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GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

“Modern Well Design”
Drilling Engineering

06/December/2011 14:00 – 16:00 & 07 Dec (10:00 – 12:00)
GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design
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GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MODERN WELL DESIGN (06, 07 Dec “10:00 – 12:00”) ADVANCED CASING DESIGN (07 Dec “14:00 – 16:00”, 08 Dec “10:00 – 11:00”) ADVANCED DRILLSTRING DESIGN (08 Dec “14:00 – 16:00”, 09 Dec “10:00 – 11:30”)

Seminar Room 6, Undercroft, UTP

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Objective
At the end of this course, the attendants should be able to answer the following questions? What does the profession of Drilling Engineering mean? How can a well design be initiated? What offset well information to be collected? What is kick tolerance, how is it calculated? How can a kick be identified? What is an AFE, how can it be calculated? What is a bit record, how can the bit cost comparisons be made? Cementing, operations sequences? What are the practical information in a drilling process? Drillstring design, is it difficult?
It is assumed that the attendants are familiar with subjects which may have been studied prior to this course as given below: Introduction to Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering Basic Engineering courses

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Outline
Drilling Engineering Well Design Rig Requirements Drilling Planning Offset Wells Kick Tolerance Kick Identification AFE Bit Record/Cost Cementing Practical Information DrillString Design Conclusion BackUp Slides

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Drilling Engineering
The goals of the drilling engineer include: providing accurate cost estimates, designing well programs that satisfy well objectives, reducing cost through the selection of high-efficiency equipment, systems, and practices, ensuring safety through the recommendation of sound practices and through contingency planning.
GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design
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Drilling Engineering (Cont’d)
Responsibilities of a DRILLING ENGINEER The drilling engineer plays a number of roles in the well planning process. During initial evaluation of a prospect, he or she conducts preliminary studies and estimates well costs. Once well AFEs are approved, the drilling engineer: becomes the designer, coordinator, and monitor of the overall well program. The responsibilities of the drilling engineer include: gathering and reviewing available data on previous drilling activity in the proposed areas of operation, preparing initial cost estimates, preparing specific well-cost estimates for Authorization for Expenditure packages, conducting an initial planning meeting with others involved in specific well projects to establish objectives for the well, estimating expected formation pressures and fracture gradients, anticipating and addressing the most likely drilling problems, selecting casing sizes and setting depths, providing the data necessary for submitting an application for a drilling permit,
GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design
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Drilling Engineering (Cont’d)
resolving directional drilling requirements, developing the drilling mud program, designing casing strings, preparing a hydraulics program, recommending bottomhole assemblies and bits, preparing cementing recommendations, preparing step-by-step procedures for drilling operations, preparing rig specifications prior to rig bid requests to assist in rig selection, identifying necessary mud-processing and solids-control equipment, preparing drilling-cost and drilling-time curves to plot predicted performance, coordinating the well-planning activities of geoscience, purchasing, operations, environmental and regulatory and other engineering groups to ensure that all aspects of well program development will meet schedule commitments.

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Well Design - Objectives
Proper planning is key to optimizing operations and minimizing expenditures. The drilling person’s job is to develop oil and gas reserves at minimum cost. Oil companies are in the business to make money, If the organization do not make money, it cannot stay in business. The first step in formulating any drilling plan is to gather information for drilling the well. The selection of casing setting depths is critical for casing off troublesome formations, containing pressure, or protecting fresh water formations.

GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

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Rig Requirements
The drilling is achieved by means of having properly selected the following main items of the rig components: Power Generation System, Hoisting System, Fluid Circulation System, Rotary System, Well Control System, Drilling data acquisition and monitoring system. Other considerations for Rig Selection: Safety Records, Rig mobility and ease of handling, Contractor Dependability. Contractual rates (footage, day, turnkey), Condition of all rig equipment.
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Drilling Planning
The drilling engineer is the well architect and planning coordinator for the drilling project, he/she is in charge of: Collecting and revising available data for all offset wells, Designing all of the drilling programs (drilling fluid, bit, hydraulics, casing/cementing/ directional drilling, tubulars, BHA and well control aspects), Preparing the AFE (Authorization for Expenditures), Foreseeing the drilling problems, preparing contingencies, Selecting drilling rig and specifications, Preparing drilling cost vs time curves, Preparing and organizing the tenders related to rig and services, Preparing and organizing the purchasing of the long-lead items, Making sure that the environmental, regulatory and other engineering group objectives are met, and the well programmes are executed economically, safely and on schedule.
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Offset Wells’ Information
Best information source for effective Well Planning is collecting information from the offset well data. The following information is of paramount importance: Daily Drilling Reports, Hydraulics Reports, Tubular Reports, Mud Reports, BHA (Bottom Hole Assembly), Directional Surveys, Drilling Bit Records, Electric Wireline Loggings, Casing and Cementing Reports, Geological Information, Reservoir Characteristics, Logistics, Weather conditions, Service Company recommendations, Government Regulations, Problems Encountered, Success and Failed Reports of the attempted solutions for the problems occurred.
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Collecting Offset Wells’ Information
MJ-2 -15 MJ-3 MJ-4 MJ-5 MJ-6 MJ-7 MJ-8 MJ-9 Groiba Hammar un Gro un d Hammar Gro un d Hammar Gro un d Hammar Gro un d Hammar Gro un d Hammar Gro un d Hammar Gro un d Hammar 42" CP 42" CP Up p er Fars - Dibdp erd Up Fars - Dibdp er Fars - Dibdp er Fars - Dibdp er FarsUp p er Fars - Dibd iba Up iba Up iba Up iba - Dibd iba Up p er Fars - Dibd iba 20" CSG 30" CSG 30" CSG 30" CSG 30" CSG 30" CSG 20" CSG 30" CSG Up p er Fars - Dibd iba
ML (Min o r) Start

NEWFIELD-TRIASSIC_WELL PPFG Graph (All depths are referenced to RT= 0 m).
0
30 in. CP @ 100 m

RT, 0 m
U.Fars-Dibdiba (sst,sh,ms), 30 m

Deviatio n Start

250

TOC 250 m

485

13 3/8" CSG

13 3/8" CSG

20" CSG Cavin g (Start)

500
750

24 1/2 in. CSG @ 400 m

Lo wer Fars 985 ML (Min o r) En d wer Fars Lo 20" CSG Partial ML 20" CSG Gh ar Gh ar Damman Water In g ressio n

Lo wer Fars
Lo wer Fars 20" CSG Lo wer Fars Lo wer Fars

Lo wer Fars 20" CSG

Lo wer Fars 20" CSG

Pore Gradient

20" CSG_R-N-172

TOC 1188 m

MJ-2 DST-17

Gh ar Gh ar Gh ar ML Damman ML Gh ar Damman Gh ar Damman Fish in g

Gh ar
Damman ML (Start)

1250 1500 1750 2000 MJ-2 DST-1
18 5/8 in. CSG @ 1338 m

Overburden Gradient

1000

L.Fars (lst,sh,ms,eva), 909 m

Ghar (sd,lst), 1234 m Damman (lst), 1338 m
Um Er-Radhuma (lst), 1572 m

1485

Damman Water In g ressio n Damman ML Um Er-Rad h uma Er-Rad h uma Um ML (To tal) Um Er-Rad h uma Partial ML Um Er-Rad h uma

Damman

ML Aaliji Sh iran ish

ML Um Um Er-Rad h ) ML Er-Rad h uma ML (Sto p p eduma (En d ) ML (To tal) Um Er-Rad h uma ML (Start) Overp ull (50 to n s)

MJ-17 Actual Mud Den

Hartha

9 5/8" CSG Sh iran ish
Aaliji Sh iran ish Harth a Harth a Sa'd i Aaliji Sh iran ish

1985

Depth, m TVDss

9 5/8" CSG Aaliji Aaliji Um Er-Rad h uma 13 3/8" CSG Sh iran ish Sh iran ish Harth a Deviatio n En d Harth a Sa'd i

Aaliji
Sh iran ish Harth a Fish in g

ML (En d ) Aaliji ML (Start) ML (En d ) Sh iran ish

Aaliji (lst), 1880 m Shiranish (lst,sh,ms), 1991 m
Mishrif 13 3/8" CSG Hartha (lst), 2144 m Sa'di (lst), 2276 m Tanuma (lst), 2384 m Khasib (lst), 2431 m

2250
TOC 2340 m

Depth, m TVD RT

Harth a ML Severe (Gas Kick)
13 3/8" CSG Sa'd i Tan uma Kh asib Mish rif Rumalia Partial ML Harth a Sa'd i Tan uma 13 3/8" CSG Kh asib Mish rif

2485

Tan uma Kh asib CSG 13 3/8" Mish rif

Sa'd i Tan uma Kh asib Mish rif Tan uma Kh asib Mish rif

Harth a ML in Cemen tin g Sa'd i Sa'd i 13 3/8" CSG Stuck Pip e Tan uma Sa'd i Gas Cut Mud Tan uma Kh asib 13 3/8" CSG Kh asib Mish rif Tan uma Mish rif Kh asib Mish rif
Rumalia Ah mad i

2500
16 in. CSG @ 2490 m

Mishrif (sh,ms,lst), 2490 m
Rumalia (lst), 2712 m Ahmadi (sh,ms,lst), 2744 m Mauddud (lst), 2901 m Nahr Umr (sst), 3079 m

2750

3000
3250

Ah mad i
Ah mad i Well Deviated Maud d ud 2985 Nah r Umr

Rumalia Ah mad i Rumalia Ah mad i Maud d ud Rumalia Ah mad i 7" Lin er TD 7" CSG TD

Rumalia Ah mad i Rumalia Ah mad Cavin g i(En d ) 9 5/8" CSG TD Maud d ud

Maud d ud

Shuaiba (lst), 3266 m 3500 Yamama
TOC 3633 m

Zubair (sst), 3417 m

Maud d ud
Nah r Umr Nah r Umr Nah r Umr Co llap se (9 5/8in CSG) Stuck Pip e Sh uaiba Sh uaiba Zubair Fish in g Sh uaiba

Nah r Umr

3750
Sh uaiba

13 3/8 in. CSG @ 3783 m

MJ-9 Actual Mud Den MJ-2 DST-22 MJ-19 Actual Mud Den
MJ-15 Actual Mud Den MJ-9 RFT MJ-3 Actual Mud Den

9 5/8" CSG Gotnia Kuwait-Frac Najmah
R-N-172_LOT

Ratawi (sst,sh,ms), 3705 m Yamama (lst), 3782 m

Sh uaiba Zubair
3485 Ratawi 9 5/8" CSG

Zubair

4000 4250

Zubair

Zubair

Sulaiy (lst), 4144 m

Ratawi Ratawi

Ratawi Yamama 9 5/8" CSG

Ratawi 9 5/8" CSG Yamama

MJ-11 Actual Mud Den 4500
TOC 4609 m

Yamama
9 Lin CSG Yamama 7"5/8"er 7" Lin er 3985

Yamama 9 5/8" CSG

Gotnia (lst,sh,ms, salt), 4425 m

4750
7" Lin er TD
4 1/2" Lin er Sulaiy TD

11 3/4 in. Liner @ 4759 m

Cmt (LC) Top 7" Liner R-N-172_RFT (Najmah_RFT_PP-Gradient) Najmah (lst), 4759 m

TD

Sulaiy 7" Lin er TD

Sulaiy 7" Lin er TD

5000
TOC 5165 m

5250
9 5/8 in. CSG @ 5315 m
4485

Sargelu (lst,sh,ms), 5169 m Alan (lst,eva), 5233 m Mus/Adaiyah (lst,salt,eva), Cmt (LC) Btm 5315 m Butma (lst,sh), 5502 m

5500
7 in. Liner @ 5750 m

5750
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Pressure Gradient [kgf/cm 2 / 10 m]

GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

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Prior Design
Prior to designing casing strings, the engineer must study pressure requirements and prepare a muddensity schedule. A plot of fracture gradient versus depth should be prepared, although in some instances knowledge of the fracture gradients at the casing depths under study is sufficient. Leakoff data on new particularly valuable. wells is

Hole problems must be thoroughly identified and the need to design for acid gases or other corrosion problems evaluated.
GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design
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Kick Tolerance
Kick Tolerance is the maximum allowable influx volume, for a known or assumed SIDPP, which will not cause the formation to fracture when either the influx is at the bottom of the annulus or when it is circulated and expanded to the casing shoe by a constant bottom-hole pressure method. Maximum tolerable length (H) of gas influx in the annulus at any position between bottom hole and the casing:

Where: Hmax = height of gas bubble at casing shoe, ft MW = maximum mud weight for next hole section, ppg TD = next hole total depth, ft CSD = casing setting depth, ft FG = fracture gradient at the casing shoe, ppg Pf = formation pore pressure at next TD, psi G = gradient of gas, 0.1 psi/ft
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Kick Tolerance (Cont’d)
Current well design guidelines prescribe a limit of 100 barrels minimum kick tolerance for the design of a casing programme. The limit of 100 barrels has been used successfully since its introduction in 1986. Recent developments in drilling, such as slim and downsized well designs have prompted a reappraisal of the minimum design kick tolerance. These drilling developments have coincided with other analysis techniques that can provide improved kick detection capability and through simulation, a better understanding of the behaviour of kicks in the wellbore. For this reason International Oil Companies require their planning personnel calculate the Kick Tolerances for all surface and intermediate casing for all well for the defined minimum volumes. For example the minimum kick tolerance for a 12 ¼” hole is 100 bbl where as for a 8 ½” hole is 50 bbl. For holes smaller than 8 ½” the Kick Tolerance is 25 bbl.

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Kick Tolerance (Cont’d)
KICK TOLERANCE
Ref: Practical Well Drilling & Planning Manual Page 437 in Pipe OD 5 Hydrostatic Pressure of the gas 750 psi 54 psi Formation Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure of Half of the height of the gas 5280 psi 27 psi Pressure at the top of the gas bubble Annular Capacity 3750 psi 0.121491 bbl/ft OH Length Influx Volume psi/ft 3000 ft 65.60496 bbl Pressure in the OH section Pressure in the Centre of the gas Bubble psi/ft 1530 psi 3777 psi Mud Grad x OH Length Calculate the volume of this gas at the next casing point 1800 Pressure in the centre of the gas bubble at the CSG Shoe Gas Influx Length 5253 psi 540 ft Using Boyle's Law P1V1/P2V2 find the kick Tolerance Kick Tolerance MAASP

13 3/8" CSG ft

Shoe Depth 5000

FRAC GRAD GAS GRAD

0.75 0.1

Hole Size in

12 1/4

47.17

bbl

TD

ft

8000

MUD GRAD 0.6 PORE GRADIENT 0.66

psi/ft psi/ft

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Kick Tolerance (Cont’d)

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Kick Tolerance (Cont’d)

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Kick Tolerance (Cont’d)
KICK_TOLERANCE__CSG_SEAT_by_Depth_COUNTRY_NEWFIELD
Kick Tolerance Graph
Kick Tolerance, m3 Company Min Kick Tolerance, m3

Max Allowable Surf Pres (Choke Margin)

Differential Pressure
Differential Pressure, kgf/cm2
Differential Pressure, kgf/cm2

Max Allowable Surf Pres (Choke Margin), kgf/cm2

Company Min MAASP, kgf/cm2

Kick Tolerance, m3 0.00 0 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 0

Max Allowable Surf Pres (Choke Margin), kgf/cm2

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00
0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

500

500

500

1000

1000

1000

1500

1500

1500

Depth, m TVD RT

Depth, m TVD RT

2000

2000

Depth, m TVD RT

2000

2500

2500

2500

3000

3000

3000

3500

3500

3500

4000

4000

4000

4500

4500

4500

GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

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Kick Tolerance - Example
Calculate the kick tolerance for the following well information: 9 5/8" Casing = Next TD = FG at 9 5/8" Casing Shoe = Maximum mud weight for the next hole = Maximum formation pressure at next hole = Gas Gradient= Next hole diameter = Workstring in the hole (from surface to TD) =
Solution: Hmax= Volume at shoe = Capacity=
V1= Using Boyle's Law V2=

14500 17000 16 14.5 14 0.1 8 1/2 5

ft ft ppg ppg ppg psi/ft in in

2405 ft H x Capacity between hole/drillpipe 0.045900525 bbl/ft 110.4 P1V1=P2V2 107.6 bbl, volume of the bubble at the TD bbl, volume of bubble at the shoe

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Kick Tolerance – Example (Cont’d)
The Volume for any tubular is calculated by means of the following formula:

The Volume for any annular is calculated by means of the following formula:

Where VFluid = Volume of the fluid, bbl L = Length, ft

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Kick Identification
In case of a kick occurrence the type of the influx that enters the wellbore is required to be determined. The influx gradient can be evaluated using the given ranges.
Gradient, psi/ft 0.05 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.5 Gradient, sg 0.115 0.461 0.923 Gradient, ppg 3.85 Gas 7.70 Probable combination of gas, oil, and/or salt water Influx Type

0.461 0.96 0.923 3.85 1.153 7.70

9.63 Probable oil or salt water

A gas kick causes higher annular pressures than a liquid kick. A gas kick has lower density than a liquid kick. A gas kick must be allowed to expand as it is pumped to surface. The objective for the well control is to always having a constant bottom hole pressure. This is only possible through having higher surface annular pressure that can be maintained through the adjustable choke.
GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design
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Kick Identification (Cont’d)
Equation for the determination of the density of kick:

Where, ρkick = Kick density, ppg ρmud = Mud density, ppg PCasing = Casing pressure, psi PDP = Drill pipe pressure, psi Lk = Length of the kick fluid, ft

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Kick Identification - Example
A well is being drilled vertically with the following information when it began to flow. Following the pit gain the pump(s) are stopped, and the BOPs are closed.

TD = MW = Flow Rate = Mud gain =

12000 ft 10 lbm/gal 9 bbl/min 25 bbl 5 600 800 12.9 815 28.6 min psi psi ft/bbl ft ft/bbl

Time period during the gain = SIDPP = ICP = Annular Capacity of casing = Length of DCs = Annular Capacity (DC) =

a) Compute the density of the kick? b) Assume that the kick fluids are mixed with the mud pumped while the was flowing. Recalculate the density of the kick?
GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design
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Kick Identification – Example (Cont’d)
SOLUTION: a) Total Capacity opposite the DCs is required to be calculated.

VDC = 31.5bbl less Mud gain = 20 bbl
If it is assumed that the kick fluids entered as a slug, then the volume of kick fluid is less than the total annular capacity opposite the drill collars.

Length of the kick fluid is calculated multiplying capacity across the DCs.
Lk=572ft ρkick = 2.9ppg

the mud gain with the

A kick density less than about 4 ppg should indicate that the kick fluid is predominantly gas, and a kick density greater than about 8 ppg should indicate that the fluid is predominantly liquid.

GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

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Kick Identification – Example (Cont’d)
b) If it is assumed that the kick fluids are mixed with mud pumped while the well was flowing. Vkick mixed =45.5 bbl Vmud pump =25.5 bbl

The length of mixed zone is Lkick =1081 ft Using the given kick density equation: ρkick = 6.04 ppg The given density implies that the kick fluid is predominantly liquid. Since the column of the mixed zone is only 1081 ft long and under high pressure, the mean density can be related to the kick fluid density using the equation for mixtures. ρkick = 1.5 ppg Even though the effect of mud pump is considered the predominant kick density indicated that it is a gas.

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AFE

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AFE (Cont’d)

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AFE (Cont’d)

The cost estimate sheets are usually prepared in three sections: The left column shows a code and a description for each line, The middle set of columns are used to enter time or depthdependent rates, The right set of columns either multiplies time or depthrelated costs by the relevant figure.

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AFE (Cont’d)
OFFSHORE PETROLEUM CORPORATION
WELL
SELECT DATE

DRILLING & COMPLETION
DEPTH: 243 5.00 m RT Spud Date: MODU NAME: TURN 31/January/2006

KAYA-2 22 May 2006 80

REP.NO ACCOUNT
401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424

ESTIMATED INTANGIBLE EXPENSES DESCRIPTION
MOB / DEMOB RIG COST RIG POSITIONING DAILY RIG COSTS FUEL / LUBE / POWER / WATER BITS & MILLS DAMAGE, STORM OR OPERATIONAL DELAY DRILLING MUD / CHEMICALS / RELATED SERVICES CONTRACT LABOUR OPEN HOLE LOGGING / LWD CASED HOLE LOGGING / WEIRELINE DOWNHOLE COMPLETION SERVICES MUD LOGGING UNIT FORMATION EVALUATION FISHING TOOLS / SERVICES / PIPE RECOVERY CEMENTING JOB CEMENT & PUMPING SERVICES SUPPLY VESSEL PERSONNEL TRANSPORT BOAT DOCK, STORAGE, CRANE SERVICES SHIPPING AGENT EQUIPMENT RENTAL CASING TUBING RUNNING TOOLS HAMMER EQUIPMENT RENTALS & PERSONNEL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING SERVICES

DATE
22 May 2006 0 0 72,008 2,543 0 0 0 10,600 1,000 0 0 1,800 0 0 0 0 7,500 417 1,422 461 1,000 0 0 0 98,751 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 984 3,497 1,628 695 58 410 1,732 723 536 4,395 200 669 184 508 1,000 180 17,399

PREVIOUS
21 May 2006 0 0 78,573 2,680 0 0 0 10,600 1,000 0 0 1,800 0 0 0 0 7,500 417 1,422 461 1,000 200 0 0 105,653 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 984 3,497 1,628 695 58 410 1,732 723 536 4,395 200 669 184 508 1,000 180 17,399

TOTAL
0 0 5,097,348 324,896 69,070 574,600 154,243 196,255 437,420 224,560 203,363 192,900 88,163 0 42,480 136,618 585,000 42,900 110,916 35,958 91,940 36,890 0 504,672 9,150,191 190,190 528,052 52,538 0 80,940 59,452 911,172 76,752 272,766 126,984 54,210 4,524 31,980 135,096 56,394 41,808 342,810 15,600 52,182 14,352 39,624 78,000 13,860 1,356,942

SUB-TOTAL INTANGIBLE TANGIBLES
300 301 302 304 303 305 CONDUCTOR CASING TUBULARS CHRISTMAS TREE WELL HEAD EQUIPMENT DOWN HOLE EQUIPMENT

441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456

SUB-TOTAL TANGIBLES ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENCES WELL PLANNING OPERATIONS & DRILLING MANAGERS PROJECT MANAGEMENT SHORE BASE STAFF ACCOUNTING TEAM ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TRAVEL AND ACCOMODATIONS SHORE BASE OFFICES AND RENTAL COMMUNICATIONS TAXES & ASSOCIATED COST CUSTOM AGENT FEES CUSTOM CLEARANCE & TRANSPORTATION BANK CHARGES RIG CREW ADMINISTRATIVE INSURANCE
TRANSLATION AND OTHER EXPENCES

SUB-TOTAL ADMINISTRATIVE

TOTAL DAILY COST, USD
NOTE

116,150

123,052 11,418,305

AFE preparation requires a thorough geological and geophysical report, a cost estimate for drilling and completing the well, and an economic analysis of the proposal. Preparation of well-cost estimates requires research of offset well performance to review the problems encountered, the materials used, and the effectiveness of the well programs (mud, cementing, casing, etc.) attempted.
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GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

Bit Record
Bit records contain a wealth of information essential to the Drilling Engineer. Bit records could give useful information whether the bit run was economical or not. The heading of the bit record provides information such as operator, contractor, rig number, well location, drillstring characteristics, and pump data. In addition the bit heading provides dates for spudding, drilling our from under the surface casing, intermediate casing depth and reaching the hole bottom.
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Bit Record (Cont’d)

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Bit Run Cost Equation
The cost of constructing a well is composed of a variety of expenses mainly rental costs, material and services.

where Cd = Drilling cost for bit run, USD/ft Cb= Cost of bit run in hole, USD Cr = Rig cost, USD/d Td = Drilling time, h Tt = Trip time, h Tc = Connection time, h Df = Formation interval drilled, ft
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Bit Run Cost Equation - Example
Bit A B C D Bit Cost, USD 1000 3000 4000 4500 Rotating Time, h 15 35 45 55 Connection Bit Run Interval Interval ROP, ft/h Time, h Cost, $/ft Drilled, ft Cost, $ 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 14 13 10 11 64.5 56.3 70.3 61.4 210 455 450 605 13,550 25,600 31,650 37,150

Bit drilled the most interval is 605 ft (BIT D). The lowest drilling cost is 56.3 $/ft (BIT B). The bit interval cost are ranging in between 13,550 – 37,150 $. The chart showing the drilling cost comparison for all bits are as given beside.

The lowest drilling cost is 56.3 $/ft.
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GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

Cementing – Single Stage

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Cementing – Single Stage – Cont’d
SINGLE STAGE CEMENTING SEQUENCE of OPERATIONS Prior to the cementing operation make sure the internal diameters of the cementing head and outer diamaters of the plugs are measured, so that all of the plugs to be used will be easily passing through the cementing head. 1 Test the Cement lines up to 2000 psi. Explanation The test pressure magnitude should be up to the expected highest pumping pressure. The purpose of the spacer is to condition the hole in order fot the cement to make a good bonding. The spacer is desired to flow in a turbulent flow state, and remain across the open hole for a certain amount of time. It is important that during droppig the plugs the cementing head's cap will not be opened. Make sure the correct volumes are pumped. Measure previously prepared "water volumes". Observe the flag for the indication to confirm the plug drop.

2

Pump 50 bbl Spacer.

3 4 5 6

Drop BOTTOM PLUG; and place the top plug into the CEMENTING HEAD. Pump LEAD SLURRY: 101.5 bbl. Pump TAIL SLURRY: 35.3 bbl. Drop TOP PLUG. Pump 2 bbl of water in order to flush the cementing lines from cement.

7

8 9

Make sure enough amount of water is going to be pumped and the cementing lines will be cleaned for future use, clear of any cement. Calculate the pump output before the cementing operation, Displace cement with 290.5 bbl of drilling mud using mud pumps. The total number of and make sure measure the pump volumetric efficiency is strokes are 3825. The pump output considered is: 3.19 gal/stroke. considered in the calculations. Set the plug and observe the well for a back pressure and leak. Expected plug set When getting closer to set the plug, make sure the pump pressure should be approximately: 445 psi [Excluding Frictional Pressure Losses]. Test rate is reduced to minimum. the plug to 945 psi for 15 MINUTES. Wait for cement based on the recommendation of the Wait for Cement to harden. cementing contractor. Observe the surface samples.

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Cementing – Two Stage

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Cementing – Two Stage – Cont’d

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Practical Information
Important and useful practical information for the Rig Site Drilling Engineers: Always keep it as simple as possible. Data acquisition during the course of an drilling operation is vital. The deeper the formations get, the more the abnormal pressures may increase, a casing must be set before reaching a high pressure formation. Do not believe everything you hear at the rig site, investigate and make necessary calculations to comprehend the happening. A short trip is not a necessity every day, you do not have to do this if the hole is clean. Spend ample amount of time at the rig site to become familiar with operations. Write a procedure if you have seen it done. Report success and failures alike. Do not place blames, find solutions. Involve field personnel as part of the planning implementation operations. Bit weight will certainly effect the Penetration Rate as much as Bit Rotation will, if hydraulics are adequate apply 5-6 klbf/in bit diameter as a general rule of thumb. For insert bits apply 2.5-3 tons/in of bit size. Softer Formations require more hydraulics than harder formations: Apply 4-5 HHP/in2 for SOFT Formations, Apply 2-3 HHP/in2 for HARD Formations, Insert bits do not like HIGH RPMs. Drilling record in 24 hours is by 3050 m in a 12 ¼” hole diameter drilled directionally by Philips Petroleum. In North Sea the formations are usually very soft. Remember Barite is a relatively inactive weighting particle. As the filtration rate decreases the penetration rate decreases as well. A shale formation would never squeeze into a wellbore.
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Practical Information (Cont’d)
Important and useful practical information for the Rig Site Drilling Engineers: Bit ballings are of the biggest problems associated with the PDC bits. PDC bits are usually run on performance basis, consider renting PDC bits. Tungsten carbide does not erode! Nozzles larger than 15/32 inch will have no trouble in passing LCM material. In case of getting a stuck pipe immediately PULL or SLACK OFF (Jar) to the maximum permissible magnitudes. Usually assume the following pump efficiency values: TRIPLEX Pump 95-98% of Efficiency, DUBLEX Pump 85-90% of Efficiency. There is almost NO frictional annular pressure loss difference up inthe annulus except the section of DCs. Hydraulics are not optimized but maximized. Hydraulics can be maximized using the HORSE POWER method or the IMPACT FORCE methods. Hydraulic Horse Power will be maximized when 35% of the total pressure losses of circulating system are lost at the bit. Impact Force will be maximized when 48% of the total pressure losses of circulating system are lost at the bit. The following tendencies are observed for the PENETARTION RATE performance: Increasing bit weight increases penetration rate, Increasing RPM increases penetration rate, More HHP/in2 increases penetration rate, Increasing MW decreases penetration rate, Increasing solids content decreases penetration rate, Higher viscosity (especially at low shear rates) decreases penetration rate, Decreasing fluid loss decreases penetration rate.
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Practical Information (Cont’d)
Important and useful practical information for the Rig Site Drilling Engineers: It is a good sign to have the roller cone bits to have worn out by teeth to the half. Remember the diameters, generally: Casing ≥ 4 ½” Tubing ≤ 4 ½” 8 round and BTC thread connections should be DOPED to have seal. Extremeline is an integral joint, with no coupling. The more the tension in a pipe the less the COLLAPSE occurrence. For a trip margin make sure that the MW is 0.5 ppg greater than the PORE PRESSURE. For a safe drilling make sure the ECD is 0.5 ppg less than the FRACTURE PRESSURE. Most frequent failures are seen in tension design of the CASING DESIGN APPROACH. The following Design Factors are used: TENSION 1.6 to 2.0 COLLAPSE 1.0 to 1.125 BURST 1.0 to 1.25 Pipe Body 1.5 to 1.8 Maximum Fracture Gradient is 1 psi/ft. 0.1 psi/ft is the gas gradient. Casing joints generally have a lower Collapse value then it has a Burst value. Gate valves hold pressure both way. Temperature is important prior to cementing operation.

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Practical Information (Cont’d)
Important and useful practical information for the Rig Site Drilling Engineers: Cement displacement should be at a rate of 200ft/min. The annular velocity is required to be maximized. Weight Indicator (MARTIN DECKER) is a relative indicator. When the weather is hot the indicator will weight more. The best surveying method in directional drilling is “Minimum Curvature Method”. The following drilling tendencies will occur with the given bed dippings: If the bed dip < 45 deg from vertical, the bit will have a tendency to deviate up dip. If the bed dip > 65 deg from vertical, the bit will have a tendency along the bed dip or follow it. If the 45 deg < bed dip from vertical < 65 deg, the bit can do either. In Saudi Arabia the production is mostly from the Limestone reservoirs, the formation is so strong that it does not deform even when multi-lateral wells are drilled. In directional holes it is the DLS that causes Torque and Drag. A pendulum or slick assembly up to 1-2 degrees has got to-do the same. A pendulum assembly works at inclinations above 4-5 degrees. You obey the laws Mother Nature makes, or you pay the consequences. Other Points The principal purpose of casing is to ensure the integrity of the well during drilling and production. Casing design evolves from completion requirements, as the completion equipment dictates the size of the production casing or liner. Tubular strengths are selected as the well conditions dictate, and materials are selected to resist corrosion.
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Conclusion
The success of failure of a well, from a drilling point of viewpoint, is heavily dependent on the quality of well planning prior to spud. The quality of the well planning in turn is heavily dependent of the quality and completeness of the data used in planning. The successful drilling engineer is a natural detective, snooping around for every snippet of useful data to analyze and consequently implement into the well planning and ensure the implementation.

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References
Azar J.J., Samuel G.R., “Drilling Engineering,” PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK, 2007 Bourgoyne, A., Millheim, K., and, Young, F.S.,: “Applied Drilling Engineering,” SPE Textbook, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX, 1986

Carden, R.S., Grace, R.D., and, Shursen, J.L.,: “Drilling Practices,” Petroskills-OGCI, Course Notes, Tulsa, OK, 2006
“Well Control for the Rig-Site Drilling Team”, Aberdeen Drilling Schools & Well Control Training Centre, V4 Rev March, Aberdeen 2002 Mitchell R. Ed. “Petroleum Engineering Handbook – Drilling Engineering,”, Volume II The Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX, 2006 Johancsik C.A, Friesen D.B., Dawson R., “Torque and Drag in Directional Wells – Prediction and Measurement,”, SPE 11380, Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp 987-992, June 1984 Devereux S., “Practical Well Planning and Drilling Manual,” PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK, 1998

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THANKS FOR YOUR TIME  Questions? 

45

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BACK-UP SLIDES

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The Factors Controlling Shut In Volumes
Seven factors have been identified as the main contributors to the resultant shut in volume once a kick occurs; these are:

The formation permeability and porosity, The rate of penetration or the length of exposed formation, The hole size, The kick intensity, The method used for kick detection, The crew reaction times to alarms and the time taken to perform a kick drill, The time taken to close the BOP and/or the choke.

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Force, Work, Torque and Power
The following equations are very important for the engineering calculations: Massis the quantity of matter in an object and is constant on earth as well as in space. Units of mass: kg (kilogram), 1 metric ton, 1 t = 1000 kg ForceF=m x a Force = mass x acceleration Unit of force: N (Newton), (N = kg.m.s^-2) Practical use: daN, kN, MN

WorkEnergy is force x distance (N.m) Unit of work: J (Joule) Practical use: kJ, MJ TorqueTorque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis. Unit: N.m (newton-metre) Practical use: klbf-ft Poweris the work/unit-time Unit of power: W (Watt) Practical use: kW, MW

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Hole Cleaning Sketch
Laboratory work has demonstrated that drilling at an inclination angle greater than approximately 30° from vertical poses problems in cuttings removal that are not encountered in vertical wells.

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Well Planning/Drilling Engineering
Many commercial software vendors provide a suite of drilling-engineering applications that enable:

casing/tubing design, torque/drag, hydraulics, hole cleaning, swab/surge, well control, cementing, drillstring-vibration/directional-performance, wellbore-stability analysis to be performed.
These engineering systems enable well planners to design the well within concise engineering constraints. These planned models are updated during the drilling process to monitor the well and to ensure that design constraints are not exceeded.
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Well Control (No Expansion)

In a gas reservoir the pressure at the top of the reservoir is higher. As you go deep the pressure decreases due to mother nature, and rules of physics. However when a tubing string in which gas is flowing considered, the pressure at the top is less as compared to pressure at the bottom.
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ERD Wells

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ERD Wells (Cont’d)

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ERD Wells (Cont’d)

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Balanced Plug Cementing

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Balanced Plug Cementing (Cond’t)
PLUG CEMENT PROCEDURE 1 2 Conduct safety meeting ahead of pressure test of the lines. Fill the lines and pressure test the lines first to 500 psi 5 min, then 2500 psi 10 mins. Mix cement volume of 23.03 bbl of cement taking into consideration of the container's dead volume, that could not be sucked, (sample composition to be 44% water, 0.8% D-65, 0.2% Baracor).

3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Pump 20 bbl of fresh water using the cementing unit.
Pump 23.03 bbl of PLUG cement. Pump 7.74 bbl of fresh water after the cement. Displace cement with 108.21 bbl of active system mud. Trip the open ended DP string slowly just above the anticipated cement top.

Reverse circulate and observe the fluid return at the surface, fresh water should be observed.
Wait on cement thickening. RIH with open ended tubular and tag top of the cement plug.

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Clearance Between the Bit and the Casing OD

Bit Size, in 36 26 17 1/2 12 1/4 8 1/2 6

Casing OD, in 30 20 13 3/8 9 5/8 7 4 1/2

Clearance, in 3.00 3.00 2.06 1.31 0.75 0.75

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Casing Profiles
Conventional Casing Profile

Lean-Profile

 Wells drilled with different Profile Technology are concluded in considerably less days than conventionally drilled ones.  From an economical point of view, the following observations can be made, related to Lean Profile technology:
 The additional cost for the use of automatic drilling systems are nearly paid by the cost saving of less material consumed and less cost requirements for waste management.  The drilling time saving of the different Profile Technology application is the most significant economical issue.

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Differential Sticking

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Differential Sticking – Example
Example:

6.125in hole is being drilled through a 100 ft depleted gas sand. The pressure in the wellbore is 2000 psi greater than formation pressure of the depleted sand. The mud cake has a thickness of 0.5 in and a coefficient of friction of 0.1. If the 4.75in collars become differentially stuck over the entire sand interval, what force would be required to pull the collars free?

Solution: Effective area of contact A A= 5645 Freeing force is calculated, Fst = 1,128,972

in^2 lbf
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GEOSCIENCES AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, Modern Well Design

Differential Sticking – Cont’d
Given equations indicate that the following factors tend to increase the sticking force:

1 High wellbore pressure caused by unnecessarily high mud density, 2 Low formation pore pressure in permeable zone (depleted oil or gas sand) 3 Thick, permeable formation, which causes greater effective area, 4 Thick mud cake, which causes a greater effective area, 5 Large pipe diameter, which causes a greater effective area 6 A mud cake with high coefficient of friction.
Thus, Mud having a low density, a low water loss, and a thin, slick mud cake are best for preventing differential pressure sticking.

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Cementing

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Cementing (Cont’d)
Economics of drilling and cementing dictate that these casing points be as far apart as formation pressures and hole stability will allow. Use of small casing severely restricts the opportunities for deepening the well or using larger pumps. Use of small casing to save on drilling costs is usually a poor choice in any area in which high production rates (including water floods) are expected.

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