Constitutional Law 1 - Course Syllabus 1st Semester, School Year 2008-2009 POLITICAL LAW Defined - People v.

Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887 - Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION Nature of the Constitution Definition; Classification; Qualities and essential parts of a good written Constitution Ratification / Political vs. Justiciable Question - Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 33 Constitutional Construction - Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552 - Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696 - Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284 Self-executing provisions - Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, GR 122156, Feb. 3, 1997 Constitutional History Pre-1935 Constitution Schurman Commission; Taft Commission; Spooner Amendment; Philippine Bill of 1902 Jones Law of 1916; Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 1935 Constitution Declaration of Martial Law - Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 1973 Constitution - Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 33 1986 Snap Presidential Election - Philippine Bar Association. v. Comelec, 140 SCRA 455 People Power Revolt Proclamation No. 1, Feb. 25, 1986 Proc. No. 3, Mar. 25, 1986 - Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986 - In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 Freedom Constitution 1987 Constitution - In re: Letter of Reynato Puno, June 29, 1992, 210 SCRA Effectivity of the 1987 Constitution - De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602 AMENDMENT PROCESS Amendment vs. Revision Procedure

1. Proposal a. By Congress b. By a Constitutional Convention Theories on Position of Constitutional Convention c. By the People thru Initiative RA 6735 - Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997 2. Ratification Doctrine of Proper Submission - Tolentino v. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702 Judicial Review of Amendments - Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30 - Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333 -------POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW - Marbury v. Madison, 5 US 137, 2 L.Ed. 60 - Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona, GR 134577, Nov. 18, 1998 - Francisco v. House of Representatives, GR 160261, Nov. 10, 2003 Judicial Supremacy vs. Constitutional Supremacy Political vs. Justiciable Question - Baker v. Carr, 396 US 186 - Nixon v. US, 506 US 224 - Goldwater v. Carter, 444 US 996, 62 L.Ed.2d 428 - Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333 - Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001 - Brillantes v. Concepcion, GR 163193, June 15, 2004 Presumption of Constitutionality - Lim v. Pacquing, GR 115044, Jan. 27, 1995 Requisites of Judicial Review: 1. Actual Case or Controversy - Board of Optometry v. Colet, GR 122241, July 30, 1996 - Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211 - Fernandez v. Torres, 215 SCRA 489 - La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Jan. 27, 2004 Ripeness - City of Los Angeles v. Lyons, 461 US 95, 75 L.Ed.2d 675 Mootness - David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR 171396, May 3, 2006 - La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Dec. 1, 2004 - DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 US 312, 40 L.Ed.2d 164 -------2. Proper Party Conventional Standing

- Warth v. Seldin, 422 US 490, 45 L.Ed.2d. 343 Representative Standing Jus Tertii standing - Craig v. Boren, 429 US 190, 50 L.Ed.2d. 397 Transcendental importance to the public - Tatad v. Garcia, 243 SCRA 436 - Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110 - Kilosbayan v. Morato, 246 SCRA 540 - Kilosbayan v. Morato (Recon.), GR 118910, Nov. 16, 1995 Standing of members of Congress - Philconsa v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506 - Bagatsing v. Committee on Privatization, GR 112399, July 14, 1995 Standing of Integrated Bar of the Philippines - IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 Standing of the Government to question its own laws - People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56 Taxpayer’s Suits - Bayan v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10, 2000 - Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, August 14, 2000 3. Question must be raised at the earliest possible opportunity 4. Constitutional question must the very "lis mota" of the case Doctrine of Purposeful Hesitation - Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994 Functions of Judicial Review Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality Doctrine of Operative Fact - Republic v. CA, GR 79732, Nov. 8, 1993 CONCEPT OF STATE 1. People Citizenship Distinguished from nationality Modes of Acquiring citizenship Citizens of the Philippines - Moy Ya Lim Yao v. Commissioner of Immigration, 41 SCRA 292 - Djumantan v. Domingo, Jan. 30, 1995 Election of Philippine citizenship - In re: Vicente Ching, Bar Matter No. 914, October 1, 1999 Doctrine of implied election - Co v. HRET, G.R. No. 92191-92, July 30, 1991

Natural-born citizens - Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001 - Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004 Dual citizenship & dual allegiance - Mercado v. Manzano, GR 135083, May 26, 1999 Res judicata in citizenship cases Doctrine of Indelible Allegiance Naturalization - Republic v. De la Rosa, 232 SCRA 785 Loss of citizenship - By naturalization in a foreign country - Frivaldo v. Comelec, 174 SCRA 245 - Labo v. Comelec, 176 SCRA 1 - By express renunciation or expatriation - Yu v. Defensor-Santiago, 169 SCRA 364 Reacquisition of citizenship, RA 8171 Retroactivity of Repatriation - Frivaldo v. Comelec, 257 SCRA 727, June 28, 1996 Suffrage - Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March 26, 2001 - Makalintal v. Comelec, GR 157013, July 10, 2003 2. Territory Philippine Archipelago; Archipelago Doctrine; UN Convention on the Law of the Sea 3. Government Functions Constituent vs. Ministrant Laissez-faire vs. Welfare State Doctrine of Parens Patriae - Gov't. of Phil. Islands v. Monte de Piedad, 35 Phil. 728 - Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94 Classification - De Jure - De Facto - Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986 4. Sovereignty Effects of Change in sovereignty - People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887 - Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 Effects of Belligerent Occupation Doctrine of Jus Postliminium Dominium vs. Imperium Derogation of Philippine Sovereignty; The Visiting Forces Agreement - Bayan v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10, 2000 DOCTRINE OF STATE IMMUNITY Basis

- U.S.A. vs. Reyes, March 1, 1993 Immunity of Foreign States & Diplomats Principle of par in parem non habet imperium Process of Suggestion - The Holy See v. RTC, GR 101949, Dec. 1, 1994 Determination of Immunity by the Department of Foreign Affairs - Liang v. People, G.R. No. 125865, January 28, 2000 Immunity of International Organizations and Agencies - SEAFDEC v. NLRC, 241 SCRA 580 - Callado v. IRRI, 244 SCRA 210 - DFA v. NLRC, Sept. 18, 1996 Immunity of Government Agencies Incorporated Municipal Corporations - Municipality of San Fernando v. Judge Firme, 195 SCRA 692 Unincorporated If principal function is governmental - Farolan v. CTA 217 SCRA 298 If proprietary suable Suits against Public Officers - City of Angeles v. CA, Aug. 28,1996 - Veterans Manpower v. CA, 214 SCRA 286 - Wylie v. Rarang, 209 SCRA 357 Consent to be sued Express Consent - Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424 General Law - CA 327; PD 1445; Art. 2180; Act No. 3038 Special Law - Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311 Implied Consent When State commences litigation - Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, Sept. 30, 1954 When State enters into a business contract - USA v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487 Suability not outright liability - Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311 - Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486 294 Consent to be sued does not include consent to execution - Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 84 - Municipality of San Miguel v. Fernandez, 130 SCRA 56 - Municipality of Makati v. CA, 190 SCRA 206 Immunity cannot be used to perpetrate an injustice on a citizen - Ministerio v. CFI of Cebu, 40 SCRA 464 Legislative standard need not be expressed - Hirabashi v. United States, 320 US 99 - Chiongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253 8. State Immunity (supra) 9. Election through popular will Act of State Incorporation Clause Conflict between municipal law and international law PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES Preamble Republicanism Manifestations 1. Nemo est supra leges - Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778 2. Rule of majority 3. Accountability of Public Officials 4. Bill of Rights 5. Legislature cannot pass irrepealable laws 6. Separation of Powers Principle of Blending of Powers Principle of Checks and Balances - The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 L.Ed. 1153 - Bowsher v. Synar, 478 US 714 - Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777 7. Non-delegation of powers - Phil. Interisland Shipping Ass'n. v. CA, GR 100481, Jan. 22, 1997 Potestas delegata non delegare potest Permissible Delegation a. Tariff Powers to the President b. Emergency Powers to the President - First Emergency Powers cases, 84 Phil. 368 - Second Emergency Powers cases, 92 Phil. 603 c. Delegation to the People d. Delegation to Local Government Units e. Delegation to the Administrative Bodies Power of Subordinate Legislation - Miners Association v. Factoran, GR 98332, Jan. 16, 1995 Principle of Subdelegation of Powers Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency Tests for valid delegation a. Completeness Test b. Sufficient Standard Test - Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 - De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA

- Ichong v. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 115 Civilian Supremacy - IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 Government to serve and protect the people People to defend the State Separation of Church and State Independent Foreign Policy Nuclear Free Philippines Just and dynamic social order Social Justice - Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 Respect for human dignity and human rights Fundamental Equality of men and women Promotion of health and ecology - Oposa v. Factoran, GR 1010183, July 30, 1993 Priority to education, science and technology Protection to labor Land Reform - Ass'n. of Small Land Owners v. Sec. of Agrarian Reform, 175 SCRA 343 Regalian Doctrine - Republic v. CA, CCP Intervenor, GR 103882, Nov. 25, 1998 - Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000 - La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Jan. 27, 2004 Inalienable Lands of the Public Domain - Chavez v. PEA & AMARI, GR 133250, Nov. 11, 2003 Independent People's organizations Family and Youth - Meyer v. Nebraska, 263 US 393 - Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 US 510 - Wisconsin v. Yoder, 40 LW 4476 - Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94 Self-reliant and independent national economy - Tañada v. Angara (GATT case), GR 118295, May 2, 1997 Communication and information in nation-building Autonomy of Local Governments Decentralization of Administration vs. decentralization of Power - Limbonas v. Mangelin, 170 SCRA 786 - Basco v. PAGCOR, 197 SCRA 52 Autonomous Region - Disomangcop v. DPWH Secretary, GR 149848, November 25, 2004 Indigenous Cultural Communities - Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000 Honest public service and full public disclosure

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT Legislative power Initiative, referendum and Recall - Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997 Indirect Initiative - SBMA v. Comelec, Sept. 26, 1996 Recall - Garcia v. Comelec, Oct. 5, 1993 Loss of confidence, a political question - Evardone v. Comelec, 204 SCRA 464, 472 Bicameralism vs. Unicameralism Senate (Composition; Qualifications; Term of office) House of Representatives Composition (District Representatives; Party-list Representatives) Party-list Representatives - Veterans Federation Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 136781, October 6, 2000 - Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001 Apportionment of Legislative Districts - Baker v. Carr, 369 US 186 - Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211 - Montejo v. Comelec, GR 118702, Mar. 19, 1995 Gerrymandering Doctrine of Equal Representation Qualifications - Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300 - Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995 Theory of legal impossibility Natural-born - Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001 Term of office Privileges Freedom from Arrest Parliamentary Immunity - Eastland v. US Servicemen's Fund, 421 US 491 - Hutchinson v. Proxmire, 443 US 111 - Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 714 Disqualifications and Inhibitions Effect of Imprisonment - People v. Jalosjos, G.R. Nos. 13287576, February 3, 2000 Sessions; Adjournment; Officers - Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001

Quorum - Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 Rules of Proceedings - Arroyo v. De Venecia (Sin-taxes case), GR 127255, Aug. 14, 1997 Discipline of members Suspension vs. Preventive Suspension - Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055. April 18, 2001 Enrolled Bill Theory - Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil. 1 - Casco Chemical v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 Legislative Journal vs. Enrolled Bill Electoral Tribunals Composition - Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792 - Abbas v. Senate Electoral Tribunal, 166 SCRA 651 Powers - Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995 - Sampayan v. Daza, 213 SCRA 807 Jurisdiction over Proclamation Controversy - Caruncho v. Comelec, G.R. No. 135996, September 30, 1999 Commission on Appointments Composition - Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 Powers - Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 Powers of Congress General Legislative Power Limitations Substantive Limitations Procedural Limitations One Bill, one subject - Guzman v. Comelec, G.R. No. 129118, July 19, 2000 Sufficiency of Title - Phil. Judges Association v. Prado, GR 105371, Nov. 11, 1993 - Chongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253 Bills that must originate exclusively from the House - Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, GR 115455, Aug. 25, 1994 - Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, Oct. 30, 1995 Three readings on separate days Bicameral Conference Committee Legislative Process Approval of Bills Presidential veto Pocket veto Item veto - Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133 Legislative veto; One-House Veto

- Immigration Service v. Chadha, 462 US 919, 77 L.Ed.2d 317 - Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506 Power of the Purse Implied limitations on appropriation measure - Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221 Constitutional limitations and rules Riders Sub rosa appropriation Prohibition against transfer of appropriation - Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506 Power of Taxation - McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 US (4 Wheat, 316) Power of Legislative Investigation - Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777 - Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA 767 Power to Punish contempt - Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29 - Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358 Power to declare existence of state of war - The Prize cases, 67 US 635, 17 L.Ed. 459 - Mora v. McNamara, 389 US 934, 19 L.Ed.2d 287 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT President and Vice-President Qualifications Natural-born Citizen - Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004 Election Congress as canvassing board Supreme Court as Electoral Tribunal - Defensor-Santiago v. Ramos, PET Case no. 001, Feb. 13, 1996 Term of office Privileges Official residence Salary Presidential Immunity - In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160 - Beltran v. Makasiar, 167 SCRA 393 - US v. Nixon, 418 US 683, 41 L.Ed.2d 1039 - Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 US 731 - Clinton v. Jones, 520 US 681, May 27, 1997 - Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001 - Decision on Motion for

Reconsideration, April 3, 2001 Prohibitions and inhibitions Rules on Succession Vacancy at beginning of term Vacancy during the term Temporary Disability Removal of the President - Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001 - Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001 Powers Executive Power - Planas v. Gil, 67 Phil. 62 - Myers, Administratrix v. United States, 272 US 52 Legislative Powers - Municipality of San Juan v. CA, Sept. 29, 1997 - Ople v. Torres, GR 127685, July 23, 1998 Residual Powers - Marcos v. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 Power to Determine National Policy - The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 L.Ed. 1153 Prosecution of Crimes - Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652 Creation of Preparatory Committee on Constitutional Reforms - Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, August 14, 2000 Appointing Power Discretionary power - Flores v. Drilon, GR 104732, June 22, 1993 - Gordon v. Judge Santos, CA-GR Sp No. 48339, Aug. 21, 1998 - Gordon v. CA, GR 134900, Sept. 1, 1998 - Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327 Classes of Appointment - Gaminde v. COA, G.R. No. 140335, December 13, 2000 Appointments subject to confirmation of Commission on Appointments - Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 - Manalo v. Sistoza, GR 107369, Aug. 11, 1999 Limitations on the Appointment Power Power of Removal Power of Control 356 habeas corpus 1994

Control vs. Supervision - Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, Alter-ego Principle or Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency - Carpio v. Executive Secretary, Feb. 14, 1992 The Executive Secretary - Lacson-Magallanes v. Pano, 21 SCRA 895 Military Powers Commander-in-chief clause - Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2 - David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR 171396, May 3, 2006 - Aquino v. Military Commission No. 2, 63 SCRA 546 - Olaguer v. Military Commission No. 34, 150 SCRA 144 - Carpio v. Executive Secretary, supra Calling Out the Armed Forces - IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000 Declaration of State of Rebellion - Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001 Declaration of martial law - Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 Suspension of the privilege of the writ of - Barcelon v. Baker, 5 Phil. 87 - Montenegro v. Castañeda, 91 Phil. 882 - Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 - Garcia-Padilla v. Enrile, 121 SCRA 472 Pardoning Power - People v. Salle, 250 SCRA 581, Dec. 4, 1995 - Monsanto v. Factoran, 170 SCRA 190 - Garcia v. Chairman, COA, 226 SCRA Pardon vs. Amnesty Diplomatic Power - Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 US 654 Treaties vs. Executive Agreements Power to Impound - Philconsa v. Enriquez, Aug. 19, 1994 JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT Judicial Power Expanded jurisdiction Effect on the political question doctrine Jurisdiction

- Diaz v. CA, Dec. 5, 1994 - First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA, Oct. 7, 1994 Constitutional Safeguards to insure independence of the Judiciary Justices/judges may not be designated to any agency performing non-judicial functions Fiscal Autonomy Power of Judicial Review Appointment to the Judiciary Procedure for Appointment Judicial and Bar Council Supreme Court Composition En Banc & Division cases Fortich v. Corona, G.R. No. 131457, August 19, 1999 Powers Supervision over the Judiciary - Dolalas v. Office of the Ombudsman, Dec. 24, 1996 Rule-making powers - Maniago v. CA, 253 SCRA 674 Mandatory Review of Death Penalty Cases - People v. Esparas, GR 120034, Aug. 20, 1996 Writ of Amparo Equipoise Doctrine Decisions of the Court - Nicos Industrial Corp. v. CA, 206 SCRA 127 - Prudential Bank v. Castro, 158 SCRA 646 Power to control execution of decision - Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, GR 132601, Jan. 19, 1999 Tenure of Justices/Judges - De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 Removal and Discipline - Maceda v. Ombudsman, GR 102781, Apr. 22, 1993 - People v. Gacott, 246 SCRA 52 Salaries - Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552 - Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696 - Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284 INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION Safeguards to insure the independence of the Commissions Prohibition on appointment in an acting capacity - Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358 Disqualifications and Inhibitions Decisions - Certiorari to the Supreme Court - Galido v. Comelec, Jan. 18, 1991 - Reyes v. RTC, 244 SCRA 41 - Garces v. CA, July 17, 1996 SC Revised Admin. Cir. 1-95

1. Civil Service Commission Scope of the Civil Service - DOH v. NLRC, 251 SCRA 700 Approval of appointments - Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327 - Ramonte v. CSC, 244 SCRA 498 2. Commission on Elections En Banc and Division cases - Sarmiento v. Comelec, 212 SCRA 307 Powers and Functions - Relampagos v. Cumba, 243 SCRA 690 - Loong v. Comelec, GR 133676, Apr. 14, 1999 Exclusive Original Jurisdiction and Appellate Jurisdiction - Guieb v. Fontanilla, 247 SCRA 348, Aug. 14, 1995 Special Registration of New Voters - Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March 26, 2001 3. Commission on Audit - Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. COA, GR 101976, Jan. 29, 1993 ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Impeachment Impeachable Officers Grounds for Impeachment Procedure - Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 263 Impeachment and Criminal Prosecution - Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001 - Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001 Sandiganbayan Jurisdiction - Lacson v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096, January 20, 1999 Ombudsman Supervision and control - Acop v. Office of the Ombudsman, 248 SCRA 566 Prosecutorial Powers - Camanag v. Guerrero, GR 121017, Feb. 17, 1997 Power to issue subpoena; Form of complaint - Almonte v. Vasquez, 244 SCRA 266 Power to Investigate Administrative Charges Concurrent with the Office of the President - Hagad v. Dadole, 241 SCRA 242 Concurrent with the DOJ - Honasan v. DOJ Panel of Investigating Prosecutors, GR 159747, Apr. 13, 2004 Power to investigate cases of ill-gotten wealth after Feb. 25, 1996 - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, Sept. 24, 1994

Ombudsman for the Military - Agbay v. Deputy Ombudsman for the Military, G.R. No. 134503, July 2, 1999 Special Prosecutor - Zaldivar v. Gonzales, 160 SCRA 843 Commission on Human Rights Powers and Functions of the Commission - Cariño v. CHR, GR 96681, Dec. 2, 1991 Civil Rights vs. Political Rights - Simon v. CHR, 229 SCRA 117, Jan. 5, 1994 Fiscal Autonomy - CHR Employees Assn. v. CHR, GR No. 155336, Nov. 25, 2004 Presidential Commission on Good Government - Chavez v. PCGG, GR 130716, Dec. 9, 1998 - Cojuangco v. Roxas, 195 SCRA 797 - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, 258 SCRA 685 - Romualdez v. Sandiganbayan, 244 S 152 Sequestration - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 106244, Jan. 22, 1997 Order signed by only one commissioner - Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 113420, Mar. 7, 1997 Imprescriptibility of Right of State to Recover Illgotten Wealth - Presidential Committee on Behest Loans v. Desierto, G.R. No. 130140, October 25, 1999

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