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Unit III TRAINING: What is meant by Training?

training is the systematic process of altering the behavior ,knowledge ,and /or motivation of employees in a direction to increase organizational goal achievement

Definition of training: it may be defined as a planned program me designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge ,skills attitudes and social behavior of employees for doing a particular job .

Education It refers to the board educational process covering preschool ,primary ,secondary and college education : this usually occurs outside the organization .Education is concerned with increasing general knowledge and understanding of our total environment .

Training Is a job –related learning that is provided by employers for their employees. The main aim is the improvement of employee’s skills ,knowledge and attitudes so that they can perform their duties according to set standards .


Employee development generally focuses on future jobs in the organization and on employee personal growth . 1 2

Learning Dimensions Who? What ?

Training Non –managerial personnel Technical and mechanical operations Specific job – related purpose Short –term

Development Managerial personnel Theoretical conceptual ideas General knowledge Long -term

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Why? When?

What is training needs assessment? Training needs assessment is an investigation which is undertaken to determine the nature of performance problems in order to establish the underlying causes and how theses can be addressed by training What is on the job training (OJT) ? On the job training (OJT) is conducted at the work sites and the context of the actual work .   it is the most widely method of training this method is basically “learning by doing while working “.In this method ,the employee is placed into real work situation and show the job and the method of work an experienced employee or supervisor .

Job instruction Training (JIT) It is a systematic approach to on -the job training .This is proven and systematic method to teach workers how to do their current jobs. It is also known as “training through step by step learning ”

Job instruction training (JIT )Procedure consists of four steps : 1. Preparation : careful selection and preparation of the trainer and the trainee for the learning experience to follow. 2. Presentation: A full explanation and demonstration by the trainer for the job by the trainee. 3. Performance try out :A trail on _the job performance by the trainee. 4. Follow Up : A Through feedback session between the trainer and the trainee to discuss the trainee’s performance and the job requirements . Apprentice Training: It mainly involves learning from a more experienced employee or a master worker. Each apprentice or trainee will be given a program me of assignment according to a predetermined schedule which provides for efficient training in trade skills . Supervisory Assistance: According to this method ,training is imparted on the job by workers immediate supervisors .

Off the Job Training : Training offered at locations away from the job is designated as off the job training . Types of off –the – job Training Methods: 1. classroom lectures ,conferences and group discussions 2. video presentations 3. role playing 4. simulation 5. programmed instruction 6. computer based training 7. case study 8. vestibule training 9. self study and 10. laboratory training

What is meant by evaluation phase? the purpose of the evaluation phase is to determine the extent to which the training activities have met the stated objectives .

1. Classroom Lectures, Conferences , and Group Discussion The lecture or conference or group discussion approach is well adapted to conveying specific information – rules ,procedures or methods . 2. Lecture It is the most popular method because it offers relative economy and a meaningful organization of materials A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and secondary education. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner. Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally. Conference The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas, causing conflict. Group Discussion : In this method ,the group learns through discussion of a paper on a selected subject . Video Presentation Television, films , slides and film strip presentation are comparable to lectures.

Vestibule Training or simulated training: Also known as classroom training or training -center training . vestibule training ,like using the same or simulated tools and machines that are used on the job Role Playing Is a device that forces trainees act out a given role as they would in before the rest of the class .Thus it is a method of human interaction which involves realistic behavior in an imaginary or hypothetical situation . Case Study under this method ,a real or hypothetical circumstances or business problem demanding solution is presented to the group of trainees .The trainees attempt to find out and analyze the problem ,evaluate alternative courses of action and decide what course of action would be most satisfactory . Simulation: A Simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicate as nearly as possible that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job Simulation exercises are of two forms: Mechanical simulation and computer simulation Mechanical simulation: replicates the major features of the work situation. This training method is similar to vestibule training expect that the simulator more often provides instantaneous feedback on performance Computer simulation Often employed in the form of games .Players (Trainees)make a decision and the computer determines the outcome of the decision and the computer determines the outcome of the decision and the computer determines the outcome of the decision . This technique is used most commonly to train mangers. Self study This is particularly useful when trainees are dispersed geographically or when learning requires little interaction Self study techniques range from manuals to pre recorded cassettes or videotapes.

Programmed Instruction It is another form of self study. These techniques can be in the form of programmed Texts, Printed booklets or computer programs with visual displays. This methods incorporates a pre arranged ,proposed, or desired course of proceeding pertaining to learning or acquisition of some specific skills or general knowledge . A programmed instruction involves breaking information down into meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning programme or package . Laboratory training also know as Sensitivity Training It is the form of group training used primarily enhance interpersonal can also be used to develop desire behaviors Participants seek to improve their human relations skills by better understanding themselves and others . It involves sharing their experiences and examining the feelings, behavior professional serves as a facilitator.

Computer Based Training It involves various training approaches which use a c computer as a tool .In recent years Computer Based training has been gaining prominence world over .

Role Playing It is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities