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# Rock Slope Stability Analysis Method

(Teuku Faisal Fathani)

Stability Analysis Method
Stability analysis define the geometry of blocks or of the system of blocks isolated by discontinuity planes and exposes on the examined excavation face or the natural slope Sliding Analysis by using Static or Dynamic Equilibrium Method Static limit equilibrium method : (1) Examines kinematics possibility of sliding or topping of each block which has a face exposed on the slope (2) Only examines the incipience motion and does not consider the subsequent behavior of whole system of the blocks. Dynamic equilibrium method : (1) Simulate the behavior of a blocky system a more realistic hypothesis by referring to the examined physical phenomenon; (2) For problem consists in computation of the block motion or when the block are subjected to cyclic stresses or pulsing loads.

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Static and Dynamic Equilibrium Method
Rigid block instability modes on inclined plane individual block sliding and toppling produces

Static equilibrium problem variables

Dynamic equilibrium problem variables

Static equilibrium analysis

Stability Chart

Dynamic equilibrium analysis

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Safety Factor and Limit Equilibrium Method
Assuming the shear stress τ on sliding surface defined by Coulomb criterion

Wsinα

τ = c + σ tan φ
R α W Wcosα

τ =c+

W cos α tan φ A

R = τ ⋅ A = cA + W cos α tan φ
If c = 0

Limit block equilibrium condition

W sin α = cA + W cos α tan φ
F=

α =φ

τ (maximum mobitable) τ (mobilized )

Safety Factor and Limit Equilibrium Method
F=

τ (maximum mobilitabl e) τ (mobilized )

Safety factor : a number for which the available shear strength parameters (c - φ) must be divided to reach limit equilibrium condition Principal hypothesis : - Failure surface simple or composite shear failure surface - Sliding mass single or more intact stiff blocks which can move without significant strain or failure of block rock matrix Limit equilibrium method = overall analysis method Solution is given for a system of blocks or for a single block by means of overall safety factor constant on the whole examined surface

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Effect of Water Pressure in Rock Discontinuities
Water filling discontinuities involves a lowering of stability conditions for natural or artificial slopes

Subvertical discontinuity plane

Vp = V

Vn = 0
V U

σ=

(W cos α − U )
A
cA + (W cos α − U ) tan φ W sin α + V

F=

A. Rock Slope Stability
• Rock slide occurs at the weakness plane (discontinuities plane), cracks or shear zone
A1 W N = Wcosα W T = Wsinα N T Discontinuities plane

A

α
C

N

n ta

φ

Rock discontinuity plane with the angle of α : Rock weight = W Resistance force = FR Driving force = FD

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• Consider 1 m ⊥ the slide
A1 W N = Wcosα W T = Wsinα N T

FD = T = W sin α FR = N tan φ + C
φ

A

α
C N

n ta

FR = W cos α ⋅ tan φ + C

T = tangential component (W) at discontinuity plane W = rock weight slides on the slide plabe A-A1 α = slope inclination φ = internal rock friction angle C = c (A-A1) ( resistant due to cohesion along the shear zone)

A1 W N = Wcosα W T = Wsinα N T

Cohesion / unit area:

c=
A

α
C N

n ta

φ

C ( A − A1 )(1,0 m )

Stable condition : Hence : If C = 0 So

FD = FR safety factor : (SF)
FR W cos α ⋅ tan φ + C = FD W sin α

SF =

very weak discontinuity plane

SF =

FR W cos α ⋅ tan φ = FD W sin α

or

SF =

tan φ tan α

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For non cohesive material SF is not dependence on the height of the slope and the shape of rock mass. When the rain occurs and the water infiltrates into discontinuity plane pore water pressure (u)

Uplift pressure works : SF

U should be considered

SF =

(W cos α − U ) ⋅ tan φ
W sin α

B. Rock block slide on discontinuity plane
b B B

θ

J

x

α

C z

W h Wcosα
Hard rock

Wsinα

H K

γw z γw z

T
N ef f

U

A a E

α

Bedrock

L

e

σ max

C L

σ min

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b B

B

θ

J

x

α

C z

W h Wcosα
Batuan keras

Wsinα

H K

L=

γwz γ wz

h−z sin α ⎛ ⎝
6e ⎞ ⎟ L⎠

T
N eff

U

σ ext = σ h average ⎜1 ±
σ max

A a E

α

Batuan keras

L

e

C L

σ h average =

N eff L ⋅ (1m )

σ min

Shear resistant (T) occurs at discontinuity plane along AK (=L), so:

T = N eff ⋅ tan φ + C = (N − U ) tan φ + C
Where N eff = N − U effective normal stress component

b B

B

θ

J

x

α

C z

N = W cos α
Normal component of rock block (W) sliding on the shear plane

W h Wcosα
Batuan keras

Wsinα

H K

γwz γ wz

T
N eff

U

A a E

α

Batuan keras

L

e

σ max

C L

σ min

W =

1 γ [(b + B )h − (b ⋅ h ) − (x ⋅ z )] 2

The weight of the sliding rock mass block

⎡ ⎛ z ⎞2 ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎝h⎠ 1 ⎥ − W = γ 2 ⎢ tan α tan θ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

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b B

B

θ

J

x

α

C z

Note: W = weight of sliding rock mass block α = inclination of the discontinuity plane to horizontal plane u = uplift pressure

W h Wcosα
Batuan keras

Wsinα

H K

γwz γ wz

T
N eff

U

A a E

α

Batuan keras

L

e

σ max

C L

U=

1 γ w ⋅ z (h − z ) 2 sin α

σ min

φ = rock internal friction C = c.A = c.L (1 m ⊥ the canvas) A = total shear plane area (1 m ⊥ the canvas) L = length of discontinuity γ = unit weight of sliding rock material z = depth of the crack θ = slope inclination

b B

B

θ

J

x

α

C z

Resultant of Shear Force Resultant (FR):

W h Wcosα
Batuan keras

Wsinα

H K

γw z γ wz

FR = T − (H sin α ) tan φ = N eff ⋅ tan φ + C − H sin α tan φ
= [( N − U ) − H sin α ] tan φ + C

T
N eff

U

A a E

α

Batuan keras

L

e

σ max

C L

= [W cos α − U − H sin α ] tan φ + C

σ min

Resultant of driving force (FD): H NH

α
FH=NH tanφ

FD = W sin α + H cos α
Safety factor (SF):

SF =

(W cos α − H sin α − U ) tan φ + C
W sin α + H cos α

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Safety factor (SF):

SF =

(W cos α − H sin α − U ) tan φ + C
W sin α + H cos α
stable condition, when it is going to slide not stable stable long time short time (earthquake load)

SF = 1,0 SF < 1,0 SF > 1,0

In general SF ≥ 1,5 SF ≥ 1,3 Special condition: H = 0, U = 0 H ≠ 0, U = 0 φ ≠ 0 and c = 0 φ ≈ 0 and c ≠ 0

dry rock or good drainage water fill the crack only dry rock or wet dry rock or wet

When earthquake occurs

F1

⎛W F1 = m ⋅ a = ⎜ ⎜ g ⎝
W

⎞ ⎟⋅a ⎟ ⎠

m = rock mass which is sliding g = gravity acceleration a = earthquake acceleration = kg.g kg = earthquake coefficient F1 = kg.W

Safety factor (SF):

SF = SF =

FR FD

(W cos α − F1 sin α − H sin α − U ) tan φ + C
W sin α + F1 cos α + H cos α

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C. Analysis of Plane Slides (Goodman, 1980) A simple formulation of conditions for limiting equilibrium of a plane slide provides useful in back calculating actual failure cases Important step in attempting to design a new excavation in a rock mass Rework field data using an appropriate model rather than to attempt a program of field tests. Two cases of plane failure: 1. Tension crack delimits the top of the slide at a point beyond the crest of the slope 2. Tension crack intercepts the slope face

Tension crack

Zw H

Z

θ α 1. Tension crack delimits the top of the slide

Z H

θ α

Zw

2. Tension crack intercepts the slope face

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Z = vertical distance from the crest of the slope to the bottom of the crack If the tension crack is filled with water to depth Zw, it can be assumed that water seeps along the sliding surface losing head linearly between the tension crack and the toe of the slope If the slide mass behaves like a rigid body, the condition for limiting equilibrium is reached when the shear force directed down the sliding surface equals the shear strength along the sliding surface Failure occurs when:

W sin α + V cos α = c j A + (W cos α − U − V sin α ) tan φ j
α = the dip of the sliding surface cj and φj = shear strength intercept (cohesion) and friction angle of the sliding surface W = the weight of the potentially sliding wedge A = length (are per unit width) of the sliding surface U = resultant of water pressure along the sliding surface V = resultant of water pressure along tension crack

A=
Zw H Z

(H − Z )
sin α

θ α

U = 1 γ w ⋅ Zw ⋅ A 2
2 V = 1 γ w ⋅ Zw 2

⎤ ⎡⎛ ⎛ Z ⎞ 2 ⎞ 1 2 ⎜ W = γH ⎢ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ cot α − cot θ ⎥ 2 ⎥ ⎢⎜ ⎝ H ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝

Z H

θ α

Zw
2 ⎡ ⎤ 1 Z ⎞ 2 ⎛ W = γH ⎢⎜1 − ⎟ cot α (cot α ⋅ tan θ − 1)⎥ 2 ⎢⎝ H ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

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W sin α + V cos α = c j A + (W cos α − U − V sin α ) tan φ j
Solve the above equation with the known geometry and presumed water conditions at the time of failure to yield a value for cj, since this quantity is hard to measure in the laboratory. When the distribution of values for cj has been determined in this way from case histories, that equation can be used to generate a slope chart for design, in which H is plotted against cos α. Multiplying the Factor of Safety (F) to the left side of the equation.

cos θ =

[a (F sin α − cos α tan φ ) + U tan φ + V (sin α tan φ − F cos α )] − c j A b (F sin α − cos α tan φ )

In which the tension crack is assumed to intercept the slope crest

⎛ ⎛ Z ⎞2 ⎞ 1 2⎜ a = γH 1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ cot α ⎜ ⎝H ⎠ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝

b=

1 γH 2 2

From Hoek and Bray (1977): A reduction in cj affects steep slopes more than flat slopes. A reduction in φj reduces the factor of safety (FS) of high slopes more than low slopes. Filling a tension crack with water reduces the stability of all heights and angles of slopes. Drainage is frequently found to be effective in stabilizing rock slopes that exhibit tension cracks and other signs in incipient movement.

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Example

5m C

5 1

3m 8m B Tension crack
Bedrock

A 45o

The cohesion along the sliding surface is 80 kN/m2 and internal friction angle = 35o. Unit volume weigth of the rock = 24 kN/m2. Due to SNI-1726-2002, the slope located at Seismic zone 3 with peak bedrock acceleration: a = 0,15g. Calculate the safety factor (FS)

5m C

5 1 Hcosα

W 8m Wcosα T
N eff
U

Wsinα

B

γw z Hsinα γw z

H

3m

A 45o

α=21.04°

Bedrock

Without earthquake force:

SF =

(W cos α − H sin α − U ) tan φ + C
W sin α + H cos α

= 4.00

H = 1 γ w ⋅ z2 2 1 γ ⋅ z (h − z ) w U= 2 sin α 8−3 L= sin α C = c ⋅ L A− B

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5m C

5 1

8m

Wcosα
T

Hcosα F1 3m H W F1sinα γw z Wsinα B Hsinα γw z
N eff
U

F1cosα

A 45o

α=21.04°

Bedrock

⎛W F1 = m ⋅ a = ⎜ ⎜ g ⎝

⎞ ⎟⋅a ⎟ ⎠

Considering earthquake force:

SF =

(W cos α − F1 sin α − H sin α − U ) tan φ + C
W sin α + F1 cos α + H cos α
a = 0.15g a = 0.25g F = 2.89 F = 2.43

If the site located at seismic zone 3 If the site located at seismic zone 5

Two blocks sliding on a rock slope

W1

Vertical joint

R3 = W1

sin (β1 − φ1 ) cos (φ1 + φ3 − β1 )

= force exceeding the mobilitable resistant force

φ1 : (i = 1,2,3) = friction angle values on Plane 1,2,3
c is assumed to be 0

Safety factor of Block 2 (F2) =

F2 =

[W1 cos β 2 + R3 sin (φ3 − β 2 )] tan φ2 W2 sin β 2 + R3 cos (φ3 − β 2 )

overall safety factor

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Analisis pada bidang longsor datar
B. Lereng terbatas (finite slope) B.1. Analisis bidang longsor datar (Culman’s method)

L

C W Ta Na Tr Nr

B

H β A α P

⎛ sin (β − α ) ⎞ W = 1 2 H 2 γ⎜ ⎜ sin β sin α ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

γ

σ=
τ=

(1 / 2 )γH sin α cos α sin (β − α ) Na = (H / sin α )(1) sin β sin α
(1 / 2 )γH sin 2 α sin (β − α ) Ta = (H / sin α )(1) sin β sin α

L

C W Ta Na Tr Nr

B

Shear resistant (τd) at AB:
H

τ d = cd + σ tan φ d
Critical condition F=1 τ = τd

β A

α

P

γ

⎛ sin (β − α )(sin α − cos α tan φ d ) ⎞ cd = (1 / 2 )γH ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ sin β ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ β + φd ⎞ δc d αc = ⎜ =0 ⎟ δα ⎝ 2 ⎠ Critical condition
⎛ 1 − cos (β − φ d ) ⎞ γH cd = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ sin β cos φ ⎟ 4 d ⎠ ⎝
F=1 cd = c ; φd = φ

Hc =

4c ⎛ sin β cos φ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ γ ⎜ 1 − cos (β − φ ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

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