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SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

WELCOME
SMK4122

Offshore & Ocean Engineering
Dr. Koh Kho King

Room: C25‐315  |  h/p: 0167627788 koh@fkm.utm.my  |  http://www.fkm.utm.my/~koh

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Aims
• To introduce oil and gas industry  activities in general  • To encompasses various  components in the oil and gas  activities • Introduction to survey, exploration,  platform construction, installation,  production, and maintenance in oil  and gas industry • Introduction to various types of  offshore platforms and their  uniqueness and functionality

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Course Learning Outcome
• Describe the overall scenario of  global and local oil and gas industry  • Identify and describe the main  components & activities in the  offshore  oil and gas industry.  • Describe the main processes in the  design and construction  engineering of Offshore structure • Explain the various rules and  regulations in the Offshore industry

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Course Contents
1.  Introduction • Background on Oil and Gas Industry  • Oil and Gas operation activities. Types of Offshore Platforms. • Oil Drilling and Oilfield Services. High technology exploration  and production methods

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Background

Offshore platform ‐> use for  underseabed exploration and  processing First Offshore platform ‐ installed  in 1947 off the coast of Louisiana  in 6m depth of water Today over 7,000 Offshore  platforms around the world with  some in water depths over  2,000m

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Background
Platform size depends on facilities to be installed on top side eg. Oil rig, living quarters, Helipad etc. Classification of water depths: – < 350m - Shallow water – < 1500m - Deep water – > 1500m - Ultra deep water – US Mineral Management Service (MMS) classifies water depths greater than 1,300 ft as deepwater, and greater than 5,000 ft as ultra-deepwater.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Oil & Gas Industry
The Oil & Gas Industry comprises two parts:
Upstream  – the exploration and production  sector of the industry Downstream – the sector which deals with refining  and processing of crude oil and gas  products; their distribution and marketing

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Oil & Gas Industry
Among the upstream activities would be: Exploration : Analysing and Interpreting seismic data to determine the potential of 
hydrocarbon reserves; drilling of test wells.

Conceptual development: Screening studies to determine  the most efficient and cost 
effective method to produce potential hydrocarbon sources i.e selection of facilities, transport  of hydrocarbon from field to customer (pipeline, floating storage and offloading (FSO) Vessels,  corrosion mitigation strategies and safety aspects of the operations.

Development:  project management  of construction, detailed engineering, optimum wells 
location, transport of facilities to location and commissioning of facilities

Production : maintenance strategies, planing budges, Analysis of supply and demand, and 
retrofit work to maintain or meet new production targets.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Malaysian O & G Industry(1)
• Petroleum exploration in Malaysia started at the beginning of the 20th century in Sarawak, where oil was first discovered in 1909 and first  produced in 1910.  Prior to 1975, petroleum concessions were granted by state governments,  where oil companies have exclusive rights to explore and produce  resources. The companies then paid royalties and taxes to the government.  This state of affairs ceased on April 1, 1975 as a result of the Petroleum  Development Act, whereby PETRONAS became the custodian of petroleum  resources with rights to explore and produce resources. The national oil  company retains ownership and management control in exploration,  development  and production of oil resources. Expenditure and profits are  managed under instruments called Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs). 

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Malaysian O & G Industry(2)
• Malaysia has the 25th largest oil reserves and the 14th largest  gas reserves in the world.  • The total reserves is of the order of 18.82 billion barrels oil  equivalent (boe) with a crude production rate of 600 thousand  barrels per day.  • The average natural gas production stands to approx. 5.7  billion standard cubic feet per day.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Malaysian O & G Industry(3)
• Malaysia has the 494,183 km2 of acreage available for O&G  exploration, with 337,167km2 in the offshore continental shelf  area and 63,968 km2 in deepwater. • The acreage is split into 54 blocks, out of which 28 (a total of  205,500km2) are currently operated by Petronas Carigali Sdn.  Bhd plus seven other multinational oil companies.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Malaysian O & G Industry(4)

Historical Natural Gas Production

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Malaysian O & G Industry(5)

Historical Crude Oil Production

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Oil & Gas Activities
NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 OPERATION Survey Wild cat or exploratory drilling Pipe-laying Supply and Anchor Handling Towing Diving Production Heavy Lift Offshore Terminal Underwater Inspection TYPE OF STRUCTURE Survey ship, oceanagraphic platform/buoy Jackup, barge, drillship, semisubmersible Pipe-laying barge, ship, semisubmersible Supply vessel, platform supply vessel Ocean-going Tug Diving support vessel Fixed platform – steel jacket, concrete gravity type, TLP, guyed tower Semisubmersible Crane Vessel, Crane Barge, Crane Ship Single Buoy Mooring (SBM), SPAR Buoy Submersible – ROV, manned

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Cost Vs Water Depth
Initial Cost + Installation Fixed TLP Floating

Water Depth

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Seismic Survey(1)

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Seismic Survey(2)
• • • Petroleum – Petra (rock) + Oleum (Oil) Source Rock, Reservoir Rock, Cap Rock Wild‐Cat, Appraisal and Development drilling

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Oil & Gas Activities

Upstream

Downstream

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Types of Offshore Structure
Classification of Offshore Structures

Floating
Drillship Semisubmersible Crane barge

Fixed

Compliant

Jack up Jacket

Gravity

Guyed Tower Articulated columns

TLP

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Types of Offshore Structure

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Offshore Platform

Fixed structures that extend to  the Seabed.
• •

Steel Jacket Concrete gravity  Structure Compliant Tower

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Offshore Platform
• Structures that float near the  water surface‐ Recent  development
• • • •

Tension Leg platforms Semi Submersible Spar Ship shaped vessel  (FPSO)

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Fixed Type Platforms
JACKET PLATFORM Space framed structure with tubular members supported on piled foundations. Used for moderate water depths up to 400m. Jackets provides protective layer around the pipes. Typical offshore structure will have a deck structure containing a Main Deck, a Cellar Deck, and a Helideck. The deck structure is supported by deck legs connected to the top of the piles. The piles extend from above the Mean Low Water through the seabed and into the soil.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Fixed Type Platforms
JACKETED PLATFORM (Cont.) Underwater, the piles are contained inside the legs of a “jacket” structure which serves as bracing for the piles against lateral loads. The jacket also serves as a template for the initial driving of the piles. (The piles are driven through the inside of the legs of the jacket structure). Natural period (usually 2.5 second) is kept below wave period (14 to 20 seconds) to avoid amplification of wave loads. 95% of offshore platforms around the world are Jacket supported.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Jack Up

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Jacket

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Fixed Type Platforms
COMPLIANT TOWER Narrow, flexible framed structures supported by piled foundations. Has no oil storage capacity. Production is through tensioned rigid risers and export by flexible or catenary steel pipe. Undergo large lateral deflections (up to 10 ft) under wave loading. Used for moderate water depths up to 600m. Natural period (usually 30 second) is kept above wave period (14 to 20 seconds) to avoid amplification of wave loads.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Fixed Type Platforms
CONCRETE GRAVITY STRUCTURES
Fixed-bottom structures made from concrete Heavy and remain in place on the seabed without the need for piles Used for moderate water depths up to 300 M. Part construction is made in a dry dock adjacent to the sea. The structure is built from bottom up, like onshore structure. At a certain point , dock is flooded and the partially built structure floats. It is towed to deeper sheltered water where remaining construction is completed. After towing to field, base is filled with water to sink it on the seabed. Advantage - Less maintenance

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Floater Type Platforms
Tension Leg Platform (TLP) Tension Leg Platforms (TLPs) are floating facilities that are tied down to the seabed by vertical steel tubes called tethers. This characteristic makes the structure very rigid in the vertical direction and very flexible in the horizontal plane. The vertical rigidity helps to tie in wells for production, while, the horizontal compliance makes the platform insensitive to the primary effect of waves. Have large columns and Pontoons and a fairly deep draught.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Floater Type Platforms
Tension Leg Platform (TLP)
TLP has excess buoyancy which keeps tethers in tension. Topside facilities , no. of risers etc. have to fixed at pre-design stage. Used for deep water up to 1200 M It has no integral storage. It is sensitive to topside load/draught variations as tether tensions are affected.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Floater Type Platforms
SEMISUB PLATFORM
Due to small water plane area , they are weight sensitive. Flood warning systems are required to be in-place. Topside facilities , no. of risers etc. have to fixed at pre-design stage. Used for Ultra deep water. Semi-submersibles are held in place by anchors connected to a catenary mooring system.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Semi-submersible

SEMISUB PLATFORM
Column pontoon junctions and bracing attract large loads. Due to possibility of fatigue cracking of braces , periodic inspection/ maintenance is prerequisite

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Semi-submersible

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

SPAR
SPAR: Concept of a large diameter single vertical cylinder supporting deck. These are a very new and emerging concept: the first spar platform, Neptune, was installed off the USA coast in 1997. Spar platforms have taut catenary moorings and deep draught, hence heave natural period is about 30 seconds. Used for Ultra deep water depth of 2300m. The center of buoyancy is considerably above center of gravity, making Spar quite stable. Due to space restrictions in the core, number of risers has to be predetermined.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

SPAR

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

FPSO
SHIP SHAPED VESSEL (FPSO)
Ship-shape platforms are called Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) facilities. FPSOs have integral oil storage capability inside their hull. This avoids a long and expensive pipeline to shore. Can explore in remote and deep water and also in marginal wells, where building fixed platform and piping is technically and economically not feasible FPSOs are held in position over the reservoir at a Single Point Mooring (SPM). The vessel is able to weathervane around the mooring point so that it always faces into the prevailing weather.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

OSV

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Parts of Platform
TOPSIDE:
Facilities are tailored to achieve weight and space saving Incorporates process and utility equipment
Drilling Rig Injection Compressors Gas Compressors Gas Turbine Generators Piping HVAC Instrumentation

Accommodation for operating personnel. Crane for equipment handling Helipad

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Parts of Platform (cont.)
MOORINGS & ANCHORS:
Used to tie platform in place Material Steel chain Steel wire rope
Catenary shape due to heavy weight. Length of rope is more

Synthetic fiber rope
Taut shape due to substantial less weight than steel ropes. Less rope length required Corrosion free

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Parts of Platform (cont.)
RISER:
Pipes used for production, drilling, and export of Oil and Gas from Seabed. Riser system is a key component for offshore drilling or floating production projects. The cost and technical challenges of the riser system increase significantly with water depth. Design of riser system depends on filed layout, vessel interfaces, fluid properties and environmental condition.

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Platform Installation
BARGE LOADOUT:
– Various methods are deployed based on availability of resources and size of structure Barge Crane Flat over - Top side is installed on jackets. Ballasting of barge Smaller jackets can be installed by lifting them off barge using a floating vessel with cranes. – Large 400’ x 100’ deck barges capable of carrying up to 12,000 tons are available

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Oil Drilling(1)
• Drilling rigs: Exploration of oil and gas  Stay in a place for a few months (Mobile or movable) ‐ Jack‐up drilling rig ‐ MODU (Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit) • Production platforms: Production of oil and gas Stay in a place for at least a few years (usually 20 ‐30 years) ‐ Ground‐base structure ( <500~800 m) ‐ Floating Structures (> 800 m) 

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Oil Drilling(2)
Offshore Drilling Equipment  • The drill string is lowered through a conduit (riser).  Consists of a drill bit, drill collar and drill pipe. Drill  pipe sections are added at the surface as the well  deepens. The drill passes through a system of safety  valves called a Blowout Preventer (BOP) stack which  contains the pressures in the well to prevent a  blowout (escape of pressure into the annular casing  between the casing and the drill pipe or into the  hole).  • Drilling fluid (mud) is pumped into the drill pipe  from the surface and flows through small holes in  the drill bit. The mud collects rock cuttings and  flows up the annulus between the drill pipe and the  casing where the rock is strained out and the mud is  recirculated. The weight of the mud exerts a  pressure on the rock and keeps the well under  control. 

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Accident

Model of Ocean Ranger, which capsized in 1982, during  survival testing P - 36 accident in 2001

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Accident

Piper Alpha fire and explosion in 1988 Severe damage caused on a jacket platform  in the Gulf of Mexico by Hurricane Lilli

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Accident

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spills

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Accident

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spills

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Accident

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spills

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

Offshore Practice Codes
Offshore Standards (OS) Provides technical requirements and acceptance criteria for general application by the offshore industry eg. DNV-OS-C101 Recommended Practices(RP) Provides proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level publications eg. API-RP-WSD BS 6235: Code of practice for fixed offshore structures British Standards Institution 1982 Mainly for the British offshore sector

SMK4122  Offshore & Ocean Engineering | Copyright © 2012 Koh Kho King 

References
W.J. Graff: Introduction to offshore structures.  Gulf Publishing Company, Houston 1981. Good general introduction to offshore structures. B.C. Gerwick: Construction of offshore structures.  John Wiley & Sons, New York 1986. Up to date presentation of offshore design and  construction. Patel M H: Dynamics of offshore structures Butterworth & Co., London. • • Google Images Wikipedia