret of, "His [closely] surrounding ones are [subject to] extreme turbulent [conditions]" (Psalms 50:3). Then he will finally be able to ascend to his true, fitting section [in paradise]. Completely righteous people like David1 or Daniel, G-d wanted to make known that they were in the world-to-come and that they would not require neither punishment nor gilgulim. As it says, "Had I not trusted that I would see the goodness of G-d in the land of life!" (Psalms 27:13), and, "One thing I asked from G-d, this that I shall seek. That I dwell in the House of G-d all the days of my life." (Psalms 27:4). This was also stated by Abigail the prophetess (Megila) when she said, "The nefesh of my master is bound up in the bundle of life" (Samuel I 25:29). Of Daniel it was said, "As for you, go to your end [where] you will rest." (Daniel 12:13).

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Judgment After Death
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 2 We find explicitly stated in Midrash Ne’elam of the Zohar on the verse, "For all the good that G-d did for David and Israel his people" (Kings I 8:66), that David stayed in the world-to-come seven years after his death before they allowed him to enter the upper Jerusalem [the upper level of paradise]. David stayed in the world-to-come seven years after his death before they allowed him to enter upper Jerusalem. We also find this with respect to Samuel the prophet, who is considered equal to Moses and Aaron, (Psalms 99:6) when Saul raised him [from the dead] using Ob… One of the ancient and forbidden methods of sorcery, using bones done to raise up the dead and communicate with them. (Lev. 19:31). …as it says, "Why did you disturb me to raise me up?" (Samuel I 28:15). The Sages say, "He [Samuel] was afraid that it was the great day of judgment." (Vayikra Raba 26:7) So would it seem that even if one is judged at the time of death, still there are more judgments and punishments to follow. Even Rabbi Yochanan Ben Zakkai, "who did not miss one verse or mishna" cried at the time of his death, as it says in Brachot (28b). [So his students asked him,] "What will be with the other righteous people who are not like you, and how much more so those people whose sins are many?" In other words, if he was worried about judgment after death, then what about the rest of us who don’t come close to him in deed? However, it is not now the place to elaborate. Because of a certain sin he committed, he was reincarnated into this rock. On many occasions I walked with my teacher through a field, and he would say to me, "This person was called such-and-such, and though he was a righteous person and Torah scholar, because of a certain sin he committed he was reincarnated into this rock, or this plant, etc." Even though he never knew the person nor inquired about him after his death, we always found that he was right. If we discussed this in depth, this book would never

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end! Sometimes, he would look from a distance of five hundred amot [cubits, about 1000 feet] at a certain grave that was among twenty thousand others, and he would see the nefesh of the person buried there standing on the grave. He would say to us, "In that grave is buried so-and-so, and they gave him such-and-such a punishment for suchand-such a sin." We would then investigate the person’s life and find his words to be true. There are many great stories like this one.

Forms Of Gilgulim
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 3 When a person dies, he is punished for all of his sins even before entering Purgatory. There are many types of punishment, all of which are called 'gilgulim', through which a person can reincarnate: into domaim [mineral], tzomai'och [vegetation], chai [inanimate], or into midabair [another person]. Just about everyone must undergo these gilgulim. . The reason is because a person cannot receive punishment until he exists physically in a body with a soul, at which time he can bear and feel pain and atone for his sins.1 The extent to which a person sins determines the type of gilgul he will have to undergo, either as something from the tzomai'och [domain], or as chai, etc. Thus, even righteous people and Torah scholars can reincarnate in this manner for having committed sins in their lifetimes, after which time they will ascend to the level befitting them. The sin must be removed, for G-d does not disregard [any of them], since He operates according to judgment. Even should the person be completely righteous, He will not accept any 'bribe' from him - even a mitzvah.2 Also, when a person wants to ascend to a higher level he is sent back [to this world] and reincarnates in one of the manners mentioned above, if he still has a particular sin to purge. Once I was with my teacher and he told me about a certain man he saw from the time of the Tanaim3 who reincarnated into a female goat for having had relations by the light of a candle [which is forbidden by Jewish law (Orach Chayim Tsniyut)]. This can result in children who are epileptic (Nedarim), which it turned out they were, and as a result died young. It was literally considered [that he was guilty of] spilling the blood of his children. Another time, he told us that he saw a very learned Torah scholar from a previous generation for whom the time had come to ascend to a higher level. Therefore, at that time, he could see him being punished for not having been scrupulous in the finer points of

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mitzvot, in order for him to ascend to a higher level. According to the level to which a person is to be elevated, that is the extent to which he must be purified - even for the finer details of mitzvot, to a hairsbreadth. At that time the person was punished for two reasons. Firstly for having become distracted from his tefilin while saying the words, "May it be Your will before You... that we shouldn’t toil for naught and not give birth to confusion" after the kedusha in the prayer, "U'Va LeTziyon". When concentrating on this prayer, he became distracted from his tefilin, and for that slight transgression he was punished.4 Secondly, one Shabbat, [as] he walked in a public domain, some dust gathered on his shoe, and as a result he carried four amot [cubits] unwittingly in a public domain.5 Now you can understand what it means when it says that righteous people have no rest in the world-to-come, as the Sages teach on the verse (Psalms 84:8), "They go from strength to strength" (Berachot 64b) As they ascend from level to level, they need to purge [previous sins] even more. The positive, deeper meaning is that they are constantly in a state of ascent. A person is attached to G-d in the next world the same way he is here - just amplified (Zohar). In order to merit proper acceleration and ascent there, one must start by doing it here. And so it is necessary to renew oneself everyday. Start today's quest for enlightenment with new vigor and enthusiasm. This is the key to being constantly fresh. (Likutei Moharan) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Elevation & Descent of Gilgulim
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 4 As is well known, the entire world was made from the parts of the "seven kings that ruled in the land of Edom" (Gen. 36:31) who died and [the fallen sparks] were separated out. (Eitz Chayim, Sha'ar Shevirat Hakeilim) Prior to day one of creation and the existence of the sefirot as we know them, there existed preliminary sefirot, the vessels which G-d was forced to break. This resulted in the world of Tohu [chaos]. Since these were preliminary sefirot, they were not given their final names of keter, chochma, etc. They are referred to by the names of the kings of Edom mentioned in the Book of Genesis (Chap. 36), and the pre-creation existence is called "the Land of Edom." Once G-d willed the world to be, He sent down a repairing light that 'resurrected' as many of the broken pieces necessary for existence, separating them out from amongst the kelipot. Those which were the most refined were used for the level of Atzilut, and the next level

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went to Beriya, after that to Yetzira, and finally to Asiya. From those used to create Asiya, the most refined were used for man and they were separated out first. After that came the animals who cannot speak, then the vegetable kingdom, and after that inanimate creation. However, a righteous person through his actions such as eating for the sake of a mitzvah, can separate out aspects of the inanimate world and elevate them to the level of the vegetable kingdom, or the animal kingdom, or even to the level of man, as we have explained in Sha’ar HaMitzvot, in the portion Eikev on the mitzvah of Birkat Hamazon. It all depends upon how intensely one is attached to the spiritual energy inside the food, and not drawn after the physical desire. (Likutei Moharan) A wicked person, however, through his actions can cause just the opposite to happen and will lower [the sparks down] rungs. Some sins can cause portions of man[soul sparks] to descend until the level of domaim, some until tsoma'och, and some until chai. Thus, after a wicked person dies he can reincarnate into an inanimate rock as a result of the sins he performed in his lifetime, or into vegetation, or into an animal - if his sins were animal-like. The person who reincarnates in this way will remain there for a set amount of time until he has become purged of the sin that caused him to reincarnate into vegetation. After, he will be elevated to the level of the animal kingdom, and when the time is complete, he will be elevated to that of man. Reincarnating into a man can happen in one of two ways. Regarding the first way, and the souls of wicked people which after death do not merit to enter Purgatory, or bodies of living people in this world, we will speak about later. According to the second way, they may enter a person in the secret of 'ibur' ['pregnancy' (an added soul part)] as we spoke about earlier, clinging to the person without him even knowing anything at all. Just as an accessory can be added to a stereo system to enhance and increase the sound it produces, so can soul parts be added to amplify its tendencies and performance - for good or otherwise. Thus, if a person sins, the nefesh that has come into him will overcome him, and the person will sin and be pulled to the side of evil. For, just as the soul of a righteous person enters a person to help him do good, so the soul of a wicked person causes another to do evil. Sometimes the ibur is to help the soul rectify itself, and sometimes it is for the sake of the person to bring him to do good. These two levels also exist with respect to the ibur of an evil soul, either for the sake if it having entered the body of a righteous person, or to cause an wicked man to 'complete' his evil and warrant destruction from the world, G-d forbid. An evil soul can come into the body of a righteous person to achieve tikun through his

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actions. It can also come into the body of a wicked person to accelerate his spiritual demise. Once the set time to atone has finished for the soul that has reincarnated into a person in one of these two ways just mentioned, then he is forgiven. He can then come into this world as a true gilgul, born into a body like most people. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Order Of Ascension
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 5 Reincarnation to something domaim or into tsome'ach, etc., happens at specific times of the year. For example, someone who reincarnated into something inanimate for a few years, when the time arrives for him to ascend to the higher level of tsome'ach, he can only do so during the four middle months of the year: Av, Elul, Tishrei, and Cheshvan.1 If the time to ascend occurs during these four months then he will ascend. If not, he will have to wait until these four middle months come around again. The time to be elevated from tsome'ach to chai is the first four months: Nissan, Iyar, Sivan, and Tammuz.2 The time to be elevated from chai to midabair is the last four months: Kislev, Tevet, Shevat, and Adar.3 Even though the order of ascension is from the domaim to tsome'ach, then to chai, and finally to midabair, sometimes a person can climb two levels at once. For example, if a soul reincarnated into something domaim such as dust, and an animal came along and ate grass which had the dust on it, then this soul will now reincarnate into that animal… According to the principle "the nature of food is to become the eater". (Likutei Moharan) This is accomplished by digestion. …thus rising two levels at once. Sometimes, he can even reincarnate all levels at once from domaim to midabair - if a person eats food that has dust into which a soul reincarnated. Someone who has reincarnated into water and salt is not considered to be part of domaim, rather tsome'ach, since water is life-giving - it flows and it is not stationary like dust. Salt itself is made from water and therefore is it considered part of tsome'ach. This is what the Sages say : One who takes salt from his quarry is guilty of 'cutting', and as it is well known [in the laws of Shabbat that] such cutting only applies to things belonging to tsome'ach. (Shabbat, Chap. 7)

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These types of reincarnations are discussed in many places and are alluded to by the verse, "Rescue my soul from the sword, my only one from the grip of the dog [i.e. from reincarnation into him]" (Psalms 22:21). The Sages hinted to this when they said: If the head of an ox is in the feeding basket, go to the roof and be very careful. One who sees a black ox during the month of Nisan should run from it and go up to the roof because the Satan is dancing between its horns. (Berachot 33a) This is what they mean. Since the ox represents strict judgment4 it is better suited for the gilgul of a [wicked] soul more than other animals, and therefore you should run from it more than from other animals. For, there is no better time to reincarnate from vegetation to animals than in Nissan and the three months that follow. Therefore, during the month of Nissan, because of the addition of a wicked ibur, it might damage anyone who meets it. However, after he [the ox] is accustomed to it [the ibur], he will not cause harm, and therefore there is no reason to be so concerned regarding the elevation. The ox, by eating the grass, allows the wicked person who was originally tsome'ach to reincarnate into it. We have already explained the story of Yanus and Yambrus, the sons of Balaam the wicked, who made the calf in the month of Tammuz, in regard to whom it says, "for the likeness of a grass-eating ox" (Psalms 106:20). (Elsewhere it says in the name of Rav Chaim Vital that 'eisev' [grass] spells AShB the head-letters of the words 'Shivah Asar b’Tammuz' [the 17th of Tamuz].) The day on which Moses broke the two tablets, after seeing the golden calf constructed in the Jewish camp, is within one of the four months that souls reincarnate from vegetation to animals. Balaam’s sons were there at the time, and they used their magical abilities to draw down the radiance of the image of the ox from the merkavah [chariot] in Heaven. Naval HaCarmeli reincarnated into something inanimate, and thus it says, "His heart died within him and he was a rock" (I Samuel 25:37). The secret of this is understood from knowing that Laban reincarnated into Balaam, and later into Naval HaCarmeli. Balaam, who was a snake-charmer, had power only in his mouth to curse people, and when Balaam was killed it was with a single rock something domem [literally meaning 'silent'] - to atone for the charming he did with his mouth. When he further reincarnated it was into Naval HaCarmeli, originally for the sake of rectification. But instead he angered David when he said, "Who is David and who is Ben Yishai?" (Samuel I 25:10). David wanted to kill him; instead he came to rectify the wicked speech of Balaam. Instead, he [Balaam] repeated the mistake, and therefore "his heart died" when he remembered that he had once been a rock. This is why the verse does not say, "and he became a rock," but rather, "he was a rock." You need not wonder how he knew this, for Naval was an important person and it is even likely that he was a prophet, or just someone with great understanding. It could be that his

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mazel understood this, even though he did not. The concept of reincarnating into something inanimate is also hinted to by the verse, "The stone from the wall cries out" (Habakkuk 2:11). For, it is possible for stones in a wall to be reincarnations, or for wood rafters to be from the level of vegetation, and they will cry out from the extent of their punishment which they are undergoing. We will explain other verses along these lines. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Sins & Their Reincarnations
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 6 One who speaks loshon hara [i.e. slander], or similar will reincarnate into a stone, which cannot speak and as we said [in the preceding section] regarding Naval HaCarmelli, since the opposite of speaking is silence. Someone who feeds improperly slaughtered meat [in Hebrew, 'neveilah'] to a Jew comes back as a leaf on a tree, the level of vegetation. The wind blowing him backand-forth will never allow him rest and this will be his punishment. When his time is over, the leaf will become detached from the tree, wither [in Hebrew, 'novelet], and fall to the ground. This is an example of a real death for him one who was cut off and uprooted from the world. Sometimes the withered leaf can return as another leaf which will wither... This is the secret of the verse, "The leaf will wither" (Jeremiah 8:13), since one who feeds neveilah to a Jew reincarnates into a leaf that withers and falls to the ground. This is also the secret of the verse, "You will be like a elm tree with withered leaves" (Isaiah 1:30). Because sometimes the withered leaf can return as another leaf which will wither, even many times, as in the case of a person who has to reincarnate many times in this world to receive his specified punishment. Some people reincarnate into water, [which is] considered on the level of vegetation, as we mentioned previously. This can happen to a person who spills blood in this world, and you can remember this from "you will spill it [blood] on the ground like water" (Deut. 12:16). It also says, "One who spilled the blood of another, his blood will be spilled" (Gen. 9:6), meaning that he will be placed under a flow of water that will pour on him constantly. He will want to get up and stand, but the water will constantly pour on him and he will find no relief, constantly rotating in circles under the flow of water.

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Anyone meant to die by strangulation ... will reincarnate into water. This is hinted to in the verse, "We will all die, like water flowing along the ground that connects [shall we] be collected" (Samuel II 14:14). As well, anyone meant to die by strangulation but who was not punished by a court, will reincarnate into water and so be 'strangled' every moment. One who commits adultery with a married woman, and who is therefore punishable by strangulation, will reincarnate into a grinding stone, into which wheat is placed and which uses water to grind. That is where the man and woman will be judged, in the secret of "for another my wife will be ground" (Job 31:10). The word 'grinding' is used here as a euphemism for marital relations. (Sota Chap.1) One who is not scrupulous with the washing of the hands [before eating bread] will reincarnate into water. This is the secret of the verse, "Then they would have surged across our soul, the treacherous waters. Blessed is G-d, Who did not present us as prey for their teeth" (Psalms 124:5-6). The head-letters of "nisananu teref lishenaihem [did not present us as prey for their teeth]" spell the word NTL [to wash]. We must thank G-d that we, unlike the wicked, wash our hands. This is the secret of what the Sages say: One who eats without washing his hands is uprooted from the world and is judged with water. (Sota 4b) There is a hint to this from, "Blessed is G-d, Who did not present us as prey for their teeth," whose headletters spell the word NTL [wash]; by washing one’s hands one is not given "as prey for their teeth," that is, of the surging waters. Therefore, we must thank G-d that we, unlike the wicked, wash our hands. One who does not recite blessings in advance of enjoying something, treating them with no respect, or steals from his father or mother, or befriends a destructive person, also reincarnates into water. Some reincarnate into animals. A community leader who lords himself over others reincarnates into a bee, as Rabbi Nachman bar Yitzchak said: "Pride does not suit women. Two women were proud, and the names of both were not positive: one was called 'bee' and the other was called 'weasel'. (Megila14b) He was referring to Deborah the prophetess, who lorded herself over Barak when she sent for him and did not go to him herself (Judges 4:6). The other was Chuldah the prophetess, who insulted Zedekiah the king when she said, "Speak to the man" (Kings II 22:15), as opposed to "Speak to the king," as the Sages say. From their words you can see that Deborah was a proud woman, and therefore she didn’t perform any work and was very talkative, never remaining silent. Therefore, a leader who lords himself over the community, and one who speaks improperly, comes back as a bee who have these two traits.

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[Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Beit Din, Enforcers & Other Incarnations
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Two, Section 7 Regarding these types of gilgulim or any soul that is judged in the heavenly court, someone goes before him continuously announcing his gilgul or punishment, never leaving him. There is also one 'enforcer' assigned to him, punishing him as is fitting. For example, in the case of one who reincarnates into water, the enforcer stands over him continuously, constantly lowering him into the water for the duration of allotted time. The enforcer stands over him continuously, constantly lowering him into the water for the duration of allotted time. As well, for the majority of reincarnations or punishments mentioned, there is a court before him during the period of the gilgul or punishment, judging him, changing his punishment from time-to-time according to what is fitting for him. (Shmuel said: I found another collection of writings of those close [to the Arizal], and even though within them are words of the Rav, it seems that they are not from the mouth of my teacher, the Rav - 'the great feeder of all', as he [the author] wrote. Nevertheless, I will present them. This is what I found in the book of HaRav Eliezer HaLevi, though in my humble opinion without doubt they are not from my teacher.) One who has relations with an animal reincarnates as a bat. One who has relations with nidah [a menstruant] reincarnates into a female gentile; with a married woman into a male donkey; with his mother, into a female donkey. One who commits homosexuality reincarnates into a coney or a rabbit, depending upon whether he was the one committing the act or to whom it occurred. One who has relations with his daughter-in-law reincarnates into a mule; with a nonJew, into a female Jewish prostitute; with one’s step-mother, into a camel; with one’s sister-in-law (brother’s wife), into a male mule; with one’s sister through his father or his mother, into a chasidah [a stork], and his companions will kill him. This is the secret of the verse, "If a man takes his sister through his father or his mother... it is a chesed." (Vayikra 20:17) [similar to the Hebrew word for stork]. It is the same for one who has relations with his mother-in-law. One who constantly looks at those forbidden to him and gazes at them will reincarnate into a white vulture One who lies with a domesticated animal, a wild animal, or a bird, reincarnates as a

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raven. One who constantly looks at those forbidden to him and gazes at them will reincarnate into 'ra'ah' [a white vulture] - who can ro-eh [see] the farthest of all birds. All of this is only when he has not done teshuvah. (Shmuel said: This is the correct location for another introduction that I already wrote about in Sha’ar Ma’amrei Chazal regarding the reward for the righteous and 'chibut hakever' [the cleansing of the grave].) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Souls Fallen Into Impurity
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Three, Section 1 We already know from the Pirkei Rebbi Eliezer in the discussion of chibut hakever [torments of the grave] about the angel that comes to a person’s grave and asks him, "What is your name?" The person then answers, "G-d knows that I don’t know my name, etc."1 The person then answers, "G-d knows that I don’t know my name, " This is strange, for what does asking this question accomplish, and why does he forget his name? How does this help with the administration of punishment? As we have said before, all souls were included in Adam before the sin, and that after he sinned, limbs 'fell off' him. As a result, the souls that were a part of him fell into the depths of the kelipot, and Adam fell to the level of only 'one hundred amot', as we spoke about elsewhere. (See chapter 7) Not all the souls were equal, since the defect was not the same for all limbs. The limbs that were most affected by the sin of Adam fell deeper into the kelipot than other limbs more distant from the blemish. As a result, some souls pursue sin more than others. Adam Bliya'al ['the despicable man'] mirrors Adam d’Kedushah ['the man of holiness'] Thus, the impact of the sin on a limb determined how deep it fell into the kelipot, since God made them correspond to each other. In other words, Adam Bliya'al ['the despicable man'] mirrors Adam d’Kedushah ['the man of holiness'], and also has 248 limbs and 365 tendons. The limbs used by Adam to commit the sin fell from him to the corresponding level within Adam Bliya’al. There they were enveloped and enclothed by the kelipot on their corresponding level. For all the ways of G-d are just and straight without confusion (Deut.

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32:4), and thus every limb fell to the corresponding level within Adam Bliya'al. Therefore, all souls that fell from Adam, though enclothed in holiness prior to the sin, lost their crowns and glory after falling into the kelipot and instead donned clothing of kelipot. Hence, all souls have a level of kelipot that acts like clothing attached to it, according to the effect of Adam’s sin on it. That kelipa clothes the soul and encircles it all the days of its life [in the physical world]. Even though the soul is holy and spiritual it is nevertheless garbed in kelipot and dirt. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Sin, Impurity, and Zuhama
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Three, Section 2 This is the meaning of the verse, "It is your sins that separate you from your G-d" (Isaiah 59:2); Kelipa which results from sin clothes the soul and stands between it and G-d, preventing the flow of light. This idea is hinted at in the Talmud: "We learn that the snake came upon Eve and imparted zuhama [spiritual dirt] to her."1 (Avoda Zara 22b ) ...the snake came upon Eve and imparted zuhama [spiritual dirt] to her. This was the case for Adam as well, and all his descendants after him until the days of Moshiach, since they [their souls] were included in Adam at the time of the sin. Thus all people die "because of the bite of the snake," since all were affected by the zuhama. Nevertheless, not all souls are equal, because every soul was blemished according to its proximity to the sin. Some limbs were more directly involved in the sin than others, and so were damaged more. E.g., the hands actually took the fruit, the mouth ate it, whereas the chest only derived nourishment. However, all sins that people perform on their own, that is, other than the one that Adam committed, draws kelipa to them, depending upon the severity of the sin committed. However, a person’s teshuvah can push away the zuhama that came to him because of his sin, even in the case of very serious sins. The dirt and the kelipot that bond with all souls as a result of the sin of Adam are not affected by teshuvah, necessitating death to rectify the defect. For even though G-d accepted Adam’s teshuvah and granted him atonement, nevertheless the zuhama and kelipa remained with him as when he sinned. It only separates from us at death, since he committed a very serious crime, for many reasons that we will not explain here.

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This is the secret of those who died [only] from the bite of the snake: Benjamin, Yishai, Kilav [one of David's sons – Ed.], Levi, and Joshua bin Nun who did not participate in the sin of the calf, as the Zohar says (Zohar I 53a, Shabbat 55b). In other words, even though they did not commit any sins, they still had to die, since the kelipa and zuhama adhered to them as a result of Adam’s sin and only leaves at death. This is also the secret of what the Sages mean when they refer to the zuhama of the snake that was imparted to Adam and Eve. We need to explain why death causes a separation of the kelipot from man. First of all, kedushah [holiness] is called life. As it says, "See! I place before you life and good" (Deut. 30:15), and, "Those who adhere to G-d your L-rd - all of you are alive today" (Deut. 4:4). This is because it is G-d who gives sustenance and food to all of his creations. ...the kelipa cannot leave him until he dies... However, the sitra achra, which removes [flow] from creations, is called death, as it says [in the former verse], "and death and evil". Thus when a person sins, he draws the sitra achra, called death, towards him. Therefore the kelipa cannot leave him until he dies, when the flesh rots in the soil. Then the kelipa that was tied to him leaves along with the kelipa from the zuhama that was imparted to Adam and Eve. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Chibut Hakever
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Three, Section 3 Now you can understand the concept of 'chibut hakever' [torments of the grave]. After a person dies and is buried in the dust of the earth, four angels immediately arrive and deepen his grave to the height of the man1, as it says in treatise Perek Chibut Hakever. Then they restore his soul to his body just like during his lifetime, since the kelipa remains attached to both. Then these angels take him by the corners and shake and beat him with fire... Then these angels take him by the corners and shake and beat him with fire - just as a garment is held from the ends and shaken to remove dust2 - until the kelipa leaves him completely. This is called chibut hakever, which is like the beating and shaking of a garment. They deepen the grave in order to create an area within which to shake and beat him. However, the judgment is not the same for everyone. Righteous people distance themselves from the yetzer hara during their lifetimes and humble themselves and use their suffering as

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self-affliction. Torah and mitzvot as well weaken the kelipot until the day comes for them to die. Such righteous people do not need much suffering, just a minor beating to separate the yetzer hara from them. It is just the opposite for evil people. Through indulging in the pleasures of this world they become even more strongly attached to the kelipa of their bodies and souls. This is the secret of why a person is not saved from chibut hakever, as mentioned in Perek Chibut Hakever. ...there is no other way to remove and rectify other than through death and chibut hakever. As we said regarding those people who died only because of the bite of the snake, there is no other way to remove and rectify other than through death and chibut hakever. The only exception is for those people mentioned in Perek Chibut Hakever who performed certain mitzvot which accomplish this. However, the rest require chibut hakever and it is only a question of how much will be necessary. Each person receives what he needs based upon the level of his kelipa and the extent to which it adheres to him. However, even for those people who do not require chibut hakever, having performed specific mitzvot that remove the kelipa without the need for suffering after death, death is still inevitable, as we mentioned regarding those who died from the "bite of the snake." [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Two Names For Each Person
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Three, Section 4 I heard from my teacher that all who are buried on Friday from the fifth hour onward do not have to undergo chibut hakever [torments of the grave]. This is because the holiness of Shabbat itself separates the kelipa from these people without any pain. This is the secret of 'something extra' on the sixth day (Ex. 16:22) - for from the fifth hour onward the holiness of Shabbat begins to shine. All the worlds rise on Shabbat to a higher station in the spiritual structure. They start this ascent on Friday from the fifth hour. This is why G-d made Adam at that time (Sanhedrin). For the goal is that man should ascend to the perfect Shabbat state. In order to prepare for the additional Sabbath sanctity, there is a custom to immerse in purifying mikveh water on Friday. This can be done from the fifth hour. (Shaar HaKedushat Shabbat) This is why the evil forget their name, as mentioned above [in section 1]. As we have already explained, every soul in the world is clothed in kelipa i.e., the zuhama of the

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snake. That kelipa is the secret of the yetzer hara with which a man is born. For as a result of Adam’s sin, the yetzer hara became ingrained in him - they became mixed together like dough.1 This is the secret of why the yetzer hara has such ability to cause a person to sin - he is a complete 'master of the house' in the body of man. (Talmud) We have already explained that not all kelipot are the same, since every kelipa is an evil spark from the sitra achra, a specific aspect of the 248 limbs of Adam Bliya’al of impurity, like the limbs of Adam d’Kedushah. And, just like every soul has a specific name based upon its level within the limb from which it was hewn, as The Sages the Sages say regarding the verse, "'Who has wrought shammot [devastation] in the land' (Psalms 46:9): Don’t read 'shammot' but rather 'shaimot'" [meaning names]".2 Likewise, each spark from the side of the kelipot has its own name. And so the yetzer hara of one person is not like the yetzer hara of another person. After someone is born and named by his father and mother, it is not by chance [which name is given], for G-d places in the mouth [of the parent] the name that suits that soul. As it says, "names in the land," based upon the limb within the upper man from which it was taken. This name itself is imprinted above on the holy throne,3 as is known. This is why the Sages say what they do regarding the names of converts,4 and why Rebbe Yehoshua ben Korchah and Rebbe Meir used to check names.5 God created a corresponding reality with respect to this as well. Therefore just as there is for a person a pre-determined name from the side of holiness, given to him by his father and mother at the time of his brit milah [ritual circumcision], likewise there is an established name from the side of the kelipot - the yetzer hara that enters the person at birth.6 Hence, every person possesses two names, one from the side of holiness and one from the side of kelipa. If a person while living in this world is able to ascertain and know the name of the kelipa within him, he can thereby know from which level within Adam Bliya’al it was taken. In this way, he can understand his defect and the tikun [rectification process] he requires. This would then make rectification simpler and separation from the kelipa possible during his lifetime, as opposed to after death through chibut hakever. Therefore, when a righteous person dies, there is no need to ask him his name from the sitra achra, since during his lifetime he worked hard and withstood suffering to separate the kelipa from himself. This makes the separation through chibut hakever easier. However, an evil person does just the opposite, instead causing the kelipa to bond with him. This necessitates much beating and great punishment to carry out separation through chibut hakever. If he had come to know the name from the sitra achra during his lifetime, he could have easily rectified it then. Instead, he must receive intense beatings for not having come to know the name during his lifetime - for not bothering to investigate what it was. He didn’t care to work hard as the righteous person did. The point is that one must constantly take spiritual inventory, examining and taking stock

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of thoughts/words/actions. God reciprocates to one who shows such interest by granting him self-knowledge. The more he examines and tries to fix himself, the more that is revealed to him. This will lead to one knowing exactly what they need to repair, and then how to repair it. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

More On Chibut Hakever
Gate of Reincarnations:, Chapter Twenty-Three, Section 5 (Shmuel [son of Rabbi Chaim Vital] says: I found another very good introduction to chibut hakever [torments of the grave], and this is what it says:) We have explained the matter of chibut hakever previously. We have also mentioned that, as a result of the sin of Adam, there was a combining of good and evil in all souls, as we explained already with respect to Cain and Abel. This is the secret of the verse, "and Adam called names" (Gen. 2:20). For just as they have souls from holiness, likewise have they names from souls in kelipa. This is so because when Adam sinned through the tree of knowledge he caused souls to be taken from the side of impurity, just as it occurs from the side of holiness. I have already explained that in the world of Asiya, evil overcomes good since there they are intermingled. However, in the world of Yetzira, they are equal, and in the world of Beriya, good overcomes evil and they are no longer combined. There are people who have [only] a nefesh from malchut of Asiya of the kelipot, and there are people who have an [entire] NR"N from the kelipot. However, one who does not perform that much evil has [clearly] not received a neshama from the kelipot. He can achieve rectification through teshuvah and by reincarnating into this world and undergoing punishment. [When the former is the case,] they will be like Jeravam ben Nevat and similar, of whom it is said, "they have no portion in the world-to-come". (Sanhedrin 1:2) That is, rather than have their souls elevated above as M"N, through an upper unification of Abba and Imma who are called the 'world-to-come'; they will ascend only on the level of M"N through a unification of Zu"N. This explanation settles the question of what about their mitzvot?! And don't all souls have a portion in the world-to-come? (Ibid. 1:1) Rather, they certainly are rewarded for whatever good they did. But certain terrible things they did caused their mitzvot not to be able to elevate them to the highest connection above that which they should have merited. Mitzvot are drawn from a towering source, way above our world. It is fitting for one who

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fulfilled them in life to ascend in death to the transcending levels of Abba and Imma. In general, because they are a step beyond, one must give whole self over in order to activate those levels. There are places in prayer that are geared to arouse them. Those places need to be recited accompanied by willingness and intention to give one's very life over for the Divine honor. (Shaar HaKavanot Kri'at Shema) This does not work for one who was sunk extra deep into physicality. They can only rise to be included in Zu"N - the partzufim from which our world is drawn. Everything we do below awakens a reciprocal reaction above. Positive actions awaken unifications above. When a person dies, the sum total of all his mitzvot bond and make a grand awakening above. (Zohar Chayei Sara) His soul ascends to be included in this collective unification and derives great delight from it. However, someone who has NR"N from the kelipot must have their bones rot and eat their flesh. This is the secret of Ruth and Orpah, the latter being the one who returned to her people and her god.1 (Ruth 1) This is also the secret of the verse, "The fool clasps his hands together and has nothing to eat but his own flesh."2 (Eccl. 4:5) They destroy themselves, and in order to separate from this [evil] soul they require chibut hakever. Even in the land of Israel, a minor amount of chibut hakever is necessary. For it [the bad soul] is already separate from one born in the land of Israel. Nevertheless, it will depend upon the actions of a person, whether they are good or evil. The intrinsic sanctity of the Land of Israel grants the soul a head-start in purity. Nonetheless, "[The status of] all is [determined] according to the abundance of [one's] actions". (Pirkei Avot) If one is jealous regarding spiritual matters, [his spiritual station] is as the Sages have written: "A man only becomes jealous over his wife when a spirit of zealotry enters him." (Sota 3a) "There is no [true] love without jealousy." (Zohar III Naso) A mate feels his partner inside his intrinsic self. From this place he is jealous. "Jealousy of scholars increases wisdom." (Baba Basra 21a) There is a form of positive jealousy: when someone sees a good quality in someone else and wants to also attain it without begrudging the other. One feels the good he sees on the outside as being something that is really within, just not manifest. However, if one is jealous regarding worldly matters - that is a function of the outside forces. As a result his bones will have to rot [to be cleansed of their attachment to the kelipot]. The soul needs to be cleansed of all negative qualities in order to attain its ultimate

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perfection. (Sefer HaLikutim and Shaar HaGilgulim, parashat Bechukotai) However, jealousy comes from an especially deep place within - the essence. For one who is jealous feels that something belonging to someone else is really his - he feels a part of himself in it and it reaches his essence. The word for bone, 'etzem', also means essence. The bones are the essential essence of the body. Therefore, only they are left at the end of the death process. From them the body is to be rebuilt at the time of the resurrection. (Talmud) And in them rests the last, lowest piece of the soul that stays below. (Zohar) Improper jealousy defects them, requiring them too to deteriorate in order to cleanse the soul and allow such a person to also eventually be rebuilt. Similarly, the luz (the primary bone for resurrection) of one who does not bow and say thanks to G-d is turned into a snake.3 (Baba Kama) Appreciation is also an intrinsic root quality.4 One who lacks it needs a root cleansing in order to become fit for resurrection. We find this regarding what is said about Rav Achai bar Yeshaya, based upon the verse, "But envy is [causes] rotting of the bones." (Proverbs 14:30) For jealousy regarding worldly matters causes the bones to rot and "like a garment AS"h [a moth] shall devour them." (Isaiah 50:9) This is the secret of the matter: There are Sh"A/370 lights on the side of holiness. (Zohar III Idra Raba) [At times, another 8 encompassing lights are added to them. (Ibid., Shaar Ruach HaKodesh, 'Yichud D'chivarti')] When they become 378 it totals the words chashmal [fiery radiance (Chagiga 13a)] and 'malbush' [clothing]. This is because the 378 lights become like clothing and a covering that envelopes the four worlds, ABY"A, as a result [of which], the outside forces have no power over them. The intense radiation of the upper triad shines to the power of hundreds. The lesser lower seven shine to the power of tens. When they all smile and radiate, 370 brilliances grace the world - providing much love and mercy. At times of extra favor, another "eight white lights" shine from the 'skull' of keter. This provides a kind of spiritual lightning [chashmal] that the worlds don as a garment which provides extra protection. It is well-known that four garments enclothe the worlds ABY"A, and each garment [progressively down the ladder] is denser than the other. The thickest of all belongs to Asiya, since that [being the lowest area] is the principle place that the kelipot latch onto. And just as there are 370 Lights on the side of holiness, so are there also on the side of the chitzonim [outside forces]. They are called the opposite: ASh. This is the secret of the verse, "like a garment, ASh [a moth] will devour them" - a devouring moth is the one who eats and causes the bones to rot.5 Hence is there also a concept of 'tolai'a' [a worm] from the side of holiness in the secret of "tola’as shani" [scarlet wool] (Ex. 25:4) and in the secret of, "Fear not tola’at

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Ya’akov [the worm of Jacob]." (Isaiah 41:14) Its letters form the name ABGYT"Ts, which has the gematria of tola’a. This is the secret of the [first row and] chesed-[name] that is in the seven [six-letter sub-]names of the 42-letter name. And it [also hints to] the "kohen" [priest, who is rooted in chesed], of whom it says, "VNTN/V’natan [and give] to the kohen the foreleg and cheek." (Deut. 18:3) The word "v’natan" also has the [same] gematria of the name we mentioned [tola’a = 510] and that of the word ShR/shor [ox], of which the Talmud writes, "a black ox in the month of Nissan". (Brachot 33a) For the 42-Letter Name is one of strong gevurot (Eitz Chaim) [and the ox is rooted in the left side above6, the source of gevurot]. Scarlet wool was used for the curtains of the Sanctuary, the place where the 370 lights are most manifest. (Zohar) "Our father Ya'akov never died." (Ta'anit 5b) He reached a level of perfection that transcended mortality. Consequently, even though his offspring must pass through death, they have a special imprint of holiness in them that protects.7 Therefore does the verse ensure the 'worm of Ya'akov' of his safety and that there is no need to harbor worries. The seven sub-names of the 42-letter name parallel the seven sefirot. Accordingly, the first row is chesed, the energy that the 370 protecting lights emanate. In souls, kohen comes from chesed. (Zohar III Emor) The motion of chesed is giving, hence giving mentioned by the kohen shares the gematria of the chesed name. Even though it actually refers to the portion that G-d commands the rest of the people to give to the kohen - this itself: Because the kohen gives so much, he is rewarded and granted special gifts. Why then is the next link to the infamous ox, a creature who embodies the left side of gevura? In order for the light of chesed/giving to be true, it must be contained in a fitting restricting gevura/restraint vessel. Part of expanding in giving involves constricting to preserve giving and keep it in context and good. If someone wants mustard on a sandwich, don't deliver a whole barrel to his table! Even though something, let us say steak, is the best food, limit your giving and feed the baby you love baby food. And so, even though "the world is made for chesed" (Psalms 89:3), it comes garbed in gevura. The world was made with the 42-letter name. (Zohar I Breishit, Tikunei Zohar) Its initial row comes, of course, from chesed. But as a whole it stems from gevura. This all explains the association train of concepts mentioned in this paragraph. Correspondingly, there is the concept of a 'worm' on the side of the kelipot. One that eats the flesh of the dead in the grave, of which it says, "The fool holds his hands together and has nothing to eat but his own flesh." (Eccl. 4:5) And, "If it [sin] will be tolai'a [red as crimson], it shall become [white] as wool." (Isaiah 1:18) However, one who is righteous in this world can rectify everything during his lifetime, as we saw with respect to Rav Achai bar Yeshaya, who was never jealous over worldly matters - a jealousy that stems from the kelipot. Therefore, neither death nor tolai'a [worms] nor ASh [a moth] had any effect on him. As King David wrote, "Even my flesh will dwell in safety." (Psalms 16:9) To the extent that you have four people who, even

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though they died, did so only because of the bite of the snake [but their flesh remained safe - free of chibut hakever and decapitation]. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Reward for the Souls of the Righteous
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Four Having spoken about the punishment of the souls of the evil, we will now discuss the reward for the souls of the righteous. In doing so, we will explain a distinction that the Sages often make, sometimes saying that a certain type of person has a "portion in the world-to-come," or that he is a "ben olam haba" [son of the world-to-come], or he is "ready for life in the world-to-come." There are three categories with respect to a tzadik gamur... The reason for the nuances is as follows: There are three categories with respect to a tzadik gamur [completely righteous person] who leaves this world and does not require any punishment. The first is that from the moment he dies he ascends in the secret of 'M"N elayin' [upper awakening] through the yesod of Imma Elai/binah - which is called olam habah. This causes the upper unification, bringing Abba and Imma together. And so this group is called benei olam habah. In other words, he is like Zeir Anpin, who is called ben [a son of] Imma Elai, who ascends in the secret of M"N as high as Abba and Imma, and causes them to unite. Likewise, a righteous person is called a ben olam habah - that is of Imma Elai, since he causes a unification above. This world of seven directions1 is made in seven days, an expression of the seven sefirot. (Zohar I Breishit) Death transports to a revealed connection to steps above. The first rung is Imma. Yesod is the connecting part of each partzuf. So the soul ascends above through yesod Imma. Alive, one makes unifications in Zu"N. In death they are replaced by Abba/Imma. The partzufim are the source of the family order. The maternal aspects, Abba and Imma, are aroused by Zu"N their children to unite and provide sustenance. In death, the soul accomplishes the same thing. Inclusion in this ethereal plateau is delightful. The second group is not as great as the first one. It is composed of righteous people who are not fitting to ascend by themselves and cause a unification between Abba and Imma. Rather, they must combine with a soul more righteous than their own and in this way cause a unification above. It was to this group that the Sages referred when they wrote, "Every Jew has a portion in the world-to-come". (Sanhedrin 91a) ...all Jews, even if they do not become completely righteous, at least have a 'portion'...

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In other words, all Jews, even if they do not become completely righteous, at least have a 'portion' and can unite with the rest of the souls to ascend and cause a unification in the upper world-to-come. They are not however, individually benei olam haba, that is like a 'ben-bayit' [son of the house] who can enter his father’s house on his own. The key to ascent to this level depends upon mesirut nefesh [complete giving of oneself]. And so the Shema prayer, the basic declaration of faith in mesirut nefesh, also causes Abba/Imma pairing. (Shaar HaKavanot Kriyat Shema) Even those that always serve G-d cannot rise to this height unless they are completely devoted. The third group is the highest of the three, referred to by the words "ready for life in the world-to-come". This is the level of the world-to-come which does not occur immediately after death, rather in a future time of which it says, "the light of the moon will be like that of the sun" (Isaiah 30:26). At that time, Abba and Imma will rise to Arich Anpin once again, just as they [were stationed] at the time of creation. G-d first made each level in its fitting place. Subsequently, He specifically caused each one to fall a notch down in order to create a job for man to do. "Descent is for ascent." (Baal Shem Tov) When everything returns to its source through the deeds of man, it is not just a restoration to the original state. The universe is upgraded and all levels step up rungs. Any time an ibur is repeated it is in order to renew the mochin [mentality]. Doing so provides the ability to cause the light of the moon to become like that of the sun, the latter being Zeir Anpin and the former Nukva. The sun and moon are a reflection in the physical of the partzufim Zeir Anpin and Nukva. The sun and moon are a reflection in the physical of the partzufim Zeir Anpin and Nukva. Just as the sun's light unites with the moon every night to make it shine, so does Zeir Anpin unite with Nukva to make it shine forth the light of G-d-consciousness and a flow of sustenance to the world. The Rabbis teach that at first the moon's light was equal to the sun. (Chulin) It was diminished. Scripture tells that it will be restored in time to come to its original status. It is outside the context of this discussion to explain what this means in terms of the actual physical reality. In the spiritual roots, this means that the manifestation of Divinity in the lower realms, represented by the lunar/receiving aspect, was equal to the manifestation in the upper/giving realms. God purposely diminished the lower aspect in order to set the stage for man's free will. The lunar/nocturnal aspect lacks light, leaving unclear sight. This whole, lower world is as night (Talmud) - the truth is unclear. But it was never meant to so remain. Each generation has its part in filling the moon's light – revealing Divinity in the world. The sum total of the work of all generations will result in

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a replenishing of the moon – an equating of the manifestation of G-dliness below to above. In this state, super-consciousness will prevail and everyone will know G-d.2 This is one way of describing the utopian state of the world-to-come. The mochin are coined 'life of the world-to-come', since they are the source of its existence. They are [also] called 'chayei hamelech' [life of the King]. In the secret of what the Sages say, "All those who wear tefilin live [real life], as it says (Brachot): "Gd, concerning them [You said], 'They will live'." (Isaiah 38:16) For, they [draw from chochma,] the life source that flows to the world-to-come, which is Imma. (Shaar HaKavanot Tefilin) Therefore, anyone who is fitting to ascend in the secret of M"N to Arich Anpin and cause a unification there for the sake of the mochin of Imma is called 'one who is ready for the world to-come'.3 [Samuel] was afraid of the great day of judgment in the future. Now you can understand what Samuel the prophet meant when he said, "Why did you disturb me, to raise me up?" (Samuel I 28:15): He was afraid of the great day of judgment in the future. Even though he already knew that he was a ben olam habah, still he was in doubt as to whether he was already on the level of being fit for life in the world-to-come. There is also a fourth group referred to in Sanhedrin in the chapter Chailek of "those who have no portion in the world-to-come: Three kings and four laymen etc." In other words, even though they were punished, they still don’t manage to make it to the lowest group of those who have a portion in the world-to-come after death - even with the help of other souls. These souls will not be able to ascend at all to the world-to-come to cause M"N through a unification of Abba and Imma. Rather, they will be forced to remain below in the secret of M"N on the level of the malchus/Nukva of Zeir Anpin only. They, so, miss the boat and remain on the present level of this world. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Mountains, Valleys, Streams, & Trees
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Five I have decided to discuss a topic from my teacher regarding the mountains, valleys, and streams that G-d created in this world: Just as the upper land, which is the malchut, is divided into seven sections, which is why it is called Bat Sheva [daughter of seven], so the lower land is divided into seven different continents, as is known. Nothing happens in the land below that is not the

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result of [the actions of] a heavenly minister above, [who is] appointed over it. ...each of the large mountains and hills of the land have ministers assigned to them. Thus, each of the large mountains and hills of the land have ministers assigned to them. Depending upon the height of one mountain over another, relatively-speaking, that is how much higher its minister is than the one for the lower mountain. Furthermore, each day these mountains either increase or decrease in size, though it may not be noticeable to man. It is as the Sages say regarding the Land of Israel, that it was once four hundred parsot,1 but it shook and shrank. (Gittin 57a) There are some mountains that increase in size and become stronger, as result of the power of the Heavenly minister over it. Sometimes the heavenly minister is eliminated, and so the mountain to which it was assigned will also disappear by joining to another mountain to which it is attached. It will then no longer be recognizable on its own. Sometimes, they remove part of his rulership from him and divide his dominion, giving half to another minister. The result is a split in the mountain itself. Occasionally, we see large rocks that have been split into two equal halves, with no residual rocks to be found. ...there is no spring on the lower land that does not have a corresponding light in the upper land. Springs correspond to the level of the springs of M"N in the upper land of malchut, which ascend from the depths to above on the face of the land. However, the rain that falls is the level of M"D, and so you find that there is no spring on the lower land that does not have a corresponding light in the upper land. M"N is the upward flow of sparks from malchut to the sefirot above, which brings them to unify. It is so represented by the flow of water from the hidden great abyss in the earth to the surface. Whereas M"D is that which reciprocally flows downward to bring blessing to the lower worlds. It is so likened to rain. M"N ascends from malchut to Zeir Anpin the entire lifetime of the stream. When a stream or well closes and dries up, so too does the source above, and M"N no longer ascends. Sometimes, we see that a stream is renewed producing water from a new source. This reveals that a light above has been renewed, or that a soul has caused M"N to ascend from malchut to Zeir Anpin. There is also a minister appointed over each tree below, and when it is terminated the tree dries up. Not only this, but every time a leaf falls from the tree, the minister above is accordingly weakened. From what we have just written you will be able to understand many wondrous things. This revelation prompts the awareness to a whole new perspective on reality: Everything

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that happens before our eyes is the result of and actually a lower expression of what happens above. It so being, one can expand their operational mode to new vistas. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Basis of the Zivugim
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Six, Section 1 There is no soul in the entire world, heaven forfend, that does not have at least one garment to wear in this world. The concept of [spiritual] apparel… Rabbi Shneur Zalman explains the need for clothes in the afterlife. (Likutei Torah Baal HaTanya) The reward and delight of the world-to-come comes from the splendor of the Shechina that shines to the person. It is too bright for even the soul to bear. Just as physical garb protects from sunburn, so does spiritual garb shield from 'soul-burn'. The celestial garments serve as an intermediary buffer conduit to transmit the light to the self. The nature of the garments determines the nature of the transmission. Simple clothes grant simple lights of ideas. Psychedelic cloths afford kaleidoscope lights of concepts... "And Avrohom was aged, having come in years, and God blessed Avrohom with everything." (Gen. 24:1) The sum total of the days of a person form for him his garment in the next world. (Zohar I Vayeira) According to how one lived his life, so is his attire. If he did not use a day properly, the part of the clothing formed by that day is defective. It could come out as a tear or a snag... …is hinted to in the Zohar in the portion Mishpatim in the words of Rav Yabba on the verse, "He must not diminish her clothing" (Ex. 21:10) and, "Seeing that "bigdo" [in Hebrew, 'he rebelled'; also can be translated, 'his garment'] against her." (ibid 21:8) On the simple level, this section of the Torah deals with the laws of slaves. Kabbalistically, it is talking about the slavery of souls in their gilgulim, as we saw in Chapter Twenty. The owner of a maid-servant is expected to take her as a wife upon maturity. If he is not willing to do this for her, it is figuratively called 'rebelling' against her. The word that the Torah chooses to express this through is "bigdo", also meaning "his garment" - hinting to the spirit-clothes that are affected by ones choices in life. They may dictate that the soul return in incarnation. Now we will explain this concept of clothing for the soul. All that happened to Joseph with the wife of his master Potiphar, (Gen. 39:7-12) which caused him to lose ten drops of seed from between his finger nails, as it says, "the fingers of his hand spread." (Sota 36b) also happened to the supernal Joseph, which is the sefira of yesod. Hence, ten drops and sparks of holy souls left the supernal yesod, which is male, and were not received by the supernal

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female womb - instead taken by the kelipot. The patriarchs and matriarchs are not just founding fathers. They are real meta-physical archetypes for their children to draw energy from. Their accomplishments elevated them to embody these levels, and the partzufim are called after them. The soul of Joseph comes from the sefira of yesod. He therefore was tested in his life in yesod-oriented issues. Because he withstood these tests, he merited to embody this level. According to the Talmud, (Ibid) the result of Joseph ’s refusal to the wife of Potiphar still resulted in a minor defect of some type of involuntary emission - from his nails. A man below is not allowed to ejaculate except inside of the female. (Yorah Daiah, Zohar I Breishit) If not, it causes a corresponding emission above without a union of the male/female coupling of the partzufim. This causes the sparks rooted in his seed to fall into the sitra achra. I have already mentioned how many levels of partzufim there are above that depend upon Zeir Anpin and how each has a yesod aspect. Thus, from every level of yesod, sparks and souls went to waste and were taken by the kelipot - the yesod of each one alluding to Joseph. There are five [principle] levels of zivugim [pairs] above, and sparks went out from the yesod of each one. This is the order according to their level: At different times of the day, at different times of the week, partzufim line up in specific orders of pairs called zivugim. The nature of the particular pairing will determine the nature of the particular policy through which the world is run at that time. Whether one predominantly of mercy or judgment, leniency or stringency... In general, the female partzufim process and actualize the flow they receive from the male partzufim. They as if conceive and give birth to certain types of light and energy, creating various flows and opportunities that are in turn given to the realms beneath. The coming lesson will elaborate the specifics of how this works. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Zivugim
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Six, Section 2 ZIVUG 1: This is Zeir Anpin which is called Israel, and its female counterpart is called Rachel. The time for this zivug is [during the] musaf [prayer] on Shabbat, at which time Rachel, [who is usually only up to the chest of] Zeir Anpin, grows to equal his full size,

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and a zivug is able to occur with the real yesod. Musaf means addition. Previously the Ari mentioned 'additional Shabbat' with regard to time immediately before and after Shabbat; this time has less sanctity than Shabbat proper. The concept of kedusha of the additional musaf prayer on Shabbat itself is greater than the rest of Shabbat. Israel and Rachel, the highest coupling, pair at that time. ZIVUG 2: This is the zivug of Yaakov and Rachel during the weekday shacharit [morning prayer]. It occurs through his real yesod. Like Shabbat musaf, this is a morning pairing. "To tell in the morning of Your lovingkindness." (Psalms 92:3) The morning is a time of mercy. In general, the feminine partzufim lean towards judgment. The pairing process sweetens the judgment. The judgments of Rachel are stronger than those of Leah. (Shaar HaKedusha Rosh Hashana) The great awakening of mercy in the morning affords the ability to sweeten Rachel. Therefore the pairing is then with it. ZIVUG 3: This is the zivug of Yaakov and Leah, and it occurs after chatzot [midnight]. At that time both enlarge, spreading to the full length of Zeir Anpin. [This unification happens] as a result of his single yesod. Night is a time of judgment. Midnight is the special, golden time when things are turned around. Yaakov and Leah are partzufim around Zeir Anpin that come from fallen lights of Abba. The movement of falling is a backside aspect that associates with night. The judgment is broken and sweetened at midnight. The gates open - opening the partzufim to expand. This results in expanding the consciousness of those below. For this reason, midnight is the choice time for meditation and communion with the Maker of All. (Likutei Moharan) ZIVUG 4: This is the zivug of Israel with Leah during the weekday minchah [afternoon prayer]. She only extends to the length of his upper half, until his chest-aspect. The zivug then takes place through his yesod that was originally toward Zeir Anpin, since he is only on the level of the six extremities [chesed through yesod], as we explained regarding prayer. (Shaar HaKedusha Tefila) Leah is the upper feminine aspect, Rachel is the lower. The day starts in a morning with Providence being channeled through the lower Rachel aspect. The coming afternoon period ascends to a channeling through the Leah aspect. Without the midnight sweetening, it remains only in the upper half of Zeir Anpin. The above does not contradict the idea that minchah is a time of judgment. The sun rises in the morning, representing the rise of chesed. At noon it begins to wane and set, representing the decrease of chesed. Both dynamics function simultaneously. As we find that Elijah was answered specifically at the time of minchah. (Berachot) Because the light is so high, it lends itself to lesser revelation and appears decrease.

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ZIVUG 5: This is the zivug of Yaakov with Leah during the weekday arvit [evening prayer], which occurs over the upper half of Zeir Anpin, and through another yesod. This is the same coupling as at midnight, without the extension. It is best to sleep the first part of the night. (Chagiga, Noam Elimelech) then to awaken at midnight (Likutei Moharan) and use the special time of good will for spiritual pursuits. (Zohar) Thus, there are five kinds of zivugim, and from them five types of yesodot. From each of these yesodot, wasted seed went out. These drops are the secret of the clothing of the souls, which always remain attached to the souls even after resurrection, as is the case with the rest of the kinds of clothing for the other souls. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The First Zivug
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Six, Section 3 Now we will explain these five levels. The first level, which is the most elevated zivug of them all, is that of Israel with Rachel. Unlike the other zivugim, it has two levels. Within the true yesod of Israel which joins with Rachel, there are five chasadim and five gevurot that flow from the mochin of Imma, and chasadim and gevurot from the mochin of Abba. For the yesod of Abba is [clothed] within Zeir Anpin emanating light and reaching as far down as the end of the yesod of Zeir Anpin. (Eitz Chaim Shaar Abba) Hence, there are ten gevurot, five from Abba and five from Imma, and they represent the level of the Ten Martyrs1, whose souls were enclothed within these drops. The five gevurot of Abba [expressed as]: Rebbe Akiva, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, Rebbe Yeshavev HaSofer, Rebbe Yishmael ben Elisha Kohen Gadol [the high priest], and Rebbe Yehudah ben Babba. It would seem to me that this is the actual order, since Rebbe Akiva was the chesed within gevurot, Rebbe Shimon ben Gamliel was the gevurot of the gevurot, etc. It should not surprise you that Rebbe Akiva’s soul was from the source of Cain which was Imma, as mentioned elsewhere, [in a previous chapter] and that the clothing of his soul was from Abba. This is not problematic, for the reason that we mentioned elsewhere , [in a previous chapter] when discussing how the chasadim of Imma can clothe the yesod of Abba and be called the gevurot of Abba. Furthermore, within yesod everything becomes intermingled, which is why Joseph could be close to all the tribes, since he was from the level of yesod. The rest of the clothing of the souls were for the five remaining martyrs, from the five gevurot of Imma. Since the ten martyrs were clothed in the level of gevurot and dinim

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[judgments], they needed to be killed because the kelipot adhere strongest to gevurot, and especially when from wasted seed as great as these. The ten chasadim of Abba and Imma were the ten garments for the souls of the ten students of Rebbe Shimon bar Yochai (Rashbi), mentioned in the holy Idra Rabba and Sefer HaTikunin. (Book of Rectifications). They were his son Rebbe Eliezer, Rebbe Abba, Rebbe Yehudah, Rebbe Yitzchak, etc. [Shmuel (son of Rabbi Chayim Vital) says: This requires investigation since other than the Rashbi himself, there were only nine students as mentioned at the beginning of Idra Rabba : "It was taught that the colleagues of Rebbe Shimon were before him, and they were: Rebbe Eliezer his son, Rebbe Abba, Rebbe Yehudah, Rebbe Yosi bar Ya’akov, Rebbe Yitzchak, Rebbe Chizkiah bar Rav, Rebbe Chiya, Rebbe Yosi, Rebbe Yaysa, etc." (Zohar III Naso 127b) Furthermore, at the end of the Idra (Ibid. 144b), it says, "Rebbe Shimon told them, 'We are the seven eyes of God, as it says, ‘these seven... the eyes of God’ (Zechariah 4:10)." Rebbe Abba said, "We are six candles who get their light from the seventh - you are the seventh of them all," and that was after three of them had already died, which clearly indicates that there were only nine. If you want to say that Rebbe Shimon bar Yochai was the tenth, it can’t be, since the Rashbi himself was on the level of yesod and not included in the ten chasadim. Perhaps we can say that there were eight when Rebbe Yaysa the Small joined them... And there is proof that Rebbe Yaysa completed the number of ten aside from the Rashbi.] Since they were on the level of chasadim, they did not have to be killed because the kelipot were not strongly attached to them. However, the three that died, mentioned in the holy Idra Rabba, Rebbe Yosi bar Ya’akov, Rebbe Chizkiah, and Rebbe Yaysa, were on the level of the three revealed chasadim of Imma2 that emanated light into the tiferet, netzach, and hod of Zeir Anpin. Thus, they ascended above to give off light to Zeir Anpin, as we know. When tzadikim die, they awaken M"N [returning light], from below to above. This activates the partzufim to unite. "Ten entered [the barn to learn with Rabbi Shimon] – [only] seven left." (Zohar III Idra Rabba) Their souls were elevated and powerfully attached above through listening to Rabbi Shimon. They departed in an intense state of rapture, causing a great unification above. This was the ultimate tikun of their souls... Rashbi was the level of yesod from which the ten drops came out, and he therefore had to teach them Torah and rectify them. However, the ten martyrs from the gevurot did not have a specific teacher for all of them, for the reason explained regarding the secret of tefilin according to the opinion of Rabeinu Tam, on the verse: (Psalms 32:10) "One who trusts in G-d will be surrounded by chesed". (Olot Tamid pg.81) The reason discussed there is that, with respect to the chasadim of Abba, they do not stand in the yesod of Abba, since it is a very narrow place. Therefore, they go out and surround yesod from without, which means that the chasadim of Abba stand within yesod of Imma and clothe the yesod of Abba. Unlike the gevurot, which lack unification, whether in yesod

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of Abba or Imma. Therefore, it was not possible to establish one teacher for all of them, for there is no one yesod unique to all of them who could teach them. Yesod is the point that manifests the light of a partzuf outside and so expresses through a teacher who gives his knowledge. 'Ahavah' [love] comes from the root 'yahaiv' - to give. It is a motion of uniting in oneness. For this reason, chasadim work together in a unified way and are devoted to a single yesod, unlike gevurot whose nature is to break apart. (Likutei Torah Baal HaTanya) From what my teacher once answered, I could see that this is not really the reason. For I once asked him regarding this, suggesting that two teachers could have existed corresponding to the two yesodot, but he wouldn’t answer me - seemingly because he did not want to reveal everything regarding this matter, though I don’t know why.3 Since the ten students of Rashbi were from the level of the chasadim and an excellent zivug, Israel with Rachel, all the secrets of Torah could be revealed to them without the need for any suffering. This will not be the case again until the generation of Moshiach, as mentioned in the Zohar in many places. (Zohar II 149a, 156a) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Zivug Two & Three
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Six, Section 4 ZIVUG 2: This is Yaakov with Rachel. As is known, there are not as many dinim in Rachel as there are in Leah, (Eitz Chaim) and Yaakov is from the emanation of light from the mochin of Abba within Zeir Anpin. (Eitz Chaim, Shaar Zeir Anpin) Therefore, only the five chasadim and the five gevurot of Abba are in his yesod. The level of this yesod was Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi1, who organized the Mishnah, and whose students, Rebbe Chiya, Rebbe Oshia, Bar Kapora, Levi bar Sisi, Rebbe Chanina bar Chama, Rav and others like them, were the drops of chesed and gevura that came out of him. ZIVUG 3: According to the ascending order of zivugim, this is Yaakov with Leah after chatzot, and even though Leah has dinim, after chatzot the dinim become sweetened. Furthermore, after chatzot, Yaakov extends to be the entire length of Zeir Anpin, which is not the case with the previous zivug of Yaakov and Rachel. From the yesod of this zivug ten drops come out, five chasadim and five gevurot from Abba. Thus, with respect to these two zivugim, the second zivug of Yaakov and Rachel, and the third zivug of Yaakov and Leah after chatzot, there was no need for them [the souls rooted here] to be killed - since they were from the yesod of Yaakov from the side

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of Abba, divest of any dinim from Imma. Also, within this third zivug there is another zivug, even though it was not written above, called 'kadruta d’tzafra' ['morning darkness' - dawn]. It has more mercy than chatzot since it is almost day at that time, when Yaakov and Leah return for another zivug, as mentioned in the Zohar. (Zohar II Shemot 10a) From this zivug only two drops come out, one with five chasadim and one with five gevuros. They are more elevated than the ten drops that came out after chatsos, and together they total twelve drops. Prior to chatzot, Yaakov and Leah protrude from the chest of Zeir Anpin upward, as in the case of zivug 5, which will be explained shortly. After chatzot, they stretch to the entire length of Zeir Anpin, and therefore the effect of the first yesod of Yaakov prior to chatzot remains, since Yaakov and Leah do not return back-to-back after chatzot. Because they remain face-to-face, and even extend their presence to the bottom [of Zeir Anpin], their effect is not canceled out. There are ten other drops that come out of yesod before chatzot, though they don’t actually exit until after chatzot. There are also another two like this that come out at the time of kadruta d’tzafra, and they are included with the first ten drops, since they are on a higher level than the second ten drops. Thus, within this third zivug there are four zivugim, though altogether they are considered only one zivug - from these come twenty-four drops. Each has its own yesod that extends out: two yesodot before chatzot and two after chatzot, and one is included in the other. So it is really all one yesod. At the end of this discussion, we will mention who these twenty-four drops were, and who was their teacher. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Zivug Four & Five
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Six, Section 5 ZIVUG 4: According to the ascending order of zivugim, this is the zivug of Israel with Leah during weekday mincha. Since they stand from the chest of Zeir Anpin upward, there is no room to spread to the chesed and gevura. Therefore, the chasadim gather in the right arm, and the gevurot in the left arm. So they are only called two drops. When this zivug occurs at mincha-time with Leah, which are dinim kashim [harsh judgments], then these drops are on the level of the two brothers Pappus and Lulinos who were killed in Lod. (Taanit 18b) Since they are on the level of Israel, they are strong [themselves] and so they have no recognizable yesod. Thus, they are without a

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yesod and a specific teacher. ZIVUG 5: This is last in the order, and it is Yaakov with Leah before chatzot, which is [a time of] dinim gemurim [absolute judgments]. They are those massacred in Beiter. Their yesod and teacher was Rebbe Elazar of Modi’in, who was killed in Beitar. There is a major difference between these fifty or more drops from these five zivugim, and the rest of the souls. They have a great advantage over the rest of the souls, since the rest of the souls are the result of a female arousal, who first seeks the zivug, desiring the male, after which he [in turn] desires it. Since the male does not pursue it on his own, but as a result of her, the resulting drops of chasadim and gevurot from this zivug do not come from the daat of the male itself, which is the source of its longing, rather from the chasadim and gevurot that spread within it to the six extremities. After, the drops are clothed and restrained there while among the six extremities. However, the fifty drops from the five zivugim are from the male arousal. The fact that they are inadvertent drops indicates that there was a desire to pair with the female and give these drops over to her, but that he could not find her since she was below in the world of Beriya, or similar. Therefore, they go to waste, which is why it is called l’vatalah [for naught]. So we find that since these drops are the result of the male arousal, emanating from the chesed and gevura of the daat aspect of the mind. When they flow through his six extremities, they do not become clothed there or held back, but by-pass them, which allows them to remain in their original form. So they are superior to the rest. This is all with regard to the clothing of the souls, from which the 248 limbs are made, into which the soul goes. They are from the original chasadim from when they were in Zeir Anpin and Nukva in Atzilut, and not from the chasadim after this. For the level of these souls of this clothing are also from the level of daat itself. And they were not drawn downward, therefore they are given clothing from the drops which also come from daat itself. Even though there is a strong connection between all these drops, nevertheless, this is only with respect to the drops that become the clothing. However, all the clothed souls themselves have a similar [general] root, because they all come from upper daat, but they are not bound as one since they don’t share a common particular root. These clothing-drops have an inner aspect and an outer aspect as well. For there are drops that flow from the mochin themselves [i.e. the inner aspect], which are clothed within the netzach, hod, and yesod of Abba or Imma, and there are drops that flow from the outer aspect, the clothing of the mochin -the vessels of the netzach, hod and yesod of Abba and Imma. These two levels are possible for either Zeir Anpin or Yaakov,

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but are from the upper daat itself. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Souls of the Last Generation
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Six, Section 6 All of these drops and clothing mentioned above which were the ten martyrs, the ten students of the RaSHbi, and the executed of Lod and Beitar, were all on the level of pnimiut [inner-ness]. There are also corresponding drops on the level of chitzoniut [outer-ness]. However, my teacher did not explain to me which righteous people use these clothing. There are drops and clothing referred to by the prophets as 'she’ierit' [remainder]. Those on the level of Israel are called "she’erit Israel". As it says, "She’ierit Israel [the remnant of Israel] will do no corruption." (Zephaniah 3:13) Those on the level of Yaakov are called, "she’erit Yaakov". As it says, "She’erit Yaakov will be among the nations." (Micah 5:7) Since there are five levels among the five zivugim, correspondingly the prophets mentioned she’erit Yaakov and she’erit Israel many times. "She’ar" is mentioned twice in the verse as well. "She’ier [the remnant] will return", "She’ar [the remnant] of Yaakov," (Isaiah 10:21) corresponding to she’erit Israel and she’erit Yaakov. According to the order of zivugim, the drops of the third zivug are higher than those of the fourth and fifth one. However, when it comes to the generations that come into this world, they represent the last of all five zivugim, that is those destined to come out in the last generation just prior to Mashiach’s arrival, G-d willing. This last generation will come out during a time of exile and they were alluded to in Isaiah’s prophecy, in the verse, "A prophecy of Duma: He calls out to Me from Se'ir." (Isaiah 21:11) As the Zohar explains, this prophecy refers to the final exile and that "leil" [night, mentioned in the verse] refers to before chatzot, and "lila" [another form of night, also in the verse] refers to after chatzot. They refer to the two groups mentioned above with respect to the third zivug, all of which are from the zivug after chatzot. It is just that twelve of them include the first-half of the night, and with respect to them Isaiah prophesized that the Shechina will cry out during the exile of Se'ir, which is the exile of Edom. (Gen. 36:8) And she will say to G-d, "Watchmen what of lila?" referring to one group of twelve drops, those from the zivug after chatzot which is called lilah. Regarding those called leil it says, "Watchman - what of leil"? The Holy One, Blessed is He, who is called "the Watchman", will answer her. As it says,

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"The Watchman said, ‘Morning is coming, but also night.’" (Isaiah 21:12) For, the "morning is coming" refers to those born from the zivug of the morning darkness, which is morning. Corresponding to the twenty born from the zivug after chatzot, it also mentions lila. It also says, "If you really desire it," meaning when these twenty-four drops come in the last generation, they must try hard to do teshuvah and beg and supplicate before G-d - so that He will save them from exile and redeem them. Therefore, the verse says, "The remnant will return, the remnant of Yaakov," within which the word "she’ar" is mentioned twice, corresponding to the two groups mentioned above. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Leaving the Kelipot
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Seven, Section 1 Every person has a soul on the level of or makif [surrounding light] - the part of the soul not contained within any type of vessel, that is, a body, and an or pnimi [internal light]. When Nadav and Abihu were born into this world, the[primary] tikun for the root of Cain began, the second and superior level of root from Adam. All the souls of this root came from the tzelem [image] of Nadav and Abihu, on the level of the or makif [which rests] on them. The soul and the body are intrinsically opposites. In order for them to be able to get together, there must a kind of intermediate category that draws from both. (Likutei Torah Baal HaTanya) This is the secret of the tzelem. The soul becomes clothed in a sort of quasispiritual organism (astral body) that affords it the ability to enter a body and dwell within it. It has an aspect of surrounding light that accompanies the person. These souls began their repair process with the birth of the first two, greatest sons of Aaron. (Zohar III) However, all of these souls were still not purified - only the two sparks of Nadav and Abihu themselves. The rest of the souls of this root, included in the tzelem of the or makif of Nadav and Abihu, still contained evil kelipot. When a soul comes into this world that was previously from the tzelem of Nadav and Abihu, it [thereby] becomes purified from the kelipot.1 The remainder of the souls of this root which are part of the tzelem from which this newly purified soul came remain amongst the kelipot. Thus, when a soul is purified and redeemed from within the kelipot and enters this world, the rest remain impure and part of the tzelem, in the

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secret of the or makif of the soul that was already purified. They 'hop on the bandwagon' of the newly cleansed soul. This is a step to help them also attain purity. As mentioned previously, the purification of a soul and when it comes into this world is not based upon its spiritual level, rather upon the situation created by man below. He determines the type of soul that will be drawn into his seed, as mentioned before in previous discussions. Sometimes, a very elevated soul will remain sunk in the kelipot for a long time, unable to exit until a certain merit related to its leaving can be arranged. Less-elevated souls can exit and enter this world even prior to others, because of a merit that was performed connected to their leaving. Based on the soul's root in the 613 commandments, it requires certain specific mitzvot to be a merit for it in order to be liberated from the sitra achra. Sometimes, a person may transgress in this world, and the kelipot will want to destroy him and draw him astray. At that point, they will draw a soul from his root to him, one which is sunk in the depths of the kelipot and full of chitzonom [outside energies]. They draw it out and it becomes like a tzelem for the person who transgressed, causing him to sin more. Being from his root and spiritually attached to him, it has the ability to steer him astray. This is a kabalistic example of how "the reward of sin is sin". (Pirkei Avot 2:1) The person is held somewhat responsible for the damage which the extra soul caused him to do because he drew it upon himself through doing the wrong things, The inner workings of this aspect of Providence are based upon "A person is led in the way he wants to walk". (Makot 10b) However, it can be that the soul they draw to him will be a great soul which happened to be immersed in the depths of the kelipot but [that] the kelipot assumed was already destroyed and unable to return to its former state. Instead, G-d will help it, arouse it from amongst the kelipot, and reveal its strength and holiness. As a result, it will instead help the person to do good. This is the secret of the verse, "The time when ha'adam [the man] exerts power over his fellow to his disadvantage" (Eccl. 8:9): The time when "ha'adam habliya'al [the despicable man]" - of the kelipot - exerts power over his fellow - the holy soul. However, in this case he made a mistake, for what he thought was to the benefit of the kelipot turns out to be just the opposite, as the Saba of Mishpatim explains. Afterwards, this soul itself (from the kelipot) will become purified and will also come into this world.

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Providence does this to as if 'trick' the sitra achra and bring about its designs.2 Although G-d is G-d (Ex. 3:14) and He can always do whatever He wants, He created a system with rules that He usually chooses to abide by.3 [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Process of Departure
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Seven, Section 2 As previously mentioned, as a result of the sin of Adam all of the souls became mixed good and evil, having fallen into the depths of the kelipot, into Adam Bliya’al, where they became hidden. Now, when it comes time for a soul to come into this world, it cannot immediately leave the depths of the kelipot through some merit of a person in this world. After that, it will reincarnate as many times as it needs to. Instead, it must first be included in the level of the tselem and Or makif three times on the heads of three different people from the same root, one after the other. After that, it can enter a body that is born and become a soul on the level of Or pnimi, which is considered to be the first actual reincarnation. After that, it will reincarnate as many times as it needs to. It can occur that the three previous people for whom he acted as the Or makif did not completely rectify themselves. If so, when he finally reincarnates for the first time, they can come with him to finish their own tikun. However, the name of the body will be his, the other three souls being only like guests - even though they remain there until death. A person who has come into the world for the first time will have a difficult time subjugating his yetzer hara, even if his soul is very high, since it is the beginning of his purification from the kelipot. Even while he was on the level of tselem he still contained kelipot. As a result, this person will be quite sad all of his days and find him himself worrying for no reason. In actuality, it is the kelipot that cause it. This is the secret of what happened to King David, who was close to G-d. Amazingly, his yetzer hara [seemed to somewhat] overcome him in the incidents involving BatSheba and Abigail.1 (Kings I) However, as said, it occurred because it was the beginning of his departure from the kelipot, as David wrote, "I am sunk in the mire of the shadowy depths." (Psalms 69:3) There are other verses to this effect. Thus, the sins of someone who has come into the world for the first time do not count before G-d as they do for others, since he is still affected by the kelipot, and it takes great effort to leave them. This is the secret of what the Sages say: "Had you not been David and he Saul, I would have destroyed many David’s before Saul." (Moad Katan 16b) Understand

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this well. ...each person comes from a different place and is so judged. How each person comes from a different place and is so judged. Therefore, only the One Who is "the place of the world, and the world is not His place" (Breishit Raba 68:10) can judge. For all of the places are by Him, and He alone truly understands them. Unless someone who is so nullified to G-d as to be included in Him... (Likutei Moharan II 1) Sometimes, the soul of a new person is very lofty but he [still] cannot overcome his yetzer hara - if he could, he would easily be very pious. This is a powerful lesson, for it explains why sometimes a person may only transgress lightly but receive a serious punishment, while someone else may perform a terrible sin, and yet not get punished for it. This is the secret of, "The deeds of the Rock are perfect, and all His ways are judgment." (Deut. 32:4) This is enough for those who comprehend, and therefore you cannot question the ways of G-d, or even of the righteous when they sin. A rock is an example in the physical world of solid, unchanging, stability. A rock is an example in the physical world of solid, unchanging, stability. The verse comes to teach that even though Providence may seem to the naked eye as acting partial, in truth, it is totally impartial and just. Just we do not have the whole picture... Furthermore, for someone who is from the level of Cain, who is a combined good and evil, the good is quite great. However, it is that the evil and zuhama [filth] are also very great and overpowering. This is because the entire root of Cain is from gevura, to which the kelipot and chitzonim [outside forces] adhere strongly. The left side of gevura works in a motion of constriction and concealment. In its root above in holiness, it is makes holy boundaries that create vessels for the light to dwell in and express out of. As this motion descends from world to world in the seder hahishtalshilus [chained order of cascading, descending realms], it eventually hides Divinity to the point of allowing place for the seemingly opposite to express. And so the side of gevura is the source of the sitra achra. One who comes from this place in holiness might be plagued by unusual tests. Ultimately, this is only to propel him to unusual heights. This is part of what the Arizal mentioned to understand well about David: Those like him who find themselves facing extra tests should be fortified by knowing that they have tremendous potential. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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The Effect of Sin on the Daat of Zeir Anpin
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Eight, Section 1 Zeir Anpin has three mochin: chochma, bina, and between them, daat - which contains chasadim and gevurot - two crowns. Wisdom, understanding, and knowledge are the three major faculties of the human mind. They are modeled after and come from the corresponding faculties of the supernal mind of Zeir Anpin. Chochma occupies the right side of the mind, bina the left. Daat is the balancing energy that lies between them. From it come decisions between the different sides of an issue. In order to be able to do this, it must be composed in and of itself of both right and left dynamics. The chesed/right and gevura/left aspects are called crowns. They jump down a step, from the shoulders of Abba and Imma, surrounding and crowning daat. When Adam sinned, he caused the moach of daat to descend between the two shoulders of Zeir Anpin, into the upper third of tiferet, until the chest. There, the chasadim separated and went into the right shoulder and the gevurot went into the left shoulder. Daat left its proper place in the mind and became part of the body. Daat left its proper place in the mind and became part of the body. This caused it to diminish in quality. A simple way of understanding this is to say that the mind, which was meant to soar above and probe celestial vistas, sold out and became used for mundane pursuits. The test was with the tree of daat/knowledge, as mentioned, because daat decides. Resisting eating from the energy of mixed knowledge would have immediately perfected their mind and given them a ticket to eternal utopia. Partaking of the tree caused the daat to become defected and brought it down to places it was never meant to operate in. Learning and living the Torah fixes and elevates the daat. The general idea behind how it does this is that it properly balances and puts in synch the right and left side of the mind. This results in the person enjoying a perspective of reality according to what it truly is. In such a headset, one can see how important each idea and thing is relative to itself and to everything else. From this mentality, one can understand how to harmonize his life and the world around. Since Cain and Abel were born after Adam sinned, Cain was from the gevurot in the left shoulder after they arrived there and became unable to give off light as they did when part of the moach itself above. Another negative result was that while the daat was in the head above where it belongs, the chitzoniyut [externality] of the nefesh came from the bone and flesh of the head itself. For, as is known, every soul has a penimiyut [inner aspect] and chitzoniyut

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[external], its clothing. Thus it was that the penimiyut was from the gevurot of the moach daat and was related to its chitzoniyut, which was from the bone and flesh of the left side of the head. However, once the moach daat descended, the peniminiyut of the soul of the root of Cain remained in the moach of gevurot in the daat, but the chitzoniyut was now from the left shoulder-limb, and they were no longer related to each other. It also causes one to be 'two-faced', besides dividing between family and friends. This is the cause of an ailment that plagues many of the Cain root: Self-separation, fragmentation, and even sometimes schizophrenia. It also causes one to be 'two-faced', besides dividing between family and friends. The ultimate source of this itself is the root of Cain in the world of Tohu [chaos]. There, the lights are separate from the vessels… (Eitz Chaim, Shaar HaShemot) The tikun process involves lessening the light in order that it should fit in the vessels. This is done primarily through nullifying the ego. In terms of the mind and shoulder mentioned here, they must be 're-united'. This involves aligning one's actions to his mind - his understanding of how he should act. "Practice what you preach." Furthermore, the peniminiyut no longer gives off light as it once did - before while in the head. The second lacking on the level of chitzoniyut is that they are now from the bottom, that is the shoulder, and not from their rightful place: galgalta [the skull]. Even though a person in this world does not have the ability to correct these defects even through mitzvahs [good deeds], still, performing mitzvahs is to his merit. Even though the good things we do cannot change and correct everything that needs fixing, it is good to do them. For they aid the process of all corrections eventually coming to full fruition. For in the time of Mashiach, these defects will be rectified and the daat will return to its proper place in the head. The peniminiyut of the soul will give off light as it did previously, and the chitzoniyut will come from their proper location: galgalta. I don’t know if my teacher told me whether the chitzoniyut from the left shoulder will also remain there in the time of Mashiach with the peniminiyut of the soul, since they were joined together in this world, or just the opposite. Furthermore, just as the daat descended between the shoulders as a result of Adam’s sin, so too did the partzuf of Leah descend from the backside of the daat of Zeir Anpin, which is her proper place. After the sin of Adam, she also descended to the back side of the shoulders, since Leah is from the malchut of Imma, which is in the daat of Zeir Anpin,

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enclothed within yesod Imma. (Eitz Chaim, Shaar Leah v'Rachel) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Root of Rabbi Akiva’s Soul
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Eight, Section 2 You should know that all the souls mentioned, like that of Rabbi Akiva and others like him, are from the root of Cain, which is from gevurot of hod of daat - the fifth gevura. Also, all the souls from gevurot of hod in the daat of Leah are related to the root of Rabbi Akiva they are considered one root. You can draw a parallel from this to the root of Abel, which is from the chasadim of daat. [This is] the issue of the Cain-root, and from it you can extrapolate and apply to the Abel-root. The choicest special ones fell further down than all of the rest. All the sparks of souls from the Cain-root were dependent upon Cain. When he sinned, all of them became mixed in the kelipot. The choicest special ones fell further down than all of the rest. Because the sin of Cain blemished the [level of] machshava elyona [i.e. supernal thought], as mentioned in Sefer HaTikunim, Tikun 69. The place of the soul-root Rabbi Akiva ben Yosef was the hands. In the secret of, "And his hand was holding the heel of Esau." (Gen. 25:26) This verse is said about Yaakov. Akiva shares the same letters of Yaakov, for he came from him. Therefore was he so outstanding in Torah - the quality of Yaakov. The hands have the ability to go down as far as the heel or as high up as the head, unlike the rest of the limbs. Therefore, these limbs fell to the depths of the kelipot, until the heel. When Rabbi Akiva was killed, he ascended to the machshava helyona. "The bigger they are - the harder they fall." This is the secret of what G-d told Moses [when Moses saw a vision of] the death of Rabbi Akiva, "Quiet! This is what arose in machshava [i.e. thought]" (Menachot 29b) that is to fix the defect. So we find that all souls that are from the hand, through good deeds, are able to ascend to a very high level without limit, more than many other people who preceded them from earlier generations. Remember this. Furthermore, even if a soul from the root of Cain comes into the world for the first time as a

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new soul, still he must rectify the blemish that occurred to his nefesh, ruach, and neshama from the sin of Cain - on the level of the portion of the root of which he is part. Earlier we explained how positive and negative mitzvahs are dependent upon the 248 limbs of Adam’s soul, and how every limb includes flesh, tendons, and bones. The bones, the highest level, are on the level of the moach [bone-marrow] within them, and not on that of the bones themselves. The...[tendons]...tie together all the limbs making them a single unit. The next level down is the tendons, since a person's life-force runs through them, the blood moving through the arteries of the body. They also tie together all the limbs making them a single unit. The least of the three levels is the flesh. On all three levels, flesh, tendons, and bones, there are souls which are considered to be the root of the level. They are the talmidei chachamim [Torah Scholars], ba’alei battim [householders], ba’alei ma’ase [doers of good deeds], and amei ha’Aretz" [simpletons]. This is true of all three levels in every limb. There are long limbs, like the arms and thighs, within which there are large gaps between the souls. However, talmidei chachamim from the shoulder-limb and the like are very closely knit. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Effect of Sin on Cain
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Nine, Section 1 As it is known, had Adam, who was created on day six, waited until Shabbat night to procreate with Eve, the worlds would have become rectified. However, since he did not wait, Cain was born with a mixture of good and evil, as will be explained. Furthermore, had Cain the firstborn not sinned, then he and his twin [sister] would have been like chochma and bina, and Abel and his twin [sister] like tiferet and malchut. Originally, there was no negative energy within man - only outside of him. Its vehicle was the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Adam's job was to rectify it. He was to do this by refraining from partaking of it until Shabbat . Hand and hand with this is that he was also to wait to cohabit until Shabbat . Shabbat is the day of all good and perfection. A great light shines on it that subjugates all negativity and augments shining revelation. (Zohar) Just waiting for the Shabbat process to take effect was all that was necessary to perfect the universe. Because they didn't wait,

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reality has to take a small six millennium detour! In truth, 6,000 years is still as nothing compared to eternity. The bliss to come when everything reaches completion will be forever... We see how important the quality of patience is. One who examines his life will see that a great part of the tests involve waiting. Growing up in a society that bombards the mind with constant messages that life is about instant gratification, may make it hard to implement this. One can reflect on the lesson of this teaching to help: According to how well a person masters his desire for instant gratification, he fixes a major part of his portion in the original sin. Cain was born first, so most of the negativity injected into Eve from eating from the tree came out in him. (Zohar) This produced his murderous tendencies, among other things. Had he not sinned, he would have assumed the full spiritual stature that his soul was rooted in: Cain and his mate embodied chochma and bina. After he defected, these levels did not fully express in him.1 These levels are intrinsically above the world as we know it, which is run primarily from the Abel aspects of Zeir Anpin and Nukva. Providence wants the universe to ascend and assume these higher aspects. However, once he killed Abel, it was not possible anymore for this to happen right away. First Shet had to be born - the one to assume and revive the Abel aspect; Cain had to wander. This is the beginning of the tikun. This entire Sha’ar Hagilgulim is focused on the Cain tikun - how to bring the super-energies into fruition in this world. Later in history, Esau and Jacob were like Cain and Abel - had Esau been righteous, he would have surpassed Jacob. Because the firstborn is from chochma, and Jacob [who was born after], is from tiferet.2 However, since Esau sinned, the right of the firstborn was taken from him and Jacob received a double-portion, his own and that of his brother. Therefore, [in his aspect of] Jacob, [he] corresponds to tiferet, whereas [in his aspect of] Israel, [he] corresponds to chochma. This is the meaning of, "Isaac loved Esau, for his trappings were in his mouth." (Gen. 25:28) He understood Esau’s phenomenal potential and wanted to bring it out. "Trappings" refer to the wealth of super energized sparks that he saw lying in the Esau root. They are as if trapped in the hands of the sitra achra and they need to be ‘retrapped’. This is the secret of why Isaac wanted to give the blessings to Esau: he hoped through the power of the blessings to magnetize the sparks to his side of holiness. G-d saw that that was not going to happen. He therefore influenced Rebecca to prompt Jacob to take the blessings... "Everything [below] is as above." (Zohar) Root-themes above were programmed into reality in the creation process in order that they should play out in man below. Before the order of this universe came out, there was the world of Tohu [chaos], so called because of the chaotic state prevalent there. Too much light was poured into the vessels and they shattered. The lights departed and flew above. The shards fell down and from them

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came the sitra achra. Immediately, a repair process started. The lights were toned down and drawn into the vessels. This became the world of Tikun [rectification]. Cain and Abel are embodiment of Tohu and Tikun. The world endures in the Tikun/Abel mode. But it was not meant to stay this way. Providence directs things in such a way to eventually bring the superior Cain energy out. A major step in the process comes out through Jacob /Abel /Tikun and Esau /Cain/Tohu. This is the idea here behind Esau being greater than Jacob. In the words of Rabbi Avigdor Miller Z"l, if Esau had done teshuvah, we would be saying "Lord of Esau " in the Amida prayer! As said, because Adam sinned on Friday, the snake was able to impart zuhama [spiritual contamination] to Eve, and this resulted in Cain and Abel being born with good and evil combined within them. However, there was a difference between them Cain was mostly evil, whereas Abel was mostly good. This means that the NR"N of Cain was from BY"A of holiness, and that these three became mixed together with the NR"N of the kelipot. However Abel , although like Cain in that his NR"N was also from BY"A of holiness, only his nefesh and ruach became intermingled with the kelipot. Thus his neshama remained completely good, without a trace of evil. This is what it means to be mostly good and partially evil. The three components of both sides are not equal. In the case of Cain, all three on both sides were mixed together. At this point, we will no longer discuss Cain’s gilgulim and we will instead explain the gilgulim of Abel, his brother. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Incarnations of Abel
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Nine, Section 2a As we already know, a ruach cannot reincarnate until the nefesh has [first] done so and been rectified. (Chapter One, Section 2) When the ruach itself has been repaired, the neshama will then undergo rectification. In Abel’s case, though the nefesh and ruach were damaged and mixed together with evil, his neshama remained completely good. Thus, when his nefesh reincarnated, it first went to Seth the son of Adam. This caused the evil to be separated out, which was later given to Balaam the wicked. In both of these levels, the good and the evil of the nefesh was previously included in Abel. As

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alluded to in his name - the hei of Abel hinting to the good which was given to Seth. This is the secret of the verse, "Everything You shattah/ShT [placed] under his feet," (Psalms 8:7) which has the letters ShT/Seth, plus the hei. We already explained that this psalm is about Moses, about whom it says, "You made him only slightly less than the angels" (Psalms 8:6) - he is Seth himself, as we will soon explain. The evil of Abel’s nefesh is represented by the letters beit-lamed, which is the secret of the verse, "They know bal [not] such judgments." (Psalms 147:20) For these two letters refer to the kelipot and the beit-lamed of Bilaam. "Elo-him made this (the sitra achra) opposite that (the side of holiness)" (Eccl.). Balaam stands opposite Moses, on the wrong side of the fence. Therefore does the Ari. put them together in this paragraph. This is seen in Bilaam's name: BL (beit-lamed) are the beginning and end letters of the Torah, A (ayin)= 70, faces of the Torah. M (mem)= 40 - days on Mt. Sinai. (Likutei Moharan) LB is also laiv, meaning "heart";. "the Merciful One wants the heart. (Sanhedrin 106) The Torah was given for the heart and it associates with bina. "Bina, dinim awaken from it(Zohar) Therefore, these same letters are explained here to refer to the hold of the sitra achra. Balaam was a very great soul. Soon we will we see that Providence brought him back many times and was busy in his tikun. His problem was an impure heart (Avot 5:19) as seen from his reincarnation in Nabal, whose heart died in him. Therefore, these heart letters are the ones through which the negative energies nurtured from Balaam. We mentioned previously that even the level of evil that was separated from the good must of necessity contain an element of holy sparks. This is the secret of Balaam the prophet and what the Sages mean when they say that "he was equal to Moses (Bamidbar Raba 20) who was from the good of Seth, as we shall explain. The little amount of good that was in Balaam reincarnated into Nabal the Carmelite, which was the beginning of the tikun. Balaam’s only power was in his mouth, by speaking loshon hara [slander] and cursing. Therefore, after Pinchas killed him he reincarnated into a rock that could not speak, to rectify the loshon hara that came from his mouth; as we stated, a person can reincarnate into domaim [inanimate], tsomai’och [vegetation], chaya [living], or medabeir [speaking]. However, when Nabal followed in his ways and spoke loshon hara about King David saying, "Who is David and who is Ben Yishai?" (Samuel I 25:10), he reversed the tikun. Not only did he not rectify the previous sin but he added to the damage. Therefore it says, "and he was a rock," (Samuel I 25:37) since his mazel saw how previously he had reincarnated into a silent stone, and then "His heart died within him." King David was the expression of Moses in his generation. Therefore was Nabal/Balaam against him. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Abel's Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Nine, Section 2b The Nefesh of Abel ...the good nefesh of Abel was given to Seth... Thus, the good nefesh of Abel was given to Seth, who completely rectified it. The evil part of the nefesh of Abel which still had some holy sparks in it, reincarnated into Balaam, and then into Nabal. So the letters beit-lamed are in nun-beit-lamed/Nabal as well. After the nefesh was completely rectified, it was then possible to rectify the ruach. The ruach is from the six extremities of chesed, gevura, tiferet, netzach, hod, and yesod, which are included in the three lines - right, left, and middle. The Ruach of Abel The ruach reincarnated into Noah the tzadik, who was the level of the emanation of the six extremities of [the ten inter-included sefirot of] tiferet. When he fathered three sons, the ruach, which incorporates the mentioned three lines, reincarnated into them: Yefet corresponds to chesed, Ham to gevura, and Shem to tiferet. The level of tiferet within Shem is the level of the sefira of tiferet itself, which also includes [in itself] all six extremities. The flood was an expression of its supernal predecessor Tohu... Tiferet is the sefira of harmony and balance. The flood was an expression of its supernal predecessor Tohu, and so wrought chaos and havoc in the universe. Noah and his sons rebuilt existence, drawing from the Tikun dynamic, whose theme is balance. (Eitz Chayim) This happened especially through Shem. Abraham came from him and fathered the people who were to accept responsibility for the full tikun of the world through the Torah, whose intrinsic quality is tiferet. The world comes from the partzuf of Zeir Anpin. (Eitz Chayim) Accordingly, its central energy is tiferet. However, the ruach was not rectified since the evil within it was not being completely separated out, as was the case with the nefesh through Balaam. Since there remained a combination of good and evil, Tevi the servant of Rabban Gamliel was born into Ham, Noah's son [who was cursed to be a slave]. (Gen. 9:25) This is why he is called 'tet-veit-yud/Tevi', because he was from the level of good [in Hebrew, 'tov' - spelled tet-

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veit] that was still mixed together with evil, and it was given to him. Starting from a negative place, the letters tet-veit of goodness was not enough to help him out of it, so he has an additional Y, the only letter whose form does not touch the bottom of the line. Its transcending energy lifts off the ground elevating above the hold of the negative forces. Accordingly, tet-veit-yud equals 21, the gematria of EHY"H, the name of bina, the transcending eighth level. The Talmud tells about him in terms of the mitzvah of Sukkah, which draws from bina. We can learn from his example. Every soul comes to the world with some of the ‘nonblessing’ baggage of the original sin, according to their root in it. It is what causes all problems in life. It is possible for each one to elevate above the complications through attaching to bina - the blessed source of sweetening. And so too, they were freed from Egypt through the power of bina. (Zohar II) ...the neshama reincarnated into Moses... The Neshama of Abel Later, the neshama reincarnated into Moses, since it never contained an element of evil. So it says regarding it, "She saw that it [Moses' neshama] was [completely] good" (Ex. 2:2) - unlike the nefesh and ruach which were mixed with evil. We have already taught that the ruach cannot come until the nefesh has been completely rectified, and likewise the neshama until the ruach has achieved tikun. Once the ruach has been rectified, then the nefesh can return with it; once the neshama has been rectified, the nefesh and ruach can come and return with it. Since the neshama of Moses was already rectified, the nefesh and the ruach, which had already achieved tikun, were able to come back in him. This is hinted to in his name, with the shin of SheT/Balaam being part of Moses [in Hebrew, Mosheh], as well as the two letters of shin-mem/Shem. There is also [in Moses' name] the H/hei of Abel. The Zohar points out that shin and tet are the last letters of the alphabet. After Adam sinned, the world went way off base. There was still hope for fixing through his sons Cain and Abel. The former murdering the latter made things fall to the end of the line. Seth started the reversal process which would eventually result in everything being returning to proper order. "Seth/Shet [means] 'that from whom the world was established [in Hebrew, ‘hushtat’]'." (Tikunei Zohar, 469, 110b) shinprecedes tet in his name, just as it does in the alphabet, signifying that the reverse order of the letters (See Likutei Moharan II) caused by destructive behavior was reset into place. Shin-mem/Shem has the shin of order. In his name it proceeds to take a step further to couple with mem, forming the concept of ‘name’. "That He placed Names in the land." (Psalms 46:9) Everything gets its existence-force from the Divine Names within creation. The original sin shrouded this. The good deeds of Shem greatly fixed and began to reveal

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this again. Moses has the shin-mem of Shem, plus the heiof Abel... Moses has the shin-mem of Shem, plus the hei of Abel - the source that Seth and Shem come to fix. The reconnecting to the source of Moses demonstrates a special degree of tikun to the whole scenario. heiis the letter of malchut. Moses liberated from Egypt, split the sea, brought down the Torah, etc. These tremendous accomplishments greatly elevated malchut and repaired the broken Abel root. This is the meaning of the verse, "Look You say to me... and You said, ‘I shall know you by shem [name]’..." (Ex. 33:12) [How could he say this?] We don’t find this conversation mentioned anywhere in a verse. Rather, it is an allusion to the fact that Shem reincarnated into Moses, from the words, "I shall know you by shem [name]." Noah as well reincarnated into Moses, alluded to in the words, "and you have found favor [in Hebrew, chein , spelled chet-nun] in My eyes" (ibid.), which is the reverse spelling of NCh/Noach. Moses incorporated both roots and used them to help the universe. Noach means both grace and rest. It is used to refer to the graceful Shabbat peace. Through it Moses received the Torah on Shabbat and brought grace and rest to the world. Through the Shem-force he extended the grace to reveal how "He calls them all by name" (Psalms 46:9) - how precious each name and each individual is above. Since Shem is revealed in the letters of Moses, the term of knowing is employed. As it says, "know you by name," - since it is known and revealed. However, since Noah is not hinted to in the name Moses, "knowing" is not mentioned, but "finding" instead: and you have found favor - as if something hidden was found.1 This is why Moses responds, "If I have indeed found favor in Your eyes, then make Your ways known to me" (Ex. 33:13), but not, "If You have come to know me by name, if I have found favor," since the level of Shem was already known to him - already revealed in his name. However, [Moses was really saying:] I didn’t know that the level of Noah was in me since it was not included in my name. Accordingly, if [the] Noah [aspect] is also included in me and as a result, "I have found favor in Your eyes," in exchange for Noah, "make Your way known to me, that I may know You, so that I may find favor in Your eyes." For, also with respect to Noah it is now clearly known, since "I found favor in Your eyes" - in order that his [aspect] should be included in me [and made manifest]. After this, God gave a great revelation to Moses. "‘And you shall see My back - and My face You shall not see.’ (Ex. 33:23) He showed him the tefilin knot." (Brachot 7a) The Ari"Zl explains that Abigail referred to this level when she said to David, "And the soul of

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my master shall be bound up in the bundle of life – G-d your L-rd." (Samuel I 25:29) Tefilin awareness is like the "back"... The level of Divine awareness brought to the consciousness on Shabbat is higher than that of tefilin, which are worn during the week. Tefilin awareness is like the "back", relative to Shabbat. As mentioned, Noah hints to the Shabbat state. It is a state of the world-to-come. (Brachot 57b) On Shabbat, a taste is given to everyone - but it remains mostly hidden. It could not even be fully revealed to Moses. He was given the backside-tefilin light. Thus, it is like Noah [in Hebrew, noach , spelled nun-chet] backwards - "for you have found favor [in Hebrew, chein , spelled chet-nun ] in My eyes". [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Other Matters
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Nine, Section 3 [Shmuel said: I found other scattered, but congruent writings, from discussions regarding Adam. I decided to include them here, even though they lack relevance to this particular discussion.] It is said that before the sin of Adam, he incorporated the four worlds of ABY"A, and all five levels of each world: yechida, chaya, neshama, ruach, and nefesh. When he sinned, some of them were removed and returned to their holy places. They are level one. Some remained with Adam, but the kelipot have no effect over them. These are level two. Some remained and fell within the kelipot, male souls into male kelipot, and female souls into female kelipot. They are level three. Level two divides into two parts, the first part being the souls that remained within Adam for the sake of his own body, and the second part being those that remained with him but which were inherited by his sons Cain and Abel when they were born. We will now briefly explain the three levels, after a short introduction: The four worlds of ABY"A are [alternately] called, Abba, Imma, Zeir Anpin, and Nukva. There are no kelipot on the level of Abba/chochma, the first three [sefirot] of Imma [bina], and the levels of keter within Zu"N. With respect to the rest of the levels, the kelipot do latch on when people sin. The underlying point here is that kelipot are as if the antithesis of Divinity. G-d gives good, life, light - kelipot take and/or hide them. In a realm of complete G-dliness, kelipot

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automatically have no place. This explains why they cannot exist in Abba/chochma/Atzilut.1 The upper triad of Imma, and the keter’s of Zu"N, although much lower than Abba, do manifest enough Divinity to nix kelipot from breeding. "They die - but not in chochma." (Ecc.) In order to nix the hold of kelipot from the self, one must draw chochma-force. It is the power of nullification/self-sacrifice. The more chochma drawn, the more kelipot/ego are eradicated from the self. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Man’s Supernal Glow
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Twenty-Nine, Section 4 All levels to which the kelipot do not latch on are called zihara ila’a d’Adam HaRishon [supernal glow of Adam, the first man], except for the nefesh [part] of each level. This includes the levels of yechida, chaya, neshama, and ruach of the world of Atzilut/Abba; the Abba and Imma of Beriya/Imma1; the twenty ketarim in the Zu"N of Beriya, the eight ketarim in Abba, Imma, and Zu"N of Yetzira3 and the Abba, Imma, and Zu"N of Asiya - altogether ten partzufim. A little commemoration of the perfect state is left in each world... We see that the concept of zihara ila'a relates to the utopian state that was predominant before the original sin. It was negated by the sin, so those special precious lights flew away. The rectification process prepares the world to receive them again. A little commemoration of the perfect state is left in each world, to enthuse and give something to aspire to. Deep inside, everyone has some hidden point of utopian zihara ila. It is accessed through meditation. Understanding where it exists in the worlds helps activate it in the corresponding aspects of the self. For each person contains all of the worlds in microcosm.4 Now, each partzuf contains ten sefirot and each sefira itself has ten, making one hundred ketarim of ten partzufim. In turn, each keter has ten sefirot and four upper levels of yechida, chaya, neshama, and ruach. All of this is called zihara ila’a, and it is part of that which was completely removed from Adam and ascended to its holy place. "And it is your sins that separate between you and your Lord." (Hagiga) Going against the Divine will prevents the soul from connecting to G-d and His effulgence. "The commandments of G-d are upright - rejoicing the heart." (Ps. 19:8) They restore the soul to the perfect state of being. This is why some minute expression of the dazzling light of the zihara ila was visible on certain tzadikim, whose countenance light up a dark room.5 There are two levels of zihara.

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There are two levels of zihara. The first is zihara ila’a of Atzilut, composed of yechida, chaya, neshama, and ruach of the world of Atzilut. The second level is zihara ila’a of BY"A, which incorporates the entire two partzufim of Abba and Imma, that is, the chaya and neshama of the world of Beriya, and Arich Anpin, or the yechida of Beriya; the four levels of yechida, chaya, neshama, and ruach of each keter from the one hundred ketarim of the ten partzufim from the Zu"N of Beriya through the Nukvah of Asiya. All of these are called zihara ila’a of the three worlds of BY"A, as mentioned. These two types of zihara ila’a were completely removed from Adam [when he sinned] and are called level one. Level two is also considered to be zihara ila’a to which the kelipot do not latch on, but since it is a lesser level, it was not removed from its place completely and remained with Adam and is the nefesh of the world of Atzilut; this is one level of Atzilut. The second level is the nefesh of the hundred ketarim in the three worlds of BY"A. Both stayed with Adam and are called level two. Level three is the rest of the sefirot of the ten partzufim - other than the one hundred ketarim, they all fell off him and down to the place of the kelipot. I heard from my teacher that level two is divided into two sections, and that the upper section is those souls that stayed with Adam in his body, and that the second lesser section is the souls that Cain and Abel inherited upon birth. But I’m not sure if this only applies to this level, and so on other levels the second section is higher than the first. I am also in doubt as to which souls remained with Adam and which were given to Cain and Abel, and the order of how this second level was divided. Cain and Abel contain two levels, one being their actual souls themselves from the three worlds of BY"A only, like the rest of people who are not from level two. The other is the second section of level two which Adam their father bestowed upon them; it includes [parts] from all four worlds - from the bottom of Asiya until the beginning of the nefesh of Atzilut. It is a very elevated soul. ...Cain and Abel took the nefesh of Atzilut... We also wrote that the two sections of level two are equal, with the exception of the first level only, which we mentioned there. We also wrote that Cain and Abel took the nefesh of Atzilut, and it seems that the second section of level two in Cain and Abel is higher than the rest of the souls that remained in Adam for his own sake. We also wrote that the nefesh of Atzilut did not actually remain in Adam and that it was not completely removed either. Rather, it hovered above the head of Adam until Cain and Abel were born at which time they took it, as well as the other sections of the three worlds of BY"A. We also wrote that after Adam sinned, Enoch took the zihara of Arich, Adam the zihara of

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Abba, Eve of Imma, Abel of Zeir Anpin, and Cain of Nukvah.6 I do not know if all of these are considered to be sections of Atzilut, or of BY"A. Further investigation is required. I also did not hear from my teacher who took the first three - Arich Anpin, Abba, and Imma of Beriya, whether it was Adam or Cain and Abel, his sons. This too needs further investigation, and in another place I wrote that Moses, who was the gilgul of Abel, took them. I also wrote that the da’at of Zeir Anpin is made up of the two joints of the two arms of Arich Anpin, which are joined at the two shoulders of Arich Anpin, which are called 'inheritance', since Abba and Imma bestowed them to their children Zu"N. The rest of the four joints of the two arms remained for them, and they are called achstanta d’Abba v’Imma [the inheritance of Abba and Imma]. Kabbalah views the main body as being the torso. The arms implement the thoughts in the brain and allow the torso to express. They are so as an inheritance, which children use to implement the will and aspirations of their parents. Cain and Abel came out of this da’at of Zeir Anpin. For since Adam and Eve, who are called Abba and Imma, took the level of four joints for themselves, from which chochma and bina were made twice for the two of them, and the two joints that they bestowed to their children are called the da’at of Zeir Anpin. The rest of the mochin Adam left for himself... It seems this way from another explanation. The rest of the mochin Adam left for himself; he only bestowed the da’at to his sons Cain and Abel. Thus we can say that he gave every portion of the da’at to Cain and Abel, from the da’at of the nefesh of Atzilut until the da’at of Nukveh of Asiyah, leaving for himself the rest of the sections of the mochin chochmah and bina within him, which extend through all ten sefiros of his body. Even chesed and gevura of da’at that he bestowed to Cain and Abel also spread out through the entire body of Zeir Anpin to the ten sefirot within him. This is clear. From this you can understand what was lacking from the souls of Cain and Abel compared to those souls that remained in Adam for himself. For the main impact of the kelipot is to the da’at [knowledge], in the secret of the tree of knowledge of good and bad. Cain and Abel were entrusted with the job of fixing their parents mistake. Da’at is a fusion of chasadim and gevurot. (Eitz Chayim) They each draw to a different side, creating the decision dilemma. Choice happens in and comes from da’at. It so is the pressure place that needs fixing from the original sin, which accordingly happened from the tree of da’at. Cain and Abel were entrusted with the job of fixing their parents mistake. They so had to come from da’at. Therefore it says, "And Cain yada7 [knew] his wife.

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However, on their levels themselves, the souls that come from da’at give off more light than the souls that come from the two mochin of chochma and bina, which have many layers of clothing and veils. This is known from the levels of Nadab and Abihu which were above Elazar and Ithamar, as written elsewhere.. There we explained well all the doubts regarding Cain and Abel, and how Cain and all his male sparks came out from the gevurot of the crown of Nukvah. Look well over there. [A small introduction regarding the secret of yibum (levirite marriage8). This is what he said:] When a man must reincarnate and dies, and after that a son is born to him, since his wife was expecting when he died, the man himself reincarnates into the body of the son - this is the secret of yibum. This is the secret of Abaye the amora who was born after his father died. His father reincarnated [into his son’s body], which is why he is called Abaye [meaning "his father"], since his father reincarnated into him.9 I don’t think this came from my teacher, rather from Rav Elazar HaLevi. [A small introduction.] There are souls that are not from the root of the holiness of Shabbat itself, but are included in tosefet haShabbat10 [addition to Shabbat]. They only contain that level and are not able to ascend higher than it, since it is the source of their root. The Rabbis learn out that it is possible to receive the sanctity of the Sabbath before sundown, when it officially comes to all, and to keep it after nightfall the next day, when it officially leaves.(Yoma) There is a special root of Shabbat holiness. Additional Shabbat is drawn from a lesser place.11 [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Sparks of Adam’s Limbs
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty, Section 1 Regarding the performance of mitzvot, it is important to know that every limb from the 248 limbs of the soul of Adam includes its own set of 248 limbs. ...every individual spark contain something from the entire limb... This will be an explanation as to why it is not sufficient for a person to perform only those mitzvot that are relevant to his root. For just as each limb incorporates something from the 248 Limbs and so every limb is obligated to fulfill all 613 mitzvot, so too does every individual spark contain something from the entire limb, and is therefore commanded to

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fulfill all 613 mitzvot. (Bnei Aharon) Therefore, the entire posture of Adam was dependent upon it. Thus for example, someone who comes from the shoulder-limb includes 248 limbs from head to heel. The entire macrocosm is included in the microcosm as it says, "Man is a small world." (Tanya IV, chap. 12) Therefore, "A person is obligated to say, 'The world is created for me' (Sanhedrin 4:5) and accordingly to seek to fix it." (Likutei Moharan 5) Since man actually includes in himself all aspects of all parts of existence, working to perfect himself is a method to fix the entire universe. Someone whose soul is specifically from the heel of the shoulder does not have to rectify the entire shoulder and all its defects - just the level of the heel itself.1 However, if a soulspark from the level of the heel caused a defect, then all the sparks of the heel do have to rectify this blemish, since all of the sparks of the heel are interdependent. When the entire heel is rectified, then not one spark will have to reincarnate to rectify any defects for the rest of the sparks of the shoulder. Furthermore, if a spark from the heel transgresses in such a way as to necessitate reincarnation to rectify the damage, it will do so with another [spark] from the heel to help him rectify it. However, if the transgression was one that results in the destruction of the body (i.e., excision), then that spark alone will reincarnate into another body without a partner while the first body will be destroyed. he will continue to do so until he completes all the 613 mitzvot. If however he has to reincarnate only to make up for a mitzvah yet to be fulfilled, then he will not need to reincarnate with another spark - he alone will reincarnate into a second body. Thus, he will continue to do so until he completes all the 613 mitzvot. At the time of resurrection, all the bodies will return and take the portion that was completed while in them. More than one body of the same person can resurrect! Each one will contain within it the sparks that were rectified during its specific gilgul. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Reincarnation to Complete a Mitzvah
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty, Section 2 We will now explain another difference between one who must reincarnate to complete a mitzvah and one who does so to rectify a defect. If a spark...completely rectifies its souls, then all sparks...that preceded it become revealed... If a spark from the heel completely rectifies its souls, then all sparks of the heel that preceded it become revealed to it and illuminate it, giving off light in one body, in the secret of ibur [added soul] - and they help it in all its ways of serving God. If he sins, they are removed from him, Heaven forbid. So we see that the effect of actions is collective. It is like putting money in a bank, every little bit is never lost and adds up. The result of this ends in a great withdrawal. What he does and the amount or level of mitzvahs he performs determines how many sparks will be revealed to him. The level of the sin or the amount of sins determines how many sparks will be withdrawn from him. It is the same if he rectifies his ruach or his neshama. Thus, according to his good deeds or bad deeds, the sparks will either draw close or be distanced from him. There are those which will encircle him from afar, and some come close, hovering from above. Spiritual proximity goes after similarity.(Zohar, Sulam commentary) One magnetizes or distances energies according to who he is. If one manifests good, good energies are magnetized, according to how much force of good manifested; and so the opposite. ...the one who caused him to sin will be within to help rectify it. If we are talking about a spark from the root of the heel which lacks a certain mitzvah and must reincarnate with another spark from its root, it will only do so with a spark that is the most similar to it of all the sparks of the heel, even though they are all from the root of this heel. Likewise, if a person causes another to sin, even though they are not from the same root, still they will have to reincarnate [together] - the one who caused him to sin will be within to help rectify it. This is a case of spiritual responsibility. One is not only forbidden to damage someone else’s body, also their soul. And just as if one did do physical damage, he must pay and make compensation, so it is with soul damage. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Intermingled Souls
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty, Section 3 We explained previously that every limb of the 248 limbs of the soul of Adam is a root unto itself and includes countless soul-sparks. Nevertheless, when Adam and his wife Eve sinned, as well as Cain and Abel1, their children, all the soul-sparks became mixed together. Accordingly, sparks of Adam combined with those of Cain and Abel, and sparks of Abel with Adam’s and Cain’s, etc. ...all mistakes are drawn from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The reason for this is that all mistakes are drawn from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Its outstanding quality is the mix-up. The chief component of the rectification process involves straightening out the mess and separating each thing to its proper place. One of the main themes of Sha’ar Hagilgulim is to learn about and understand the mix-up. This in itself is a great step to fixing it up. Therefore, sometimes the nefesh of a person will be from Cain, but the ruach comes from Adam. For once they mixed together, they bond. Sparks of Adam often come together with sparks of Cain, the ruach from Adam and the nefesh from Cain. It is the same matter with respect to the neshama with the ruach and the nefesh . Thus, if a person works to rectify his nefesh, which happens to be from the level of Cain, until it literally becomes similar to the ruach from the level of Adam, then this ruach will enter and become clothed by this nefesh. This applies even though they do not come from the same source and type, one being from Adam and the other from Cain . Good things can come out of the tumultuous journey of...things being out of place. Good things can come out of the tumultuous journey of the haphazard ride of things being out of place. New connections are made that provide new angles and end up enhancing the soul's own fortes. The combination of souls will continue until Mashiach and Elijah's coming, at which time everything will return to its proper root. From that time onward, the ruach from the level of Cain will join with the nefesh that it is similar to it from the level of Cain, and the ruach from the level of Adam will unite with the nefesh from the level of Adam. The admixture within the tree of knowledge caused that everything became disjointed and then improperly mixed. Sparks were forced to lend themselves and join others of a different source. The tikun involves restoring each spark to its rightful root. A person may have to go through phases that require him to do things not according to his

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essence. At such times, he can be fortified by the knowledge that these are only steps that lead to achieving who he really is. This is the secret of the verse, "Behold, I will send to you Elijah the prophet before the great and awesome day of G - d. He will restore the hearts of fathers to sons, and the hearts of sons to fathers . " (Malachi 3:23-24) In other words, he will return each soul to its proper root - - understand this. The intrinsic truth of God's existence and sovereignty will then be fully manifest. The way must be paved before the great awesome day. The intrinsic truth of God's existence and sovereignty will then be fully manifest. Therefore, "Elijah comes to distance falsehood and bring truth close." (Eduyot 8) The great revelation of truth will magnetize each thing back to its source. "Fathers" symbolize the source level. "Children" symbolize the offshoots. Each one will reconnect to where it truly belongs. This needs to be well understood - how not to be discouraged when a person sees himself operating out of character in many ways. Also, when one sees things around disjointed and out of place. This could include foundational things such as having the wrong business partner, working the wrong job, having the wrong mate, etc. As long as he adopts the quality of Elijah and acts out of truth, he is guaranteed to merit to return to his true self and eventually act outside in a manner that is truly congruent to within. Along with this root alignment fitting connections will manifest and be restored. The reason why Elijah will do this is because he himself is a combination of souls, his nefesh coming from the level of Nadab and Abihu of Cain, as we will explain later . His ruach came from another level, although I did not learn from my teacher from where. There are many other issues regarding this matter. Elijah comes from a great level of perfection. His awesome soul root stood before G-d before creation. (Rabbi Laizer Berland) In order to afford him the ability to reach down to the world's problems and fix them, he was also set up in a problem. Many times this idea applies to every person. Things that are intrinsically wrong for him are actually part of his tikun in order to fix the universe. As mentioned, the person needs to know that this ends up expanding his own horizons. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Division in Roots & Sparks
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 1 All the neshamot, ruchot, and nefashot of all that was created in this world are included in and dependent upon Adam. This is because Adam incorporated all five parts mentioned above: NRNCh"Y which come from the five partzufim and ten sefirot called [from top to bottom]: Arich Anpin, Abba and Imma, Zu"N. We will explain the level called nefesh, and from this discussion you will be able to extrapolate to the ruach and neshama, etc. ...the nefesh of a person has 613 roots. The nefesh of Adam is comprised of 248 limbs and 365 tendons - a total of 613. Thus, the nefesh of a person has 613 roots. However, every limb from the 248 limbs and every tendon from the 365 tendons consists of one complete partzuf, which is also made up of 613 limbs and tendons. Every limb and tendon is called one large and complete root. Sometimes, as a result of sins and defects, the 613 grand roots will sub-divide into 600,000 small roots, which are also actual roots, except that they are smaller. However, there cannot be more than 600,000 mini-roots since there are no more than 600,000 gilgulim, as is mentioned in Tikun 69. It is the same for every limb and tendon of Adam that is called a large root, that they divide into 613 soul-sparks called grand sparks, and that each one is a root. Moreover, sometimes, as a result of a defect, they sub-divide into 600,000 mini-sparks, as did the 613 grand roots - but not less than this. However, it is possible to divide up until 600,000 min-roots - but not more. It is the same for every root of the 613 large ones, that they have in them 613 grand sparks, and no less, and that they can divide until 600,000 mini-sparks, and no more. However, more than 613 and less than 600,000 is possible, such as 10,000 or similar, but only up until 600,000. This is the root of the teaching that there are 600,000 souls. (Zohar Chadash, Songs 74) They connect with the 613 commandments of the Torah - actually they are sub-divisions of them. This is one way of understanding the teaching of the Zohar that the souls and the Torah are one. The world was made through the six sefirot of Zeir Anpin. The world was created for the souls. Accordingly, the way things are set up in the world is a reflection of the way things are for the souls. There are six directions to the world. There are six primary soul roots. The world was made through the six sefirot of Zeir Anpin.

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(Zohar, intro.) From this come the six directions in space, and six days in time. Six hundred thousand is the standard size of a generation (Above 17:1) as we find by the generation of the wilderness, (Num. 2:32) who were the first generation of the Jews as a people. They are the general, primary expression of Zeir Anpin in the world. It is a higher level for the sparks to remain at the grand rung of 613, for they are so less fragmented and more energized. This applies to the nefesh - it is the same for ruach and neshama, that it is possible to divide up to 1,000, or 2,000, etc. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Root of Cain & Abel: The Shoulders
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 2 The size of the division depends upon the defect and the sins. Cain and Abel are the two shoulders of Adam, with Cain on the left and Abel on the right. The shoulder is the limb that joins the arm to the body, and it turns a bit towards the back from the top. It so being, as a result of their sins the limbs of both Cain and Abel divided up to 600,000 mini-sparks. ...Moses, who was from Abel, emanated until 600,000... This is the secret of what is written in Tikun 69, that Moses, who was from Abel, emanated until 600,000 and his sparks reincarnate in every generation, in the secret of, "One generation goes, and another [the same one, i.e. sparks] comes [back]." (Eccl. 1:4) Understand this. "There is someone who had [one comparable to all] 600,000 [Jews] in one belly: Jochebed the mother of Moses." (Shir Hashirim Raba) At one point, G-d wanted to start the people over from Moses, (Ex. 32:10) for he is the grand root soul of his and all generations. (Zohar, Likutei Moharan) His offshoots have to keep coming back to be repaired until the job is finished and all of the sparks are rectified. The necessity of reincarnation is according to how great the task is. Since Moses has the grand task of fixing the entire universe, his own perfection is not enough to prevent gilgul. It will continue until everything is fixed. Understand how Providence is constantly setting up souls to reach their ultimate tikun through the reincarnation process. And make sure to use your lifetime to constantly fix things - and not for the opposite.

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There is something unique regarding these two shoulders which depend upon Cain and Abel, and that is that the moach of da’at, which travels through the spinal cord, begins from these two shoulders. From there it continues downward to yesod, where it comes out as a drop of seed. When the seed-drop goes from the shoulders until yesod, it is then called KPT/"kapot tamarim" [palm cluster - the lulav]... (Lev. 23:40) There is a mitzvah to "take" four special species of vegetation on the holiday of Sukkot. The four species sometimes are collectively referred to by the lulav- kapot tamarim [palm branch]. The reason for this is that the lulav embodies yesod, the sefira that includes all the six of Zeir Anpin. (Zohar) The other species –- citron, myrtle, willow -- embody the other sefirot of Zeir Anpin. Together, they empower the lulav with seed/flux, which it in turn gives to malchut, in the unification. And so they are waved out to the six directions, (Orach Chaim, Lulav) drawing flow from each one. Each time they are also waved in, representing the channeling of the flow into malchut. This prepares the way for a full unification to be made through taking the lulav. All this is done on Sukkot, the holiday that follows Yom Kippur, when the sins are forgiven. This prepares the way for a full unification to be made (Shaa'r HaKavonot Yom HaKiporim/Sukkot) - through taking the lulav.. (Shaa'r HaKavonot Lulav) …which has the letters of KTP/shoulder. Once the two shoulders unify in yesod, by way of a drop from each of them descending to yesod, the following applies: "It [the ephod, worn by the Kohen Gadol] shall have two shoulder straps attached to its two ends, and it shall be attached" (Ex. 28:7) - the two are joined through yesod. The garments of the kohanim [priests] in the Temple represent and draw down lofty energies. (Zohar) Wearing them and doing the service in the Temple makes great unifications above. The choshen [breastplate] is the mishpat [judicial] root source worn by the Kohen Gadol [high priest]. It rectifies the power of judgment on all levels, from the leaders & judges to each individual in their own mind. The ephod is the power to implement in action: "And the ephod shall not move from attachment to the choshen." (Ex. 28:28) It must be bound to the choshen and never leave connection with it – one always has to make sure that action comes from true, balanced judgment. Cain’s sin was a mistake of p'gam hamishpat [defective judgment]. (Likutei Moharan II 8) This test came to him from the place where mishpat [judgment] begins - da’at, which, after the sin, resides in the shoulder. The idea of shaking the lulav is to draw the powers of da’at into the body, into each of its

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sefirot. This means drawing the ability of fulfilling what one knows into expression in every aspect of the self. In general, this is the dynamic in the crying the features the period of the day of awe. (Sichot HaRan) It all revolves around the theme of tikun hamishpat [rectified judgment]. The perfect unification is made in the self when a person fully fulfills in action the truth of what he knows in thought. This in turn unites the worlds above and brings a flow of unity to this world below. This is the secret behind the concept-train outlined in this paragraph... At that point it is said of yesod, "The thousand are to you Solomon." (Songs 8:12) Because Solomon, who [embodies] yesod, and is called "briti shalom" [covenant of peace1] totals one-thousand, or two times KTPh/shoulder. However, each shoulder by itself only equals five hundred, the gematria of the concealed letters of the expansion of ShDY [the Al-mighty]. Gematrias reflect the energies of a word. The reality of the two shoulders shining their power to yesod is seen through this that two times KTPh equals Solomon/Shlomoh - a primary representative of yesod. There are many representatives of yesod. It is coined Shlomoh in Shir Hashirim [The Song of Songs]. This most holy of songs (Mishna Yadayim 3:5) was said about the building of the Temple (Rashi Shir Hashirim) - the connecting portal between above and below. The Shlomoh angle of yesod is its power to bring the harmony above to this world. As said, one can actualize this in life through da'at: When he implements all understanding of how to be into action. Then one has strong 'shoulders' to fully bear the burden of his tikun. If one will cease to indulge and instead work to supersede his own boundaries, the result will be transcending consciousness. Cain is from the shoulder. G-d said to him, "If you do well, you will be uplifted (above boundaries) - and if you do not, sin (limitation2) crouches at the door." (Gen. 4:7) The two shoulders/sides of the mind bear the burden of understanding... This is the significance of the "thousand" that are imparted to Shlomoh/yesod. They are rejoicing lights that come from the union of supernal levels which are brought together by our actions in this world. The two shoulders/sides of the mind bear the burden of understanding the spiritual and physical side of reckoning an issue. As mentioned, da'at unites them harmoniously. The word for thousand is ELPh/'elef', which shares the same letters as PLE/'pele' [wonder], a term for keter. Once the da'at does its thing, the way is paved for the revelation of the highest lights - keter. The "thousand" also hint to the thousand lights that Moses received by the giving of the Torah. (Shaar HaKavanot Shachrit Shabbat) It goes part and parcel with the building of the Temple.3 "A prayer LMShH/to Moses..." (Psalms 92:1) LMShH is the same as

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ShLMH/Shlomoh – hinting to the bond between them. What Moses started by bringing the Torah down to the world, Shlomoh finished by bringing the supernal lights down through the Temple... "Anyone who has da'at - it is as if the Temple is built in his days." (Sanhedrin 92a) As mentioned, the power of da'at in Torah affords one the ability to implement all of these categories in the self. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Left Shoulder: Root of Cain
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 3 Now we will explain the left shoulder of Adam, which is called the Cain-root. It is considered only one limb, but as with all limbs, it incorporates flesh, tendons, and bones. The tendons in each of these limbs are not included in the 365 tendons of the 248 Limbs, but are small arteries in each limb. The three levels of each limb, from head to heels - flesh, tendons, and bones - divide into 600,000 soul-sparks - making up one [complete] partzuf. The left heel of this partzuf divides into more than the 613 soul-sparks from which come the souls of Hezekiah the King of Judah, Rabbi Akiva ben Yosef, and Akavia ben Mehalelel. There is a link joining the souls of this root. However, the seed-drop from this heel that goes to the yesod can be called Yaakov, and sometimes Akavia ben Mehalelel, and sometimes Akiva - and the like. The entire level of the heel is the malchut of that parzuf... The entire level of the heel is the malchut of that parzuf, and there is therefore an ability for all the souls of this heel to ascend until the secret of 'machshava', [thought the chochma of Arich] - in the secret of "The woman [malchut] will court the man [chochma]." (Jeremiah 31:21) "The woman" symbolizes the awakening from below. When she is the catalyst for the relationship, she then as if "courts the man" - ascends to unite with and assume the male aspect. This is also called "a woman of valor is the crown of her husband." (Prov. 12:4, Likutei Torah) From the external perspective, this is a lower level. Inside, it is really higher. The bina/feminine aspect ricochets above chochma to keter. This is the secret of this soul root being so essential to the final redemption, which is incumbent upon drawing keter flow. " And those redeemed by G-d shall return...eternal joy upon their heads [the place of keter/crown]." (Isaiah 35:10) For this reason, Rebbi Akiva ascended to the level of machshava. As the Sages indicate

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when they wrote about him, "Quiet! This is what went up to machshava". (Menachot 29b) Understand this. Upon seeing a vision of Rabbi Akiva being ruthlessly executed, Moses questioned G-d, and was answered, "Quiet!..." It seems as if G-d was telling Moses that the answer to the question is beyond comprehension. On a deeper level, the answer was that Rabbi Akiva reached the perfect inclusion in the level of machshava, the very foundations of creation, (See Likutei Moharan II-7) as the Rabbis teach, "At first machshava [thought], G-d wanted to create the world with din [judgment]. He saw that the world could not endure [like that], so He attached to it the quality of mercy." (Breishit Raba 12 ) Rabbi Akiva lived his life in extreme piety... Rabbi Akiva lived his life in extreme piety, fulfilling the mitzvahs to a super-human degree of exactingness.1 In the grand finale of his death at the stake, he connected to judgment, the initial motion of creation. His students asked him then how he could bear such torture; he explained that his entire life he was waiting for this moment. But, could judgment be the starting point of genesis? Doesn't it say, "The world is built for lovingkindness"? (Psalms 103:2) The sacred works are filled with elaboration on the theme that everything was made for good. But because G-d wanted to give man the greatest good possible, He originally thought to set existence on the strictest standard; the higher the standard man lives up to, the more good he is able to receive. However, when He saw that the world could not bear it, he toned down the din and paired it with lovingkindness. However, there are extremely rare individuals who ascend to the plane of the originally intended standard and merit a place in the world-to-come that no one else can access. (Zohar II Pekudei) Here, the Ari explains that Rabbi Akiva was especially geared to reach such a plateau since his soul is a major hitter in the left/din Cain-root. This equipped him with the ability to bear and live with harsh judgment on a daily basis, reaching crescendo in death. One of the major underlying themes of this Sha'ar Hagilgulim is that the Mashiach process primarily involves the rectification and revelation of the Cain root. Since Rabbi Akiva is one of the greatest of this root, there came a spark of messianic energy in his generation, embodied in Bar Kochva. Rabbi Akiva did not make a mistake. On the contrary, because of his special level, he alone recognized that Bar Kochva actually had a part of the messianic soul, and that it was on the verge of being actualized. The fact that it wasn't successful does not take away from this truth - it was another major step to the final redemption. Regarding these two shoulders: When a defect results from a certain sin in one of the shoulders, or if the defect is in the left shoulder, such as when it became blemished through the sin of Cain whose place it is, then the right shoulder also becomes blemished. Therefore, even though someone whose root is the left shoulder will have long hairs from both his shoulders. There will be more hair on his left shoulder than on his right shoulder, since that is his main place. However, if the right shoulder becomes defected, which is the

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root of Abel, then the sign will only be in the right shoulder. The left level of din always includes the right side within itself. So, it affects the right side together with itself, whereas the right side can as if be alone at times.2 Hairs are constrictions of the mental energies. Hairs are constrictions of the mental energies. (Likutei Moharan 11) They come from din and accordingly is a vehicle of expression for the side of din. So we find that the hair of the left shoulder of one who is from the left shoulder will be more than on the rest of his body, to indicate that is the place from which he is attached to Adam.3 In Sha’ar Ruach HaKodesh [The Gate of Divine Inspiration], in the chapter 'Hakaras Hapartzuf' [Recognizing Faces], a little about the letters NR"N, etc., is explained. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

More About The Shoulders of Adam
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 4 I will now further explain the two shoulders of Adam: It has already been made known how netzach and hod of Atik Yomin are clothed within chesed and gevura/the two arms of Arich Anpin. After that the two arms of Arich Anpin are [in turn] clothed in the two mochin - chochma and bina of Abba and Imma. The two shoulders of Arich are clothed within the da’at of Zeir Anpin, which divides into two crowns called chesed and gevura. From them flows ohr makif to the Nukva of Zeir Anpin. It is also known that Atik Yomin only has nine sefirot, which in the Zohar (Noach) are called 'tisha heichalin' [nine chambers], as is explained at the beginning of the Idra Zuta. The level of malchut is not mentioned at all with respect to Atik Yomin. Therefore, the only malchut mentioned is with respect to the sefira of hod, because the male side is netzach and the female side is hod. The hod of Atik Yomin is clothed in the gevura of Arich Anpin, which is its left shoulder. It is called the crown of gevura , in the secret of ateret ba’alah [crown of her husband] - because that is where malchut is alluded to, as mentioned. From this we see that a spark of light flows from this left shoulder acts as an ohr makif for the Nukva of

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Zeir Anpin. Therefore, the root of Cain, which is from the side of the Nukva of Zeir Anpin, grasps onto the left shoulder of Adam. However, the right shoulder is from the netzach of Atik Yomin, and within it is the secret of Zeir Anpin, the male aspect. Therefore, the root of Abel is in the right shoulder of Adam. It is already known that malchut can ascend to the male place, in the secret of ateret ba’alah - specifically on the level of ohr makif. With this you can appreciate the greatness of the left shoulder of Adam. This point is brought out in order to fully appreciate the Mashiach root. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Sub-Division of Roots
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 5 The idea of the 248 Limbs was explained to me in this way: All souls are included in Adam and divide into many roots... All souls are included in Adam and divide into many roots, as follows. In the beginning, they divide into the three forefathers, after that into the twelve tribes, and then into the seventy souls. After that up to 600,000 small roots - all of which are included in Adam. Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato explains that after the original sin, the privilege of starting the nation that would be responsible for the rectification process was up for grabs. There were previous tzadikim, but only Abraham took full responsibility and accepted this yoke upon him and his children. (Derech Hashem) "We do not call anyone 'patriarchs' except for three." (Baba Basra) Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the founding fathers, all operated out of the highest world Atzilut. (Root and Spark Dynamics) Jacob, the culmination of their efforts, is "the choice of the patriarchs" (Zohar) and completely fixed the original sin - on the level of Atzilut. The next step in the rectification process was to draw the efforts of the patriarchs a rung down into Beriya. This was the task of Jacob's children, the twelve tribes. The following step was to expand the tikun of the tribes to the seven lower sefirot of Yetzira. This was the job of the seventy souls (Gen. 46:27) that the tribal clans branched out into. The succeeding rung was to draw everything into the lowest of worlds - Asiya. The seventy exploded into 600,000 souls, who took this task. They started in Egypt. By the time they

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stood at Mt. Sinai to receive the Torah they were perfect. (Shabbat) The sin of the golden calf disturbed the whole tikun. The sin of the golden calf disturbed the whole tikun. The 600,000 come back repeatedly to fix it, little by little in each generation. The right shoulder of Adam divides as said, first into three forefathers, then into twelve tribes, and after that into seventy souls. Each of the seventy small roots is an individual root from the grand roots of Adam. However, there are only seventy small roots in him, and all of them together are the partzuf of a single person. After this, the seventy roots divide up to 600,000 soul-sparks; they are not called roots but sparks. Each of the seventy small roots of the right shoulder we are discussing has one complete partzuf, and all of the 600,000 sparks of this right shoulder are one large root of Adam, called after Abel, the son of Adam. It is the same with the left shoulder of Adam. Three forefathers divide into twelve tribes, and then into seventy souls, which are called the seventy small roots. These seventy roots also divide into 600,000 sparks which are not called roots. Each of these seventy roots is a complete partzuf, and all of them are called the root of Cain, son of Adam. From one of these seventy roots came Rabbi Akiva, Akavia ben Mehalelel, and King Hezekiah, as mentioned previously. This root divides into more than 613 sparks, all of which make up one complete partzuf, and from the partzuf of this root comes King Hezekiah, Rabbi Akiva, and Akavia ben Mahalelel. However, King Hezekiah is from the head of this partzuf, and Akiva and Akavia ben Mahalelel are from the heel of this partzuf. Coming from the head, he is king. 'Akiva', like Jacob, suggests 'akev' - the heel. Jacob comes from the heel and thereby infiltrates and subjugates Esau... The source of all this is found by what G-d said to the snake, "He (man) shall smite you on the head, and you shall smite him on the heel." (Gen. 3:15) "And his (Jacob's) hand holds on to the heel of Esau." (ibid 25:26) Jacob comes from the heel and thereby infiltrates and subjugates Esau/the snake on his own territory. Rabbi Akiva continued this dynamic; therefore he was born of converts, Just as Jacob's outstanding quality is Torah.1 It empowers to subdue all negative forces. In the humble opinion of Chaim, based upon what we are now saying and what was said in the previous discussion, we find that this root mentioned is on the level of the heel of the general shoulder, which is one of the seventy roots of Cain. The head of the heel is Hezekiah, and the end of this heel2, that is the heel of the heel, is Rabbi Akiva and Akavia. However, in the previous discussion we explained that the souls included in Adam divide into 613 large roots, and after that into 600,000 small roots. Here, we are explaining that it occurs in another way, that they are three forefathers that divide into Twelve Tribes, and

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then Seventy Souls only, and after that into 600,000 small roots? However, if we look closely, we will see that it results in the same conclusion, and you will see how the TRYG/taryag/613 mitzvahs divide into 600,000. For the letters TR from TRYG/taryag [equal 600 and can be rendered] 'TR ribuy'’ [sixty myriads]. The letter "yud" [hints to] the level of the seventy souls because the six extremities correspond to the sixty myriads, as is known. If you add Y/ten to sixty, you arrive at the number seventy - that is the seventy souls. The letters YG/13 are the twelve tribes, with one extra that unifies them. This is how TaRYaG includes all the parts. The wisdom of gematria [kabalistic numerology] teaches that after the calculation of the value of a word, one extra can always be added. It represents the surrounding energy that encompasses the specific energies of the totality. The idea here is that taryag, the amount of God-given commandments, (Makot 23b) is a universal concept that encompasses all of the souls - and accordingly all of existence, which is made for the souls. Returning to the topic of Cain and Abel: The two 'crowns' are the crown of chesed and the crown of gevura, which are hidden within Abba and Imma. Adam and Eve are Abba and Imma, and so Abel is the crown of chesed while Cain is the crown of gevura. My teacher also organized the soul-roots for me in another way: We already explained that a person has a nefesh from Asiya, a ruach from Yetzira, a neshama from Beriya, a nefesh from Nukva of Atzilut, a ruach from Zeir Anpin of Atzilut, a neshama from Bina of Atzilut, the 'soul of the soul' called chaya from Abba of Atzilut, and yechida from keter, which is called Arich Anpin of Atzilut. Every root from the roots of the soul has a portion of these levels. However, this is how the division of the soul-roots takes place: To begin with they divide into five roots, Arich Anpin, Abba and Imma, Zeir Anpin and Nukvah. When the world was created, these five roots divided into zehira ila’a of Adam, which Enoch later merited - this is the level of Arich Anpin. Adam also took the level of Abba, and Eve, that of Imma. Abel received Zeir Anpin, and Cain the Nukvah. ...it would have been preferable that Abel, who is Zeir Anpin, be born before Cain, who is Nukvah. Therefore, it would have been preferable that Abel, who is Zeir Anpin, be born before Cain, who is Nukvah. However, when Adam sinned, he caused the intermingling of good and evil, causing a defect, the result of which was Cain being born before Abel. This is explained in Sha’ar Hapsukim [The Gate of Verses] on the verse, "And Adam

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knew Eve his wife." (Gen. 4:1) Look over there. All the rest of the souls of the world that are born from these five roots are in the world of Atzilut. The rest of the souls, however, are born from the five roots of BY"A, for in each world there are five roots. All of them are secondary to the roots of Atzilut, follow after them, and are included in them, in the same way that all the souls of the world are rooted in these five roots. Each root divides into ten sefirot, resulting in fifty roots in each world. The fifty that are in Atzilut are the root of everything. These fifty roots divide even further, which we will explain elsewhere. Every root from the roots of the souls include one complete partzuf composed of 248 limbs and 365 tendons, which incorporate 613 [sparks], though combined they are a complete partzuf of one soul with all its parts, a single root. However, specifically they are 613 sparks, which are Torah scholars. There are also many sparks in every root that are amei ha’aretz [ignoramuses], who work in the dwelling places of the world. For every root is like a tree that produces fruit, which are the scholars, and leaves, branches, wood, peels, etc., which are the amei ha’aretz. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Souls Leaving the Kelipot
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 6 When the time comes for these souls to enter this world, it is possible for one, two, three, or ten, etc. sparks to come at once and in the same generation, if they are from the same root. More specifically, it is possible for two sparks to come into this world at one time, one from the right spring and one from the left spring of that root, or for five sparks to come at the same time and they are the first five joints of the five fingers of the right hand. Alternatively, the first ten joints of the ten fingers of the right and left hands and the like. ...it is possible for two sparks to come into this world at one time... Thus, you can find in a single generation many sparks that are from the level of the tendons which are close to each other. This is why you should not be surprised to find Rabbi Akiva and Akavia ben Mehalelel [living simultaneously], or to find in the generation of Amoraim Abaye, Rami bar Chamma, and Rav Dimi from Nehardea, even though they are [all] from the root of Cain, from the left shoulder of Adam, as we will later explain. There is another reason for what we have been speaking of and that is, when the Shechina went into exile amongst the kelipot, all the souls of the righteous went with it. Depending

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upon the level of the mitzvahs performed by a righteous person from that root, and the time it is done, one or more sparks will be able to leave the kelipot and ascend into this world. This is even though the sparks are not near one another in the root. It all depends upon the time and the mitzvahs that the righteous person from that root performs. There is also another related matter: Adam had a nefesh from Asiya, a ruach from Yetzira, a neshama from Beriya, and above this a NR"N from Atzilut, from the Nukva of Zeir Anpin, from Zeir Anpin, and from Imma [respectively]. The three from the world of Atzilut are called zehira ila’a of Adam, and are explained in the Zohar in the Sitrei Torah [Secrets of the Torah] section. (Kedoshim 83a) Before Cain and Abel were born, Adam sinned and the zehira ila’a was removed from him... Before Cain and Abel were born, Adam sinned and the zehira ila’a was removed from him, that is the three portions we mentioned from Atzilut. In this manner, the decree of G-d was fulfilled: "On the day you eat from it you shall surely die" - for the three portions of Atzilut were removed from him and there is no harsher death than this.1 When Cain and Abel were born, the nefesh of Atzilut which had been removed from Adam was divided between Cain and Abel. Later we will explain, G-d willing, the gilgul of Cain from the level of nefesh of Atzilut that he merited, how it reincarnated and went to Keinan and Mehalelel, until it reincarnated into Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, "the two parts of one body2", as mentioned in the Zohar Pinchas and Acharei Mot. This is what is written, "There were men who were unclean by nefesh adam [the dead body of man]" (Num. 9:6) - literally nefesh Adam [the soul of Adam], for it is talking about Nadab and Abihu, as the Sages say, who were on the level of the nefesh of Adam. After that, it went to Pinchas when he killed Zimri, as the Zohar mentions, and as we will discuss later, G-d willing. We will also clarify how Cain and Abel took the nefesh of Atzilut of Adam to rectify it, after he sinned with the tree of knowledge of good and evil. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Souls Elijah and Enoch
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 7a However, the prophet Elijah took the ruach of Atzilut of Adam, and therefore he went up to Heaven and did not die like the rest of people. For he is as an angel from the hosts of G-d, and after that he literally became a heavenly angel. This is the reason why only ruach is mentioned with respect to Elijah, as it says, "Please let two portions of your ruach be mine"

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(Kings II 2:9), "The ruach of Elijah rested upon Elisha, (Ibid. 15) and, "A ruach of Elo-him will carry you." (Kings I 18:12) ...when Pinchas killed Zimri, he merited to receive the nefesh of Atzilut... However, he did not merit this ruach of Atzilut until he killed Zimri in Shittim, (Num. 25:1) making it clear that the ruach does not dwell in a person until he received his nefesh. Therefore, when Pinchas killed Zimri, he merited to receive the nefesh of Atzilut, which was previously in Nadab and Abihu. Nefesh associates with malchut, the sefira of din, from which holy zealousness and vengeance for the Divine honor come. When Pinchas clothed in jealousness and expressed such an act, the highest level of nefesh of Atsilut was magnetized and drawn to him. Each person draws to himself flow from above according to his actions. (Likutei Moharan 6 - end) Once he merited the nefesh of Atzilut, he also then merited a portion of the ruach of Atzilut. With respect to this it says, "Behold, I give to him My covenant shalom [of peace]," (Num. 25:12) for ruach is from tiferet and yesod, both of which are called shalom, as is known from the verse, "Peace, peace for the far and near." (Isaiah 57:19) This is talking about tiferet and yesod . Peace to the far comes from tiferet, which is higher and farther away from us below than the peace of yesod, which is closer. "A man that ruach is in him," (Num. 27:18) "And no ruach arose in a man," (Joshua 2:11) "As a man, so is his gevura (in respect to the ruach energy in yesod)." (See Likutei Moharan 8) Ruach is the male aspect. It so especially links with yesod, the root of the male organ, and tiferet, the source of yesod. The idea behind this is that they are the root power to unite with the feminine aspect and thereby make peace and harmony. They are empowered to do this by virtue of their occupying the middle line of the sefirot. Tiferet lies between and balances chesed and gevura, yesod stands in the middle of netzach and hod. The highest root place of the midot is Atzilut. The highest root place of the midot is Atzilut. There Elijah is busy balancing and harmonizing these energies. Through this he " distances falsehood and brings close truth" the central dynamic necessary for the bringing of the final redemption. One who does this in their own little world - the self, family, friends, etc., also takes great part in bringing it close. The elite who work much at this can actually merit Elijah coming to them and revealing secrets. (Shaar Ruach HaKodesh) A portion of the neshama of Atzilut was received by Enoch son of Jared, (Gen. 5:18) and therefore, he was a heavenly angel called Matatron, as is known. Therefore he also did not

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die in the way of men. (Zohar, Eitz Chayim, See also Likutei Moharan) The level of neshama of Atzilut is called the Minister of the World, coming from Atzilut, the [highest] realm, and so it has power over all worlds. Science can at best reveal the axiomatic forces of nature and predict how they inter-react. The reason why they are so always remains aloof and unfathomed. Kabbalah reveals the source of the axioms themselves. They are angels commanded by G-d to so do; i.e., there is an angel appointed over the speed of light and all of its properties. This was programmed into existence by Genesis, in the saying "Let there by light;" (Gen. 1:3, Keter Shem Tov) "There is nothing new under the sun." (Eccl. 1:9) "Forever G-d Your word is planted in heaven." (Psalms 119) The Zohar tells that the Shechina is as if clothed in Matat during the week. (Zohar, Eitz Chayim, See also Likutei Moharan) This means that Providence runs the world masked in the cause and effect relationships of nature - transmitted to the universe through the heavenly hierarchy of angels. Matat, being the chief angel, is so called the Minister of the World. With this we can answer the question regarding Enoch and Matatron. For if they are one and the same being, and the world of Yetzirah is called the world of Matatron, then who was its minister while Enoch was still alive on earth? ...every righteous person has two ruachs, one on earth below and one in Heaven above. However, the Zohar states at the beginning of the portion Noach in the Tosefta on the verse "Noach, Noach" (Gen. 6:9) that every righteous person has two ruachs, one on earth below and one in Heaven above. Understand this - it is the secret of, "Behold ADY-84/aidie [My witness] is in Heaven," (Job 16:19) which refers to ChNOCh84/Enoch, whose gematria is that of "aidie." And "My testifier in the exalted heights is Elijah, because he too is a heavenly angel [Sandalfon], as said. Enoch is an exalted soul-root theme/archetype that exists above and transcends the specific time-slot that the lower Enoch aspect actually visited in this world. The same is true of Elijah. It so being, they are fit to be absolute witnesses. For their testimony is eternal. A witness is necessary only in a place where there is some aspect of truth that is unclear. The spiritual mechanics of testimony work in this manner. A pipeline of light is drawn from a place of absolute, revealed truth - above, to the place of doubt and darkness - below. The witness so has to access his upper soul, and link it to earthy reality. (Likutei Halachot Aidut) Enoch equals "My witness " showing that he has an intrinsic connection to this task. He merits this because he is the first one to have been in the world and left without dying. (Gen. 5:24) When a person dies, his upper soul descends somewhat into this world and

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magnetizes the lower soul, sucking it up. (Likutei Moharan 66) "More Bitter than death:" (Prov. 7:26) The bitterness of death comes from an interruption between the upper and lower souls, caused by the original sin, which the death process removes. "And Enoch walked [with] Elo-him [Divinity]." (Gen. 5:22) Enoch was so connected above while alive below that he did not need this step. The direct link to on high makes him an extra special ‘eye witness’ who proclaims the light of the Divine truth in a world of darkness and falsehood. He so accomplishes here a state of the world-to-come when "the light of the moon will be like the light of the sun" (Isaiah 30:26) - the perfect testimony. Elijah also ascended without passing through the intermediary stage of death, (II Kings 2:11) so he serves as a supernal witness. This itself affords him the privilege of being the one to herald the final redemption. (Malachi 3:23) Yetzira draws from Zeir Anpin, Asiya from Nukvah. Enoch/Matot works out of Yetzira, Elijah/Sandal is the landlord of Asiya. These two worlds have the giver-receiver/sun-moon relationship. Their masters appropriately serve as supernal witnesses whose job is to bring lofty truth into this lower realm. When the process is complete, all will be liberated from death - just as they already were. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Joseph's Soul
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-One, Section 7b This is the secret of, "He appointed it as an eidut [testimony] to Joseph …" (Psalms 81:6) - since Joseph merited to receive the neshama of Enoch which is called "eidie" [My witness], as said. Therefore Joseph was "yafeh to’ar" [handsome], (Gen. 39:6) because he merited Adam's yafyo [beauty1], which came to him from the edge of the neshama of supernal Atzilut. The primary root of the soul of Joseph is in yesod, also known as "tzadik - who stands between heaven and earth (and unites them."2) Heaven and earth are relatively the sun and moon.3 Uniting them is the intrinsic ‘witness’ quality. This explains the correlation between Joseph and Enoch and why they are both Divine witnesses. They are both also called "lad". (Gen. 37:2) This implies pending maturity. Yetzira draws from Zeir Anpin, who must go through katnut [constricted consciousness] in order to get to gadlut [expanded consciousness]. Enoch is the minister of the world - as if G-d’s viceroy. "Earthly kingship is like heavenly kingship." (Brachot) Joseph was the viceroy to Pharaoh. (Gen. 41:40-44) The world is drawn from Zeir Anpin. It needs to grow up from the constricted state of consciousness - that presently perceives separation between above and below, to the expanded headset that will see above and below as one. Enoch and Joseph are the ones who have this special consciousness and are therefore in charge of the world - in

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order to labor to elevate it to the perfection it needs to attain.4 Neshama is always the transcendental, hence his beauty is otherwordly. All of this is the reason behind Joseph’s extraordinary gorgeousness: An expression of the splendorous supernal lights of neshama of Atzilut in the physical. Neshama is always the transcendental, hence his beauty is otherwordly.5 "And Joseph was handsome in appearance and good looking." (Gen. 39:6) However, Joseph did not merit this until the night of the "end of the two years," (Gen. 41:1) when it was decreed that he should leave jail - that very day he rose to greatness. So is it written, "[He appointed it as a testimony to Jehoseph] when He went out over the land of Egypt." (Psalms 81:6) This becomes understandable when you recall what we said in previous chapters, that the ruach or the neshama enters a person at night while he is sleeping. "Descent is for the sake of ascent." (Ba'al Shem Tov) Joseph went through years of affliction and ended up living in great power, wealth, and honor as the viceroy of Egypt, the world’s greatest nation. His ‘testimony’ is special because it unites affliction and delight, slavery and freedom, poverty and riches. "‘He is Joseph’ (Gen. 42:6) - the same Joseph when he was king as when he was a slaveboy." (Megilah) The day he left jail served as the portal between both modes. It so is the intermediary category that includes and unites both. (Likutei Torah Baal HaTanya) The Rabbis have a tradition that that day was Rosh Hashanah (Rosh Hashanah) - the portal from the old year to the new year. A new light from above is then given to the world below. Joseph went out over Egypt in royalty empowered by the new year and the new soul it gave him. This subjugated the negative energies in Egypt and paved the way for his people to survive there in exile - and eventually get out. The new soul often comes...during sleep. The new soul often comes at ‘the changing of the guard’ - during sleep. The soul and the day leave. The soul returns together with a different day and its additional soul. You can also understand what the Sages say based upon the end of the verse, "[He appointed it as a testimony to Jehoseph when He went out over the land of Egypt] when I heard a language unknown to me:" (Psalms 81:6) That night Gabriel came and taught him seventy languages. (Sotah 36b) What actually happened was that the neshama of Enoch/Matatron, the minister over the seventy nations, who knows their seventy languages, entered him that night and immediately he knew the seventy languages. Even though the Rabbis teach that Gabriel was his linguist mentor, the Sefer Yetzira reveals that Gabriel was Joseph's general teacher. Through his learning with Gabriel, Joseph was elevated to a state to be able to receive the extra super-soul of Enoch by means of which he automatically knew the seventy languages.

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The Rabbis point out that his name is spelled 'Jehoseph' in this verse - with an additional H/hei. It is the letter of malchut, (Zohar) and it furnished him with royal energies. The seventy kingdoms each have their own malchut-channel. Joseph ascended to the root of malchut and so accessed all of them. Moreover, through knowing their tongues he reigned over them: Physically, for he controlled Egypt, the superpower of the world at that period. Spiritually, he controlled all of the flow of sustenance to the world. (Zohar) This was all through his ‘perfect guarding of the covenant’, which subjugates all the nations and their tongues. (Likutei Moharan 19) This also links with the concept of H/malchut being the source of speech.6 This neshama of Enoch also reincarnated into Rabbi Yishmael son of Elisha the High Priest. And so with respect to Rabbi Yishmael it also says he was very yafeh to’ar. (Gittin 58a) This is the secret of what is written in Pirkei Heichalos, "When Rabbi Yishmael ascended to the exalted heights, Matatron called to him, ‘Return, my radiance.’" The reincarnation into Rabbi Yishmael had to occur for two reasons. The first reason was because, G-d said, "[Do not eat of the tree of knowledge,] for on the day that you eat you shall surely die." (Gen. 2:17) However, this neshama was not with Adam when he died, having been withdrawn, and so it never really suffered death. We see from this what an awesome portion Joseph and Rabbi Yishmael his gilgul have in fixing the original sin. This is the reason why Joseph went through so much suffering, and Rabbi Yishmael was one of ‘the ten executed by the government’. (Gittin) He died al kidush Hashem [for the sanctification of the Divine name], fixing the opposite of that which was caused by the original sin. As mentioned, it had caused the departure of the zihara ila. Joseph and Rabbi Yishmael embodied the zihara ila in themselves. Their tremendous mesirut nefesh [self-sacrifice] paved a path for it to be eventually restored to the world at large. This is the secret of why both of them suffered specifically through their good looks. This is the secret of why both of them suffered specifically through their good looks. The wife of Potifar desired Joseph’s beauty. She tried to seduce him. When he refused, she turned the tables and accused him of it. Because of this, he was put into prison. (Gen. 39:120) When Rabbi Yishmael was sentenced to execution, the daughter of the Caesar requested him to be spared, for she desired his beauty. The request was denied, but they peeled off his face skin while he was alive to preserve an image of him. (Midrash Eile Ezkarah) The pain they went through for their looks drawn from zihara ila peeled the husk of this level caused by the sin - allowing for a time to come when it would once again fully manifest. It is the bones of Joseph that energized the emancipation from Egypt and its conclusion by the splitting of the sea. That first liberation is the source for all following liberations climaxing in the final redemption. (Gen. 13:19, Sota) This is part of why one of the two Messiah’s is Mashiach the son of Joseph. Elijah comes

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with Mashiach the son of David. Furthermore, Joseph also sinned, having caused his brothers to sell him when he provoked them with his dreams, and because he spoke badly about them to his father. Therefore, this soul had to reincarnate into Rabbi Yishmael son of Elisha the High Priest in order to finally undergo death. The natural death he died as Joseph did not serve to atone for this. Know that Adam merited the NRN"Ch from malchut, tiferet, bina and chochma of Atzilut all four of them at once. Moses merited the da’at of Atzilut. The three forefathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob merited to chesed, gevura, and tiferet of Atzilut respectively. This is put specifically here. After having expanded about neshama of Atzilut and its manifestations in the world, the other levels of Atzilut are not to be left out. Also, here some of what is necessary to restore neshama is explained, from this one can draw parallel and figure out what is necessary to draw the rest. It involves following in the ways of the forefathers. "If you do not know, oh most beautiful of woman – go in the footsteps of the shepherds." (Songs 1:8) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Effect of Sin on Adam’s Soul
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-two, Section 1 In this chapter we will explain the statement of the Sages which says, "It was taught: "Michael [travels the world] in one [flight], Gabriel in two, Eliyahu in four, etc." (Berachot 4b) We have already explained the matter of Elijah’s four flights in earlier discussions. Before the sin, Adam had nefesh/ruach/neshama from Yetzira, Asiya and Beriya. On top of this, he had nefesh/ruach/neshama from malchut, tiferet, and bina of Atzilut.1 Moreover, as we have also explained previously, all the souls were included in Adam except for the completely new souls, since he had yet to merit them. Therefore, they were not included in him. After [Adam] sinned with the tree of knowledge, limbs fell off him everywhere he went... After he sinned with the tree of knowledge, limbs fell off him everywhere he went, as the Sages say. (Midrash) It happened to him as it happened to Jephtah from Gilad because of the sin of his daughter, as it says, "They buried him in the cities [pl.] of Gilad." (Judges 12:7) It does not say "the city [singular] of Gilad."

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Thus, all the souls that were included in the limbs of the soul of Adam fell off him once he sinned into the depths of the kelipot, each one to its appropriate level. However, the nefesh/ruach/neshama of Atzilut, called zehira ila’a [supernal glow] by the Zohar, did not heaven forbid fall into the kelipot. (Zohar III Kedoshim) However, the level of Ruach and Neshama were removed from Adam once he sinned and flew upward. The Nefesh of Atzilut flew above him, but it did not completely leave him, as mentioned before. Enoch, after he merited his [Adam’s] Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshama [of Beriya, Yetzira, and Asiya], also merited the level of Neshama of Atzilut which was removed from Adam when he sinned. Now we will discuss the Nefesh of Adam from the World of Atzilut, which remained and hovered above him. When Cain and Abel, Adam’s sons, were born, they received the level of nefesh/ruach/neshama of Asiya, Yetzira, and Beriya, as well as the level of Nefesh of Atzilut which was previously their father’s. As is known, every soul has levels called ohr makif [surrounding light] and ohr penimi [internal light]. Part of these souls were left in Adam, part went to his sons. The details will be elaborated. When Jethro the father-in-law of Moses converted, he merited the Nefesh of Atzilut that had been given to Cain, but just on the level of ohr penimi. So it is written, "Heber the Kenite separated from Kenites [hinting to Cain."2] (Judges 4:11) We will explain this in its proper place. Nadab and Abihu took the ohr makif of the Nefesh of Atzilut of Adam, which had been given to his son Cain. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

From Pinchas to Elijah
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Two, Section 2 Regarding Pinchas’ birth it says, "Elazar the son of Aaron took a daughter of Potiel for a wife and she bore him Pinchas." (Ex. 6:25) On this the Sages say, ‘Potiel’ - this is Joseph, shepitpit [that he controlled1] his yetzer hara; [also] this is Jethro, shepitem [who fattened] calves for idol worship."2 This is the secret: When Pinchas was born, he incorporated two soul-sparks. This is the meaning of "Potiel", which is similar to tipin [drops], for he was from two soul-drops, one spark from the root of Joseph and the second spark from the side of Jethro. This level that incorporates these two souls is called "Pinchas". The two explanations of Potiel are one. Through the secret of the Pinchas-tikun they unite and come to fruition. The Talmud draws parallel between shmirat habrit [guarding the covenant], the quality of Joseph, and faith - the opposite of idolatry. (Sota

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) They both relate to the sefira of yesod, the root of Joseph, and greatly connected to Jethro. "And I betroth you [to Me] in faith - and you shall know G-d." (Hagiga) The covenant of faith between G-d and His people is like the covenant of marriage. Therefore were they coined an adulterous woman in the prophet’s parable when they went after other deities. (Hagiga) They do however start from opposite ends of the spectrum. Joseph stood the test and was circumcised as an infant, always guarding the covenant. Jethro started out not only as a pagan, but as the chief priest of idolatry of the entire world. (Ex. 18:11, Rashi) From this place of darkness, he came to recognize monotheism. The relationship between Joseph and Jethro is that of the classic archetypes of a tzadik and a ba’al teshuvah. The relationship between Joseph and Jethro is that of the classic archetypes of a tzadik [one perfectly righteous] and a ba’al teshuvah [the penitent3]. The Talmud has a discussion about who is greater. But all agree that they are mutually beneficial and absolutely necessary for the world’s perfection. Pinchas is special in that he incorporated both. This is hinted to in the way the Zohar divides his name: PN-ChS/pen-chas [face of pity]. (Zohar III Pinchas) Pen hints to the Joseph aspect of shmirat habrit causing a shining of the Divine countenance on the person. (Likutei Moharan) Chas hints to the pity extended to Jethro to accept his repentance and fix the damage caused by his idolatry.4 These innate soul-ties were prepared from above to make Pinchas ready to receive the souls of Nadab and Abihu. Presently it will be revealed that he acquired them through an act of zealousness, a transcending quality that draws a great encompassing light that unites opposites.5 Nadab was from netzach, Abihu from hod. Again, the above dynamic manifests through them. Netzach is absolute victory and eternity - one who never makes mistakes. Hod is submission and admittance of one who realizes his mistakes and corrects them. Pinchas ascended to his category through his zealousness. Along with these souls, Pinchas had an extra Y/yud added to his name, the letter that is written as a point. It represents the root idea that includes all the details that flow out from it. Interestingly, yud is the first letter of both Joseph and Jethro. Furthermore, with a yud, Pinchas equals 208, equivalent ot the gematria of Yitzchak/Isaac. This number is also eight times the Tetragrammaton, representing transcendence. It is the marked quality of Isaac, who was not totally of this world. (Gen. 26:2, Rashi) Pinchas ascended to his category through his zealousness. He therefore became Elijah, who did not die and ascended straight to heaven. A person can also exercise zealousness in himself to banish bad qualities. This

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helps bridge the gap and unite things inside him that seem to clash. Do not be surprised how the spark of Jethro could combine with the spark of Joseph. It is already known that Joseph is in yesod, from which flows the drops of seed from all chasadim and gevurot - it is there that they intermingle. Thus it should not make you wonder how the soul-spark of Jethro, which is from another root, could mix with the soul-spark from Joseph. [By nature his soul is given to mingle with other roots.] So we find that Pinchas received a soul-spark from Jethro, which was the level of ohr pnimi of the Nefesh of Adam from Atzilut. After that, Nadab and Abihu died because they brought the unauthorized incense-offering, (Lev. 10:1) and when Pinchas killed Zimri, he merited the souls of Nadab and Abihu, which are from the ohr makif of Adam of Atzilut. This was possible because he already possessed a spark from the root of Jethro, and it completed the Nefesh of Atzilut within him, since he now possessed both the ohr pnimi and the ohr makif.6 However, the ohr pnimi entered him as an actual gilgul when he was born, whereas the ohr makif came to him in the secret of ibur after he was born and grown up. There is another matter as a result of this difference. The soul that comes to a man when he is born is an actual gilgul, even if it is the combination of two sparks, as in the case of Pinchas who had a spark of Joseph and a spark from Jethro. Nothing else is required to make them work together. However, in the case of a soul that comes in the secret of ibur after birth, like the Nefesh of Nadab and Abihu that came to Pinchas, another spark must accompany it. Furthermore, this spark must be new to the world and not a reincarnation. Such a spark joined with the Nefesh of Nadab and Abihu that came in ibur to unify it with the Nefesh of Pinchas, who was an actual reincarnation. ...another new soul had to come in ibur in Pinchas called "Elijah the Tishbi... Therefore, another new soul had to come in ibur in Pinchas called "Elijah the Tishbi" from the inhabitants of Gilad, and from the root of Gad, which was a new soul at that time. This was in order to combine the Nefesh of Nadab and Abihu with the Nefesh of Pinchas itself, a gilgul from the time of his birth. He also required an additional new soul in order to unite the new soul called "Elijah the Tishbi" with the rest of the older souls, that is the Nefesh of Pinchas and that of Nadab and Abihu. Therefore, he received an additional soul called "Elijah" from the root of Benjamin, mentioned in the verse, "and Jaareshiah, and Elijah, and Zichri, were the sons of Jeroham." (Chronicles I 8:27), as Elijah himself wrote to the Sages [that he is] "from the children of the children of Rachel [the mother of Binyamin]." (Bereishit Raba 71:12) We explain this matter at the end of this discussion. Thus we find that four levels were in Pinchas. The first was that of the Nefesh of Pinchas with which he was born, a single soul even though it was the combination of two drops, one

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from Joseph and one from Jethro. The second level was the Nefesh of Nadab and Abihu, which came in the secret of ibur and is also called one soul, as is known from the Zohar Nadab and Abihu are two limbs of one body. (Acharei Mot 57b) The third was a Nefesh called "Elijah the Tishbi" from the root of Gad, and the fourth level was "Elijah" from the root of Benjamin. This then is the secret of what the Sages say, "Michael in one ... Elijah in four." Understand this. The four souls of Pinchas became Elijah. Propelled by these souls, he is able to fly the whole world - span all of existence. Netzach and hod are called 'the two pillars’7 of existence. Energized by them, Elijah supports the universe and is at liberty to traverse it.8 [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Nadab & Abihu Move On
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Two, Section 3 Later in history, when the incident of the daughter of Jephtah of Gilead occurred, they [Elijah and Jephtah] were both punished. For as the Sages say, Jephtah was a judge and he did not want to come to Elijah1 to annul his vow. Elijah did not want to come to him, for he said, "The one who is suffering must come to the doctor" (Breishit Raba) - and so between the two of them the daughter of Jephtah went [to live in seclusion in the mountains]. Jephtah was a judge and he did not want to come to Elijah to annul his vow. Jephtah, who was directly involved in the incident, was punished and as a result, everywhere he went he lost limbs, as it says, "They buried him in the cities of Gilead" (Judges 12:7) - in the plural. Elijah was punished by the departure of the Shechinah. As the Sages say on the verse, "And Pinchas the son Elazar was the supervisor over them in former times, for G-d was with him," (Chron. I 9:20) which is talking about the Pinchas. (Breishit Raba 60:3) Thus he was the "supervisor" over them - but no longer. After the Nefesh of Nadab and Abihu that had been in him b’ibur was removed, it later reincarnated into Samuel the prophet, as we will explain. This is the secret of what the Sages say, " The V/vav of "briti shalom [My covenant of peace]" (Num. 25:12) is [written in the Torah scroll] cut.2 They also say in the Zohar, that the Y/yud of Pinchas is [written in Num. 25:11] small. (Zohar III Acharei Mot) Both indicate that something is lacking in Pinchas. In this case, the lack manifested itself in the future. This did not at all detract from the power of free choice of Pinchas. It just comes

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to point out a coming test. These letters Y/yud and V/vuv through which the lack is expressed are the mutual letters shared by Joseph/Yosef and Jethro/Yitro - the batteries of Pinchas. As mentioned, they are the male/active letters of the Tetragrammaton. The defect in them implies a test that involves lack of action. This is exactly what happened - Pinchas was passive in not going to annul the vow of Jephtah. The mistakes of colossal, towering tzadikim such as Pinchas are not to be taken simply. The mistakes of colossal, towering tzadikim such as Pinchas are not to be taken simply. (Shabbat 56a) They are humans in a state of complete ego-nullification and do every single thought/word/deed solely for the glory of G-d. A simple way of understanding the issue here is that the lack of yesod/brit energy of the people caused an unwarranted, out of character lack in Pinchas, preventing him from getting up and doing what he was supposed to.3 Thus, in the incident with Zimri he merited the ibur of Nadab and Abihu, as mentioned in the Zohar, (Zohar III Pinchas 217a) but he lost the ibur as a result of the sin of the daughter of Jephtah. This is why the vav is cut, to represent the sefira of yesod, which is called briti shalom. It was actually cut when he lost the Shechinah and the ibur of Nadab and Abihu. The withholding of proper action caused a cut in yesod expressing its energy to reveal Divinity. This itself is an intrinsic lack of shalom. For it is actually a name of G-d and represents His essential nature. When G-dliness is manifested, there is harmony and shalom. Thus, from that time onward all that remained was the spark from the root of Joseph. For the ibur of Nadab and Abihu went to Samuel, and the spark of Jethro was removed from him to reincarnate into Hiel the Bethelite, who was born at that time and [later] rebuilt Jericho. This was because the ibur of Nadab and Abihu, Elijah from the tribe of Gad and Elijah from Binyamin, were not principle souls of Pinchas but on loan in the secret of ibur. Therefore, the sin which resulted because of the daughter of Jephtah did not blemish them, and even the spark from the drop of Joseph was not that involved in the sin, just the spark from Jethro. This was because the spark from Jethro, which came from Cain, when it went to Jethro had the name komer [non-Jewish priest] who fattens cows for idol-worship. Therefore, it was the primary cause of the sin. And therefore it was removed and it reincarnated into Hiel the Bethelite [in Hebrew, 'Bait Ha’eli']. Thus, the letters of Hiel are the same letters of Elijah, when the H/hey [of Elijah] is switched with the Ch/chet [of (C)hiel] from the letters of the aleph-chet-ayin-hei

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pronunciation grouping. All letters whose sounds originate from the same place in the throat are grouped together and are considered interchangeable. (Eitz Chaim) Even Ha’eli is the same letters as "Elijah" [again, without the vav]. This is the secret of "Bait Ha’eli" - that is "Bait Elijah", from the "house of the dwelling of Elijah," since Elijah "dwelled" in the body of Pinchas, who was from the spark of the drop of Jethro. Hence, the main body was that of Pinchas and not Elijah - it was just that it was called the "house of the dwelling of Elijah." Hiel was an important man, to whose house King Ahab and Elijah used to come. The Sages say that Hiel was an important man, to whose house King Ahab and Elijah used to come. However, because of the sin of Jephtah’s daughter, this caused him to build Jericho, which is similar in nature. The sin of the daughter of Jephtah had to do with a vow, and this sin was a violation of the vow made by Joshua not to re-build Jericho.4 Since the city of Jericho was connected to the root of Cain, as it says, "and the children of the Kenite, the father-in-law of Moses, went up from the city of date palms," (Judges 1:16) which is Jericho, Hiel, who is from the root of Cain, wanted to re-build it. Date palm is called tamar. It also identifies with temurah [switch], as in ‘haichalai hatmurot’ [the palaces of exchange]. They came into being when Adam ate from the tree. They cause a great mix-up in everything so that much toil and hardship is required to reveal Divinity. (Likutei Halachot) The work stage is called chol [mundane] the state of the week, as opposed to the Shabbat state, which is like the tree of life. (Zohar II Yitro) The same relationship between Shabbat and chol is found between Israel and other lands. (Based on Likutei Moharan 19) The whole process of leaving Egypt was in order to fix the tree the sin of knowledge. (Shaar HaKorban Pesach) G-d took the people out with the goal of leading them to Israel - the final stage of bringing the world back to the utopian Shabbat state it fell from when they ate from the tree. Based on this, we can understand why the first city they conquered upon entering Israel was the city of temarim (Judges 1:16) i.e., a birur of the hachailei hatemurot which allows entry into Israel/the tree of life/Shabbat mode. Therefore they conquered the city in a Shabbat oriented manner. Each day they walked around and blew the shofar blast. On Shabbat they blew seven times "and the walls came tumbling down". (Joshua 6:20) 'Jericho' comes from reioch [aroma]. Mashiach is known for his special sense of smell.5 Mashiach is the one who will raise up the collective efforts of all of mankind and elevate the whole world to the Shabbat state. This will open the sweet aromas of the Garden of Eden to permeate all of existence.6 All of this relates to the concept of a vow. The Torah forbids many things. A human being

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has no way of making a prohibition binding upon himself except through a vow. It is as creating his own personal Torah. (Likutei Halachot Nedarim) Making a vow extends Shabbat energy to places it could not go before. Guarding the Torah elevates the individual to the Shabbat state. Making a vow extends Shabbat energy to places it could not go before. It so as if ‘conquers’ the negative forces on their own territory, similar to the people coming and conquering the nations that occupied Israel inside their very borders. Breaking a vow does the opposite - bringing holy things down to the mundane state. This is reason why Joshua commanded that Jericho never be rebuilt.7 The Torah commands to destroy Amalek. Moshe told specifically Joshua to go to war against them, as the Zohar teaches. (Zohar II Beshalach) Amalek is from the bad part of the tree of knowledge. (Megila) Its tikun is its destruction, just as certain sweet fragrances come from the burning up of a substance. As mentioned, Jericho comes from reioch. It is the exotic perfume manufactured from the eradication of evil. This is a good thing. Because of the hold of the tamar/haichalai hatmurot energy on Jericho, the best thing is for it to remain destroyed. The place that this energy always attacks is malchut, therefore Joshua, who is rooted in this quality, is the one to combat it. And he decrees that it never be rebuilt. After this, his name changed to Elijah the Tishbi. Nadab and Abihu were rectified in him, and Pinchas himself from the side of Jethro was involved in the sin of the daughter of Jephtah. Elijah from the tribe of Binyamin was only in him in ibur to join together the other souls. Thus what remained as the main part was Elijah from the root of Gad, and therefore he could no longer be called Pinchas, but Elijah the Tishbi - hinting that his soul was from the tribe of Gad. When prophecy returned to him it was after he was called Elijah the Tishbi and after Samuel died, so that Nadab and Abihu could return to him in ibur during the incident of Mt. Carmel. At that time, the people fell on their faces and said, "Havaya is Elo-him ." (Kings I 18:20-29) When they said, "Havaya is Elo-him ", they [Nadab and Abihu] were forgiven for their sin of ‘cutting off the plantings’8 when they [as if] caused defect in the Divine Presence [by their improper incense offering]. Understand this. The infinite Creator created the sefira system as a medium to relate to His finite world. The infinite Creator created the sefira system as a medium to relate to His finite world. Still, there is a test if the world will use this system. Faith ‘plugs everything in’ and attaches the world to its Maker. The sefira system is as a tree.9 One who denies faith conceptually severs the tree from its roots – detaches the sefirot from the flow of the Infinite Light in them. (Tikunei Zohar, Intro.) Havaya is the intrinsic name through which the Infinite Light flows to the universe; it means ‘Existence Giver’. Elo-him equals hateva [nature] and refers to the clothing of the Divine energy in the cause and effect system of the world. The statement "Havaya is Elohim" comes to unite them and show that all is one - after creation as before creation. So it

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rectifies the defect of heresy. Nadab and Abihu were most certainly great believers. However, they actually reached for a level that was then too high to bring into the world. (Zohar III Shemini) It backfired and caused damage. Too much electricity blows the circuits and causes separation in the wiring. So the abundant light they drew caused division in the sefira system.10 Furthermore, they [Nadab and Abihu] had sinned in the beginning when they glanced at the Shechinah at Mt. Sinai, as it says, "They saw the G-d of Israel." (Ex. 24:10) However, they underwent rectification when they fell on their faces in order to avoid seeing the fire that descended from Heaven. "Blinded by the light" is also an aspect of too much light. If the eyes try to see it - they end up blinded. In a world of limitations and impurity, if the Shechina at times comes to honor us and manifest, it is not honorable to look and gaze. The experience of the manifestation is to remain an unseen experience - until the world is cleansed and "eye to eye we will see when G-d restores Zion." (Isaiah 52:8, Hagiga) [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Another Reason to be Called Elijah
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Two, Section 4 This is another reason why he is called Elijah and not Pinchas. Through this act he merited a name change, as we will explain later regarding the matter of Elisha the prophet. Once they were rectified they did not need to remain there, and Nadab and Abihu were withdrawn. Now Jezebel the wife of Ahab was a great sorceress - it says that she caused Israel to go astray [to idolatry] through her magic. Through her magic she knew that Nadab and Abihu, of whom it was declared, "Behold, I give to him my covenant of Shalom," (Num. 25:12) which means eternal life, had been withdrawn from Elijah. ...the decree of life and peace was removed from him. Thus she told him, "At this time tomorrow, I will make your nefesh [life] like the life of one of them [who were killed]" (Kings I 19:2) - since the decree of life and peace was removed from him. There is also a connection to Nadab and Abihu who were burned by the fire of the incense. This is the secret of, "like the nefesh [life] of one of them [Nadab and Abihu1]." Since Elijah felt that this gift was taken from him he became afraid and fled to Mt. Horeb. This is what is written, "And he saw, and he arose and went for his nefesh [life]." (Ibid. 3) That is, he saw that he had only one nefesh [soul],

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and so feared Jezebel. He found respite in the cave at Mt. Horeb [Sinai2], until he went up in a storm wind to Heaven. It was Elijah the Tishbite from the tribe of Gad who ascended to Heaven and he did not descend again. However, Elijah from the tribe of Benjamin reincarnated into the one mentioned in the verse, "And Jaareshiah, and Elijah, and Zichri were the sons of Jeroham." (Chron. I 8:27) Later when he died, he ascended to join Elijah who had ascended. It is Elijah from the tribe of Benjamin who ascends and descends constantly to perform miracles for the righteous and to speak with them. (Shaar Ruach HaKodesh) At first, the sages only knew that Elijah was comprised of four levels, but they did not know which level descended and ascended and spoke with them. They differed in opinion, until he told them, "My Rabbis ... why are you disagreeing over me? I come from the children of Rachel, as it says, ‘And Jaareshiah…Elijah’". Thus, he revealed to them which level it was that spoke to them, the level of Elijah of Benjamin, which is joined together with the drop from Jethro that was given to Hiel Bait Ha’eli. After he had died, Elijah took it with him. It seems to me the author that the two of them reincarnated into Elijah of Benjamin. Elijah gave the level called the drop of Joseph to [the prophet] Jonah, son of Amitai the Tsarafite when he revived him. (Kings I 17:17-23) This is the secret of what is written in the Zohar, "It was taught: Jonah came from the legion of Elijah, which is why he is called, "son of Amitai [son of Truth]," As it says, "and that the word of G-d in your mouth is truth!" (Kings I 17:24, Zohar II Vayakhel 197a) This is the secret of why Jonah is also a great man of truth and he underwent and survived miniature state of death when he was swallowed by the whale. (Jonah, Zohar Yonah) "The lad that I revived was Mashiach son of Joseph." This is also the secret of what the Sages write, "It was taught in the school of Elijah, "The lad that I revived was Mashiach son of Joseph." Since he came from a drop of Joseph he will therefore be Mashiach ben Joseph - may it happen speedily in our time! The part that remained for Elijah in the future was that of the tribe of Benjamin. The ibur of Nadab and Abihu was given to Elisha [his disciple] in the secret of ibur, when he ascended to Heaven. This is the secret of what Elisha requested, "Na [please], may twice as much of your spirit be mine." (Kings I 2:9) In Sefer Hakanah it says, "twice as much" - that is Nadab and Abihu. That is the NA/na [please] that he added, which is made up of the first letters of Nadab and Abihu - they are the double portion that was added to the ruach of Elijah. Also, the first letters of "Na pi shnayim biruchacha alai [Please, may twice as much as your spirit be mine]" spell nefesh bah [the soul comes], that is, Nadab and Abihu who were

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the level of the nefesh of Atzilut of Adam, which had come to him when he had killed Zimri. [Elisha requested,] "Give them to me." The extra souls are hinted to in NA/please - asking permission before taking. For they come to fix the defect of Nadab and Abihu, which involved entering the holy of holies and offering incense "that they were not commanded" - a drawing/taking of light without permission. Elijah/52 equals3 NA-51, showing that this is part of his intrinsic tikun. This fixed the very foundations of the tikun that was then happening. For we know that the Cain root comes from the world of Tohu. There, too much light was forcibly poured into the vessels. Simply saying ‘please’ is a great reparation of this root. For the elite who are possessed by yearning for light, this can at times actually be a test. What comes out is that Elisha asked for the double portion of spirit that Elijah had - Nadab and Abihu. The Talmud interprets this to mean that Elijah revived one person from the dead, Elisha two.4 Rabbi Nachman explains that a disciple can receive double his teacher’s spirit - specifically at the time of the mentor’s departure. For then the upper aspect of his soul comes down to take away the lower aspect. The teacher, whose time it is to go, leaves, whereas the student receives an infusion from the upper soul that leaves him with a double helping. This is the secret of Elisha asking for it, and Elijah telling him that if he is present when he departs from the world the request would be fulfilled.5 [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

"On To Elisha"
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Two, Section 5 Elisha was from the root of Enoch called Matatron, from the aspect of neshama of Atzilut which is called the zehira ila’a of Adam. Therefore, [in order to complete his soul spread of all levels - nefesh/ruach/neshama of Atzilut] he needed to take the nefesh of Nadab and Abihu, which was the nefesh of the zehira ila’a of Adam, which was in Elijah. Since Elijah merited the ruach of the Zehira Ila’a as mentioned before, he therefore said, "your ruach be mine". Hinted in "b’ruch’cha [your spirit]" is what we explained (Zohar III 56b) that though both the nefesh and ruach of Abihu were from the root of Cain, whereas the nefesh of Nadab was from another root, making only his ruach from the root of Cain. Thus, since only his ruach was from Cain he said, "b’ruch’cha [meaning: your ruach (and not nefesh)]". So his name is Elisha. For with respect to Cain it says, "to Cain and his meal-offering He did not pay attention" (Gen. 4:5) Since he rectified Cain he is called Elisha - as if to say, "Li [Hebrew for 'to me'] sha’ah" [Hebrew for 'pay attention', his name then meaning]

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"to me G-d did pay attention" whereas to Cain He did not, before his tikun. Here the Ari Zl. touches upon the essential issue of the Cain root. The Torah is not a history book and when it relates an account, the points outlined are all meant to teach foundational ideas about the scenario. Cain’s offering was not accepted. He became discouraged. God warned him not to fall. He still went on to murder Abel. ...a person should always work to keep his spirits up. A central theme of these chapters is to explain how the different parts of Cain’s mistakes were fixed. They all stem from discouragement. The starting point of it is good - a desire to find favor in G-d’s eyes. A tikun must be made for what ensues - a falling of the heart if not.1 Therefore, a person should always work to keep his spirits up. "The spirit of a man sustains his ailment" (Hagiga) - this is true even physically. How much more so in regards to soul issues! Rabbi Nachman emphasized that no matter what, one should never give up. (Likutei Moharan) No matter what a person did/does and to where they might have strayed and fallen - there is always hope. "For no outcast shall be pushed away from You" (II Samuel 14:14) G-d really loves each soul very much and desires for it to come back to Him. He sometimes shows a distancing in order to awaken the person to try harder, etc. One must not pay attention to the outward pushing away - only plow on to do teshuvah in all circumstances - no matter what. Elisha trailblazed a major milestone step in this tikun. He opened a path to the world in which the Cain root can say, "Li sha’a [to me He shows favor/attention]": I know that G-d really loves me and wants me to return to Him. That being the case, I will plow through whatever obstacles He sees fit to place before me and come back. I already alluded earlier that Pinchas is called Elijah to indicate that the ibur of Nadab and Abihu, which came from Cain, was rectified by him. Therefore, the three letters ELY of Elijah are also in Elisha - indicating that Elisha also rectified these three letters like Elijah. These letters form Eili - my L-rd, as in "This is Eili [my L-rd] and I will glorify Him ." (Ex. 15:2) This means Divinity to me is fixing the defect of Nadab/Abihu that draw too much Gdliness and caused it to depart from the self. ELY is gematria 41, which equals EM/eim [mother] - bina/upper Shechinah/the maternal aspect of the sefirot. Just as a mother takes care of and nurtures the child, so does G-d tend to the soul and its needs.2 This level of closeness was what Nadab/Abihu wanted to draw. Elijah/Elisha fixed their improper drawing and afforded the world access to it. This is in line with Nadab and Abihu's deaths when the Mishkan [Tabernacle] was being consecrated. Rashi explains that the souls of Nadab/Abihu were taken to the heavens as part of the spiritual inauguration. In order to draw down the intense level of Shechinah that rested in the Mishkan, a tremendous awakening from below had to be stirred up. Only the greatest souls were powerful enough to do this. And so Moses remarked to his brother Aaron that he had thought one of them would be taken for the task. Seeing that Aaron’s sons were taken shows that they were greater. (Lev. 10:3, Rashi) The Shechinah is the

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personification of the Divine maternal aspect that looks after the souls. Elijah/Elisha fully fixed what Nadab/Abihu tried to do, and so they share the letters ELI = EM. ...they made an earth-shattering tikun that lasts for all generations to the end of time. What comes out is that Nadab/Abihu were only trying to do good - and they ended up doing good. The establishment of the Mishkan, the forerunner of the Holy Temple/center of Divinity to the universe, was all drawn down through them. Relative to themselves, they tried for too much and were burned. Relative to the world, they made an earth-shattering tikun that lasts for all generations to the end of time. Elijah/Elisha only had to perfect what they did. This is the secret of the children's mocking, who said to him [Elisha], "Go up, baldhead [in Hebrew, 'kereach', the same letters as Korach]! Go up, baldhead!" (Kings II 2:23) For Korach son of Yitzhar was the ruach of Cain from the side of evil, which is why he went down to Shaol alive. (Num. 16:30) The children wanted to insult and curse him, as if to say, "Korach went down to Shaol and needs to ascend - if you come from the root of Cain, how can you ascend?" The most difficult task is to fix the Cain root. Since the final redemption depends upon it, it must happen. However, those that are involved in it have to undergo the greatest hardships. Elijah, the teacher and soul-root of Elisha, was the diametrical opposite of Korach. He was punished unnaturally and descended alive to the pit. Elijah miraculously ascended alive to heaven! Korach tried to usurp Moses. It was a lack of faith in Moses. He said "the entire congregation is holy, and G-d is in there midst..." (Num. 16:3) He seemed to be preaching democracy. As mentioned, Korach was trying to bring a high level into this world prematurely. Everyone is equal. This arrangement is rooted in Korach’s source - the world of Tohu. There, each of the sefirot receives the light of Ein Sof directly, without coming on to each other. This order was followed by the world of Tikun. A hierarchy was set up in which the sefirot receive by means of an inter-related system. Presently, the world needs to be run by the Tikun order; through this, it will reach a state of being ready to receive the superior lights of Tohu. Until that time, just as the sefirot receive from each other, so it is by man below. This is the root of the teacher/student, leader/people order. Korach tried to change this and make everyone equal - before it would be productive. On the other hand, Elisha from the Korach root was the classic student. As mentioned, he is the root-model and exemplification of the highest goal of every student - to receive a double portion of his teacher’s spirit. Thus, he fixed the Korach root. This itself is the secret of why he was then attacked by those bad children. When something is finally being fully fixed, the sitra achra is then most concerned about trying to thwart it.3 They also were hinting that just as Korach ben Yitzhar was shaved by Moses [As were

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all the Levites in their inauguration (Num. 8:7)], and was thus bald of any hair, so too was Elisha bald of his hair, since the root of his soul was connected to Korach. This is what caused the ibur of Nadab and Abihu after that, for they too were from the root of the soul of Korach. Furthermore, just as Moses used the forty-two letter name to kill the Egyptian (Ex. 2:12) - who was from the nefesh of Cain from the side of evil - so too did Elisha mention the forty-two letter name and kill these forty-two children, as the Zohar states.4 The forty-two letter name fixes the shattering of the vessels... Moses saw that the part of Cain that killed Abel was in that Egyptian. He also saw that it was completely bad, and no good would come out of it. Because of this he killed him. The same applies to Elisha with these children, who were from the evil of Cain. The forty-two letter name fixes the shattering of the vessels, from which comes the bad of Cain, and is so fitting to use to destroy this negative element. "And they were both naked - and they were not ashamed." (Gen. 2:25) Hairs are constrictions/garments for thoughts and ideas. (Likutei Moharan 11) The secret of baldness is a lack of constriction. Before the sin, it was possible to perceive the Divine light directly. Afterwards, it is only possible through constrictions. As said, this was the mistake of Korach - to attempt to restore the world to this state before it was ready.5 The arrangement of the world of Tikun has each level as if clothed in the level beneath it. The step lower finds the light of the higher level toned done through its cloths. This is also the concept of hair. Korach, who rebelled against this system of hierarchy and gradation, therefore was bald. Elisha incorporated the good aspect of what Korach was trying to do and so was somewhat bald.6 Through his nullification and humility, he prepared the world for the final state and struck a proper balance between the two approaches that could be received in his time. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Akavya and Akiva
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Two, Section 6b Later, as a result of the Chanukah miracle, it reincarnated into Mattathias the Hashmonite, who was actually the High Priest and the King, thus meriting two parts of the Firstborn right. Here is hinted to the secret of Chanukah. It is the last holiday in history before the coming of Mashiach, who will unite the three heads. As the stepping-stone to this, Chanukah unites two of them.

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The Greeks were not primarily interested in destroying the Jewish body - they were after the soul. Their attack was from chochmah. (Ner Mitzvah, by the Maharal) Hellenism sought to replace the Torah. In order to controvert this, a shining of the step above chochmah was necessary. At the time, the people had great mesirot nefesh [self-sacrifice] to keep the Torah. This warranted the transcendental keter revelation and brought two of its aspects together,1 paving the way for the three that will combine forces in the final redemption. Then it reincarnated into Akavia ben Mehalelel, as already taught. Cain is hinted to in the secret of the aikev [heel] of Esau, and therefore his name was Akavia. Moreover, since Akavia was also a tikun for the level of Mehalel ben Keinan,2 he was called Akavia ben Mehalelel. This links with the above. As mentioned, through malchut the upper levels of keter are bound and manifest. Malchut is at the end of the sefirot - and is so the heel. Akavia is from the heel of the Cain shoulder. The Left Shoulder: Root of Cain Those who stand at the end/heel and elevate it merit to hit the jackpot and scale all the way up to the top - keter. ‘Mehalel’ means one who makes praise. ‘Mehalelel’ is mehalel-E - L - one who makes praise to the Lord. ‘Hallel’ [praise] equals 65, which equals ADNY, the name of malchut (Zohar, Eitz Chaim ) " And I shall get My praise from pieces of material, from lumps of dust. " (Hagiga) The greatest honor of God is the singing of His praise from this lowest of realms. Likutei Moharan) This affords the soul keter-connection.3 Cain spoke as if somewhat brazenly to on High.4 "Mehelel the son of Kainan;" Mehalel’s praise fixed it. "KYNN/Kainin" is ‘KYN-N/Cain-N’. By Akavia’s uplifting the heel aspects, he took Mehalel a step further into manifestation of Divinity. This is the mehalelEL. This fixed the Cain root all the more until it paved the path for Rabbi Akiva to ascend to the very foundations of existence. For the first thought was that creation should be run by din. Even though G-d saw that the world could not so endure and He paired mercy with it, it remains the ideal. Moreover, Mashiach will lift the whole world to this mode. Rabbi Akiva was extraordinary in that not only did he accomplish this for himself, he also opened the door for Mashiach to eventually do this for the world. Akavia ben Mehalelel did this. Rabbi Akiva accepted upon himself tremendous din with great joy.5 He built upon Akavia’s achievements and brought the realization of how to praise G-d for difficulties to the world. From there, it reincarnated into Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai. Thus, at the time of his death he announced, "Prepare a throne for Hezekiah, King of Judah, who has come to accompany me," (Brachot 28b) since he was a reincarnation of his soul-root. He also merited taking the crown of Priesthood of Cain the Firstborn. Each person sees all the members of his soul family at the time of death. (Sichot Haran) If one merits, the major hitters that share a mutual root actually come to escort his soul to paradise. Rabban Yochanan is unique in that he learned from both Hillel and Shammai. (Avot 2:8)

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Binding together these two opposite approaches elicited a shining of the source of opposites - keter manifestation in him. He so fits into this chain of progressive keter revelation. After this, it reincarnated into Akiva ben Yosef, whose name also alludes to the aikev of Esau, as in the case of Akavia. With this you can appreciate what is written in Mesechet Rut of the Zohar - "Issachar, he is Rabbi Akiva", (Zohar Chadash 89) as we will explain.6 Issachar is also from the root of Cain. Gen."First in thought, last in deed." The Akiva/aikev-heel aspect is last in deed. Through it specifically comes manifest first in thought. This is the secret of what it says by Rabbi Akiva, "Silent - so arose in (the original) thought (of creation)". (See The Left Shoulder: Root of Cain) ‘Esau’ comes from ‘asui’ [done]. His doctrine is that things are finished and fine the way they are: "Man is born a mule" and there is no need for him to work on himself to supersede his materialistic nature.7 "And his [Jacob’s] hand held the heel of Esau." (Gen. 25:26) As mentioned, ‘Akiva’ comes from ‘Jacob’. (See The Left Shoulder: Root of Cain) Rabbi Akiva came from converts. (Brachot) He captured the stray, high-powered Esauenergy and transformed it into kedusha. "Aikev [the heel] of humility is fear of G-d."8 (Prov. 22:4) As explained, Esau the firstborn, who is from Cain the firstborn, included in himself the choice super-lights of the world of Tohu. When he did not use them for good, Jacob took them away. He was able to do this through his great degree of fearing God. This is the secret of Jacob taking the firstborn right away from Esau. This came to manifestation especially in Rabbi Akiva, who was also extremely G-d-fearing. He also was fitting for the Torah to be given through him. (Menachot) Even after this honor was given to Moses, Rabbi Akiva is the great pillar upon which stands the Torah of generations after him. By raising up the lowest levels,9 he ricocheted up to keter and drew to the universe its special intense light. Then it came as an ibur into two Geonim10 whose names were Rav AChAY/Achai and Rav AChA/Acha Shivcha Gaon, to rectify them. For they were from the root of the Nefesh of King Ahab, and through them the three letters AChA of AChAB/Achav were rectified, by way of ibur. However, the B of Ahab was rectified through Rabbi Avraham Galid, as is known from the order of reincarnations of the root of the Nefesh of King Ahab.11 The whole soul is included in its name. (Sichot HaRan) This also includes its actions - for good or otherwise. As the soul is fixed, its letters gain repair. Sometimes the rectification process is divided up and different letters are fixed through different individuals in various lifetimes. Ahab was one of the wickedest kings. Some say that he has no portion in the world-tocome. He was actually an intense soul of the Cain root that went the wrong way and so was very bad. He worshipped idols and led a whole nation astray after them. He also committed great offences of promiscuity. And it was all to as if anger His Creator. (Sanhedrin) It took specifically an intense positive energy from this source to fix it: Precisely the Nadab/Abihu root. They died to consecrate the Mishkan [Sanctuary], the place where the entire people

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directly worshipped one God - the place that most nullifies idolatry.12 They were extremely ascetic and never married,13 to fix Achav’s crimes in this area. They served God with tremendous love and fear - the opposite of rebellion. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Hezekiah, King of Judah
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Two, Section 6a After that, he reincarnated into Hezekiah/Chizkiyahu King of Judah, to hint to what is written by our Sages, "In the days of the flood, G-d hung it on Cain weakly, and with respect to him it says, "All that existed was eradicated." (Gen. 7:23, Breishit Raba 22:12) After it was rectified he was called ‘Chizkiah’, because through him Cain was nitchazaick [strengthened] from his weakness. The generation of the flood was an expression in our history below of the mechanics of the world of Tohu above. Therefore did they do Tohu oriented sins.1 The general theme of the Tohu motion associates with Cain.2 He planted the root of its expression in the world. The principle Tohu theme of the vessels shattering left them weak. Chizkiyah, who fixed the Tohu/Cain root repaired and strengthened it. The letters YHV from ELYHV/Eliyahu/Elijah were rectified. As a result, ChZKYHV/Chizkiyahu/Hezekiah merited one-third of the portion of the firstborn that was meant for Cain, who was the firstborn of Adam. They are: Priesthood, Kingship, and the Firstborn Right, mentioned by the Targum Yonatan on the verse, "Reuven, you are my firstborn." (Gen. 49:3) Keter is the highest of the sefirot. It means crown - the king’s primary expression of royalty. It itself divides into three sub-coronets, (Zohar III Naso, Idra Raba) expressed in the world as the crowns of Firstborn, Priesthood, and Kingship.3 The perfect level is when they are all found together in one person. The three heads are the ultimate source of the right/left/middle principle that governs existence. (Zohar III Naso, Idra Raba) The greatest manifestation of the absolute Divine unity is when they are all found in one individual. Cain made great offences. He tended to do this only because he had super potential for good. He was supposed to embody all of the three heads of keter together. In place of this, he committed three major crimes.4 This ‘unraveled the bundle’, disallowing the three to express together - darkening the manifestation of keter. Jacob attained a great degree of perfection. (Zohar, Ta’anit) Through this, his children stood in the heights of the universe. Reuben the firstborn was equipped to don Priesthood

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and Kingship. This would have made the tribes into a miniature Mashiach tikun and caused the final redemption to come much sooner; the Egyptian redemption would have been for all time. Still, the world was not yet ready for it. This caused a tremor in the family bond that pushed Reuben to disturb the bed arrangement of his father.5 (Gen. 35:23) The Shechinah/malchut rests on the beds of tzadikim. (Zohar) Malchut is the last sefira that ricochets up and binds with the first sefira - keter.6 "And he [Achashvairosh] placed a keter malchut [royal crown] on her [Esther’s] head - and he made her queen in place of Vashti." (Esther 2:17) It is specifically through malchut connection below that keter is completed and its three heads are bound together and come into expression. Upsetting the malchut connection again separated the three heads. As a result Reuben lost all three, and they were divided.7 The letters YHV give into the final H/malchut. They are rooted in the three heads. By fixing them, Chizkiyah, who is from Judah, was able to draw them to malchut and take his portion of the three heads - kingship. Thus Hezekiah wore the crown of Kingship, and this is the secret of what our Sages say, "G-d wanted to make Hezekiah the Mashiach8... (Sanhedrin 94a) The reason was because he was from Cain the firstborn, and so was he fitting to take the crown of Kingship and to be the future Mashiach. However, it didn’t happen because he didn’t say shirah [song]. Hezekiah was very righteous. He brought his generation to such a great level that even children were great Torah experts. (Ibid.) "Torah comes out from supernal chochmah." Mashiach’s job is to infuse the world with the step above - keter. This is reached through song. (Ki Ata Neri IV, by Rabbi Dovber of Lubavitch) Therefore, the final redemption comes through the song of the world-to-come (Tikunei Zohar, Likutei Moharan II 8) which Mashiach will sing and teach the world. Any messianic candidate can only be in the ball park of reaching this level by first attaining a great plateau of chochmah. Hezekiah did ascend to this place. All he had to do was sing to activate his messianic potential. The Rabbis do not explain why he did not do this. " I’d like to teach the world to sing, in perfect harmony... " [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

The Good Side of Cain
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 1a Enoch is [became the angel] Matatron, his neshamah being from the zihara ila’a. Cain received the nefesh of the zihara ila’a of Adam.1 Enoch was a unique, primordial tzadik. He reached a level of transcending the worldly

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limitations until he ascended to angelic parameters. The angel Matat is a very awesome entity. "His name is like the name of his Master."2 During the week, God sets up a certain theme of tests for His world. He cloaks Providence and does not allow it to be so revealed. The spiritual mechanics behind how this works is that He clothes His control in the angel Matat,3 who in turn operates through a hierarchy of angels throughout the seder hihishtalshilut. This affords him the title 'prince of the world' i.e., not the King, but viceroy-next in rulership – the one whom the King operates through. (Midrash) Elsewhere, the Ari'Zl explains that he reached the neshama of Atzilut. This is an extremely high level. The juxtaposition of Enoch/Matat to Cain implies that Enoch drew from the deluxe energy of the Cain root to attain this plateau.4 The same applies to the prophet Elijah, who likewise to Enoch, didn’t die and ascended to become an angel. As is already known, all the souls were included in Adam, and when he sinned, his spiritual posture was reduced until all that remained within him was a terumah [designated portion] which is two from one hundred [5%] - the challah [choice part] of the world. Terumah is a small piece that G-d commanded to give to the kohen from produce. (Num. 18:12) Challah is a similar Divine gift given to the kohen from dough. (Num. 15:17) In the simple understanding, here they are used as borrowed terms to teach that Adam was but a fraction of his former self after his sin. This however, does not mean that he was not himself. Terumah and challah are the choice portions. No matter what a person does, their intrinsic good point and soul are untouchable.5 However, the comparison to these kohen gifts can be understood more deeply. TRVMH/terumah is ‘TRV-M"H/taru-M"H’ [raising the Divine Name M"H]. M"H (45) is also a word meaning nullification,6 as well as the gematria ADM/Adam (45). The innermost, untouchable place of the soul is always connected to G-d and included in Him. The work of true Adam/man is to access this point and cause it to spread and take hold of the personality.7 Challah comes from an etymological root of yearning and supplication - "And Moses supplicated with yearning [in Hebrew, 'vayichal']." (Ex. 32:11) At the giving of the Torah, the nation ascended to the plateau of Adam's level before he sinned. (Shabbat 146a) The mistake of the Golden Calf was similar in effect to Adam's eating from the Tree of Knowledge which had caused the spiritual downward plummet of man. Moses’ prayer started with "vayichal"/challah to fix it. The deepest point of the heart is filled with yearning for its Maker and longs to express and connect to Him through prayer. (Likutei Halachot) Adam is the choice portion of the universe. After he lost this status, the

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mitzvah of separating challah came to restore his prestige. "And they shall build for Me a sanctuary - and I shall dwell in their midst." (Ex. 25:1) "‘Take terumah’ [as if it were] Me." (Zohar) Terumah was given for the building of the Mishkan [Sanctuary] which restored Divinity to the world.8 The mitzvahs of terumah and challah are two special priestly privileges. The kohanim bring the offerings in the Temple and activate M"H/nullification and challah/yearning-prayer powers in the souls of the nation and the gifts of terumah and challah are given to them for this purpose. Moreover, just by people giving them these gifts their accompanying motions are awakened in the soul. From the level of nefesh, which is the level of Asiya, two souls remained with him that are better than the rest. This terumat nefesh [choice soul] was given to Cain, while the rest of the portions of the souls flew away from Adam after he sinned. We already spoke about how Cain was a combination of good and evil. Thus, he was also able to father souls that were like Abel his brother,9 as is mentioned at the end of the Idra Raba, Naso. From his good comes the souls of tzadikim, whereas from the side of evil comes the souls of the wicked.

Reuben, the First-born
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 1b From the good side of Cain came Keinan and Mehalel, as mentioned in the Zohar. (Zohar II Terumah 168a) After that, Reuben the firstborn of Jacob was born. He would have received the firstborn rights of Cain, the firstborn of Adam, had it not been for the episode of Bilhah. (Gen. 35:22) The firstborn right goes part and parcel with guarding the brit [covenant]. Reuven disturbed the bed arrangements of Jacob, which, on his exalted level, was counted as a lack of guarding the brit. Joseph, who was outstanding in guarding the brit, took it over. (Likutei Moharan 2) Although not mentioned in Scripture, the Midrash tells that Cain took the extra wife of Abel. (Midrash Raba) Here the Ari'Zl reveals that the spark of Cain in Reuben caused him the incident with Bilhah.1 Reuben...used the Cain energy for good... The name of Reuben comes from "'r'u bain/see the distinction' - between Reuben and Esau." (Gen. 29:32, Rashi) Esau is also from Cain. See the distinction - between Reuben, who used the Cain energy for good, and Esau, who did the opposite. Like Cain, they are

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both firstborn. The Rabbis explain that all Reuben did was switch the bed of Bilhah. His intention was to protect the honor of his mother Leah, who was treated somewhat secondary while Rachel was alive. After her death, he reasoned that Rachel's maidservant should not enjoy first level status over his mother. Even though his intentions were good, he was held accountable for having disturbed his father's marital arrangements. Nonetheless, the scenario shows the spark of Cain making progress. An outright crime graduated to become a subtle disturbance. This is a general theme found in the gilgul process. Just as the metal gets more and more refined each time it goes through the furnace, so are souls purified more and more each time they come back. This paragraph starts by mentioning that Kainan and his son Mehalel are from the good of Cain – what seems to have no connection to the continuation about Reuben?! Mehalel means ‘praisemaker’. He furthered the good of Cain by being busy, as David, praising G-d. This empowered the good of Cain to step further in Reuben and open a channel for the revelation of the grand firstborn energies. Even though it was too high to remain by Reuben, he opened a channel for his following offspring to eventually do it completely.2 When he sinned, he also lost the priesthood... According to the Targum [Aramaic translation of the Torah], the verse "Reuben, you are my firstborn... foremost in s’eis [rank] and foremost in power" (Gen. 49:3) refers to the Birthright, Priesthood, and Kingship. The secret of "s’eis" is that it refers to the Priesthood, which is alluded to with respect to Cain as well. When he sinned, he also lost the priesthood, which is called "s’eis." G-d told Cain before he murdered his brother, "If you do well s'eis [you will be uplifted] and if you don't do well, sin crouches at the door". (Gen. 4:7) The Ari'Zl reveals that this is the source of s'eis that is said by Reuben. The meaning of s'eis is to lift up. The good part of Cain is super-good. The birthright, priesthood, and kingship are the outstanding forms of prominence - being raised up - that are found in the world. SAS-701/s ’e is plus one equals ShBS-702/Shabbos, which is like the world-to-come (Brachot 57b) – the source of all elevation, where the three heads will shine in full brilliance. G-d gave Cain a 'heads up' as to what he could merit if he withstands coming tests. This is written in the Torah to call attention to the fact that G-d does this - in different ways, to varying degrees - for everyone. Also, each person can merit to extraordinary things. Man was made to ascend - and the sky's the limit. The three forms of prominence are all inter-related. They are all forms of being a head. They come from the three heads that are found in keter (Eitz Chaim) - the head of the sefirot. This itself is the source of the extra-specialty of the good part of Cain. The patriarchs fixed up the original sin.3 They removed the cover of extraneous material

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that cloaked the good of Cain. Automatically, the first born of Jacob, the culmination of the patriarchs, found a major expression of the good of Cain within him. Nonetheless, the tribes were imparted with the job of taking the work of the patriarchs to the next level. Therefore, there still had to be a test for this to express. Even though Reuben as if did not seem to pass the test 100%, the special levels of good were channeled through him and brought into the world. Joseph took the firstborn right, Levi took priesthood, and Judah took kingship. This allows the three heads of keter to come out and do their thing to perfect the universe. ...the whole point of the redemption is to reveal the firstborn aspect... The unification was later actualized in the people, after suffering the pangs of Egyptian servitude. The first thing G-d told Moses to say to Pharaoh in his mission to redeem them was, "My son, My firstborn Israel." (Ex. 4:22) This implies that the whole point of the redemption is to reveal the firstborn aspect - in all of its triple facets. "And this shall be the sign that I sent you (to redeem them): When you take the people out, they shall serve Elokim on this mountain (Mt. Sinai, by the giving of the Torah)." (ibid.) The goal of the redemption from Egypt was to be manifest there. And so before the Torah was given it says, " And you shall be for Me a kingdom of kohanim [priests] and a holy nation." (ibid.) " Kingdom " hints to the crown of Kingship. " Kohanim " means the crown of Priesthood. " Holy " alludes to the crown of Firstborn, who is holy. (Ex. 13:2) The three heads were brought together in the entire nation. Therefore, if they had only held on to the level attained by the giving of the Torah, no exile would have followed. (Midrash) The Forefathers are rooted in Atzilut and they made their tikun there. The tribes took it a step further down and drew the repair to Beriya.4 Then came the seventy soul stage (Ex. 1:5) - out of the seventy sefirot of Yetzira. They exploded into the six hundred thousand of Egypt, (Num. 1:15) who operate out of Asiya. To this day, their offspring fix in this world. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Issachar of the Jasmines
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 1c After Reuben did teshuvah, he merited bringing the duda’im [jasmine flowers] (Gen. 30:14), which resulted in the birth of Issachar, who is from the good side of Cain the firstborn. Eve said when Cain was born, "I have acquired a man with G-d," (Gen. 4:1) which is actually an allusion [to Cain’s rectification through Issachar], since both Eve and Leah were from the level of bina, which as we know is called Imma Ila’a [the supernal maternal aspect]. Both Rachel and Leah are from Eve, who is of dual nature.

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Both Rachel and Leah are from Eve, who is of dual nature.1 Each one embodies a different mode: Leah the upper/bina aspect, Rachel the lower/malchut aspect. (Eitz Chaim, Shaar Rachel V'Leah) Together they form the complete archetype, feminine principle Above. Jasmine (or mandrake, according to other translators) was known to have birth powers. Rachel had not as of yet had children and was willing to sacrifice a night of the privilege of being with Jacob in order to increase her chances of conception. Leah waited for Jacob to come from the field and ushered him into her tent. The firstborn takes a double portion in the inheritance because spiritually he actually participates in the conception of the following children. (Likutei Torah, Eitz Chaim) This is why specifically Reuben the firstborn brought the duda’im. The duda’im transfer from Leah to Rachel embodies a shift in the supernal realms of blossoming powers from upper to lower rungs. Issachar is the result of this.2 Let us examine some of his level in order to then look back at these his roots and understand their inner mechanics. The tribe of Levi has no portion in the land - G-d is their portion. (Num. 18:20) They are to be busy with spiritual pursuits alone. The Rambam teaches that every person has the option to be like Levi (Mishna Torah, Hilchot Shemita Ve-Yovel 13:13) by letting go of worldly endeavors and fully focusing on Above. Issachar is the pioneer who paved the path for all who wish to do so. Because he was born to this world and has his portion in it, and nevertheless restrains himself from making it a focus, he is continuously attached Above and is extra bound to the world-to-come. According to the Ohr Hachayim, his name means 'yaish-sechar [there is reward]' - in the world-to-come. The Ari'Zl tells that the catalyst of his birth is the teshuvah of Reuben. The Zohar states that teshuvah comes from bina, the eighth sefira that lies a rung above known reality. His name has two S/sin's - one is pronounced, the other is not.3 The form of this letter is three heads sitting on a base. The three headed S/sin corresponds to the three heads of keter, corresponding to the crowns of Priesthood, Kingship, and Torah. One can only be born into the first two, whereas Torah can be acquired be anyone. It also includes the other two.4 The teshuvah of Reuben, who had all three, empowers Issachar to be a vessel for some degree of their manifestation - both the three heads of this world and the next. ...the complete tikun of Cain came through Issachar... Thus, there is a hint to the fact that the complete tikun of Cain came through Issachar, who was born as a result of an 'acquisition' [just as Cain is so called]. For Leah bought the right to be with Jacob from Rachel as a result of the duda’im, as it says,

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"Therefore he shall lie with you tonight in return for your son’s duda’im." (Gen. 30:15) "Blessed is Abram to E-L the Highest One - who acquires Heaven and earth..." (Gen. 14:22) We learn from this that Abram is one of G-d's five special acquisitions in His universe. (Pirkie Avot) G-d, as if, lost ownership of His world when He made it and separated it from himself and He repossessed His world through Abraham. Eve lost Divinity by her mistake and repossessed G-dliness by giving birth. This reveals a great depth of how awesome the Cain root is - through it special relationship is re-established between man and G-d - in the closest, most inter-personal manner. This sheds light on the source of Cain’s mistake. His name also comes from kinah [jealousy]. A person is only jealous because they see somewhere else something that they want because they feel that it really does belongs to them. A piece of Divinity fell away from them through Adam’s mistake and is now found somewhere else. G-d has a much greater degree of favor to show Cain. For this reason he has to undergo great obstacles to attain it. Cain the firstborn is supposed to get a double portion. (Deut. 21:17) Cain was jealous of Abel’s receiving the Divine favor (Gen. 4:5) and also that his brother had an extra wife. (Breishit Raba 22:7) He sees not just that Abel has twice as much as him, but that the additional wife is actually his soulmate.5 Reuben comes from the Cain root and fixes it. He was born into the most exalted acquisitions. When he lost what was his, he was not jealous. As mentioned, 're’u ben' - see the distinction between him and Esau, who was so jealous that he was ready to kill, (Gen. 27:41) just as Cain did at the beginning of days. At first, Leah was upset at Rachel’s request for the duda’im. "To almost take away my husband - and to also take my son’s duda’im?!" (Gen. 30:15) This is understood in light of the story of Jacob’s matrimony. He wanted Rachel and made a deal with Laban to work for her seven years. At the end of the term, Laban pulled a switch on him and gave him Leah instead. Even though Jacob and Rachel set signs between them to avoid this, Rachel gave over the signs to Leah at the final moment to prevent her from being embarrassed. (Pesicha, Eicha Rabati 24) This act of giving away what was hers rectified Cain’s taking what was not technically his.6 Rachel ended up not losing Jacob, for he worked another seven years and also married her.7 ...Leah was said to be destined to marry Esau. This is all understood more deeply in light of the fact that Leah was said to be destined to marry Esau. She found out that he was wicked and cried to be saved from this.8 G-d heard her prayers and gave her to Jacob instead. This explains why her firstborn Reuben specifically comes to fix the Esau/Cain root. After Eve’s re-acquiring Divinity was disrupted by Cain’s sins, the Eve root worked

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through Rachel and Leah. They fixed it by Rachel acquiring from Leah, resulting in Issachar/world-to-come connection. The chasing away of the highest levels of G-dliness caused by the original sin was bought and brought back into the world through this whole scenario. So Issachar, the fifth portion [Leah’s fifth son] from the side of good, was born. Since he is from the level of nefesh [which is] called Asiya, there was [in him] an attachment to kelipot and zuhama [dirt] of the snake [who attacks the heel. (Gen. 3:15)] Therefore, Esau, who is called snake, had a hold on him, and he is called the "heel of Esau" (Gen. 25:26) - since he is from Asiyah, which is called the heel [it being the lowest of realms]. Leah’s seven children correspond to the seven lower sefirot in order, so Issachar aligns with hod. In the body, it expresses as the left leg. This is the place that Satan damaged when he lost the wrestling match with Jacob. (Zohar, Breishet) It caused him to limp. Reuben is the catalyst for hod/Issachar’s birth. He corresponds to chesed. These sefirot find inter-linkage in Aaron, who is the fifth/hod representative of the seven shepherds, (Zohar III Emor) and a kohen is called "a man of chesed ". (Zohar, Vayechi) The Chanukah/hod miracle happened through kohanim. Issachar acquired the crown of Torah. As mentioned, the crown of Torah includes the other two - Priesthood and Kingship. Issachar/hod is the forerunner of Chanukah. He restores to the world the special inner, hidden light of Torah. This snatches back and retrieves the levels stolen by Satan from Jacob in their battle. Through Issachar’s mesirot nefesh for Torah, his descendents were able to give their lives for the Torah and draw a new revelation of its light.9 The Temple was restored and the kohanim shone their brightest and even temporarily took hold of the kingship. We see now a little of why the Ari'Zl. here mentions that Issachar is the fifth son. Jacob snatched them from Esau, in the secret of "His hand was holding onto the heel of Esau," (Gen. 25:26) and Issachar was born from this level of nefesh. Much later in time, Rabbi Akiva ben Yosef, whose name has within it aikev, was born from this level of nefesh. As we alluded to in previous discussions, based upon Midrash Rut of the Zohar, that Issachar is [from] Rabbi Akiva.10 This hold of Esau caused the friction in the story around Issachar’s birth. It also caused Rabbi Akiva to not learn during the first forty years of his life. As mentioned, Jacob comes from the aikev [heel], because his glory primarily comes out at the tail, heel/end of days. Issachar/yesh-schar is a special sneak-peak preview of this level here and now.11 Therefore he comes specifically from Jacob’s snatching Esau’s heel, capturing the prime Tohu lights in Esau that are to shine out at history’s conclusion. The 'snatching' is the aspect of the sneak-peak. Rabbi Akiva furthered this tikun and built a legion of 24,000 students

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Rabbi Akiva furthered this tikun and built a legion of 24,000 students who drew from this deluxe level. It was such a high category that it could not remain in the world as is and they died an untimely death.12 But their having had a brief hey-day drawing from this premium category brought it a step closer to the world and paved the way all the more for it to eventually fully manifest at the end of days. He started again and rebuilt from five superstudents - who parallel the five special possessions of G-d in His world.13 Through them the whole world will become the special possession of the One Above in the final redemption. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

FOOTNOTES 1. See Likutei Torah Breishit, that there were actually two Eve's. 2. Although it is not known for sure, it does not seem from the simple story of Scripture that the duda’im aided Rachel’s conception, as she gave birth to Joseph her firstborn at a later point, and it says then: “And Elokim heard her and He opened her womb,” (Gen. 30:22) that it was directly from G-d. 3. There are those who have a custom to pronounce the second S/sin by his birth, the first time Issacher’s name is read in the public Torah reading on Shabbat. 4. As seen above, that by the giving of the Torah to the whole people they were all called “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Ex. 19:6) - Torah includes them all. 5. This big switch comes about because they eat from the tree of good and evil, which switches them around and causes a big mixup. (Eitz Chaim) 6. G-d has His ways of setting the score straight and our job is to sometimes sit tight and wait patiently for Him to do this. “And Rachel was jealous of her sister” (Gen. 30:1) “Jealousy of scribes increases wisdom.” (Baba Batra 21a) The holy jealousy of Rachel fixes the selfish jealousy of Cain. It revolved around birth - that Leah had children and she didn’t. Birth is the main channel for the fixing of souls, for they were disturbed by the original sin. Rachel’s jealousy here helped draw and repair the soul roots for all time. 7. "He does not withhold good from those who walk in simplicity.” (Hagiga) 8. People said that the Esau/Jacob twins would marry the Leah/Rachel twins, the oldest to the oldest and the youngest to the youngest. (Baba Batra 123a) 9. a new shining of the hidden light of creation. This is in line with “And the children of Issachar know bina.” 10. This all finds full elaboration above, in the thirty-second chapter. 11. All those who make spirituality their primary focus also draw from this aspect. 12. The Rabbis attribute their death by plague to a lack of treating each other properly. (Yevamot 62b) Because they come from such a high level, they were treated with a very strict standard, especially since they were attached to Rabbi Akiva, who as mentioned ascended to the original thought of creation with din (above).

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13. See above about the root of these five disciples in the five powers of gevura.

Nadab & Abihu
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 2a Later on, Nadab and Abihu also came from the good side of Cain, and this is the secret of "the firstborn Nadab and Abihu, Elazar." (Num. 3:2) On this, the Zohar in the portion Acharei Mot asks, "It should have said "v’Elazar [and Elazar] - with a V/vav?" It is so an allusion to Cain who was the firstborn of Adam - the firstborn of all history, and he reincarnated into Nadab and Abihu. Elazar and Ithamar however are from a different root. Therefore, it does not use V/vav [meaning 'and'] with Elazar - to separate him from Nadab and Abihu. However, only Nadab had his ruach from the level of Cain, which is the secret of the verse, "Sustain me with Your ruach NDYVH/nedivah [generous spirit]." (Ps. 51:14) His nefesh came from his elder, AMYNDV/AmiNadab the father of Elisheva his mother, and so he took the last three letters NDV/Nadab. NDYVH is NDV-YH. YH is the upper unification within the Tetragrammaton and in terms of Nadab implies that he had higher connection - exactly what the Ari'Zl says here about him having the special level of ruach - ruach nidivah/NDV-YH. The verse that this is learned from is in the special psalm of David’s repentance over the Bat Sheba scenario. (Ps. 51) It involved him falling into what seemed to be adultery. Even though it was not, his nonetheless repenting over what seemed so, fixed a great part of Cain’s taking Abel’s wife. Nadab helped make somewhat of a tikun for this by not getting married at all. This is the meaning of "Abihu"- he is from Adam, the father of the entire world. However, with respect to Abihu, both his nefesh and ruach were from Cain, and that is why he is called "Abihu" [lit. 'he is my father'] - to indicate that all of his levels were from Cain, who received the nefesh from Adam himself, the father of the entire world. This is the meaning of "Abihu"- he is from Adam, the father of the entire world. " Ab ['father'] is in chochmah. " (Zohar) Abihu indicates strong, essential chochmah linkage. AVYHU/Abihu is AV-YHV - chochmah includes the energies of bina and da’at that come from it and are included in YHV. "Behold I send you the prophet Elijah, before the great, awesome day of G-d comes. And he shall restore the heart of fathers to their children and the heart of children to their fathers." (Malachi 3:23-24) Atzilut/chochmah/Abba is as the father of B"YA, the children. The prophet Elijah will come and, through his great power of prophecy, unite Above and

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Below - Atzilut with B"YA. He will do this empowered by the super Nadab/Abihu energy entrusted to him. In simple terms, the universe will awaken to know that it has a loving father. This will bring everyone close to their Father in Heaven and to each other. Cain, who murdered his brother, will be responsible for the greatest love, unity, and brotherhood known to mankind. This is the secret of, "We are unclean for the nefesh adam [soul of man]," (Num. 9:7) which were [i.e. adam is referring to] Nadab and Abihu, the nefesh of Adam himself. However, since Nadab did not have the nefesh of Adam, it does not say "nefashot Adam" in the plural, since the main nefesh of Adam was only in Abihu. This prevented those who carried their bodies out from the Tabernacle from offering the paschal lamb. (Num. 9:6) Their plea elicited the giving of a whole new mitzvah and portion of Torah - the Pesach Shaini [second paschal lamb]. It is brought a month later by all those who are unable to bring it at its fixed time on Pesach [Passover] itself. Included in the criteria of who can bring it are those who were ritually impure by way of impurity of a corpse before Pesach. This impurity comes as a result of the original sin. The second chance comes to give extra opportunity to fix things. It plants a motion in creation of teshuvah - fixing mistakes. As mentioned, this in general is the theme of the Cain root, and its superiority over the Abel root – mostly brought to fruition through the Nadab/Abihu channel. Abihu also received from Nachshon, his mother's brother… The Ari'Zl starts this paragraph by mentioning that Abihu received from Nachshon - his mother's brother . The Rabbis teach that one who wants to marry a woman should always check her brother. It is learned from "And Aaron took Elisheva the daughter of AmiNadab, the sister of Nachshon, to him for a wife." (Ex. 6:23) In other words, this dynamic empowered Abihu to draw from the Nachshon energy. …because he [Nachshon] was also from the root of Cain... …because he [Nachshon] was also from the root of Cain called nefesh. Furthermore, since the main attachment of the zuhama of the snake in Adam is on the level of the nefesh of Asiya, he is called NChShN/Nachshon after the NChSh/nachash [snake]. NChShN/Nachshon is ‘NCSh-N/nachash-N/nun’ - the snake of the fiftieth gate. Nachash is gematria Mashiach. There cannot be a hero without a villain. The classic first villain mentioned in the Torah is Pharaoh, who is called a serpent. (Ezekiel 29:3) A step deeper, Mashiach comes to transform, sublimate, and harness the snake energy to the good side. It comes from the unique messianic place - the fiftieth gate. It is channeled through Nachshon, the prince of the tribe of Judah (Num. 1:7) - the forefather of Mashiach. (Zohar I Vayeishev) The snake tastes not his food, for whatever he eats tastes like dust. He

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always crawls on his belly. (Gen. 3:14) In the rectified state, this represents one who is completely nullified to and included in the Infinite Light. "Let my soul be to all as dust." (Morning Liturgy) Mashiach will purify and elevate the entire world to this level - the exalted inclusion of the fiftieth gate in the Infinite One. Nachshon, who was at this level, was the one who jumped into the sea and caused it to split. (Shemot Raba) When one is in extreme danger, the essence surfaces. He demonstrated complete trust in G-d and nullification to His will. This was the catalyst for the miracle and opened the path for the whole nation to walk through the sea on dry land. So it is will be with Mashiach by the final redemption. His outstanding faith, trust, and selfsacrifice will push the entire people through the pangs of exile, make miracles sprout left and right, and open the light of the grand fiftieth gate to shine to all. The supernal snake removed two mochin from Nukvah, which is two times the word OVR-207/ohr, as we discussed on the verse, "VAHVT-414/va’ahavta [and you shall love] G-d your L-rd." (Deut. 6:5) This is the gematria NChShN/Nachshon, to teach that Nachshon through his good deeds restored them to Nukvah. Judah is rooted in malchut. (Likutei Moharan 4) The first prince of this tribe has to work to fix Nukvah the malchut/feminine principle. Nukvah is the partzuf that infuses this world. Mind power is light. Nukvah has two mind powers/lights. (Eitz Chayim, Shaar Nukvah) From this comes love and fear of G-d. Twice ohr [light] equals v’ahavta, from which is learned the mitzvah to love G-d, for fear and love.Together are two wings that propel the soul above to cleave to G-d. (Deut. 10:12-13) The main attack of the snake/evil inclination is to put the soul asleep to Divine connection. The main attack of the snake/evil inclination is to put the soul asleep to Divine connection. He injects the poison of materialism and causes the soul to forget what it is here for. Nachshon jumped into the sea and jolted the entire people into remembering their purpose. His self-sacrifice stands for generations in the soul-switch board as a battery to enlighten Nukvah and the whole world drawn from it to aspire to on High. Moreover, when it reincarnated into Yishai, David's father, then the level of Cain called snake was completely rectified. As the verse says, "who consorted with Abigail daughter of Nachash." (Samuel I 17:25) the Sages explain that she was the daughter of the one "who died because of the bite of the nachash [snake]", (Baba Batra 17a) alluding to the fact that Yishai was the end of the rectification of the zuhama of the nachash, having the nefesh of Cain. Nevertheless, he died because of the bite of the snake (Shabbat 55b) - because of the sin of Adam. Thus, more completion was achieved through Yishai than through Nachshon. Yishai and David are also from Judah. Accordingly they also took a major part in rectifying the snake, who is stationed immediately beneath malchut in the worlds. Coming after

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Nachshon, they built on and furthered his work. Yishai was one of the four who never sinned. His death was directly for the original sin and made a great repair for it. His great level of perfection paved the way for David/the Mashiach root to be born to the world. From these last paragraphs we see clearly that the Nadab/Abihu Cain root is instrumental in fixing the tree of knowledge and bringing the final redemption. Returning to the discussion of Nadab and Abihu, since they were on the level of the nefesh called Asiya, the zuhama of the snake attached itself to them, and they sinned in the incident of the "unauthorized incense-offering". (Lev. 10:1) As a result, they were punished with death [which has its hold on Asiya]. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Elijah is Pinchas
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 2b Elijah the Prophet is Pinchas, (Zohar) who had the nefesh zehira ila’a of Adam. Therefore, Nadab and Abihu came into him in ibur in the incident with Zimri, since they were also the level of the nefesh of Adam from the aspect of the nefesh of Asiya, as mentioned earlier. Likes attract and aid each other to rectify. Nadab and Abihu had to die through burning. Now, had the Jewish people not sinned with the [golden] calf, the zuhama would have been completely removed from them.1 Had that been the case, then even though Nadab and Abihu sinned with the incense, they could have simply died a normal death. However, since Israel did commit the sin with the calf, they caused the zuhama to adhere once again to the nefesh of Adam. As a result, Nadab and Abihu had to die through burning. Before the sin, Adam’s body was from the world of Yetzira. The sin caused a great fall to the lowly, earthy realm of Asiya and the body assumed a base, physical attire. (Likutei Torah, Bereishit) This is what the snake has a hold on. Physically, man is not that much different than beast.2 Fire destroys the substantiality of the material. It is therefore one method of destroying the evil energy of the snake intermingled with the body. Cremation is forbidden as G-d in His infinite wisdom sees that the best rectification for the body after death is to let it deteriorate. Therefore, only their souls were burned while their bodies were left unscathed, for the

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negative energy was primarily attached to their souls and from there was burned away. Their bodies were buried and left to natural designs. This is the reason for, "And all your brothers the entire House of Israel shall cry over the burning." (Lev. 10:6) Their sin of the [golden] calf caused the burning of the nefesh of Adam, the father of the entire world. This is the reason why Nadab and Abihu were considered equal to the entire Jewish people, like Moses and Aaron, because they possessed the nefesh of Adam itself. Rashi states that Moses remarked to Aaron that he knew the consecration of the Tabernacle would involve the death of great tzadikim. He had thought that it would be himself or Aaron. After Nadab and Abihu were taken, he saw that they were greater. Even though we explained that in order to draw down the tremendous Shechinah concentration in the Tabernacle, it was necessary to create an extreme awakening from below, which was to come through tzadikim dying for the Divine honor. Still, if they had not sinned with the golden calf, it would have been possible to make this awakening by means of the offerings without anyone having to die.3 After the golden calf, only the choicest were powerful enough... After the golden calf, only the choicest were powerful enough to propel a strong enough ascent from below to bring down the highest light. This shows the greatness of Nadab and Abihu. The secret is here revealed – that they are from the nefesh of Adam himself. Adam’s mistake took the Shechinah out of the universe, he himself is accordingly the one to sacrifice and give up life for its return. Regarding the ibur into Pinchas it is written, "Remember NA/na [please] which NKI/naki [innocent] person ever perished," (Job 4:7) as the Zohar says. (Pinchas 217a) For the first letters of Nadab and Abihu are NA/nun-aleph, and they are from the root of KYN/Cain, whose letters spell NKY/naki. In other words, they never perished but went into Pinchas, who was also from Cain. However, as we explained earlier, (Chapter 32) when Pinchas sinned with the incident of the daughter of Yiftach, the ibur of Nadab and Abihu was removed from him and it went to Samuel the Prophet. Above, the Ari'Zl taught us that NA/na hints to Nadav and Abihu, when this word of supplication was used by Elisha to receive double the spirit of Elijah. It again comes into play here by the verse speaking of Pinchas/Elijah receiving these souls to fix them. Above we explained that na ['please'] fixes the forceful taking of light found in the Cain root in Tohu. Two na’s are necessary to fully repair this: one at the stage of Pinchas himself receiving the souls and one when he passed them on as Elijah to Elisha.4 As a result of Israelites sinning with the Moabite women, a plague was sent and they were dying like flies. Pinchas got up, was vengeful on behalf of G-d, killed the main offenders,

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and the plague ceased. (Num. 25:1-9) His jealousy for the Divine honor fixed Cain's selfish jealousy. By saving his brethren from deserved death, Pinchas fixed Cain’s killing his brother undeservedly. His care about his brothers fixed Cain’s "Am I my brother’s keeper?"(Gen. 4:9) Pinchas thus rectified the separateness and lack of relation of the sefirot of Tohu... At first the sefirot of Tohu were selfish in that each one received directly from Ein Sof, without giving to each other. Then the vessels tried to obtain too much light. (Eitz Chayim, Shaar Shevirat HaKeilim) Pinchas thus rectified the separateness and lack of relation of the sefirot of Tohu, source of the Cain mechanics. This gave into Pinchas’ jurisdiction the choice souls of Cain. Korach the son of Yitzhar was from the level of the ruach of Cain from the side of evil, as the verse indicates, "And Korach took" (Num. 16:1) - see the Targum there.5 This evil ruach of Cain was enclothed within him [Korach], and therefore he accused Abel his brother, [who was enclothed in] Moses. However Jethro, though he too is from Cain, as it says, "Heber the Kenite separated from KYN/Kenites," (Judges 4:11) is from the level of good of Cain. Therefore, he gave his daughter Tziporah to Moses, was good to him, and fed him bread. This greatly fixed the Cain root. Empowered by it, Jethro ’s recognizing one G-d and His power was actually the local catalyst for the giving of the Torah. (Zohar, see Likutei Moharan 10) The crown of Torah goes together with the others, which belong to Cain the firstborn. Korach thought he had rectified Cain the firstborn, and therefore he tried to overcome Moses, who was Abel. However, he had erred in this because the tikun of Cain could not have come through Korach, since he was from his evil side. Rather, it could only come through his descendant, Samuel the Prophet, who was also from the good side of Cain. The Sages have said that Korach prophesized but did not know [what he was prophesying], because he saw a fire go out from his [reproductive] organ [making him think that since his descendents were to be rulers,6 he would be successful in usurping Moses7]. Understand this. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Samuel the Prophet
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 3a This is the secret of: "And he saw the Kenites," (Num. 24:21) who is Cain, and Samuel was from Cain. This is alluded to in, "Oy! Who will survive when MShMV/misumo [He

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imposes] AL/el [these]?" (Num. 24:23) - which are the letters ShMUAL. ...Samuel himself finished what Saul started... Moreover, just before that it said, "He saw Amalek," (Num. 24:20) who is from the evil side of Cain, as we will later explain. Thus he was saying, "Woe to Amalek when Samuel will come", because it was him who urged Saul to go off to war against him. As it says [that Samuel himself finished what Saul started], "Samuel severed Agag (king of Amalek) in Gilgal." (Samuel I 15:33) This is from the prophecy of Balaam the wicked. Even though he was bad, he was given revelations way beyond what he deserved, in order for G-d to thereby show His people how much He watches over and protects them from those who plot to destroy them. Based on previous discussions of the Balaam root this is well understood. Balaam tried to destroy the people three times. Each time, G-d foiled his efforts. (Berachot 55b) He then said this prophecy. He was saying to the nations that those who try to wipe out the chosen people will themselves end up obliterated. Samuel, who comes from the rectified Cain energy, is the one who eradicates those who come from the bad side of Cain to annihilate. This relates to Balaam, whose evil powers came from the bad of Cain. (Zohar III Balaam) When his own efforts to do harm were thwarted, he was made to prophesize how coming efforts of succeeding enemies are also be destined to fail. Samuel killed the king of Amalek in Gilgal - invested by the power of the rectified gilgul of his Cain sparks. Rashi teaches that he sliced him into four. Rabbi Nachman explains that this refers to the four principle kingdoms through which the sitra achra manifests in the world - which are all under the jurisdiction of the Amalek scoundrel. Samuel retrieved the malchut/kingdom of holiness from them.1 This empowered him to anoint David, the full bearer of malchut of holiness in his Mashiach essence. "Samuel snatched back from ...Satan what he had taken from Jacob..." This is the secret of what the Zohar (Vayeitzei) writes, "‘And he touched his thigh’ (Gen. 32:26) - this refers to Nadab and Abihu." In Saba of Mishpatim it says, "Samuel snatched back from Samael/the Satan2 what he had taken from Jacob [when they wrestled]". (Zohar II Mishpatim 111) The Satan saw that Jacob was invincible and there was no way he could beat him. He tried at least to cause some damage. Nadab and Abihu harbor the messianic potential. Thus they were able to facilitate the consecration of the Mishkan. If this tikun was able to fully spread out, Mashiach could have come then. Instead, it was damaged by the Satan. Now it takes this whole series of Nadab/Abihu stages enumerated by the Ari'Zl for the full tikun to eventually fully take hold. This is because Nadab and Abihu are the two legs, netzach and hod, the root of all prophets. Samael had grabbed on to them. When Samuel came along and grabbed this thigh from

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Samael, which is Nadab and Abihu, he merited prophecy through them, because the thighs are the source of the prophets. Prior to Samuel, the thigh had been in Samael’s possession, as the Ari' Zl explains on the verse: "vision was not widespread." (Samuel I 3:1, Sefer HaLikutim) This demonstrates the awesome power of Samuel - that he battles and defeats the Devil himself. Therefore was he empowered to anoint David/Mashiach (lit. "anointed"). He also opened the channel of prophecy to spread out to all those who are worthy. To this day, his grave is a special place that can open up Divine inspiration for visitors. This is the secret of what the Sages say on the verse, "If You take note of the suffering of Your maidservant." (Samuel I 1:11) For Hannah [Samuel’s mother] said, "I will go into seclusion [with another man] and [will be forced to] drink the sotah [wayward woman's] waters, and then certainly will I have children". A sotah is a woman who was alone with another man and is suspected of adultery. She is to be brought to the Holy Temple and given a special potion to drink. (Num. 5:24) If she is guilty, she dies a terrible death. If innocent - on the contrary, she is blessed to give birth to healthy children. Hannah was an extremely virtuous woman. According to Rabbi Elazar, she as if threatened on High and made a vow that if she would not have children, she would set herself up to go through the whole dark, suspicious sotah process in order to end up a mother. (Berachot 31b) She only meant this for the Divine honor, to be a vessel for its expression through motherhood. This can be understood in light of what is found in the Saba of Mishpatim, where it says that Samuel grabbed the thigh from Samael, and gave him the thigh of the sotah in its place. Therefore, Hannah told G-d that if she could not give birth to Samuel who could grab the thigh from Samael, she would go and become secluded [with another man]. This would cause two thighs to be taken away from Samael, the thigh of Jacob through Samuel, and the thigh of the sotah - since she would be pure and he would not overcome her. She would set herself up in a test, withstand it, and thereby as if force Heaven to answer. This would come by virtue of the sotah process. For when she stands the test and is pure, this overcomes and subjugates the the Satan, forcing him to relinquish energies that he stole from holiness through peoples’ mistakes. She reached up to the level of super mercy... "Hannah prayed upon G-d..." (Samuel I:10) She reached up to the level of super mercy that is above the usual expression of Divinity afforded to people, called Atik, and changed the natural order. (Zohar) Samuel who came from this, lived above nature and anointed David/Mashiach who will elevate the whole world to this state. This all comes from Nadab and Abihu, who lived in this world in an elevated state.3 This is also the secret of "Moses and Aaron were among His priests, and Samuel among those who invoke His Name," (Ps. 99:6) for Samuel was considered equal to Moses and

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Aaron. (Berachot 31b) This is because Nadab and Abihu were in him, and they were equal to Moses and Aaron, as is said on the verse, "It [the Mishkan] shall be sanctified by My Glory [through the death of tzadikim4]." (Ex. 29:43) And just as ELYShA/Elisha took the three letters ELY from ELYHV/Eliyahu/Elijah, as said in the previous discussion, so too did ShMVEL/Shmuel/Samuel take the two letters EL from Eliyahu, alluding to the fact that he took Nadab and Abihu, who were originally in Elijah. E-L is a Divine name denoting G-d’s power. Yet it is a name of chesed5 (lovingkindness). As mentioned, this is part of the essential Nadab/Abihu dynamic. Elisha also took the Y/yud from his master. As mentioned ELY/Eili means My L-rd. It fits with the ShA of ELYShA which means favor, referring to the lack of favor Cain experienced that was fixed in Elisha. This granted him the extra favor of ‘My L-rd’. We need to explain the matter of Samuel, and we will start with Nadab and Abihu. Know that just as Nadab and Abihu sinned with the incense-offering, so too did Israel sin with the calf, and they caused them to be burned. As said earlier on the verse, "And all your brothers, the entire House of Israel, shall cry over the burning." (Lev. 10:6) Aaron also played a role in their death when he made the calf. As it says, "G-d became very angry with Aaron to destroy him" (Deut. 9:20) - this refers to the destruction of his sons.6 [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Aaron & Haran
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 3b Now Aaron was from the root of Abel,1 the son of Adam. The root of Abel divided into many levels of roots, principally two soul-roots: The roots of Haran and Nahor, the brothers of Abram. Nahor reincarnated into Hur the son of Miriam (Moses' sister), while Haran reincarnated into Aaron. ChVR/(C)hur took the three letters of NChVR/Na(c)hor, while the N/nun from Nahor remained for the root of Ahab king of Israel, as we will explain. However, AHRN/Aaron has the three letters of HRN/Haran (hei-reish-nun), plus an additional A/aleph. Lot the son of Haran was also from the root of Abel. Therefore the head-letters of LVT BN HRN/Lot ben [son of] Haran spell HVL/Abel in reverse - since both Lot and Haran were from the Abel-root. From Lot later came King Rehoboam, [King Solomon's son] as we will explain. Thus we find that Moses, his brother Aaron, Hur ben Miriam (their nephew), Lot, and Ahab are all from the root of Abel the son of

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Adam - different branches but all from Abel. Haran himself came to rectify the sin of Adam who had performed idol-worship. As said, Aaron was Haran the brother of Abram. Now, Haran himself came to rectify the sin of Adam who had performed idol-worship. However, not only did he not rectify, but he didn’t even believe in G-d until after Abraham came out of the fiery furnace, as the Sages say.2 Therefore Haran was burned in Ur Kasdim [the furnace in Kasdim]. "Whatever is in your power to do - do!" (Eccl. 9:10) The fact that Haran died for the sake of faith started the process and paved the way for his soul to continue to undergo stages of tikun. A person should never say that since he wasn’t able to do everything that it seem he should do - therefore he won’t do anything. After that, he reincarnated into Aaron to rectify the sin - but in the end he did just the opposite by making the [Golden] Calf. Really he should have instead sacrificed himself when the Mixed Multitude came to him and said, "Arise and make a god for us." (Ex. 32:1) However he erred, thinking that it was enough that they had already killed Hur, who was also from the root of Abel. The intention of Aaron was totally good. He knew that if he would not listen to the people they would kill him. This alone was not an issue for him. However, he was concerned that because of this, G-d would destroy the people, in accordance with the principle that G-d is more exacting about the honor of tzadikim than of His own. (Zohar III) Nonetheless, there was some aspect of this that was considered a lack on the part of Aaron. Adam's original mistake planted in events a strange scenario that, at times, no matter what a person might do, things cannot be completely good. Moreover, he might have to suffer consequences. This seems unfair, but life is not meant to be fair. We are here to fix things. A repair man who is sent to fix a stove does not question why the stove broke or why he is sent to fix it - he knows that his purpose is simply to do his job and make the repair. Each soul is a repairman of some part of existence and is sent in certain places/situations to rectify sparks of the original sin - according to their soul-root and according part in it. This is the ultimate cause of all seemingly impossible circumstances. ...he built an altar as a result of the one slaughtered before him... This is the secret of, "And he built an altar before him," (Ex. 32:5) which the Sages interpret to mean that he built an altar as a result of the one slaughtered before him - that is Hur. Thus, he didn’t stop them and sacrifice himself instead - and sinned as a result. This was not rectified until Uriah the Priest, as we will explain later. However, prior to this he reincarnated into Ya’abetz the Judge. He sinned then as well, constantly making vows, as the Sages say on the verse, "Ya’abetz called out to the G-d of Israel, saying, ‘If you will bless me’." (Chron. I 4:10) Therefore, he reincarnated

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into Tola the son of Pu’ah the Judge. He was called ‘Tola’ after ‘tola’a’ [worm], whose strength is in its mouth,3 to hint that he had come to rectify the vows that came forth from his mouth. He sinned in another way as well, as the Sages explain on the verse, "He dwelt in Shamir, in Mount Ephraim." (Judges 10:1) For, he remained in a single location in one city, rather than traveling from place to place to judge Israel. This prevented the people from coming to him for judgment because of the need to travel. Therefore he reincarnated into Samuel the Prophet, who rectified this sin by traveling from place to place to judge the people, as the verse says. Nadab and Abihu, who are called ‘limbs of truth’, came to him in ibur. From there (netzach and hod, which they represent) comes prophecy, and therefore he merited prophecy through them. When he fathered Abijah, his own son, Abihu reincarnated into him4 - so their names are similar. Nadab however remained in Samuel, which is the secret of, "his second [born son] Abijah." (Samuel I 8:2) For Nadab remained in Samuel, but from his second, that is Abihu, came the reincarnation into his son called Abijah. The limbs represent the sefirot. They are all truthful. Nonetheless netzach and hod are special, for although they are in some aspect considered outside of the body of holiness and are thus susceptible to the kelipot, which are called sheker [falsehood] - they remain truthful. Linking to this special degree of truth afforded Samuel the merit of prophecy. A person can merit divine inspiration through simply thinking of G-d and connecting his everyday business to Him. ...that good was Mashiach ben Yosef, who was destined to come from him... After that, Samuel died and reincarnated into Abijah, the son of Jeroboam. Thus it says by Samuel, "All of Israel eulogized him" (Samuel I 28:3) and with respect to Abijah, the son of Jeroboam it says, "All of Israel eulogized him." (Kings I 14:18) For they saw something good within him. According to Midrash Eichah in the Zohar, that good was Mashiach ben Yosef, who was destined to come from him - the reason being because he was the reincarnation of Samuel. "‘And G-d saw the light that it was good’ (Gen. 1:3) - that it is good to hide."5 He hid it in yesod - the sefira of Joseph/Yosef. It is thus to be revealed by Mashiach ben Yosef. Yesod is the sefira of connection - between above and below. A new level of this connection is revealed at the time of death, when the soul departs above. It is thus a powerful time of yesod energy. People sensed this and saw through it some of the special good of the hidden light. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

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Uriah The Kohen
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-Three, Section 3c After that, Aaron returned and reincarnated into Uriah the Kohen of Kiryat Ye'arim, who was killed by King Yehoyakim. Through this, he was forgiven for the death for which he was culpable as a result of the (Golden) Calf. However, Nadab and Abihu also reincarnated with him into Uriah the Kohen as an actual gilgul, since they died because of him, as we said on the verse, "God became very angry with Aaron to destroy him." (Deut. 9:20) ...Nadab and Abihu also reincarnated with him into Uriah the Kohen... Therefore, ARYH/Uri(y)ah was named after AHRN/A(h)aron - their names are similar and both were priests. In addition, even though he was rectified when Uriah was killed, since he caused Nadab and Abihu his sons to reincarnate and be killed because of him, therefore he needed to reincarnate a second time into Zechariah the prophet and kohen, the colleague of Haggai and Malachi. Nadab and Abihu reincarnated with him as a real gilgul. Thus Uriah the Kohen, who came to rectify the sin of Aaron, was called kohen, to allude to Aaron the first kohen. However, Zechariah came for the purpose of Nadab and Abihu, and therefore was not called kohen even though he was one (and they were also kohanim). As it says, "I appointed trustworthy witnesses for myself: Uriah the Kohen and Zechariyahu the son of Yeberechiah." (Isaiah 8:2) There is also another hint, for with respect to Uriah it does not mention "son of", though it does with respect to Zechariah/Zechariyahu. This is to allude to the fact that Uriah was the father and Zechariyahu was the son - that is that Nadab and Abihu his sons were the principle souls in Zechariah. ...each of them had reincarnations of two "witnesses"... Therefore are they called "trustworthy witnesses" - because the two of them are one (the same) soul, as mentioned, and each of them had reincarnations of two "witnesses" - an aspect of Aaron and an aspect of his two sons. Hence, Uriah also prophesied about chastisements since he still needed to be killed. However, Zechariah prophesied about times of comfort and the building of the Second Temple, as found in his book. A witness comes to clarify the truth in places where it is hidden. (Likutei Moharan) These tzadikim came to fix the root of Aaron and prove its absolute goodness from amidst its falls. They thereby testify to the Divine unity, which rests on and manifests through tzadikim. This is one idea behind "tzadikaya anpei Shechinta/the righteous are (as if) the face of the Divine Presence". (Zohar) Each prophet expresses his vision in a different manner - according to his soul root.

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(Chatam Sofer 15:16) Also, the nature of the prophesy given to him to tell relates to his merit and his own tikun in the world. Isaiah accepted upon himself the yoke of Heaven with joy and so merited to foretell times of happiness. (Yalkut Shimoni Isaiah 6) Uriah had to work on the din side, which involves suffering - therefore he had to give over messages of reproof. After this tikun, the door was opened for Zechariah to do it on the chesed side. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

Moses our Teacher
Gate of Reincarnations: Chapter Thirty-four, Section 1 Abel is [drawn from] the right shoulder of Adam, which is the level of itra d’chesed [the crown of chesed] - which remained in Zeir Anpin. So we find that he is from the in the secret of da’at, which, as we have explained before resolves between chochmah and bina. Therefore, da’at itself has to incorporate the three levels of chochmah, bina, and da’at. At first, Moses was Abel, who was the son of Adam. Later, he reincarnated into Seth, then Noah, and after that, into Shem, Noah's son. This is the secret of, "You have said, ‘I shall know you by shem [literally meaning 'name']’" (Ex. 33:12) - an allusion to the reincarnation into Shem. "And you found favor ChN/cheit-nun [favor] in My eyes" hints at the reincarnation into Noah, the father, since Noah also contains the letters ChN/cheit-nun. In the secret of, "Noah found favor CN/cheit-nun [favor](Gen. 6:8) I mentioned elsewhere that these gilgulim are in the secret of NR"N, and therefore, you need not be surprised about how Noah and Shem could live at the same time if they are from the same level since they can take different soul-sections from one person who had them altogether. Shem, Noah, and Moses are all from the same root, the level of chesed... Thus MSh/mem-shin, the first letters of MShH/mem-shin-hey/Moshe (Moses) allude to ShM/shin-mem/Shem. And so we learn that Shem, Noah, and Moses are all from the same root, the level of chesed, which is that of Abel the son of Adam. This is the secret of [what it says regarding Moses], "for from the water he was drawn" (Ex. 2:10) - that is [from] the waters of chesed. Water spreads out wherever it is put. It gives life. It is formless, colorless, tasteless boundless by nature. These are all chesed-oriented qualities. "The world is built from chesed".1 (Ps. 103:2) After they ate from the tree, the original chesed - directive of creation became hidden. The giving of the Torah restored the

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revelation of this directive.2 Moses brought the Torah to the world. He was chosen for this because of his root in chesed. Water is formless, whereas Moses gives purpose, structure, and form to the world. Pharaoh decreed that all males should be thrown into the Nile. This was because his astrologers saw that the people's savior would be smitten by water. (Shemot Raba) The Maharal explains that there is an opposite dynamic between Moses and water. Water is formless, whereas Moses gives purpose, structure, and form to the world. (Gur Aryeh Shemot) This does not contradict the above. The greatness of Moses is that he takes the raw spreading, giving chesed energy and draws it into the vessels of actualization. He transferred the Torah from its free, water-like form in the worlds above into a concrete, down to earth doctrine.3 This explains the concept brought presently about the Torah being given from the aspect of fiery gevura.4 When Moses received the Torah from Sinai, all three levels were incorporated and ascended in the secret da’at machriyah [resolving knowledge], from which comes the level of the written Torah. This is the secret of "From His right hand a fiery doctrine (Torah, was presented) to them," (Deut. 33:2) for the Torah is given from the side of gevurot - which is the side of gevura of da’at, as mentioned. Torah is ‘moreh derech’ - shows the way. It is given to give a way for each person to connect to G-d. It must then include all diverse paths and present means for each individual to decide between them and know for himself what to do. Da’at includes the extremities of chochmah-right/bina-left. It incorporates them into itself and decides between them. Accordingly, the Torah was given from da’at. It was given on Sinai, which equals sulam [latter] - a means to ascend and connect above… As said, the soul of Moses is sourced in da’at. This facilitates him to be the one to bring Torah to the world.5 I already explained that until the vision of the bush, Moses had yet to rectify the letters of Abel and Seth, except for the Sh of ShS/Shais/Seth and the H of HVL/Hevel/Abel, hinted to in the name MShH/Moshe/Moses. The three letters HVL of Hevel/Abel had yet to be rectified. As mentioned, the soul is included in the name. Each letter is a different aspect of the soul. Each one receives attention and rectification at different stages. "Do whatever is in your power!" (Eccl. 9:10) At any given chapter of life, there are special things/letters to repair and enjoy. " If only today you would head His voice!" (Ps. 96:5) Wherever an individual may find himself, he is advised to take advantage of those special things and do his best to fix them. They can provide a unique connection to G-d that no

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other letters/things can. "Moses equaled the entire children of Israel." This is the reason that Gershom and Manasseh [Shmuel says: I don’t know why Manasseh is mentioned here, since no sons other than Gershom and Eliezer were born to Moses before the vision of the bush (Ex. 3)] were not that righteous. There is also another reason, and that is: The entire Jewish people were like his children and sparks from his soul. This is the secret of what the Sages say: "Moses equaled the entire children of Israel." (Shir Hashirim Raba 1:4) Thus he was like Adam who incorporated all souls. Hence, one should not be perplexed if Gershom and Manasseh were not so righteous, since the entire Jewish people were already his children.6 There are seventy faces to the Torah. On the level of each face, things are said in a way that is pertinent to that level. The above applies to the simple perspective. A rung deeper, the children of Moses were actually much higher than the rest of the people.7 They seemed to be lower because they were so outstanding that they were aloof. This itself is the idea behind the simple explanation that they weren’t so righteous. Returning to the matter, the bush rectified the letters HVL as well. Thus it says, "The angel of God appeared to him in a LVT [flame] of fire," (Ex. 3:2) to hint that in the beginning the letters LVT were not yet rectified.8 Therefore, it says "in a flame of fire," - from the side of judgment, since they were not yet rectified. "in a flame of fire," - from the side of judgment, since they were not yet rectified. G-d first revealed Himself to Moses on Mt. Sinai by the burning bush. Moses was then commanded to redeem the people. The Ari.Zl. calls this scene, "the bush". Why is it so referred to? "Behold the bush burns - but it is not consumed." Despite the flames of persecution and exile throughout generations, the people are never destroyed. At first, Moses did not want to redeem them because he knew that they would end up in exile again. (Gen. 4:13, Rashi) G-d pre-empted his concern by attracting his attention through the burning bush, guaranteeing their survival - and eventual final redemption. This is the sweetening of all judgments. And so the din letters of Abel were fixed. However, at the bush they became rectified, and this is indicated by the repetition of Moses’ name [as it says there, "Moses, Moses "]. The first refers to before the bush when he wasn’t rectified, the second to his newly rectified state. Nevertheless, even in the beginning the blemish wasn’t that bad, as it says in the Idra. (Zohar Naso 138a) The Zohar points out that by other tzadikim who God doubled in calling their name, an interrupting line is written in the text between the names - except by Moses. (Zohar III Idra) This comes to demonstrate his unique greatness. There is no interruption between Moses above and Moses below. This is part of what is behind this teaching that the

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beginning blemish was not so bad. [Translation and commentary by Perets Auerbach.]

FOOTNOTES 1. Even though it originally arose in thought to create the world with din (Bereisit Raba), this was only intended as means of eventually bringing about the greatest chesed. 2. Even though the world was at first sustained from ‘free-chesed’, which is a higher level than ‘generalchesed’ (Likutei Moharan II), this itself was only because the world was not ready to have direct relation to its Maker. G-d put it on a freebie in order to allow it to develop and reach a state of direct relation to Him. After this, there is much less freebie, but the connection is real - specifically because it is earned. 3. He did this through triumphing over the angels, who claimed that the Torah would be better left in heaven by them. “Is there any theft among you, for which it says thou shalt not steal?...” He pointed out that the purpose of the Torah is not to hover over creation. Rather to deal with an imperfect world and perfect it. 4. Moses ended up suffering from the water element when he brought forth water from the rock by hitting it, in place of speaking to it. (Num. 20:11) This was only because the people had not done their job of concretizing the Torah by fulfilling it. That so being, the nebulous nature of water/unrealized potential then becomes antagonistic to Moses and he suffers from it. 5. Although the Ari'Zl just told us that Moses is from chesed, a soul can come from varied roots. Especially the general, all-inclusive soul of Moses that all draw from must be a fusion of many dynamics. 6. It is impossible that out of all the people some of them would not be outstanding. 7. “’And the sons of Moses increased above’ - above six hundred thousand.” They were so lofty as not to be considered from the rest. (Likutei Moharan) 8. As mentioned, the H was already somewhat fixed.

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