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Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on IT & Multimedia at UNITEN (ICIMU 2011) Malaysia

14 – 16 November 2011

Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving Radio Resource Allocation for Overlapping MBSFN Area
M.F. Azman1, N.F.Tuban2, K.A Noordin3, M.F.Ismail4
Electrical Department, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia
1

fahmiazman@siswa.um.edu.my 3 faizalis@um.edu.my translating the inter-cell interference (destructive) in conventional transmission to constructive interference in MBSFN. Thus, the received signal power is increased as the useful signal power being largely contributed from multiple cells. However, the performance of MBSFN is still restricted in the area where there is multiple MBSFN areas overlap with one another. On the resource management and configuration of cells in MBSFN operation, the provider may target different geographical areas or different user distribution to transmit different MBMS services. Hence, a complication on the radio resource allocation to the overlapped area may be occurred. Radio resources in the overlapped region could not be reused by the nonoverlapping parts of an MBSFN area as the same time-frequency resource is needed in all cells of an SFN area for a given MBMS service. There are two main constraints for allocating radio resources for MBSFN areas. First, a service requires a radio resource unit. In order to deliver more than one service simultaneously, the services must be allocated with different resource unit. Second, the number of radio resource units required by the MBSFN areas should be minimized. When MBSFN area is overlapping, the needed bandwidth to support MBSFN operation may be larger than the sum of resource unit for the transmitted services of a specific cell. Moreover, it needs to reserve different resources unit so that eNBs belonging to overlapping MBSFN areas can transmit the individual services without confliction because these eNBs cannot deliver various services simultaneously with the same resource block. The resource allocation for overlapping MBSFN areas have also been discussed in [6] and [7]. In this paper, we proposed a new technique for allocation of resources in the overlapped area by using genetic algorithm (GA). The algorithm mainly aims to provide a set of solutions for radio resource allocation for overlapping MBSFN areas. The rest of the paper is organized as follow. In Section II, a system model is presented and the proposed radio resource allocation by using GA is elaborated. In Section III, the simulation and result is presented and section IV summarizes the conclusion.

Abstract— Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) is a new technique utilized in 3GPP LTE to deliver Multicast Broadcast Multimedia Service (MBMS) to users. In this paper, we proposed a novel method to allocate different radio resources in overlapping MBSFN area by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The algorithm would be used to optimize the allocation of radio resource unit in the overlapped areas by finding the best solution to allocate different resources to base stations (eNBs) for delivering different services to different areas. The GA is able to limit the number of RRU to three for up to eight overlapping MBSFN areas. Simulation results show that the proposed method could contribute by providing a set of solution to every dynamically changed topology of MBSFN area. Keywords— Multicast and Broadcast Service Single Frequency Network(MBSFN),Radio Resource Allocation, Genetic Algorithm,OFDMA

I. INTRODUCTION
Long Term Evolution (LTE) was motivated by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) to support the increases of mobile data usage and appearance of new application that require high data rate with large capacity of signal transmission. LTE supports scalable channel bandwidth of 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHZ [1] which can provides peak data rates target up to 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink) for 20 MHz spectrum allocation. Live mobile TV, newscasts, and weather forecasts are the mobile multimedia services that need to be distributed to an audience of multiple users. To support those services in cellular networks, Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS) was introduced by 3GPP in Release 6 [2], which use point-to-multipoint (P-t-M) transmission to efficiently utilize radio resources. It improves the scalability of broadcast and multicast in cellular networks by efficiently deliver multimedia content to multiple receivers or users by allowing resources to be shared in a cost effective way, and thus minimizes the usage of network resources. Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network (MBSFN) is a new key technique of LTE to transmit multicast or broadcast data as a multi-cell transmission over the same frequency channel [3] [4]. In MBSFN operation, MBMS data are transmitted simultaneously to multi users over the air from multiple tightly-time synchronized cells which called MBSFN area. The transmissions from multiple cells in a MBSFN area are synchronized to enable each data to arrive and soft-combine at the user within the cyclic prefix (CP) [5].This would make the MBSFN transmission appear as a single large cell transmission to a user. MBSFN greatly enhanced the spectral efficiency compared to UMTS Release 6 MBMS. This is caused when the SINR of user at the cell edge is improved by

II. SYSTEM MODEL
In this paper, the number of cells N in the system is chosen to be 169 or seven tiers of hexagonal cells. One MBSFN area is constructed by 19 cells which is two tiers of hexagonal cells. Fig.1(a) shows one constructed system model of 5 MBSFN areas. From this system model, the MBSFN area can be represented by an undirected labeled graph as depicted in Fig.1(b). The vertex represents an

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MBSFN area and the edge connecting two vertexes specifies the overlapping of two MBSFN areas [7]. The radio of resource allocation for overlapping MBSFN areas can be solved by using graph coloring method. The protocol is different color will be used when there are two adjacent vertexes

A. Radio Resource Allocation Algorithm using Genetic Algorithm
Step 1: Initialization of N chromosomes N chromosomes are generated which represent radio resource allocation for the system. Each chromosome contains 5 bit randomly genes where each gene represents the resource unit (varies from 1 to 3) for the respective MBSFN area as shown in Table 2. Step 2: Evaluation of each chromosomes The chromosome is evaluated by a fitness function. Fitness function is determined by checking each gene with other genes that are overlapping with it. When the resource unit of that gene is not same, the fitness is increased by 1. For example, we select Chrom1 to be evaluated.
Initialisation of 20 chromosomes

MBSFN Area 1

MBSFN Area 3

2

1
MBSFN Area 4

3

MBSFN Area 5

MBSFN Area 2

5

4

Fig.1(a). System Model .

Fig.1(b). Undirected Graph
Evaluation of fitness function for each chromosome

The graph coloring method can be solved using genetic algorithm [8]. By using genetic algorithm, we can limit the resource unit the system needs. Then, a set of solutions is determined where the resource unit would be allocated correctly to the overlapping MBSFN area. Since the offered service depends on request by the users, this set of solution is essential because the system will not transmit the same services all the times. This set of solutions will be the best configuration for the system when the services offered in the area change dynamically. For the existing topology represented by graph coloring method in Fig.1(b), we can construct an adjacency matrix as stated in [7].

Selection of 4 parenta based on best fitness

Crossover/ Recombination

5 x 5 adjacency matrix X =
Mutation

Hence, we can list out the vertexes representing the MBSFN areas as listed in Table 1. TABLE 1 MBSFN AREA WITH OVERLAPPED AREA MBSFN Area 1 2 3 4 5 Overlapped MBSFN Area 3,4 4 1,4 1,3,5 2,4 Chrom1 Chrom2 Chrom3 Chrom4 Chrom5 . . . Chrom N Area 1 1 2 1 3 3 Area 2 2 2 2 1 3 Area 3 3 1 3 2 2 Area 4 2 3 1 2 3 Area 5 1 1 1 1 1
Criteria satisfies

Fig.2. Steps of Genetic Algorithm TABLE 2 POOL OF N CHROMOSOMES

Fig. 2 shows the step of Genetic Algorithm to solve the radio resource allocation.

2

1

1

3

1

Chrom1 Fitness

1 1

2 1

3 1

2 1

1 1

Child1 Child2

Chrom1 Chrom2

1 1

2 2

3 3

3 2

1 1

Area 1 overlaps with Area 3 and 4. So, gene 1 is compared with gene 3 and 4. If gene 3 and 4 are not using the same resource unit as 1, the fitness is increased by 1. Referring to Chrom1, gene 1 is 1, and gene 3 and 4 are using the different resource units that are 2 and 3. So, the fitness of this gene is 1. Next, it will compare gene 2 with other genes that are overlapping with it, which is area 5. This evaluation process will be done until all genes are evaluated. Finally, each gene’s fitness will be summed up to calculate the fitness of a chromosome. As shown in Table 3, the fitness of Chrom1 is 5 (1+1+1+1+1=5), which is the best. Each chromosome will have its own fitness function as shown in Table 3. TABLE 3 FITNESS VALUE FOR EACH CHROMOSOME Area 1 1 2 1 3 3 Area 2 2 2 2 1 3 Area 3 3 2 3 2 2 Area 4 2 3 1 2 3 Area 5 1 1 1 1 1 Fitness 5 3 4 2 3

The process of selecting which genes are to be crossed over depends on probability value that had been set. Here the probability value is chosen to be 40%, which are 2 out of 5 genes. The last two genes are selected because they have the less overlapping area. Parent3 and Parent4 will be crossed over with the same way. Parent3 Parent4 Chrom3 Chrom5 3 3 1 3 2 2 3 3 1 1

Child3 Child4

Chrom3 Chrom5

3 3

1 3

2 2

3 3

1 1

Chrom1 Chrom2 Chrom3 Chrom4 Chrom5 . . . ChromN

Step 5: Mutation Mutation helps the chromosome to be varied. For this approach, two random positions are chosen excluding the gene that has the most overlapping area. In this case, gene 4 and gene 5 are selected. The mutation process is as the following. Child1 Child2 Chrom1 Chrom2 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 1

2

1

1

2

1

1

Child3 Child4

Chrom3 Chrom5

3 3

1 3

2 2

3 3

1 1

Step 3: Selection Four elite parents with best fitness will be selected. As stated in Table 4, Chrom1, Chrom2, Chrom3, and Chrom5 are selected since they have highest fitness. These elite parents will replace the first four row of the population pool. TABLE 4 FOUR ELITE PARENTS

After mutation, the children will be: Child1 Child2 Chrom1 Chrom3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 2

Child3 Child4

Chrom4 Chrom5

3 3

1 3

2 2

1 1

3 3

Parent1 Parent2 Parent3 Parent4

Chrom1 Chrom2 Chrom3 Chrom5

1 2 1 3

2 2 2 3

3 2 3 2

2 3 1 3

1 1 1 1

5 3 4 3

Step 4: Crossover/Recombination In GA, crossover is a process to vary the genes of two chromosomes in selection part. Here, we used the Partially Matched Crossover (PMX) where selected genes in Parent1 are to be exchanged with Parent2 to obtain Child1 and Child2. For example, as follow: Parent1 Parent2 Chrom1 Chrom2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 1

After four elite parents in the existing chromosome pool had been replaced, another 16 original chromosomes need to be replaced with new children. This will be done by generating new children and then the process will be repeated until the original chromosomes are replaced completely. The new generation of chromosome is obtained. The step will be repeated until the chromosomes with the best fitness are stored.

III. SIMULATION
The system is simulated on top of a developed Matlab code to verify the success of the proposed method. The number of MBSFN areas is varied. The result of the proposed method is to provide set of solutions for every generated model by limiting the maximum number of radio resource unit to 3.

Gene 4 and gene 5 are to be crossed over. Hence Child1 and Child2 will be obtained as follow:

Fig.3 shows that Genetic Algorithm limits the number of radio resource unit (U) to 3. For the system wide broadcast, they use one resource unit for each area. Fig.4 shows the number of MBSFN area and its average solution obtained by running the genetic algorithm of 1000 iterations. It shows that smaller number of MBSFN areas gives more solutions.

Fig.5 depicts the allocation of resource based on solution in Table 2. Green indicates resource 1, Blue indicates resource 2, and red indicates resource 3.

Fig.3. Number of resource unit (U) vs. number of MBSFN area

Fig.4. Average number of solutions vs. number of MBSFN area Table 5 shows a set of solutions for the system model shown in Fig.1(a). TABLE 5 SOLUTION OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR MBSFN AREA Area 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 Area 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 Area 3 3 1 3 2 1 3 1 3 Area 4 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 1 Area 5 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2

Solution 1 Solution 2 Solution 3 Solution 4 Solution 5 Solution 6 Solution 7 Solution 8

Fig.5. Resources allocation based on solution from Table 2

IV. CONCLUSION
This paper proposes a method to allocate the resource unit for overlapping MBSFN areas. An adjacency matrix is used to represent the topology of overlapping MBSFN area. Previous method which is graph coloring to solve the resource allocation is adopted and modified using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to allocate radio resource units to an arbitrary topology containing 169 cells and generating a variety of number of MBSFN areas. This proposed method provides a set of solution for every topology that is generated. This set of solutions can be used if the area wanted to change the service based on users demand. Some future works is to be carried out. Firstly, is to implement the GA in radio resource unit allocation for more than eight MBSFN areas. Secondly is to evaluate the performance of the entire system in term of overprovisioning factor, total throughput, and its spectral efficiency.

REFERENCES
[1] Technical White Paper, “Long Term Evolution (LTE): A Technical Overview”, available at: http://www.motorola.com, pp 2. 3GPP TS 25.346, “Introduction to Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS) in Radio Access Network”, Rev. V7.4.0, Jul.2007. 3GPP TS 22.146, “Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service; Stage 1(Release 6)”, V6.7.0, March 2006. 3GPP TS 25.346, “Introduction of the Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) in the Radio Access Network (RAN); Stage 2 (Release7)”, V7.6.0, December 2007. Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik and Matthew Baker, “LTE – The UMTS Long Term Evolution: From Theory to Practice”, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-47069716-0, 2009. VihangKamble, Suresh Kalyanasundaram, VinodRamachandran, Rajeev Agrawal, “Efficient Resource Allocation Strategies for Multicast/Broadcast Services in 3GPP Long Term Evolution Single Frequency Networks” WCNC 2009,pp.1-6, Budapest,Hungary, April 2009. Ray-Guang Cheng, Kuo-Jui Huang, “Radio Resource Allocation for Overlapping MBS Zones,” IEEE Mobile WiMAX Symposium, pp.75-80, Napa Valley, California, USA, July 2009.

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