Clean Cooking Solutions: A Key Component of Energy Access in Asia

ABD Clean Energy Week Leslie Cordes, UN Foundation June 7, 2012

The Situation Today
• 3 billion people still cook on traditional or open fire stoves fueled by biomass, and 2m die annually from smoke exposure • Women cook and are disproportionately affected
• Personal security at risk when out searching for “fuel” • Health risks such as pneumonia, heart and lung disease, burns

• Opportunity costs are high
• High levels of drudgery – labor intensive and dangerous activities • Time saved and/or better quality time • Children could be in school

• Environment is impacted and climate change exacerbated
• Deforestation, soil erosion, food insecurity

One of the Top Five Health Risks
Major Burden of Disease -- 10 Leading Risk Factors in Poor Developing Countries
Underweight Unsafe sex Unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene Indoor smoke from solid fuels Zinc deficiency Iron deficiency Vitamin A deficiency Blood pressure Tobacco Cholesterol






10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0


Indoor smoke from cookstoves leads to almost 2 million premature deaths each year – nearly all among young children and women.

Alliance National Partner
Bangladesh Cambodia China Laos Nepal Vietnam

Deaths per year from HAP
49,400 6,600 548,000 2,600 8,700 23,800

World Health Organization data, 2009

Market Today is Fragmented
Many actors often working in their own silos No ‘one-sizefits-all’ solution Cross-cutting nature of issue makes coordination challenging Multiple customer segments, urban and rural
Thousands of manufacturers of different sizes and capacities

Variety of fuels along the energy ladder Positive directional indicators, but solid evidence yet to be built

Highly Fragmented

Mixed sector track record in actual adoption

Need for an Alliance to Help Drive the Sector
• Drive comprehensive vision and strategy to address household cooking energy issues at scale and achieve our 100 million household adoption goal by the year 2020. • Ensure an aligned and cohesive set of stakeholders and actions to enable the market globally and in priority countries. • Generate awareness of the issue at the community and household level to ensure sustained adoption by consumers, and the global and national levels by high-level policy makers, donors, and private sector players. • Raise more resources for the sector, on par with other comparable risks and issues (e.g. energy access, unsafe water, malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB). End Phase3 2018-20 • Coordinate a wide-range of solutions to address complex barriers Key Message for Phase and inefficiencies.


What Has Stymied Wide Scale Adoption of Clean Cookstoves and Fuels?
• Our understanding of the many benefits of improved cookstoves and clean fuels remains inadequate. • Solutions did not always meet users’ needs or were otherwise impractical. • Past efforts were often based on unsustainable subsidies or giveaways. • Little awareness of the health, environmental, and gender risks within affected populations and among politicians and their institutions. • Scant testing, monitoring, or evaluation of cookstove and fuels programs. • Donor community was not familiar with the issue. • Supply chain could not always deliver a clean cooking solution at a price people could afford. • Lack of a well coordinated global strategy with common milestones to address these risks. • No technology standards which hampered investment in the sector

New Momentum for Support of Clean Cooking Solutions
• Development of new stove technologies
• Private sector interest in Base of Pyramid • Convergence of players and new approaches • Availability of innovative carbon and micro financing • Strong empirical evidence on health and environmental effects • Ownership and excitement at national country level

370+ Partners and Growing
Donor Countries Private Sector Donors NGO and MFI National Partners
Afghanistan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Cambodia China Colombia El Salvador Ethiopia Ghana Guatemala Kenya Laos Lesotho Mexico Nepal Nigeria Rwanda Tanzania Peru Viet Nam Uganda
Central American Integration System

Canada Denmark

Germany Italy

Malta Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden United Kingdom United States

Alliance Principles
• Focus on high quality approaches that can be brought to scale • Be technology and fuel neutral – but gradually drive solutions and markets towards advanced or super-clean options • Build on the ongoing tremendous work, knowledge, and expertise of our partners within the sector without reinventing the wheel or duplicating efforts • Bring new partners and donors to the table

• Foster a market-based approach (without directly selling stoves) to reach and sustain scale, while also ensuring that vulnerable populations have access to clean cooking solutions
• Metrics and evaluation will be a key component of our approach


Alliance Convened the Sector to Develop a Cohesive Strategy
More than 350 practitioners and other experts 11 expert Working Groups 6 months of engagement

Strategy report released in November 2011!

Alliance Global Value Propositions
Catalyze the Sector and Broker Partnerships Promote International Standards

Mobilize Resources

Enable Markets

Champion the Issue

End Phase3 2018-20
Coordinate Sector Knowledge and Research

Key Message for Phase 3

The Alliance’s Theory of Change
Universal Adoption of Clean Cookstoves and Fuels Development of a Thriving Global Market Adoption by 100 million households by 2020
Phase 3 – Establish thriving and sustainable global market for clean cookstoves

Phase 2 – Drive investments, innovations, and operations to scale
Phase 1 – Launch global and in country efforts to rapidly grow sector

Enhance Demand
Catalyze Sector and Broker Partnerships

Strengthen Supply

Foster Enabling Environment

Mobilize Resources

Promote Standards

Champion Issue Draft

Enable Markets

Coordinate Knowledge 13

Constant Stove and Fuel Quality Improvement

Critical Research Well Underway Along with Tools to Catalyze Action and Build Momentum
Filling in the evidence gaps …
• Child Survival RFA released in April ~ $1m with match now provided by NIH Climate Mapping RFP to be released end of May ~ $500k Gender and Livelihood Research in June ~ $250k Testing Center RFA to be released by early July ~ $1.5m

Developing online communities of practice …

• • •

Innovative Business Models ~ $1m in July/August
Capacity building and working capital fund RFA to be launched in October ~ $3m

…and Biennial Clean Cookstove Conference in Asia next Spring

Two Track Approach to Enabling Markets
General Sector Support: - Mobilize Resources - Champion Sector - Knowledge Hub - Catalyze sector and broker partnerships - M+E - Strengthen Evidence Base Standards and Testing

Capacity Development
Consumer Research Entrepreneur Training Technology and Manufacturing Reaching the Last-Mile

Engage Government

Access to Finance (all types)
Market Intelligence (Open Source)


Activities for the public good that benefit the entire sector

Tailored support that focuses limited resources on driving scale

Potential Target Countries - Phase I
Alliance Role Potential Target Countries for Phase 1** East Africa region (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda), Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Vietnam


Transformative; likely to require engagement of 5+ years; multiple intervention strategies and actions Targeted intervention; likely 1- 3 years of engagement; extrapolation of learnings applicable to other partners Sharing of knowledge and practices; country tool kits; brokering partnerships among stakeholders


Indonesia, Ghana, Nigeria, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru

Partner Countries

All other partner countries

China and India will have unique leadership roles within the Alliance.
**Countries to be finalized after all stakeholder consultation meetings.

A Robust Data Driven Approach to Prioritize Countries for Alliance Engagement
Potential Impact (25%) Scalability/Potential Contribution to 100 million (25%) Opportunity to Test Innovative Business Models (25%)
• Health impact (as % of total deaths) • Relevance to other countries (in region and beyond) • Environmental impacts (deforestation, desertification, biodiversity, and air pollution) • Potential indicators for gender/livelihoods • Households affected • Extent of current market activity (stoves being sold, potential market, etc.) • Structure of potential consumer financing (MFIs, credit unions, etc.) • Political will, governance/flag instability, ease of doing business • Lessons from past or present national cookstove programs • Traditional market-based approach in this sector and others • Active implementing partners • Potential implementing partners • Current national cookstove programs • Donor priority/interest • Partner activities • Complementary UN Foundation programming

Leveraging Other Resources (12.5%)

Greatest Need (12.5%)

• % of Solid Fuel Use • Rural Population • Income per day (USD) • Large humanitarian presence

Alliance will Target Key Customer Segments
Segment 1
• • Rural households earning between $2/day and wage required for LPG • Easy to reach rural households (based on presence of existing stove businesses, population density, access to consumer finance, etc.)

Segment 2
• Urban

Segment 3

households spending more than 20% of their daily income on fuel • Relatively easy-to-reach that are located in regions where fuel production (especially charcoal) is causing high deforestation

• Households

that can be reached via existing innovative distribution models, companies, NGOs, membership organizations or MFIs that could add clean cookstoves to their portfolio

Mainstreaming Gender in the Alliance
• Gender focal point • Gender Cross-Cutting Committee • Define and distribute gender-informed best practices for stove businesses • If appropriate, gender requirements in RFPs • Gender baseline assessments in focus countries • Gender action planning for Alliance and partners • Specific partner engagement strategies for organizations focused on gender and empowerment • Gender-informed M&E (disaggregated data, gendersensitive methodologies, etc.)

Metrics Will be a Key Focus of Alliance
• The Alliance will define, measure, and report on key achievement and learning goals for its clean cookstoves and fuels adoption work • Key principles:
– State a clear theory of change and defined goals at the impact and outcome level – Involve key stakeholders in design and implementation of monitoring and evaluation work with ongoing engagement throughout effort – Maintain accountability in all Alliance programs – Define clear metrics for sector-level, partner-level, and Secretariat-level work – Document key findings, best practices, and lessons learned and share among the clean cookstove and fuel community and other relevant stakeholders

Alliance Impact in the Sector
Broader sector outcomes that the Alliance Secretariat seeks to influence or affect by its activities or funding (e.g. trade policies, funding by donor governments, etc)
Alliance Sphere of Influence

Impacts in the sector that occur as a result of Alliance Secretariat activities in the sector (e.g. national commitment or programs that result from Alliance)

Alliance Sphere of Impact

Broader outcomes in which Alliance Secretariat contributes significantly to achievements in the field (e.g. Secretariat funded activities of Alliance partners)
Outcomes for which Alliance Secretariat is directly responsible (e.g. advocacy, communications, awareness raising, fundraising, championing the sector)

Alliance Sphere of Contribution

Alliance Sphere of Control

What Does Success Look Like in 10 Years’ Time?
• Demonstration of the health, climate and economic benefits of clean and efficient cooking solutions through development of a robust research, monitoring and evaluation agenda; • Adoption of 100 million clean and efficient cookstoves by 2020 (roughly 20 percent of the globally affected population);

• Investments to address the issue on par with funding for other public health and environmental risks of a similar severity; and
• Development of a mature global cookstoves sector that can supply clean and efficient cooking solutions – stoves and/or fuels – within and to the developing world at scale and at low cost.

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