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The correct answer for each question is indicated by a



Which of the following was not conveyed by the author of the Indika? A) B) C) D) Indian ants were as big as foxes and could mine gold from the earth. Large Indian armies used elephants as war animals. The Indians were suffering from poverty and all kinds of miseries. The capital of Pataliputra had 570 towers.

There were two prominent belief systems that were exempt from taxes. E) Feedback: Megasthenes' account of India was very positive.


In contrast to Persia and China, classical India A) B) C) D) was a backward country in terms of economy and culture. was isolated from the outside world by formidable geographical barriers. did not have well-developed religions. lacked a strong and continuing imperial tradition.

all of the above E) Feedback: They had empires from time to time, but the imperial tradition was neither strong nor continuous.


The invasions of Darius and Alexander played an important role in Indian politics and history because the conquests brought India, Persia, and Mesopotamia together as one A) country. B) C) foreign religions began to take root in Indian society. the Greeks dominated Indian history for centuries.

the intrusions destroyed many petty kingdoms and created a political D) vacuum. all of the above E) Feedback: The invasions of Darius and Alexander destroyed many small kingdoms and created a political vacuum that could be filled by an Indian conqueror.


The man who founded the first Indian empire was A) B) C) D) Chandragupta Maurya. Chandra Gupta. Ashoka Maurya. Alexander of Macedon.

Siddhartha Gautama. E) Feedback: Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya dynasty.


Ashoka, the great emperor of the Maurya empire, A) B) C) was the only emperor who extended India beyond the subcontinent. wrote a handbook on the principles of government. converted to Buddhism after his bloody war against Kalinga.

abdicated his throne and led a life so ascetic that he starved himself to D) death. none of the above E) Feedback: The bloody war against the Kalinga's convinced Ashoka to convert to Buddhism.


Which of the following caused the Maurya empire to decline and collapse? financial difficulties stemming from the high cost of the army and A) bureaucracy peasant rebellions and factional violence among members of the imperial B) court C) D) foreign invasion by White Huns too many converts to Jainism refused to fight wars

all of the above E) Feedback: Maintaining a huge army and bureaucracy was a financial drain on the Maurya Empire.


Kushan empire A) B) C) D) originated from nomadic conquerors from central Asia. pacified large areas of present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan, and north India. peaked under the rule of Kanshika. played a crucial role in the Silk Road trading network.

all of the above E) Feedback: The Kushan Empire, which reached its peak under Kanshika, was founded by nomadic conquerors from central Asia who pacified areas of present day Pakistan, Afghanistan and north India. They played a crucial role in the Silk Road trading network.


Compared with the Maurya empire, the Gupta empire was A) B) C) D) smaller in size. less powerful and stable. less centralized. longer-lived.

all of the above E) Feedback: The Gupta Empire was smaller, less powerful and stable, less centralized and longer-lived than the Maurya Empire.


The White Huns occupied Bactria and prepared to cross the Hindu Kush into India during the fourth and fifth centuries. Their invasions A) B) C) D) reduced the Gupta empire into an empty name. galvanized local kingdoms to unify themselves for self-defense. met fierce resistance from the Gupta empire. introduced Buddhism to India.

none of the above E) Feedback:

The Gupta empire put up fierce resistance to the White Huns.


Which of the following is true with respect to the position of women in classical India? A) women frequently served as soldiers during time of war

women were accorded a socially inferior position, but came to dominate the B) economic sphere C) D) women were seen as weak-willed and emotional creatures women tended to marry younger men

all of the above E) Feedback: Women were seen as emotional creatures, and the ideal wife was one who was devoted to her husband.


The Kingdom of Magadha had emerged as the most important and dynamic state in India by about 500 B.C.E. A) True

False B) Feedback: Located in the Ganges plain, Magadha exploited the political vacuum created by the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon's forces.


The Arthashastra was a religious handbook that outlined key components of Buddhist doctrine. A) True

False B) Feedback: The Arthashastra was a political handbook written by an advisor to Chandragupta named Kautalya. In it, Kautalya described a system for administering a large empire.


Ashoka promulgated imperial edicts throughout his empire by inscribing them on pillars and natural stone formations. A) True

False B) Feedback: Known as rock and pillar edicts, these imperial decrees often promoted



Following the collapse of the Maurya empire, the Indo-Greek kingdom of Bactria dominated northwest India. A) True

False B) Feedback: The Bactrian kingdom promoted cross-cultural exchange and constituted an important commercial link between China and the Mediterranean region.


The Gupta Empire was centered in the Deccan Plateau of southern India. A) True

False B) Feedback: The Deccan Plateau remained independent of Gupta influence.


In classical India, jati A) B) C) D) were economically self-sufficient and politically autonomous. had their own courts to control crimes and solve disputes. were not much different from guilds of other societies. were based on religious affiliation.

all of the above E) Feedback: Subcastes had their own courts to control crimes and solve disputes.


Your textbook states that "economic development and social change in classical India had profound implications for the established cultural as well as social order." By this the authors meant that A) social distinctions based on castes and jati were practically out of date.

asceticism became unnecessary when more and more people became B) wealthy. C) D) Aryan rituals and beliefs became more popular. new religions emerged to meet the needs of changing times.

none of the above E) Feedback: Buddhism, Jainism and a reformed Hinduism emerged to meet the changing needs of the time.


Among the principles of Jainist ethics, the most important was A) B) C) D) ahimsa. kshatriya. Jina. kama.

Boddhisatva. E) Feedback: Ahimsa, or non-violence, was the most important part of Jainist ethics.


According to legend, Siddhartha Gautama, the first Buddha, abandoned his family and comfortable life to lead the existence of a holy man because of his concern with A) B) C) D) suffering. the souls of everything in the universe. social responsibility associated with his caste. his guilt over his behavior in battle.

his children. E) Feedback: His discovery of the suffering caused by sickness, pain, old age, and death, caused him to seek the way for humans to deal with this reality.


The religious goal of early Buddhism was A) B) C) "Turning of the Wheel of the Law." the Four Noble Truths. the Noble Eightfold path. nirvana.

D) reincarnation. E) Feedback: Reaching nirvana and breaking the cycle of rebirth was the goal of early Buddhism.


According to the authors of the textbook, Jainism and Buddhism appealed especially to members of lower castes because both religions A) B) practiced asceticism, which poor people could afford to do. did not recognize social distinctions based on caste or jati.

organized monastic orders that provided the poor with shelters and a C) meaningful lifestyle as monks. D) appealed to the Brahmins.

all of the above E) Feedback: Jainism and Buddhism are more egalitarian than Hinduism in that they do not recognize caste.


Which of the following statements do not apply to Ashoka's support of Buddhism? A) B) C) D) He banned animal sacrifices and hunting. He built Buddhist monasteries and stupas. He rewarded Buddhists with grants of land. He sent Buddhist missionaries to foreign countries.

He abdicated his throne, abandoned his imperial family, lived in a Buddhist E) monastery, and finally attained nirvana. Feedback: Ashoka did not abdicate. He reigned for 40 years and died on the throne.


One of the differences between early Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism was that A) B) C) Mahayana theologians invented the notion of the bodhisattva. Mahayana theologians revised the Four Noble Truths. Mahayana Buddhists did not honor the Buddha as a god.


Mahayana Buddhists did not embrace the notion of dharma.

Mahayana Buddhism was dominant in Ceylon. E) Feedback: The concept of the bodhisattva is characteristic of Mahayana Buddhism.


Buddhism gradually lost its popularity in India because A) it did not promise to make life easy for its adherents.

Brahmins, the dominant class of classical India, no longer tolerated B) Buddhism. C) D) Buddhist monasteries were abolished in India by royal decree. it grew increasingly remote from the population at large.

all of the above E) Feedback: Buddhism grew remote from the popular masses in India.


Which of the following is not true with regard to Hinduism? A) B) C) D) It restricted sexual activities. It became the most popular religion of classical India. It did not have a single founder like Siddhartha Gautama for Buddhism. It supported the caste system.

It included a belief in reincarnation. E) Feedback: Hinduism did not restrict sexual activities.


The Brahmins and kshatriyas were traditionally accorded lower status than other castes because they did little practical work. A) True

False B) Feedback: Traditional social theory placed the Brahmins and kshatriyas at the top of the caste system because of the important work they did as priests and warriors and because of the worthy lives they had led in earlier incarnations.


Jainism holds that individuals could gain release from their terrestrial suffering through purification from selfish behavior. A) True

False B) Feedback: Jainism became a major religious movement under Vardahamana Mahavira.


Jainism has always remained the religion of a small minority. A) True

False B) Feedback: Jainist ethics were so demanding that only a comparatively small number of people have been able to observe the religion closely.


Buddhist monks successfully used Sanskrit to win converts. A) True

False B) Feedback: Buddhists rejected Sanskrit, the literary language of the brahmins, in favor of vernacular languages. As a result, they were able to reach a much wider audience.


Nalanda was the last Gupta emperor to support Buddhism. A) True

False B) Feedback: Nalanda was a Buddhist monastery that provided advanced education in Buddhism, logic, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and other topics.