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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH

PERFORMANCE (A case study of English Presentation Subject for Accounting Computerization Students at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung)
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Pikir Wisnu Wijayanto, M.Hum.# Information System Program, Department of Information and Technology, Telkom Polytechnic Jl. Telekomunikasi, Ters. Buah Batu, Bandung, 40257, Indonesia Tel.: +62-22-7787- 9393, E-mail: pww@politekniktelkom.ac.id

Speaking English is still a common problem for non-English department students. Most of them had some difficulties with their speech. They still have anxiety and lack of motivation in practicing their speech. Most of them were afraid of making mistakes, in term of accuracy or pronunciation, accurately, fluently, appropriateness and courage as parts of their speech practice performance. They only perform it without knowing and understanding the content they deliver. Based on that situation, the writer formulated the research question as how was the effectiveness of teacher feedback as an evaluation in term of speech performance of Accounting Computerization students at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung. This study aimed to improve the speech performance of the students by giving teacher feedback as an evaluation. The method used in this study was participant observation that means living with the observed the students’ speech performance, and learning how they see things and experience things. Ilgen et al. (1979) defined feedback from a source to a recipient as information about the correctness, accuracy, or appropriateness of the recipient's past performance. As sources of feedback, teachers encode and convey verbal and nonverbal messages to students either face-to-face or through some form of mediation, such as written comments, regarding students’ past speech performance in their first presentation. The types of feedback given in this study were some evaluations and suggestion how to improve their performance for the second speech performance in their presentation. The feedback was some comments given after they performed and also the written comments. The written comments then were printed and sent personally and into their personal email. Therefore, each student could evaluate their own performance by reading the feedback from the teacher. The result findings from this study proved that teacher feedback had influenced the students’ speech performance for the second opportunity of their presentation. Most of them improved their performance in term of understanding, accuracy in speaking or pronunciation, accurately, and fluently. They also made appropriateness in using some expressions and more courage speaking in front of the audience by making good eye-contact, interaction to the audience, and exploring their ideas based on the topic they delivered. Therefore, teacher feedback could be as a progress evaluation to evaluate the speech performance of students in order to improve their speaking proficiency to perform better in their English speech. Keywords; Teacher feedback, learning evaluation, and speech performance

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE I. INTRODUCTION This chapter is proposed to introduce the research and give explanation for the necessity to conduct it. A brief description of the context where the research is conducted related with speech performance of Accounting Computerization students in term of English proficiency in class presentation. This chapter consists of six main parts, namely the background of the study, problem identification, problem limitation, problem formulation, research goals, and research benefits. A. Background English speaking practice is still a common problem for non-English department students. Most of them had some difficulties with their speech, such as they still have anxiety and lack of motivation in practicing their speech. They were also afraid of making mistakes, in term of accuracy or pronunciation, accurately, fluently, appropriateness and courage as parts of their speech practice performance. They only performed it without knowing and understanding the content they delivered. Based on that situation, to eliminate the problem, this research aimed at finding the effect of giving teacher feedback as an evaluation to evaluate and enhance the students’ achievement of their speech performance in English presentation class of Accounting Computerization students at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung. B. Problem Identification The main issue discussed in this study was the effect of giving teacher feedback as an evaluation in improving the speech performance of Accounting Computerization students in English presentation class. C. Problem Limitation In doing limitation of the research achievement, the research only focused on the improvements for speech performance achievement of students based on the teacher feedback given in English Presentation Class, by comparing the mark of students for their first and second speech performance. D. Problem Formulation The research problems are formulated as follows: 1. How was the effectiveness of teacher feedback as an evaluation in term of speech performance of Accounting Computerization students at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung? E. Research Objectives The research had been conducted to serve some objectives, namely: 1. to know the effectiveness of teacher feedback as an evaluation in term of speech performance of Accounting Computerization students at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung. F. Research Benefits By conducting this research, it is hoped that by giving a feedback as an evaluation from teacher to the students’ speech performance, it will help students in developing their proficiency and competency in English and improving their speech performance in presentation.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE II. THEORETICAL REVIEW AND FRAMEWORK This chapter aims to review the theories underlying this study that become the bases for the discussion. The discussion consists of two main parts, namely, theoretical review and theoretical framework. A. Theoretical Review The related theoretical review mainly discusses about teacher feedback, learning evaluation, and speech performance. 1. Teacher Feedback Teacher feedback is considered one of the most powerful instructional variables in terms of enhancing student achievement (Hattie 2007). In teaching and learning activities there are relational processes; teachers are both sources and receivers of feedback (→ Classroom Student–Teacher Interaction). Teachers have to provide feedback to their students about their learning and teachers also receive feedback from their students about their teaching. Ilgen et al. (1979) defined feedback from a source to a recipient as information about the correctness, accuracy, or appropriateness of the recipient's past performance. As sources of feedback, teachers can encode and convey verbal and nonverbal messages to students either face-to-face or through some form of mediation, such as written comments, regarding students’ past or previous performance. As receivers of feedback, teachers can also receive and decode messages from students either face-to-face (i.e., students’ responsive behaviors) or through some form of mediation (i.e., teacher evaluations) regarding teachers’ past or previous performance. Feedback messages have a number of common characteristics: valence, timeliness, specificity, frequency, and sensitivity (Cusella 1987). Feedback valence refers to perceived attractiveness or value of the information conveyed. Positively valences feedback consists of messages implying that the recipient's behavior or performance was satisfactory. 2. Learning Evaluation Kirkpatrick (2000) described learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge or intellectual capability from before to after the learning experience. The examples of methods and tools in learning evaluation are; a. typically assessments or tests before and after the training. b. interview or observation can be used before and after although this is timeconsuming and can be inconsistent. c. methods of assessment need to be closely related to the aims of the learning. d. measurement and analysis is possible and easy on a group scale. e. reliable, clear scoring and measurements need to be established, so as to limit the risk of inconsistent assessment. f. hard-copy, electronic, online or interview style assessments are all possible. Kirkpatrick (2000) in his model of evaluation also stated that there are some relevance and practicability in learning evaluation such as can be done immediately the training ends, very easy to obtain reaction feedback, feedback is not expensive to gather or to analyze for groups, important to know that people were not upset or disappointed, important that people give a positive impression when relating their experience to others who might be deciding whether to experience same.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE

3. Speech Performance Many students and professionals are required to hold some sort of speech performance either regularly or at some point in their educational span or career. In learning English proficiency process, for the example, speech performance from students is the essential part in learning process, beside the material or topic delivered, especially in English presentation class. The purpose of speech performance itself is how to deliver the information of the multi-faceted arts of verbal communication effectively. Therefore, in English presentation class, the students have to practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or other learners. In evaluating the speech performance, there are some indicators could be used, such as content which includes organizational, vocabulary, and ideas. Next indicator is about speech production such as voice intonation, pronunciation, fluency, and accuracy. Then, is form which includes grammar. The last indicator is about performance which includes confidence, interaction to the audience, manner and gestures.
Table 2.1 The Blue Print Indicators Used for Evaluating a Speech Performance No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Indicators Organizational (steps in presentation) Vocabulary Building (words choice) Exploring ideas (words, statements, and opinions) Speech production (voice intonation of pronunciation, fluency, and accuracy) Form (Grammar) Performance (confidence, interaction to the audience, manner and gestures) Speech Performance Level Poor Average Excellent

Note: The parameter of mark for poor performance is ≤ 64 / C; average performance is ≥ 65 / B; and excellent performance is ≥ 75 / A

B. Theoretical Framework Giving evaluation in a learning process is common way especially for teacher to the students in term of learning achievement. In giving evaluation of students’ speech performance, teacher can give it into some types of evaluation. The form of evaluation generally divided into two types; verbal and non-verbal evaluation. Teacher feedback is considered as a verbal or non-verbal evaluation, and it is a hard way to implement. Teacher must concern each student progress and performance in learning process, the feedback also has to answer the problem of students in term of how to improve their speech performance, and so on. The main consideration here is about the main target in English presentation class that the students are able to achieve and enhance the English proficiency in term of speech performance in presentation.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE III. METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the methodology used to conduct the research. This chapter consists of method, the nature of data, pilot study, data setting and source, data gathering instruments, data collection, data analysis, and data validation. A. Methods This research was quantitative method. The quantitative method is a research technique that is used to gather quantitative data and information dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable. Therefore, quantitative research involves analysis of numerical data. Statistics, tables and graphs, are often used to present the results of these methods. Quantitative Research focuses in counting and classifying features and constructing statistical models and figures to explain what is observed (wikipedia.org). This research was concerned the effectiveness of giving the feedback from teacher as an evaluation to the students in English Presentation Class, in order to enhance or improve their speech performance in presentation.

B. Nature of Data The nature of the research data of this research was quantitative data. The data were quantitative inquiries used numerical of students’ mark and statistical processes to answer specific questions. Therefore, the obtained data described the improvement in term of speech performance of the students in Accounting Computerization Study Program of Information and Technology Department. The department needs to improve their speech performance by joining English presentation class; therefore, the students are able to successfully perform their proficiency and competencies activity in order to communicate in global era. The data were investigated and generated from the result of observation activity and the mark of students as the documents. C. The Pilot Study A pilot study was previously conducted before conducting the research. Pilot study was defined as a trial run with a few subjects to assess the appropriateness of the data instruments and procedures (Ary et.al. 2002: 565). In other words, pilot study was conducted to know whether the study was feasible, sufficient and worthwhile to continue. D. Data Setting and Source The research was conducted from October 16th, 2010 until January 7th, 2011 in Accounting Computerization Study Program of Information and Technology Department at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung. It was done by conducting the participant observation and mark documents in learning process in the classroom with students. Source of data used in this research was the Accounting Computerization Study of Information and Technology Department students. The teacher conducted the learning process and made the feedback evaluation of their speech performance after they were giving the presentation for the first and second opportunities. The data was the progress and a kind of note of students’ speech performance which could be analyzed clearly. E. Data Gathering Instruments

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE The current research implemented three data gathering instruments; they were participant observation and mark documents. F. Data Collection The research took place at Information and Technology Department at Telkom Polytechnic Bandung. The methods used in this study were participant observation and mark documents. The participants were 26 (twenty six) students from Accounting Computerization Study Program, from the 5th (fifth) semester who took English Presentation Class as the subject. The students performed the presentation in a group that consists of maximum 4 (four) members for each, so there would be approximately 7 or 8 groups for each class, with two times opportunities to perform. G. Data Analysis According to Hopkins (2002), there were two types in quantitative data analysis. They were summarizing data and generalizing from sample to population. Data analysis used in this research was quantitative data analysis with the type of summarizing data analysis.

The type of summarizing data analysis is drawn in schema as follows:
Variables

Complex models

Summarizing Data

Simple statistics

Effect statistics and statistical models Figure 3.1 Type of Summarizing Data Analysis Scheme (Source: Hopkins WG (2002).

H. Data Validation In order to ensure the internal validity and reliability, this research used data verification to check the validity of data that used other source(s) for checking or comparing data. The purpose of data verification was to check the data validation, therefore the research findings are real based on the reality and condition in research setting. The process of data verification in this study were by comparing and confirming the data from the marks of students gathered from first and second performance.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE IV. RESEARCH RESULTS This chapter presents the results of the research instruments in gathering data as well as data analysis in order to answer the research problems. A. The Effectiveness of Teacher Feedback as an Evaluation The short description of this subject is talking about technical presentation skills. Throughout the course, the students are going to be evaluated from their presentation performances. The expected outcome from this subject is the ability of students to make their presentation in good English. There are two general objectives from this subject; the first, the students are able to understand and implement the principles in presentation, and second, the students are able to perform in a good way in presenting the topic or material. Therefore, the main purpose of this subject is that to improve the speech perfromance in presentation activity with the knowledge of the principles of presentation. In English presentation class, the teacher gave 2 (two) opportunities to the students to perform their preentation. The teacher would give them a feedback as an evaluation for their speech performance in presentation class. Ilgen et al. (1979) defined feedback from a source to a recipient as information about the correctness, accuracy, or appropriateness of the recipient's past performance. As sources of feedback, teachers encode and convey verbal and nonverbal messages to students either face-to-face or through some form of mediation, such as written comments, regarding students’ past speech performance in their first presentation. The types of feedback given in this study were some evaluations and suggestion in verbal and nonverbal message about how to improve their performance for the second speech performance in their presentation. The feedback was some comments given after they performed and also the written comments. The written comments then were printed and sent personally and into their personal email. Therefore, each student could evaluate their own performance by reading the feedback from the teacher. Below is the comparison between the results of marks of first performance and second performance of students that could be seen in Table 4.1 and 4.2.
Table 4.1 The Results of First Speech Performance of Students in Percentage No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Indicators Organizational (steps in presentation) Vocabulary Building (words choice) Exploring ideas (words, statements, and opinions Speech production (voice intonation of pronunciation, fluency, and accuracy) Form (Grammar) Performance (confidence, interaction to the audience, manner and gestures) Speech Performance Level Poor Average Excellent

11/26 or 42,3%

11/26 or 42,3%

4/26 or 15,4%

According to table 4.1, in the first performance, there were 11 students who performed in a poor speech and average performance or 42,3% from the total numbers of students. There were only 4 students who performed in an excellent speech performance or 15,4% from 26 students.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE

Table 4.2 The Results of Second Speech Performance of Students in Percentage No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Indicators Organizational (steps in presentation) Vocabulary Building (words choice) Exploring ideas (words, statements, and opinions Speech production (voice intonation of pronunciation, fluency, and accuracy) Form (Grammar) Performance (confidence, interaction to the audience, manner and gestures) Performance Level Average Excellent

Poor

8/26 or 30,76%

10/26 or 38,46%

8/26 or 30,78%

According to table 4.2, in the second performance, there were only 8 students who performed in a poor speech performance level or 30,76%. In average performance level there were 10 students or 38,46%.. The great improvement for students who performed in an excellent performance level increased significantly from only 4 students became 8 students or increased from 15,4% to 30,78% of the total numbers of students. The research of progress mark of students’ in thier speech performace after the teacher gave a feedback evaluation could be seen figure 4.1 bellow.
Figure 4.1 Marks of Students’ Progress Performance

Marks of Students' Progress Performance
M a r k s 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 List of Students

1st Performance

2nd Performance

According to figure 4.1 above, it could be explained that most of the students got improvement in their speech performance in the second opportunity after the teacher had given the feedback as an evaluation of their first performance. Below is the range of progress average of students’ speech performance could be analyzed clearly on the table 4.3.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE

Figure 4.2 The Progress Average of Speech Performance of Students 12 S 10 t 8 u d 6 e 4 n 2 t 0 s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Progress Average

According to table 4.3, more than 96% of the students have increased in their range performance in term of mark progress, and only 1 student who didn’t improve in speech performance. Talking about the range progress of performance, the highest range could be achieved is 13, and most of the students could achieved in range of 5 of their progress, there were 11 students or 42,3%. V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter deals with two parts, namely conclusions and recommendations. The first part deals with giving conclusions of the study. The second part deals with the recommendations for the teachers, the students, and further research. A. Conclusion 1. The effectiveness in Giving Teacher Feedback Evaluation to The Students According to the research results, most of students could enhance or improve their speech performance in their second opportunity in class presentation after teacher gave them a feedback as an evaluation. The improvement of their speech performance was in terms of organizational presentation, vocabulary building, and speech production in fluency, accuracy, pronunciation, and form. They could also explore the ideas with their own sentences and courage perform better than in their previous speech performance. Therefore, the implementation in giving teacher feedback as the evaluation was effective enough in order to improve the achievement of students’ English proficiency, in term of speech performance in their presentation performance. B. Recommendation Teaching English as a foreign language needs some strategies and ways in giving evaluation to the students and keeping they feel comfort or convenient to learn, especially for non-English department students. In English presentation class, teachers must give more attention to students’ speech performance. It is important for teacher knows each student’s speech performance well. Teachers have to make a kind of feedback that could be implemented as an evaluation to students, and give some suggestions or solutions if students have some problems with their previous performance. The feedback could be as a written note and verbal evaluation, and then give it to students so that they could know the weaknesses and the solution to

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE improve their speech performance. For teachers, they could know well the progress of their students and also evaluate their teaching performance to be better.

Bibliography Hattie, J., & Timperly, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. Holliday, A. 2002. Doing and writing qualitative research. London: Sage Publications. Hopkins WG (2002). Quantitative data analysis (Slideshow). Sportscience 6, sportsci.org/jour/0201/Quantitative_analysis.ppt (2046 words) Ilgen, D. R., Fisher, C. D., & Taylor, S. M. (1979). Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 349-371. Kaufman, R. (2000). Mega Planning: Practical Tools for Organizational Success. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications. (Also Planificación Mega: Herramientas practicas paral el exito organizacional. (2004). Mulligan, D., & Kirkpatrick, A. (2000). How much do they understand? Lectures, students and comprehension. Higher Education Research & Development, 19(311-335) Peddie, R. (2000). Evaluation of the assessment for better learning professional development programmers. Auckland Uniservices Limited: University of Auckland. Phillips, J. (1996). How much is the training worth? Training and Development, 50(4),20-24 See at Wikipedia, Quantitative Research. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/quantitative research> accessed on April 4th, 2011 Waschull, S.B. (2001). The online delivery of psychology courses: attrition, performance, and evaluation. Teaching of Psychology, 28, 143 – 147. Watkins, R., Leigh, D., Foshay, R. and Kaufman, R. (1998). Kirkpatrick Plus: Evaluation and Continuous Improvement with a Community Focus. Educational Technology Research & Development, 46(4): 90-96. Wholey, J., Hatry, H., & Newcomer, K. (eds). (2004). Handbook of practical program evaluation. San Francisco, CA. Jossey-Bass.

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TEACHER FEEDBACK AS AN EVALUATION FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEECH PERFORMANCE
Appendix 1 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 NIM 30308014 30308019 30308025 30308034 30308037 30308039 30308041 30308042 30308049 30308052 30308058 30308060 P1 78 65 70 63 70 70 60 65 80 50 75 78 P2 83 78 80 68 75 75 60 67 85 60 80 83 Range Progress 5 13 10 5 5 5 0 2 5 10 5 5 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30308061 30308078 30308094 30308097 30308098 30308111 30308115 30308119 30308123 30308132 30308141 30308149 30308153 30308157 65 63 58 63 65 68 55 58 60 55 65 60 68 65 70 65 64 68 68 70 63 64 63 64 70 64 72 70 5 2 6 5 3 2 8 6 3 9 5 4 4 5

Note: 1. The parameter of mark for poor performance is ≤ 64 / C; average performance is ≥ 65 / B; and excellent performance is ≥ 75 / A 2. P1: First performance; P2: Second performance

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