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LEAD Science 5 Scope

LEAD Science Engineering, Technology and Topic Applications of Science Strands [ETS]  Earth and Space Science [ESS] Life Science [LS] Physical Science [PS]
Connections to Next Generation Framework

Engineering, Technology and Applications of Science [ETS]
5
*Aligned with Next Generation Framework

Experimental Design [ED]

 5.ETS.ED [Experimental Design] – Select an investigation that could be used to answer a specific question.  5.ETS.ED.1— Explore different scientific phenomena by asking questions. o    5.ETS.ED.1.1— Write a detailed and descriptive observation that includes qualitative and quantitative measures, including measurements and sketches.

5.ETS.ED.2— Identify whether a question is a testable question. 5.ETS.ED.3— Write a testable question in the proper format, “How will [one variable I change] affect [the outcome of what is measured]?” 5.ETS.ED.4— Recognize the variables that need to be controlled in order for the experiment to be considered fair.

Use of Scientific Tools [ST]

5.ETS.ST [Use of Scientific Tools] – Select tools and procedures needed to conduct a simple experiment.
 

5.ETS.ST.1 Identify common scientific tools and what they measure, such as a thermometer, graduated cylinder, beaker, ruler (metric), timer, and pan balance (scale).
5.ETS.ST.2— Select and use the appropriate tools, with guidance, to investigate a specific question. o 5.ETS.ST.2.1— Identify dimensions, such as length, width, height, speed, acceleration, temperature, volume, and record the units of measure associated with a scientific tool, such as Fahrenheit and Celsius for temperature; liters for volume of liquid; the Newton for unit of force, grams for mass; milliseconds/ seconds/ minutes/hours for time.

Data Analysis [DA]

5.ETS.DA [Data Analysis] – Record raw data into a given table, graph, or diagram.
 5.ETS.DA.1— Maintain a science notebook that includes observations, questions, hypotheses, procedure, materials, data, diagrams, and explanations.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
   5.ETS.DA.2— Identify the key parts of a table, graph or diagram.

5.ETS.DA.3 – Interpret the results of a set of recorded data.
5.ETS.DA.4— Identify and interpret simple patterns of evidence to communicate the findings of multiple investigations. o 5.ETS.DA.1.1— Compare the results of a set of data across multiple investigations by finding central modes of tendency, such as mean, median, mode, and range.

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5.ETS.DA.5— Recognize a faulty interpretation of data that is due to experimental error. 5.ETS.DA.6— Recognize that people may interpret the same results in different ways.

Explanation and Communication of Results [EC]

5.ETS.EC [Explanation and Communication of Results]— Draw a conclusion supported by evidence.
   5.ETS.EC.1— Draw a conclusion based on findings from multiple investigations of similar phenomena. 5.ETS.EC.2— Compare the results of an investigation with what scientists already accept about this question. 5.ETS.EC.3— Effectively communicate the results gathered from an investigation in written, visual and/or verbal formats.

Engineering Design [ED]

5.ETS.ED [Engineering Design]— Recognize the connection between a scientific advance and the development of a new tool or technology.
     5.ETS.ED.1— Select and conduct research on a tool, technology, or invention that was used to solve a human problem. 5.ETS.ED.2— Explain how a tool, technology, or invention impacted people and other living organisms.
5.2 5.1

5.ETS.ED.3— Describe how a tool, technology, or invention helped to address a question or solve a problem. 5.ETS.ED.4— Determine criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of a solution to a specified problem. 5.ETS.ED.5— Evaluate an invention that solves a problem and determine ways to improve the design.
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ETS Connections

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Cross Cutting Concepts

Vocabulary

Essential Questions & Enduring Understandings

Literacy & Math Common Core

LEAD Science 5 Scope Earth and Space Science [ESS]
5
*Aligned with Next Generation Framework

Stars and the Solar System / Space Systems [SS]

5.ESS.SS.1 [Stars and the Solar System] Analyze information about the major components of the universe.   

5.4 5.5

5.ESS.SS.1.1 – Identify the major structures of the universe by relative size, from smallest to largest, including moons, planets, solar systems, and galaxies.

5.ESS.SS.1.2— Understand the unit of measure of a light year by using an example of how long it takes for light from our star to travel from its position to us on Earth. 5.ESS.SS.1.3 – Develop a chart that communicates the major characteristics of each planet in order from closest to furthest from the sun. o 5.ESS.SS.1.3.1 Distinguish among the planets according to their known characteristics such as appearance, location, composition, and apparent motion.

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5.ESS.SS.1.4 Select information from a table to draw conclusions about the planets’ densities, size, number of moons, orbit time, distance from the sun, temperature, and atmospheric compositions.

5.ESS.SS.2 – Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information describing the roles of science and technology in the design process for developing and refining devices to understand the universe.     5.ESS.SS.2.1 – Develop explanations for how patterns in the position of stars and constellations can be used to navigate on Earth. 5.ESS.SS.2.2 – Gather evidence to investigate how lenses bend light and obtain information about the ways technology has used lenses to improve our ability to see objects. 5.ESS.SS.2.3 – Recognize that star charts can be used to locate and identify star patterns, while telescopes are used to view objects in the cosmos more closely. 5.ESS.SS.2.4 – Use images of the night sky to identify different seasonal star patterns (constellations).
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Earth Systems and their Interactions [ESI]

5.ESS.ESI.1 – Compare geologic events responsible for the earth’s major geological features.

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5.ESS.ESI.1.1 — Provide evidence that Earth is spherical and the gravitational force of the Earth causes objects near the surface to be pulled toward the planet’s center. 5.ESS.ESI.1.2— Understand the concept of geological time by referring to scale and geological evidence.
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5.ESS.ESI.1.3— Identify the major structures and features of the earth, including, inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, mountains, valleys, trenches, glaciers, polar ice caps, coast lines, and volcanoes.

5.ESS.ESI.1.4— Describe internal forces such as volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, erosion, and plate movements that are responsible for the earth’s major geological features.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
  The Atmosphere[A]
 5.ESS.ESI.1.5— Prepare a chart to compare how volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, erosion and plate movements affect the earth’s surface features. 5.ESS.ESI.1.6— Create a model to illustrate geologic events responsible for changes in the earth’s crust.

5.ESS.A.1 – Analyze and predict how major landforms and bodies of water affect atmospheric conditions.

   

5.ESS.A.1.1 – Define weather, atmosphere, and climate. 5.ESS.A.1.2— Construct models to describe systems interactions for the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere and identify the limitation of the models. 5.ESS.A.1.3— Draw a diagram to illustrate the water cycle, including evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. 5.ESS.A.1.4— Obtain and communicate information about the various forms of water on Earth.
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o o  

5.ESS.A.1.4.1— Use mathematical thinking to compare the relative abundance of salt water to fresh water. 5.ESS.A.1.4.2— Analyze data to identify the major locations of fresh water.

5.ESS.A.1.5— Use a map or globe to identify and name the major landforms and bodies of water on Earth, such as the continents, oceans, mountain ranges, the equator and the poles.

5.ESS.A.1.6— Identify and read various types of maps, such as topographical and weather, using longitude, latitude, and features provided in the legend.

o

5.ESS.A.1.6.1— Locate and name facts about features represented on a map regarding a specific location.

5.ESS.A.2— Use local environmental information to analyze how weather and climate are affected by landforms and bodies of water.

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5.ESS.A.2.1— Use weather maps of the United States to graph temperature and precipitation for inland and coastal regions.

5.ESS.A.2.2— Construct models to describe weather and climate patterns which are produced by the interactions among the atmosphere, the ocean, and landforms.

o

5.ESS.A.2.3— Use data to compare the climates of coastal and inland areas at similar latitudes to demonstrate the ocean’s impact on weather and climate.

5.ESS.A.3— Obtain and share information on the role of the ocean in supporting a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shaping landforms, and influencing climate.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
 
5.ESS.A.3.1— Use a diagram to illustrate what causes a land breeze and a sea breeze. (high and low pressure) 5.ESS.A.3.2— Use land maps to demonstrate how mountain ranges affect weather and climate.

o

5.ESS.A.3.2.1— Explain how mountains affect weather and climate. (altitude, rain shadow)

5.ESS.A.4— Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information describing the impacts human activities have on Earth systems.   5.ESS.A.4.1— Generate examples of actions individuals and communities have taken to conserve the Earth’s resources and environments. 5.ESS.A.4.2— Provide evidence to explain how increases in Earth’s temperature can affect humans and other organisms.
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5.ESS.A.5— Design and evaluate a process or product to minimize unwanted outcomes of human activities on Earth’s systems, while increasing benefits and meeting societal demands.

ESS Connections

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Cross Cutting Concepts

Vocabulary

Essential Questions & Enduring Understandings

Literacy & Math Common Core

LEAD Science 5 Scope Life Science [LS]
5
*Aligned with Next Generation Framework  5.LS.C.1— Distinguish between the basic structure and function of plant and animal cells.   5.LS.C.1.1— Identify and label the major parts of plant and animal cells, including mitochondria, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, vacuole, cytoplasm, and chloroplast. 5.LS.C.1.2— Compare and contrast the basic structures and functions of plant and animal cells.

Cells [C]
*4th Grade

Heredity [H]
*4th Grade

 

5.LS.H.1— Describe how genetic information (DNA/genes/chromosomes) is passed from parent to offspring during reproduction. 5.LS.H.2— Recognize that some characteristics are inherited while others result from interactions with the environment.  5.LS.H.2.1— Distinguish between inherited traits and those that can be attributed to the environment.

5.LS.BC.1— Investigate physical associated with different groups of animals.   5.LS.BC.1.1— Classify animals according to their physical characteristics. 5.LS.BC.1.2— Design a model to illustrate how an animal’s physical or behavioral characteristics/ adaptations enable it to survive in a particular environment.

Biodiversity and Change [BC] *4th Grade

5.LS.BC.2— Analyze fossils to demonstrate the connection between organisms and environments that existed in the past and those that currently exist.     5.LS.BC.2.1— Identify the processes associated with fossil formation. 5.LS.BC.2.2— Use fossil evidence to describe an environment from the past. 5.LS.BC.2.3— Use fossils to match a previously existing organism with one that exists today. 5.LS.BC.2.4— Explain how fossils provide information about the past.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Matter and Energy in Ecosystems [MEE]
 5.LS.MEE.1— Construct models of food webs to explain the interrelationship between plants, animals, and fungi within ecosystems.    5.LS.MEE.1.1— Describe the different types of nutritional relationships that exist among organisms, such as predator, prey, consumer (carnivore, herbivore, omnivore), producer, and decomposer. 5.LS.MEE.1.2— Distinguish among symbiotic relationships, such as mutualistic, commensal, and parasitic relationships.
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5.LS.MEE.2— Design and construct a model to describe the interactions of systems within an ecosystem in terms of the flow of energy, cycling of matter, and the conditions for a healthy ecosystem.    

5.LS.MEE.2.1— Obtain and communicate information tracing the source of energy for burning fuel or digesting food back to energy from the sun that was captured by plants through a chemical process. 5.LS.MEE.2.2— Identify the cell structure, chloroplasts, that enable plants to conduct photosynthesis. 5.LS.MEE.2.3— Identify photosynthesis as the food manufacturing process in plants. 5.LS.MEE.2.4— Compare how plants and animals obtain energy.  5.LS.MEE.2.4.1— Design a graphic organizer that illustrates the difference between plants and animals in the movement of food energy through an ecosystem.
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5.LS.MEE.2.5— Use models to trace the cycling of particles of matter between the air and soil among plants, animals, and microbes.

5.LS.MEE.2.6— Use models to describe how decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil for plants to use. 5.LS.MEE.2.7— Ask questions about how food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and is digested by animals to release the energy they need to maintain body warmth and allow for motion.
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 

5.LS.MEE.3— Plan and carry out investigations to determine the role of light in plant growth.

5.L.S.MEE.4— Use information about the impact of human actions or natural disasters on the environment to support a simple hypothesis, make a prediction, or draw a conclusion.   Identify and explain natural disasters and the impact of human actions. Support a conclusion about the consequences to organisms in a habitat due to natural disasters and/or the impact of human actions.

LS Connections

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Cross Cutting Concepts

Vocabulary

Essential Questions & Enduring Understandings

Literacy & Math Common Core

LEAD Science 5 Scope Physical Science [PS]
5
Structure, Properties, and Interactions of Matter [SPM]
 *Aligned with Next Generation Framework 5.14 5.PS.SPM.1— Use the model that matter is made of particles too small to be seen to describe and explain everyday phenomena.        5.PS.SPM.1.1— Define matter, atom, compounds, molecules, mixtures and physical states/phases. 5.PS.SPM.1.2— Understand the basic organization of the periodic table of elements and what it represents. 5.PS.SPM.1.3— Describe the differences among freezing, melting, and evaporation. 5.PS.SPM.1.4— Describe factors that influence the rate at which different types of material freeze, melt, or evaporate. 5.PS.SPM.1.5— Investigate how different types of materials freeze, melt, evaporate, or dissipate. 5.PS.SPM.1.6— Design and conduct an experiment to demonstrate how various types of matter freeze, melt, or evaporate.
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5.PS.SPM.2— Investigate physical and chemical properties of materials and use the properties to distinguish one material from another.   

5.PS.SPM.2.1— Distinguish between physical (state, boiling point, melting point, color, odor, texture, density, malleability, ductility, luster, conductivity, length, mass, volume) and chemical properties (acidity/pH, flammability) 5.PS.SPM.2.2— Observe and measure the simple physical and chemical properties of common substances. 5.PS.SPM.2.3— Compare the simple physical and chemical properties of common substances.

5.PS.SPM.3— Investigate the interaction of two or more substances to provide evidence that when different substances are mixed, one or more new substances with different properties may or may not be formed 5.16 depending on the substances and the temperature. 5.PS.SPM.4— Plan and carry out investigations to determine the effect on the total weight of a substance when the substance changes shape, phase, and/or is dissolved. 5.PS.SPM.5— Investigate and determine the effect on the total weight of matter when substances interact to form new substances. 5.PS.E.1— Design an experiment to illustrate the difference between potential and kinetic energy.    5.PS.E.1.1— Define energy as the ability to make something happen or ―do work.‖ 5.PS.E.1.2— Construct a simple explanation for the relationship between energy and motion.
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Energy [E]

* 4th grade

5.PS.E.1.3— Create a poster to illustrate the major forms of energy (solar/light, nuclear, geothermal, heat, electrical, sound, chemical)

LEAD Science 5 Scope
   5.PS.E.1.4— Create a graphic organizer that illustrates different types of potential and kinetic energy. 5.PS.E.1.5— Carry out investigations to provide evidence that energy is transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, electric currents, interacting magnets, and moving or colliding objects.
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5.PS.E.2— Conduct experiments on the transfer of heat energy through conduction, convection, and radiation.  5.PS.E.2.1— Describe the differences among conduction, convection, and radiation.
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5.PS.E.3— Design and construct a device that converts energy from one form to another using given design criteria.  

5.PS.E.3.1— Obtain and communicate information for how technology allows humans to concentrate, transport, and store energy for practical use. 5.PS.E.3.2— Design and test a solution to a problem that utilizes the transfer of electric energy in the solution using given design constraints.
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Interaction of Forces and Motion [IFM]
*3rd Grade

5.PS.IFM.1— Design and explain an investigation exploring the earth’s pull on objects.       5.PS.IFM.1.1— Define gravity and friction (air resistance). 5.PS.IFM.1.2— Recognize that the earth attracts objects without touching them. 5.PS.IFM.1.3— Identify the force that causes objects to fall to the earth. 5.PS.IFM.1.4— Explain and give examples of how forces act at a distance. 5.PS.IFM.1.5— Demonstrate how the shape of an object affects how it falls toward the earth. 5.PS.IFM.1.6— Use data to determine how shape affects the rate at which a material falls to earth.
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5.PS.IFM.2— Investigate the motion of objects to determine observable and measurable patterns to predict future motions.    5.PS.IFM.2.1— Define mass, force, and distance.

5.PS.IFM.2.2— Investigate the motion of objects by comparing the relative sizes and direction of forces on an object at rest to the forces on an object whose motion is changing. 5.PS.IFM.2.3— Explain the relationship that exist among mass, force, and distance travelled by reference to Newton’s Laws of Motion. o o o 5.PS.IFM.2.3.1— Use models to explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on a system. 5.PS.IFM.2.3.2— Predict how the amount of mass affects the distance traveled given the same amount of applied force. 5.PS.IFM.2.3.3— Prepare statements about the relationship among mass, applied force, and distance traveled.

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LEAD Science 5 Scope
 5.PS.IFM.2.4— Design and conduct experiments using a simple experimental design to demonstrate the relationship among mass, force, and distance traveled.

PS Connections

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Cross Cutting Concepts

Vocabulary

Essential Questions & Enduring Understandings

Literacy & Math Common Core

LEAD Science 5 Scope

Connections to the Next Generation Science Standards Framework Philosophy
―…learning about science and engineering involves integration of the knowledge of scientific explanations (i.e., content knowledge) and the practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design. Thus the framework seeks to illustrate how knowledge and practice must be intertwined in designing learning experiences in K–12 science education.‖
(2011). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. (p. 11). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13165 

K–12 Science Education Should Reflect the Real World Interconnections in Science: Science and Engineering Practice, Cross Cutting Concepts, Disciplinary Core Ideas Science and Engineering Practices and Crosscutting Concepts should not be taught in a vacuum; they should always be integrated with multiple core concepts throughout the year. Science Concepts Build Coherently Across K–12 with a focus on deeper understanding and application of content, where science and engineering are integrated and coordinate with ELA and Mathematics standards.

Practices
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (engineering) Developing and using models (1) to represent or describe, 2) to collect data, or 3) to predict. Planning and carrying out investigations Analyzing and interpreting data Using mathematics and computational thinking

LEAD Science 5 Scope
6. 7. 8.

Constructing explanations and designing solutions (for engineering) Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Cross Cutting Concepts
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Patterns Cause and Effect Scale, Proportion, and Quantity Systems and System Models Energy and Matter Structure and Function Stability and Change

LEAD Science 5 Scope

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Earth and Space Sciences [ESS] o The Universe and its Stars [UN] o Earth and the Solar System [SS] o The History of Planet Earth [HPN] o Earth Materials and Systems [EMS] o Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale Systems [PT] o The Role of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes [SP] o Weather and Climate [WC] o Biogeology [BG] o Natural Resources [NR] o Natural Hazards [NH] o Human Impacts on Earth Systems [HI] o Global Climate Change [GC] Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science [ETS] o Defining and Delimiting and Engineering Problem [EP] o Developing Possible Solutions [DPS] o Optimizing the Design Solution [ODS] o Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology [ISET] o Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World [SSN] Life Sciences [LS] o Structure and Function [SF] o Growth and Development of Organisms [GD] o Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms [OME] o Information Processing [IP]

LEAD Science 5 Scope
o o o o o o o o o o 

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems [IRE] Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems [CME] Ecosystems Dynamics, Functioning and Resilience [EDF] Social Interactions and Group Behavior [GB] Inheritance of Traits [IT] Variation of Traits [VT] Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity [CAD] Natural Selection [NS] Adaptation [A] Biodiversity and Humans [BD]

Physical Sciences [PS] o Structure and Properties of Matter [SPM] o Chemical Reactions [CR] o Nuclear Processes [NP] o Forces and Motion [FM] o Types of Interactions [TI] o Stability and Instability in Physical Systems [SPS] o Definitions of Energy [DE] o Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer [CE] o Relationship Between Energy and Forces [EF] o Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life [CP] o Wave Properties [WP] o Electromagnetic Radiation [ER] o Information Technologies and Instrumentation [IT]

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Engineering, Technology and Science [ETS] Connections ETS Science and Engineering Practices GRADE 5
Asking Questions and Defining Problems

 

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds from grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships. Ask questions based on careful observations of phenomena and information. Ask questions of others to clarify ideas or request evidence.

Planning and carrying out investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

 

Plan and carry out investigations collaboratively, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered. (c),(d),(e) Make observations and measurements, collect appropriate data, and identify patterns that provide evidence to explain a phenomenon or test a design solution. (b),(c)

ETS Disciplinary Core Ideas GRADE 5
PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter— Investigate physical properties of materials and use the properties to distinguish one material from another. [Clarification Statement: Examples of physical properties can include salt
dissolving in water while sand does not; copper wire conducting electric current and shoelaces do not; a metal spoon conducting heat and a wooden spoon does not.]

Measurements of a variety of properties (e.g., hardness, reflectivity) can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanisms of evaporation and condensation.)

ETS Cross Cutting Concepts

GRADE 5

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Structure and Function Different materials have different substructures, which can sometimes be observed. Substructures have shapes and parts that serve functions.

ETS Vocabulary
Grade 5 Phenomena, Qualitative, Quantitative, Measure, Metric System, Metric Units, Testable question, Control, Fair experiment, Hypothesis, Variable, Outcome, Investigation Procedure, Materials, Quality, Quantity, Thermometer, Pan balance scale, Graduated cylinder, Beaker, Ruler (metric), Timer, Length, Width, Height, Speed acceleration, Temperature Volume, Raw data, Table, Graph, Diagram, Data, Central modes of tendency Mean, Median, Mode, Range, Faulty interpretation, Experimental error, Evidence, Interpret Accept, Tool, Technology, Invention, Impact, Criteria

ETS Essential Questions & Enduring Understandings
Essential Question(s)

LEAD Science 5 Scope
 
3–5 What tools, skills, knowledge, and practices are needed to conduct scientific inquiry? How can these tools, skills, knowledge, and practices be used to benefit society?

         
6–8

How can people work together to create better designs? How can we use technologies to make scientific discoveries, and use science to develop new technologies? How and why are technologies created and improved, and how do they change our lives? What is science? How does it differ from other disciplines? How do we come to know how the natural world works? How are scientific questions developed and answered? How is scientific knowledge generated and confirmed (validated)? What is a fair test? What tools, skills, knowledge, and practices are needed to conduct scientific inquiry? How can you use evidence to back up the conclusions you have drawn from your experiment?

  
9–12

How can different solutions to problems be compared, tested, and refined to arrive at the best design? How do science and engineering build on and stimulate each other? What are the factors that drive technological change, and how do the technologies that are created affect society and the natural world?

  

How are quantitative investigations, analyses, and simulations used to define problems, and develop and refine solutions? How do science and engineering interact in the research and development cycle? How can alternative technologies be evaluated based on their relative costs, risks, and benefits?

Enduring Understanding(s)

   

Scientists use different kinds of investigations and tools to develop explanations by using evidence and knowledge. Science is method of deepening our understanding of the natural world through observation, experimentation, modeling, and developing and evaluating explanations. We can apply our knowledge of the natural world to improve the quality of life and solve meaningful problems. The metric system is the internationally recognized and used system of measurement in science.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
  
Science is a practice of deepening our understanding of the natural world through observation, experimentation, modeling, and developing and evaluating explanations. Scientific knowledge develops as a result of carefully controlled investigations, observations, and analysis of the results that must be verified through replication. Measurement tools and standardized measurement systems, such as the internationally recognized metric system, allow people to more accurately describe the physical world.

ETS Common Core State Standards Connections ELA Key Ideas and Details SELA 1 – Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. SELA 2 – Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. SELA 3 – Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. Craft and Structure SELA 4 – Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. SELA 5 – Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts. SELA 6 – Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

LEAD Science 5 Scope
SELA 7 – Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. SELA 8 – Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). SELA 9 – Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity SELA 10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Mathematics

Earth and Space Science [ESS] Connections
ESS Science and Engineering Practices GRADE 5
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 and progresses to evaluating the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

  

Compare and synthesize across texts and other reliable media to acquire and generate appropriate scientific and technical information. Synthesize information in written text with that contained in corresponding tables, diagrams, and charts. Generate and communicate scientific information orally and in written formats using various forms of media and may include tables, diagrams, and charts.

Developing and Using Models

LEAD Science 5 Scope
 
Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 models and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent on events and design solutions. Construct and revise models collaboratively to measure and explain frequent and regular events. Use simple models to describe phenomena and test cause and effect relationships concerning the functioning of a natural or designed system. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on prior experiences in K–2 and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing multiple explanations and designing multiple solutions. Use evidence (e.g., measurements, observations, patterns) to construct a scientific explanation or solution to a problem. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.  Make observations and measurements, collect appropriate data, and identify patterns that provide evidence to explain a phenomenon or test a design solution. Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking Mathematical and computational thinking at the 3–5 level builds on K–2 and progresses to extending quantitative measurements to a variety of physical properties and using computation and mathematics to analyze data and compare alternative design solutions.  Analyze simple data sets for patterns that suggest relationships. Analyzing and Interpreting Data Analyzing data in 3–5 builds on K–2 and progresses to introducing quantitative approaches to collecting data and conducting multiple trials of qualitative observations.

Use data to evaluate and refine design solutions.

ESS Disciplinary Core Ideas GRADE 5

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation A great deal of light travels through space to Earth from the sun and from distant stars. Because lenses bend light beams, they can be used, singly or in combination, to provide magnified images of objects too small or too far away to be seen with the naked eye. ESS1.A: The Universe and its Stars The sun is a star that appears larger and brighter than other stars because it is closer. Stars range greatly in their size and distance from Earth.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

The orbits of Earth around the sun and of the moon around Earth, together with the rotation of Earth about an axis between its North and South poles, cause observable patterns. These include day and night; daily and seasonal changes in the length and direction of shadows; phases of the moon; and different positions of the sun, moon, and stars at different times of the day, month, and year. [Note: Seasons are addressed in middle school.]

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation A great deal of light travels through space to Earth from the sun and from distant stars. Because lenses bend light beams, they can be used, singly or in combination, to provide magnified images of objects too small or too far away to be seen with the naked eye. PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation Lenses can be used to make eyeglasses, telescopes, or microscopes in order to extend what can be seen. The design of such instruments is based on understanding how the path of light bends at the surface of a lens. ETS2.A: Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology Tools and instruments (e.g., rulers, balances, thermometers, graduated cylinders, telescopes, microscopes) are used in scientific exploration to gather data and help answer questions about the natural world. Engineering design can develop and improve such technologies.

 

ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes Water is found almost everywhere on Earth: as vapor; as fog or clouds in the atmosphere; as rain or snow falling from clouds; as ice, snow, and running water on land and in the ocean; and as groundwater beneath the surface.  Nearly all of Earth’s available water is in the ocean. Most fresh water is in glaciers or underground; only a tiny fraction is in streams, lakes, wetlands, and the atmosphere.

   

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth’s surface materials and processes. The ocean supports a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shapes landforms, and influences climate. Winds and clouds in the atmosphere interact with the landforms to determine patterns of weather. Human activities affect Earth’s systems and their interactions at its surface.

ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems

Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space. But individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth’s resources and environments. For example, they are treating sewage, reducing the amounts of materials they use, and regulating sources of pollution such as emissions from factories and power plants or the runoff from

LEAD Science 5 Scope
agricultural activities. ETS2.B: Interactions of Engineering, Technology, Science, Society, and the Natural Environment

Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits (e.g., better artificial limbs), to decrease known risks (e.g., seatbelts in cars), and to meet societal demands (e.g., cell phones).

ESS Cross Cutting Concepts

GRADE 5
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity Natural objects and observable phenomena exist from the very small to the immensely large. Patterns Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort, classify, and analyze simple rates of change for natural phenomena and designed products. Cyclic patterns of change related to time can be used to make predictions. Systems and System Models A system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot. A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions. Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science Influence of Engineering, Technology and Science on Society and the Natural World Over time, people’s needs and wants change, as do their demands for new and improved technologies. Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits, to decrease known risks, and to meet societal demands. When new technologies become available, they can bring about changes in the way people live and interact with one another.

ESS Vocabulary
Grade 5

ESS Essential Questions and Enduring Understandings

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Essential Question(s)

 
3–5

What tools, skills, knowledge, and practices are needed to conduct scientific inquiry? How can these tools, skills, knowledge, and practices be used to benefit society?

   
6–8

What is science? How can people work together to create better designs? How can we use technologies to make scientific discoveries, and use science to develop new technologies? How and why are technologies created and improved, and how do they change our lives?

  
9–12

How can different solutions to problems be compared, tested, and refined to arrive at the best design? How do science and engineering build on and stimulate each other? What are the factors that drive technological change, and how do the technologies that are created affect society and the natural world?

  

How are quantitative investigations, analyses, and simulations used to define problems, and develop and refine solutions? How do science and engineering interact in the research and development cycle? How can alternative technologies be evaluated based on their relative costs, risks, and benefits?

Enduring Understanding(s)

  

Scientific knowledge develops as a result of carefully controlled investigations which must be verified through replication. Science is method of deepening our understanding of the natural world through observation, experimentation, modeling, and developing and evaluating explanations. We can apply our knowledge of the natural world to improve the quality of life and solve meaningful problems.

ESS Common Core State Standards Connections ELA

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Mathematics

Life Science [LS] Connections
LS Science and Engineering Practices GRADE 5
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 and progresses to evaluating the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

  

Compare and synthesize across texts and other reliable media to acquire and generate appropriate scientific and technical information. Synthesize information in written text with that contained in corresponding tables, diagrams, and charts. Generate and communicate scientific information orally and in written formats using various forms of media and may include tables, diagrams, and charts.

Developing and Using Models

  

Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 models and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent on events and design solutions. Use simple models to describe phenomena and test cause and effect relationships concerning the functioning of a natural or designed system. Construct a model using an analogy, example, or abstract representation to explain a scientific principle or design solution. Construct and revise models collaboratively to measure and explain frequent and regular events. Asking Questions and Defining Problems Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds from grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

 

Ask questions based on careful observations of phenomena and information. Ask questions of others to clarify ideas or request evidence.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

 

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 and progresses to evaluating the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods. Compare and synthesize across texts to acquire and generate appropriate scientific and technical information. Synthesize information in written text with that contained in corresponding tables, diagrams, and/or charts. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Make observations and measurements, collect appropriate data, and identify patterns that provide evidence to explain a phenomenon.

LS Disciplinary Core Ideas GRADE 5

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Either way, they are ―consumers.‖ Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and animals) and therefore operate as ―decomposers.‖ Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil for plants to use. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem.

   

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, water, and minerals from the environment, and release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment. LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms Animals and plants alike generally need to take in air and water, animals must take in food, and plants need light and minerals. Food provides animals with the materials they need for body repair and growth and is digested to release the energy they need to maintain body warmth and for motion. Anaerobic life, such as bacteria in the gut, functions without air. Plants acquire their material for growth chiefly from air and water and process matter they have formed to maintain their internal conditions (e.g., at night).

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

 

Food and fuel also release energy when they are digested or burned. When machines or animals ―use‖ energy (e.g., to move around), most often the energy is transferred to heat the surrounding environment. The energy released by burning fuel or digesting food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). (Boundary: The fact that plants capture energy from sunlight is introduced at this grade level, but details of photosynthesis are not.)

LEAD Science 5 Scope

LS Cross Cutting Concepts

GRADE 5
Systems and System Models A system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot. A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions. Energy and Matter Matter is made of particles. Matter flows and cycles can be tracked in terms of the weight of the substances before and after a process occurs. The total weight of the substances does not change. This is what is meant by conservation of matter. Matter is transported into, out of, and within systems. Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.

LS Vocabulary
Grade 5

LEAD Science 5 Scope
LS Essential Questions and Enduring Understandings
Essential Question(s) 3–5

    
6–8

How do living things interact with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment? How does matter and energy flow through the biosphere? How do living things reproduce and transmit information between parents and offspring? How does natural selection explain how organisms have changed over time? (How can we explain the diversity of life on Earth?) How does a change in any one environmental factor affect organisms?


9–12

?

?

Enduring Understanding(s)

     

All living things are made of cells that perform functions necessary for life. All living and non-living matter is connected. All living things depend on the conditions in their environment. Matter and energy flow through the biosphere. Plants and animals reproduce and transmit hereditary information to offspring. The diversity of life we observe has developed in response to a continually changing environment.

LS Common Core State Standards Connections ELA

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Mathematics

Physical Science [PS] Connections
PS Science and Engineering Practices GRADE 5
Developing and Using Models Modeling in 3–5 builds on K–2 models and progresses to building and revising simple models and using models to represent on events and design solutions.  Use simple models to describe phenomena and test cause and effect relationships concerning the functioning of a natural or designed system.

Construct a model using an analogy or abstract representation to explain a scientific principle or design solution. (c)

Engaging in Argument from Evidence Engaging in argument from evidence in 3–5 builds from K–2 experiences and progresses to critiquing the scientific explanations or solutions proposed by peers by citing relevant evidence about the natural and designed world.  Construct and support scientific arguments drawing on evidence, data, or a model. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.  Formulate questions and predict reasonable outcomes based on patterns such as cause and effect relationships.  Make observations, collect appropriate data, and identify patterns that provide evidence to explain a phenomenon.  Plan and carry out investigations collaboratively, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered.  Make observations and measurements, collect appropriate data, and identify patterns that provide evidence to explain a phenomenon or test a design solution. Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking Mathematical and computational thinking at the 3–5 level builds on K–2 and progresses to extending quantitative measurements to a variety of physical properties and using computation and mathematics to analyze data and compare alternative design solutions.  Use standard units to measure area, volume, weight, and temperature. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on prior experiences in K–2 and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing multiple explanations and designing multiple solutions. Apply scientific knowledge to solve design problems. (d)  Use evidence (e.g., measurements, observations, patterns) to construct a scientific explanation or solution to a problem. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 and progresses to evaluating the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

 

Compare and synthesize across texts and other reliable media to acquire and generate appropriate scientific information. Generate and communicate scientific and/or technical information orally and/or in written formats using various forms of media and may include tables, diagrams, and charts.

PS Disciplinary Core Ideas GRADE 5
PS2.A: Forces and Motion

The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it.

PS2.C: Stability and Instability in Physical Systems

A system can change as it moves in one direction (e.g., a ball rolling down a hill), shift back and forth (e.g., a swinging pendulum), or go through cyclical patterns (e.g., day and night).

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

LEAD Science 5 Scope

Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. PS2.C: Stability and Instability in Physical Systems

  

Examining how the forces on and within the system change as it moves can help explain a system’s patterns of change. A system can appear to be unchanging when processes within the system are going on at opposite but equal rates (e.g., water behind a dam is at a constant height because water is flowing in at the same rate that water is flowing out). Changes can happen very quickly or very slowly and are sometimes hard to see (e.g., plant growth). Conditions and properties of the objects within a system affect how fast or slowly a process occurs (e.g., heat conduction rates).

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Objects in contact exert forces on each other (friction, elastic pushes and pulls). Electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact—for example, magnets push or pull at a distance. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the properties of the objects and their distances apart and, for forces between two magnets, on their orientation relative to each other.

ETS2.A: Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Scientific discoveries about the natural world can often lead to new and improved technologies, which are developed through the engineering design process.

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. (Boundary: At this grade level, no attempt is made to give a precise or complete definition of energy.)

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced.

 Light also transfers energy from place to place. For example, energy radiated from the sun is transferred to the earth by light. When this light is absorbed, it warms Earth’s land, air, and water and facilitates plant growth.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
 Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy (e.g., moving water driving a spinning turbine which generates electric currents). PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. Magnets can exert forces on other magnets or on magnetizable materials, causing energy transfer between them (e.g., leading to changes in motion) even when the objects are not touching. PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

 

The expression ―produce energy‖ typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use—for example, the stored energy of water behind a dam is released so that it flows downhill and drives a turbine generator to produce electricity. It is important to be able to concentrate energy so that it is available for use where and when it is needed. For example, batteries are physically transportable energy storage devices, whereas electricity generated by power plants is transferred from place to place through distribution systems.

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account.

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.

ESS3.A: Natural Resources

All materials, energy, and fuels that humans use are derived from natural sources, and their use affects the environment in multiple ways. Some resources are renewable over time, and others are not.

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

LEAD Science 5 Scope

When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. Magnets can exert forces on other magnets or on magnetizable materials, causing energy transfer between them (e.g., leading to changes in motion) even when the objects are not touching. PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter  Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means (e.g., by weighing or by its effects on other objects). For example, a model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon; the effects of air on larger particles or objects (e.g., leaves in wind, dust suspended in air); and the appearance of visible scale water droplets in condensation, fog, and, by extension, also in clouds or the contrails of a jet.  Measurements of a variety of properties (e.g., hardness, reflectivity) can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanisms of evaporation and condensation.)  The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish (e.g., sugar in solution, evaporation in a closed container). PS2.B: Types of Interactions  The gravitational force of Earth acting on an object near Earth’s surface pulls that object toward the planet’s center.

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions  When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed; such occurrences depend on the substances and the temperature.  No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Boundary: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level.)

PS Cross Cutting Concepts

GRADE 5
Systems and System Models A system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot. A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions. Energy and Matter Matter is made of particles. Matter flows and cycles can be tracked in terms of the weight of the substances before and after a process occurs. The total weight of the substances does not change. This is what is meant by conservation of matter. Matter is transported into, out of, and within systems. Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.

Structure and Function

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Different materials have different substructures, which can sometimes be observed. Substructures have shapes and parts that serve functions. ------------------------------------Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World People’s needs and wants change over time, as do their demands for new and improved technologies. Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits, decrease known risks, and meet societal demands. When new technologies become available, they can bring about changes in the way people live and interact with one another. Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology Science and technology support each other. Tools and instruments are used to answer scientific questions, while scientific discoveries lead to the development of new technologies. Patterns Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort, classify, and analyze simple rates of change for natural phenomena and designed products. Cyclic patterns of change related to time can be used to make predictions. Stability and Change Change is measured in terms of differences over time and may occur at different rates. Some systems appear stable, but over long periods of time will eventually change.

PS Vocabulary
Grade 5

PS Essential Questions and Enduring Understandings
Essential Question(s)

LEAD Science 5 Scope
3–5     6–8 What is our world made of? How can we explain every day phenomena? How does the energy in a situation change form? How can we use our understanding of the forces in nature to predict the movement of an object?


9–12

?

?

Enduring Understanding(s)

   

We understanding of the composition and structure of matter allow us to accurately predict how it behaves. The energy in the universe is not created or destroyed. It only changes form. Objects move in ways that can be observed, described, predicted, and measured. Everything in the universe exerts a gravitational force on everything else. There is an observed relationship between magnetic field and electrical currents.

PS Common Core State Standards Connections ELA Mathematics

LEAD Science 5 Scope

3rd Grade Science Story Line Third grade students deepen their understanding of crosscutting concepts, especially systems in both physical and life science, and stability and change in both life and Earth science. Students use quantitative measures of weather data to identify climatic patterns and different climatic areas (e.g., temperate, tropical, desert, polar). Students learn about the different types of environments in which organisms live, and the physical conditions (e.g., temperature, availability of water) that enable particular types of organisms to live in particular places. They begin to understand that the living and nonliving parts of an area interact in various ways, functioning as a system. They model and evaluate environmental changes and their effects on organisms. They evaluate the impact of weather-related hazards on the environment. Students build upon their knowledge of the structure and function of external parts of organisms to include internal structures of both plants and animals. Students focus on major structures – bones, muscles, heart, lungs, etc. – relating them to their functions and how they help the organisms meet their needs. Third grade students provide evidence that organisms can be classified based on their structures. They investigate the relationship between structures and senses, and learn that organisms may respond to information obtained by their senses, by instinct, or by learning (memory). Students develop representations to show how light reflected from objects enters the eye and enables us to see.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Third grade students extend their study of pushes and pulls to investigate interactions among forces, and consider the different parts involved as a system. They learn that each force has both a strength and a direction as it acts on an object. Students conduct investigations and construct models related to balanced and unbalanced forces, and predict the effect that changes of forces have on the motion of objects. They may apply their understanding of forces and motion to describe how bones and muscles enable us to move. Students extend their knowledge of forces to include magnetic forces that do not require direct contact to have an effect. Students continue to increase their grasp of science concepts through engineering design projects, and learn engineering concepts and constraints through these applications. 4th Grade Science Story Line Fourth grade students have the opportunity to revisit many of the crosscutting concepts, with a particular emphasis on patterns, energy and matter, and cause and effect. Students investigate and identify patterns in the life cycles of a variety of animals and plants. They find patterns in the traits of organisms and provide evidence that traits can be inherited from parents, caused by the environment, or both. Students learn that there are different traits in different kinds of organisms, and in one kind of organism there may be different versions of a single trait. They describe how differences in traits among individuals of the same kind may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. Students further develop their understanding of the processes that shape the earth. They connect effects to particular causes. They note that moving water can cause erosion and deposition of material that affect landforms, and investigate the effect of different variables on the rate and extent of erosion. They use evidence to show that organisms and natural processes may affect the physical characteristics of an area, and that the remains of organisms can contribute to the formation of rocks and soil. Students map the locations of a variety of Earth’s features (e.g., mountain ranges, volcanoes) and identify patterns that emerge. They use data to predict the likelihood of natural hazards occurring in an area, evaluating the possible consequences for organisms and landforms, and constructing, designing, and testing a design solution to mitigate the effects of a natural hazard.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Students analyze data on the history of Earth’s climate and determine the effects of past climatic changes on organisms. They use fossils to provide evidence that some types of organisms that once lived on earth are no longer living anywhere, and of the environments in which they lived. They identify similarities and differences between fossils and living organisms. Fourth grade students begin to develop an understanding of energy, a concept that is central to both science and engineering. They learn that energy is present whenever objects are moving or there is light, sound, or heat. They conduct investigations and build devices to show that moving objects, light, sound, or electric currents can move energy from place to place. They provide evidence that energy is transferred by collisions between objects, and by magnets without contact. Students explain how stored energy is converted into a desired form for practical use, and design a technological solution that uses the conversion of energy to solve a problem. They learn that humans use natural resources in many ways, including to produce electricity, and that the use of these resources affects the environment. They learn that some of these resources are renewable and some are not. Students observe and analyze the characteristics of waves using physical models and by generating waves in water. They carry out investigations on the transfer of energy by waves. They conduct investigations to show that waves may add or cancel each other as they cross, and that waves can pass through each other and emerge unaffected. They learn about waves in nature (e.g., ocean waves, sound waves, seismic waves), and design a device that uses a mechanical wave to transmit information.

LEAD Science 5 Scope

5th Grade Science Story Line Fifth grade continues the focus on the crosscutting concept of energy and matter, with strong application to both physical and life sciences. Systems are emphasized in life science (ecosystems) and Earth systems. The concept of scale, proportion, and quantity is developed in relation to space, stars, and the solar system. Students will have the opportunity to connect many ideas that were introduced in earlier grades. Fifth grade students learn that matter can be subdivided into tiny particles too small to see, and that these particles still exist even when they are not visible. They use this model of matter to explain everyday phenomena (e.g., odor of perfume traveling across a room, food coloring in water), how matter in one organism becomes matter in another organism, and how matter cycles between organisms and the physical environment. Students observe and analyze additional properties (e.g., hardness, reflectivity) to identify substances. They carry out investigations demonstrating that when two or more different substances are mixed a new substance with different properties may be formed. They provide evidence that the total weight of matter does not change when matter changes shape or form, even if it seemingly disappears, and that the total weight of matter stays the same when substances interact to form new substances with different properties. Students analyze the interdependent relationships among organisms in a variety of ecosystems, and trace the food of nearly all animals back to plants, relating this to the conservation of matter. They explain the complementary roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs. They identify the sun as the source of energy in both food and fuels, explain that energy is released when food is digested and fuel is burned, and that in the process, heat is transferred to the surrounding environment.

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Students gather information and construct models of the major Earth systems (geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere) and consider ways in which they interact. They provide evidence of ways the ocean (hydrosphere) supports ecosystems (biosphere), shapes landforms (geosphere), and influences climate (atmosphere). They evaluate ways in which atmosphere, oceans, and landforms interact to produce weather and climate. In addition, they provide evidence that human activities (e.g., overgrazing, logging) can produce change in Earth’s systems. They collaborate to design and evaluate technological solutions to minimize unwanted outcomes of human activities. Students provide evidence that increases in Earth’s temperature will affect humans and other organisms (e.g., changes in crop growing seasons, loss of habitat of penguins). Students consider concepts of scale and proportion as they provide evidence to support the idea that the sun is a star, only much closer to Earth than other stars. They provide evidence that the Earth is spherical, and argue that the gravitational force of Earth pulls objects near its surface toward the planet’s center. Students use models to explain patterns in daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the phases of the moon. Students carry out investigations on light and lenses, noting that lenses bend light beams and can be used to magnify images.

Next Generation Notes
5.1

The interdependence of science, engineering and technology includes the complementary ideas that scientists depend on engineers to produce technologies for them to use as tools for learning about the natural world; while engineers depend on scientists to provide inspirational new discoveries and accurate knowledge of how the world works. Engineering and technology drive each other forward in the research and development (R&D) cycle. 5.2 Influence of engineering, technology, and science, on society and the natural world also involves two complementary ideas. The first is that scientific discoveries and technological decisions affect human society and the natural environment. The second is that people make decisions that guide the work of scientists and engineers. 5.3

LEAD Science 5 Scope
Next Generation Note: Defining and delimiting engineering problems involves stating the problem to be solved as clearly as possible in terms of criteria for success and constraints, or limits. 5.4 Obtain and communicate information about the sizes of stars, including the sun, and their distances from the Earth to explain their apparent brightness. 5.5 Use a model of a rotating, spherical Earth and the relative positions of the sun and moon to explain patterns in daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the phases of the moon. [Assessment Boundary: Seasons are not to be assessed.] 5.6 [Clarification Statement: Examples of lenses could include telescopes, microscopes, eye glasses, and jeweler’sloupes.] [Assessment Boundary: Quantitative details of refraction not to be included.] 5.7 Primarily from the plate tectonics theory, which supports our knowledge about how the surface of the earth has changed over time. 5.8
[Clarification Statement: The forms of water on Earth that students will address include vapor, fog or clouds in the atmosphere; rain or snow falling from clouds; ice, snow, and running water on land; moisture in soil and salt water in the ocean; and groundwater beneath the surface.] [Assessment Boundary: Focus is on the existence of different forms of water, not the cycling.]

LEAD Science 5 Scope
5.9
[Clarification Statement: Examples of effects on humans and other organisms can include changes in crop growing seasons, changes in coral reefs, and loss of habitat for penguins.] [Assessment Boundary: Greenhouse effect and climate change are not included.] 5.10

[Clarification Statement: Examples of processes or products could be designing a cost-effective water filtration system that reduces pollutants in a river; or conducting an energy audit and developing a plan to reduce energy use.]
5.11 [Clarification Statement: Examples of a healthy ecosystem are ones in which multiple species of different types are able to meet their needs or no new invasive species are introduced.] 5.12 [Assessment Boundary: The emphasis is on students applying the particle model to explain how matter cycles; it does not include the chemistry of metabolism.] 5.13 [Assessment Boundary: Details of photosynthesis are not included.] 5.14 [Clarification Statment: Everyday phenomena can include inflating a balloon, effect of air on large object, or the smell of food cooking.] 5.15 [Clarification Statement: Examples of physical properties can include salt dissolving in water while sand does not; copper wire conducting electric current and shoelaces do not; a metal spoon conducting heat and a wooden spoon does not.]

LEAD Science 5 Scope
5.16 [Clarification Statement: Examples of interactions forming new substances can include mixing baking soda and vinegar. Examples of interactions not forming new substances can include mixing baking soda and water.] 5.17 [Assessment Boundary: No attempt should be made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.] 5.18 [Assessment Boundary: No attempt should be made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.]

5.19
[Clarification Statement: Examples could be that a faster ball will make a louder sound when it hits the wall than a slower one or a fast car has more energy than a slow car.] [Assessment Boundary: No attempt is made to give a precise definition of energy.] 5.20 [Assessment Boundary: Quantitative measurements of energy are beyond the scope of assessment.]

5.21
[Assessment Boundary: Quantitative measurements of energy are beyond the scope of assessment.]

5.22
[Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could be a windmill, watermill, alarm circuit, bell, or solar oven.]

5.23

LEAD Science 5 Scope
[Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could be a flashlight, electric motor, or doorbell.]

5.24
[Clarification Statement: Examples of motions are a ball rolling down a slide or a child swinging in a swing.] [Assessment Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity are not introduced.]

5.25
[Clarification Statement: Examples investigations could include pulling a wagon or pushing on a heavy object that will not slide.] [Assessment Boundary: Dependence on variables of motion is to be tested one variable at a time. The size and direction of forces should be qualitative. Gravity only to be addressed as a force that pulls objects down.]