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Data & Reference Manual

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March 1998

Data and Reference Manual
Table of Contents
Page History and Production of Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Machining Titanium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room Temperature Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2-8 8 9 9

Working with 6AL-4V, 6AL-4V ELI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Working with CP GR2, CP GR4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13 Measurement Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15 Weight Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17 Converting Rounds to Hexagons and Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-19 Metallurgical Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallurgical Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 20

General Specifications & ASTM Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 Military Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-23 International Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 25 26

TITANIUM & TITANIUM ALLOYS
Metallic titanium was first isolated in impure form in 1887 and with higher purity in 1910; however, it was not until the 1950's that it began to come into use as a structural material. This was initially stimulated by aircraft applications. Although the aerospace industry still provides the major market, titanium and titanium alloys are finding increasingly widespread use in other industries due to their many desirable properties. Notable among these is their low densities, which fall between those of aluminum and iron and give very attractive strength-to-weight ratios. In addition, titanium and titanium alloys readily form stable protective surface layers which give them excellent corrosion resistance in many environments, including oxidizing acids and chlorides, and good elevated temperature properties up to about 440 degrees C (1022 degrees F) in some cases. Titanium metal is abundant in the earth’s crust and is extracted commercially from the ore minerals rutile (titanium dioxide) and ilmenite (iron-titanium oxide). The commercial extraction process involves treatment of the ore with chlorine gas to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is purified and reduced to a metallic titanium sponge by reaction with magnesium or sodium. The sponge, blended with alloying elements (and reclaimed scrap) as desired, is then vacuum melted. Several meltings may be necessary to achieve a homogeneous ingot which is ready for processing into useful shapes, typically by forging followed by rolling. For many applications the cost of titanium alloys can be justified on the basis of desirable properties.

TITANIUM PRODUCTION
Titanium, the fourth most abundant metallic element in the earth’s crust, occurs chiefly as an oxide ore. The commercially important forms are rutile (titanium dioxide) and ilmenite (titanium-iron oxide) the former being richest in titanium content. Titanium can be produced in the following manner:

Reduction

Titanium Scrap

Arc Melting

Titanium Tetrachloride Rutile Ore or Upgraded Ilmenite Ore

Titanium Sponge

Ingots

Magnesium Tetrachloride

Alloying Elements

Hearth Melting

Remelting and Finishing to Mill Products

1

Machining Titanium Alloys

By Dr. H.E. Trucks

Structural titanium alloys are coming in for increased use because they are light, ductile and have good fatigue and corrosion-resistance properties. As a result, more manufacturing engineers are learning that machining these alloys can be a tricky job due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The problems that arise in drilling, turning, and grinding of titanium can be better understood if we look at these properties. They hold the key to successful machining operations. Table 1 compares the general properties of commercially pure titanium with other commonly machined metals. The specific weight of titanium is about two-thirds that of steel and about 60 percent higher than that of aluminum. In tensile and sheet

stiffness, titanium falls between steel and aluminum. But titanium's strength (80,000 PSI for pure titanium and 150,000 PSI and above for its alloys) is far greater than that of many alloy steels, giving it the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any of today's structural metals. Thermal properties are another matter. Titanium alloys have high melting points, which is usually a sign of excellent temperature stability. However, the strengths of titanium alloys fall off rapidly at temperatures above 800 degrees F, and their coefficients of expansion are even less than that for steels. These unusually poor thermal properties account, to a large extent, for the difficulties in machining titanium.

TABLE 1 PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM AND OTHER STRUCTURAL METALS
PROPERTY Structure * Specific weight lb./cu in. Ultimate tensile strength, annealed, psi 6 Young's modulus, E, psi x 10 6 Shear modulus, G, psi x 10 Melting point. F Coefficient of linear expansion, F, x 10-6 Thermal conductivity, k, Btu/in./sec/ ( F/in.) X 10-4 TITANIUM HCP 0.16 80,000 16 6 3200 5 2.0 1020 STEEL BCC 0.28 50,000 30 11.5 2600 6.6 7.5 18-8 STAINLESS FCC 0.28 90,000 30 11.5 2600 9 2.2 7075 ALUMINUM FCC 0.10 12,000 10 4 1220 13 16

*HCP = hexagonal close-packed lattice; BCC = body centered cubic; FCC = face-centered cubic

A CLOSE LOOK
Titanium alloys have a hexagonal closed-packed (HCP) lattice structure similar to magnesium alloys. However, at about 1625 degrees F, titanium undergoes an allotropic transformation, changing from HCP to a bodycentered cubic (BCC) structure. These allotropic forms of titanium are known as alpha and beta respectively. Alloying elements favor one or the other. For example, a 6-percent aluminum addition stabilizesthe alpha phase, resulting in an increase in the alpha + beta and raising the beta transformation temperature to about 1820 degrees F (±25 degrees F). It also increases the metal's elevated temperature strength level. Chromium, iron, molybdenum, manganese and vanadium lower the transformationtemperature, thereby making the beta phase stable at a lower temperature.

2

A CLOSE LOOK Continued
Titanium alloys fall into three classes, depending on the structures present. In addition to the alpha and beta phases described in the preceding paragraph, there is also an alpha-beta phase that includes most of the titanium alloys now in use. TI-6Al-4V, an alloy introduced in 1954, comes as close to being a general-purpose grade as possible in titanium. In fact, it's considered the workhorse titanium alloy and is available in all product forms. Its density is 0.160 pound per cubic inch. It can be heattreated to ultimate strengths in excess of 170,000 PSI and responds to heat-treatment in sections up to 1½ inches. This alloy is stable at temperatures ranging from 423 degrees F to over 1000 degrees F. TI-6Al-6V-2Sn, an extension of the aluminumvanadium-titanium system, is the most highly betastabilized grade of the alpha-beta the alpha phase and increases the hot-workability range by raising the beta transus temperature to approximately 1735 degrees F. (The beta transus is the temperature level above which the alpha phase in the structure transforms completely into the beta phase in an equilibrium condition.) The alloying elements used in TI-6Al-6V-2Sn permit heat-treatment of the alloy to high strength levels by solution treatment and aging. Due to the deep hardening capability of this alloy, it is recommended for high-tensile-strength forgings.

KEEP TOOLS SHARP
Titanium has a tendency to gall, and its chips can weld to the cutting edges of the tool. This is particularly so once tool wear begins. Sharp tools should be employed at all times and should be replaced before they dull. The feed should not be stopped while the tool and work piece are in moving contact. Titanium's low modulus of elasticity can cause slender work pieces to deflect more than comparable pieces of steel. This can create problems of chatter, tool contact and holding tolerances. The machining characteristics of titanium alloys change significantly at hardness levels of 38 Rockwell (C scale). Above this hardness level, machining operations that normally employ high-speed-steel tools such as broaching, drilling, end milling and tapping) can present problems. In such cases, carbide tooling may be required. Suggested feeds and speeds for turning, milling, drilling and grinding of titanium and its alloys are provided in the tables on pages 5-6. For turning and milling, speeds and feeds are provided for carbide as well as high-speed-steel tooling. High-speed steels are widely used for machining titanium because of their flexibility and lower cost than cemented carbides. When it comes to true tool economy, do not equate least expensivetooling with the most economical tooling; often the tooling that costs least to buy ends up being the most expensive on a costper-cut basis. For best tool economy, the cutting tool should be matched to the material being machined. The machinability of materials can best be defined in terms of tool life, power requirements and surface finish. Of these factors, tool life is usually the most important. In production operations, tool life is usually expressed as the number of pieces machined per tool grind. In general, the aim of the manufacturing engineer is to achieve the optimum combination of tool life, production rate, power input and surface finish for a given machining operation. This optimum condition results in an increase in production rate and a reduction in the cost of performing the operation. In order to determine the most economical cutting-tool material for given machining operation. An analysis should be made as to the break-even quantity of the cost of the cutting-tool material being evaluated. In conclusion, while titanium presents a unique set of machining problems, many of those problems can be alleviated or eliminated by adhering to the following set of guidelines:

3

KEEP TOOLS SHARP Continued
Use the recommended cutting speeds and feeds. Use large volumes of recommended cutting fluids. Use the abrasion and heat-resisting cutting tools recommended in the tables. Replace cutting tools at the first sign of wear. Never stop feeding while the cutting tool and work piece are in moving contact . It should be noted that these recommendations should be used as a guide and may vary slightly with various machines and material input. (NOTE: Portions of pages 5-6 have been reprinted from the Machine and Tool Blue Book Vol. 82 NO. 1 with permission granted by Dr. H.E. Trucks and Machine & Tool Blue Book

GRINDING OF TITANIUM
In grinding, the difference between titanium and other metals is the activity of titanium at high temperatures. At the localized points of wheel contact titanium can react chemically with the wheel material. The most important facts to consider in order to prevent this and ensure successful grinding are: 1. Effective use of coolants. Water based soluble oils can be used but, in general, result in poor wheel life. Solutions of vapor-phase rust inhibitors of the nitrite amine type give good results with aluminum oxide wheels. 2. Correct wheel speeds. A good guide is to use onehalf to one-third of conventional operating wheel speeds to get the best results with titanium. 3. Selection of proper wheels. Silicon carbide wheels can be used at 4000-6000 surface feet per minute to give optimum surface finish at minimum wheel wear but the high speeds essential with these wheels produce intense sparking which can cause a fire hazard unless the work is flooded with coolant. However, vitrified bond A60 wheels, hardness J-M have been successfully used at speeds of 1500 to 2000 surface feet per minute while removing as much as 0.08 cubic inches of metal per minute .

The following pages are recommendations for speeds, feeds and other parameters. The information presented in this booklet are nominal recommendations and should be considered only as good starting points.

4

MILLING
Depth of Cut (in.) .250 .050 HIGH SPEED STEEL Tool Speed In. Feed Material (fpm) (/TOOTH) M-7, M-42 M-42 30 40 .006 .004 CARBIDE TOOL Tool Speed In. Feed Material (fpm) (/TOOTH) C2 C2 110 150 .006 .004 .006 .004

CONDITION Alloys Annealed (BHN 320 - 370)

.250 M-42 25 .007 C3 80 Alloys STA .050 M-42 35 .004 C3 100 (BHN 375 - 420) Cutting Fluid: Water-based soluble oil or water-based chemicals for annealed condition. Highly chlorinated oil for STA condition.

DRILLING
FEED (INCHES/REVOLUTION AT INDICATED NOMINAL HOLE DIAMETER -- INCHES) CONDITION Tool Material M-3, M-7, M-42 M-42, M-33 Speed (fpm) 20 1/8 .002 1/4 .005 ½ .006 3/4 .007 1 .008 .002 1½ .009 .002 2 .010 .003 3 .011 .004

Alloys Annealed (BHN 320 - 370) 15 .0005 .001 .0015 .0015 Alloys STA (BHN 375 - 420) Cutting Fluid: Water-based soluble oil or water-based chemical

GRINDING
WHEEL DESIGNATION CONDITION Type of cut Aluminu m Oxide A 46 JV A 60 LV Silicon Carbide C 46 JV A 70 LV C 46 JV WHEEL SPEED (fpm) Aluminu m Oxide 1500-2500 1500-2500 Silicon Carbide 30005500 30005500 Table Speed (fpm) 40 40 40 40 Down Feed in/Pass .001 .0005 Max .001 .0005 Max Cross Feed
in\Pass

Alloys Annealed Rough (BHN 320-370) Finish Alloys STA (BHN 375-420) Rough

.062 .050 .062 .050

30005500 Finish C 60 LV 30005500 Grinding Fluid: Highly chlorinated oil or 10% sodium nitrite-amine

5

TURNING
Condition Depth Of Cut (in.) .250 .100 .050 .250 .100 .025 .250 .100 .025 HIGH SPEED STEEL Tool Speed Feed Material (fpm) (ipr) CARBIDE TOOL SPEED (fpm) Tool Brazed Throw-aFeed Material Tool way tool (ipr)

Commercially Pure

M-7 M-7 M-7 M-7 M-7 M-7 M-42 M-42 M-42

125 160 240 40 50 60 30 40 50

.015 .008 .008 .015 .010 .005 .010 .010 .005

C2 C2 C3 C2 C2 C3 C2 C2 C3

310 375 425 110 130 155 80 100 120

375 425 460 150 165 185 100 120 150

.015 .008 .005 .015 .010 .005 .010 .010 .005

Alloys Annealed (BHN 320 - 370)

Alloys STA (BHN 375 - 420)

TOOL GEOMETRY FOR TURNING TITANIUM
ROUGH & INTERRUPTED TURNING TOOL ANGLE Back rake Side rake Side cutting edge End cutting edge End relief Side relief Nose radius, in. HSS Tools (degrees) 0 to +5 0 to +15 +6 to +15 +5 to +6 +5 to +7 +5 to +7 .020 to .030 Carbide Tools (degrees) +5 to -5 0 to -5 +5 to +25 +6 to +10. +5 to +10 +5 to +10 .030 to .045 FINISH TURNING HSS Tools (degrees) 0 to +5 0 to +5 +5 to +6 +5 to +6 +5 to +7 +5 to +7 .020 to .030 Carbide Tools (degrees) 0 to +05 0 to +15 0 to +20 +6 to +10 +6 to +10 +5 to +10 .030 to .045

JOINING OF TITANIUM
Titanium and titanium alloys can be readily joined by normal mechanical fastener techniques. With the exception of brazing and friction welding, these methods are the only satisfactory means of making joints between two nonweldable titanium alloys or between titanium and dissimilar materials. Fusion, resistance, flash butt, electron beam, diffusion bonding and pressure welding techniques are available and are widely practiced to produce joints in titanium and titanium alloys.

6

JOINING OF TITANIUM Continued
Production of joints by fusion welding is restricted to commercially pure titanium or weldable titanium alloys. The D.C. argon-arc process (electrode negative) is recommended using titanium wire or tungsten electrodes with titanium filler rods. Protection from atmospheric gases is essential and can be achieved by supplying argon to the surfaces which reach a temperature above 450 degrees C either directly by blowing argon on to the weld area or by carrying out the welding operation within an argon filled cabinet.

HINTS FOR MACHINING TITANIUM
Titanium can be fabricated using techniques which are no more difficult than those used to machine Type 316 stainless steel. Commercially pure grades of titanium with tensile strengths of 35,000 to 80,000 psi machine fabricate far easier than the aircraft alloys (i.e.) 6Al-4V with tensile strengths up to 200,000 psi. Titanium's work hardening rate is less than austenitic stainless steels, and about equivalent to 0.20 carbon steel. Titanium requires low shearing forces, has an absence of “built-up edge”, and is not notch sensitive. Titanium has been classified as difficult to machine due to its physical properties. Heat caused by the cutting action does not dissipate quickly because titanium is a poor heat conductor. Titanium has a strong alloying tendency or chemical reactivity with material in the cutting tools which cause galling, welding, smearing and rapid destruction of the cutting tool. Due to its relatively low modulus titanium has a tendency to move away from the cutting tool unless heavy cuts are maintained or proper back-up is employed. Two other factors influence machining operations. 1. Because of the lack of a stationary mass of metal (built-up edge) ahead of the cutting tool, a high shearing angle is formed. This causes a thin chip to contact a relatively small area on the cutting tool face and results in high bearing loads per unit area. The high bearing force, combined with the friction developed by the chip as it rushes over the bearing area results in a great increase in heat on a very localized portion of the cutting tool. 2. The combination of high bearing forces and heat produces cratering action to the cutting edge, resulting in rapid tool breakdown. The basic machining properties of titanium cannot be altered; however the following basic rules have been developed in machining titanium:

Use low cutting speeds. A change of 20 surface feet per minute to 150 surface feet per minute using carbide tools results in a temperature change from 800 to 1700 F. Maintain high feed rates. Temperature is not affected by feed rate so much as by speed, and the highest feed rates consistent with good machining should be used. Use copious amounts of cutting fluid. Use sharp tools and replace them at the first sign of wear. Tool failure occurs quickly after a small initial amount of wear. Never stop feeding while tool and work are in moving contact. Allowing a tool to dwell in moving contact causes work hardening and promotes smearing, galling, seizing and tool breakdown.

7

HINTS FOR MACHINING TITANIUM Continued
Working with Titanium: Titanium is highly reactive and will react with its environment at relatively low temperatures. When it is heated in air, a selfprotective, titanium-oxide film, which is very adherent, will form on its exposed surfaces. In many corrosive environments, the film becomes a barrier and, in the absence of abrasion will decrease the corrosion rate. If titanium is heated in the presence of hydrogen, the titanium readily absorbs the hydrogen. Upon cooling, titanium hydrides form and may seriously impair ductility. Forming of Titanium: Titanium can be formed into various shapes by bending, shearing, pressing, deepdrawing, expanding, fluid pressure bulging, etc. However, when designing, it is necessary to take into consideration titanium's strong spring-back characteristics. Forming high-yield strength alloy titanium is difficult at room temperature -- a 392 to 752 degrees F temperature range is recommended. Annealing of Titanium: Residual stress can be removed by annealing the titanium at a temperature between 932 and 1112 degrees F. Full annealing is accomplished at about 1292 degrees F. Heating of narrow or thin items must be done in a vacuum or inert-gas atmosphere. Atmospheric annealing is sufficient for forging, thick plate, etc. However, it must be done in an oxidizing atmosphere. The titanium can be left in the furnace until it reaches room temperature. Descaling of Titanium: Scales formed during atmospheric annealing (under 1112 degrees F) can easily be eliminated by pickling in a solution of 2% hydrofluoric acid and 20% nitric acid. However, scales formed by full annealing under normal atmosphere (greater than 1292 degrees F) are difficult to remove by pickling alone. These thick scales deteriorate corrosion resistant properties and must be removed mechanically or by pickling by the above mentioned mixture of acids .

(Note: “Hints for Machining Titanium” has been reprinted from OREMET Titanium technical data. OREMET is the parent company of Titanium Industries, Inc.)

FORMING TITANIUM
Commercially pure titanium is readily formed at room temperature, using techniques and equipment suitable for steel. When correct parameters have been established, tolerances similar to those attainable with stainless steel are possible with titanium and its alloys. Recognition of several unique characteristics of titanium will aid in ease of forming: 1. The room temperature ductility of titanium and its alloys, as measured by uniform elongation, is generally less than that of other common structural metals. This means that titanium may require more generous bend radii and has lower stretch formability. Hot forming may be required for severe bending or stretch forming operations. 2. The modulus of elasticity of titanium is about half that of steel. This causes significant spring back after forming titanium for which compensation must be made. 3. The galling tendency of titanium is greater than that of stainless steel. This necessitates close attention to lubrication in any forming operation in which titanium is in contact (particularly moving contact) with metal dies or other forming equipment. Preparation for Forming Normally, titanium surfaces are acceptable for forming operations as received from the mill. Gouges and other surface marks introduced during handling should be removed by sanding. To prevent edge cracking, burred and sharp edges should be filed smooth before forming.

8

WELDING TITANIUM
In general, welding of titanium and its alloys can be readily performed, but it is necessary to exclude reactive gases, including oxygen and nitrogen from the air, and to maintain cleanliness. Thus weld properties are heavily influenced by welding procedures, especially by the adequacy of inert gas shielding. The GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process is common, although GMAW (gas metal arc welding), friction welding, laser welding, resistance welding, plasma arc welding, electron beam welding, and diffusion bonding are all used in some cases. Both alloy composition and microstructure are important in determining weldability, with the presence of beta phase having a deleterious effect. Unalloyed titanium and alpha alloys are generally weldable and welded joints generally have accep-table strength and ductility. Postweld stress-relief annealing of weldments is recommended. Some alpha-beta alloys, specifically Ti-6Al-4V, are weldable in the annealed condition as well as in the solution treated and partially aged condition (aging can be completed during the post-weld heat treatment). Strongly stabilized alpha-beta alloys can be embrittled by welding, the result of phase transformations occurring in the weld metal or the heat affected zone. Some beta alloys are weldable in the annealed or the solution treated condition.

ROOM TEMPERATURE MECHANICAL AND OTHER PROPERTIES
Grade/ Ref. No. Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Ti 2% Pd (Gr7) Grade 12 Ti-6AI-4V Ti-4AI-4-Mo 2.5Sn Ti-10-2-3 Ti-15-3 Ti-6-2-4-2 Ti6-2-4-6 0.2% Proof Stress min KSI 25 40 55 70 40 50 120 125 160 160 120 140 MPa 170 275 380 485 275 345 830 850 1100 1100 830 970 Ultimate Tensile Strength min KSI 35 50 65 80 50 70 130 170 180 185 160 190 MPa 240 345 450 550 345 483 895 1160 1250 1280 1100 1300 Elongation min % 24 20 18 15 20 18 10 10 8 10 10 10 Density lb/in3 .163 .163 .163 .163 .163 .163 .161 .167 .168 .172 .164 .168 gm/cc 4.51 4.51 4.51 4.51 4.51 4.51 4.42 4.60 4.65 4.76 4.54 4.65 Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Poor Good Excellent Good Fair Weldability Rating

9

MECHANICAL DATA for 6Al-4V & 6Al-4V ELI
Technical Data Guaranteed Room Temperature Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi Yield Strength, 0.2% Offset, psi El in 2"(>0.025" thick), pct. Reduction of Area, Percent Bend Radius Impact, Charpy V, ft-lb. Room Temp Welded Bend Radius Hardness Rupture, Stress to Produce in ( ) Hr. psi Creep Data, Stress to Produce ( ) Percent elongation in ( ) Hr, psi 4.5T 130,000 120,000 10 20 5T 18 6-10T Rc 30/34 1000 hr 1000 hr 98,000 58,000 0.1% 0.1% 1000 hr 1000 hr 70,000 32,000 6Al-4V Typical Strength (%RT) & Ductility
400F 600F 800F 1000F

6Al-4V ELI Guaranteed Room Temperature Mini mum 120,000 115,000 10 25 4.5T , 5T 19 6-10T Rc 30/34 Typical Strength (%RT) & Ductility
-320F -423F

77 75 17

74 68 17

68 63 18

54 45 27 67.9

218,000 202,000 13.5

263,000 248,000 6

50.5 51.5 52.1

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES for 6Al-4V & 6Al-4V ELI
Technical Data Modulus of Elasticity, psi(106) Tension Modulus of Elasticity, psi(10 ) Torsion Density, lb/cu Inch Melting Range, Degree F Specific Electrical Resistivity micro ohms/cm/sq cm Specific Heat, Btu/lb/ F Thermal Conductivity, Btu/hr.Ft2- F/ft Mean Coefficient of of Thermal Expansion 32- 212F 32- 600F 32-1000F 32-1200F 32-1500F Oxidation Characteristics in Air Short Time Long Time 400F Good Good 600F Good Good
6

6Al-4V 16.5 Approximately 6.10 0.160 Approximately 3000F 171 at room temperature; 187 at 800F 0.135 at room temperature 4.2 at room temperature; 6.8 at 800F 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 800F Good Slight 1000F Moderate Moderate

6Al-4V ELI 16.5 Approximately 6.10 0.160 Approximately 3000F 171 at room temperature 0.125 at room temperature 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.7

Per F. (10 )

6

10

REMARKS ON FABRICATION for 6Al-4V & 6Al-4V ELI
Technical Data Beta Transus Cutting Machining Forming 6Al-4V 1830F± 25F Readily cuts with saw or abrasive wheel Rigid set-up, slow speed, heavy feed, sharp tools, adequate coolant Formed at room temp. whenever possible. Hot forming recommended for complex structures. Sound moderately ductile welds if protected. 6Al-4V ELI 1830F± 25F Readily cuts with saw or abrasive wheel Rigid set-up, slow speed, heavy feed, sharp tools, adequate coolant Formable: Warm forming useful with solution-treated material Sound ductile welds if protected

Joining, Welding

REMARKS ON HEAT TREATMENTfor 6Al-4V & 6Al-4V ELI
Technical Data Initial Forging Annealing 6Al-4V 1805F, no higher than 1775F to finish. 1300-1550F 1-8 hr. , slow cool to 1050F, AC 1700-1750F, 1 hr., water quench (bar) 1660-1725F, 5-20 min. WQ(sheet and plate) 1000F, 4 hr., AC 900-1200F, 1-4 hr., AC 6Al-4V ELI 1800 - 1820F, no higher than 1750F to finish 1300-1550F, 1-8 hr., AC Not applicable

Solution Treating Aging Stress Relief Annealing

Not applicable 900-1200F, 1-4 hr., AC

OTHER TECHNICAL DATA for 6Al-4V & 6Al-4V ELI
Technical Data 6Al-4V Airframe and turbine engine parts (blades, discs, wheels, spacer rings), ordnance equipment, pressure vessels, rocket motor cases. Sheet, strip, plate, bar billet, wire, extrusions 6Al-4V ELI Principle uses: Surgical appliances & implants, orthopaedic implants, pressure vessels, airframes, etc. Sheet, strip, bar, billet, wire, extrusions, tubing

Principal Uses

Available Forms

Nominal Composition (sheet), Type Structure

0.08% max C, 0.05% max N, 0.015% max H 0.08% max C. 0.05% max N, 0.015% 0.25% max Fe, 5.75-6.75% Al, 3.5- max H (sheet), 0.13% max O, 5.5-6.5% Al, 4.5% V, 0.20% max O 3.5-4.5 % V, 0.25% max Fe Alpha-Beta See reference 3 for properties in aged condition. 0.0125% max 11 (bar). 0.0100% max 11 (billet). <0.070 inch. >0.070 inch. Alpha-Beta 0.0125% max H (bar) 0.0100% max H (billet) 0.20 and below 8%: 10 % for plate; determined by configuration of bar and forgings. <0.070 inch >0.070 inch Min. Yield 110,000 for 1.75 diameter or larger

Footnotes for Charts on Pages 10-11

11

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES for CP GR2 & CP GR4
Technical Data Guaranteed Room Temperature Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength, psi Yield Strength, 0.2% Offset, psi El in 2"(>0.025" thick), pct. Reduction of Area, Percent Bend Radius Impact, Charpy V, ft-lb. Room Temp. Welded Bend Radius Hardness Rupture, Stress to Produce in ( ) Hr. psi Approx. 3-4T Brinell 200 2T 50,000 40,000 22 35 2.5T CP GR2 Guaranteed Room Temperature 200F 400F 600F 800F 1000F Minimum Typical Strength (%RT) & Ductility 80 76 57 46 42 57 46 30 37 76 36 26 25 76 28 20 31 75 2T 80,000 70,000 15 35 2.5T 11-15 Approx. 3-4T Brinell 265 225 hr 65,000 430 hr 17,000 CP GR4 Typical Strength (%RT) & Ductility
200F 400F 600F 800F 1000F

80 76

57 46

46 30

36 26

28 20

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES for CP GR2 & CP GR4
Technical Data 6 Modulus of Elasticity, psi(10) Tension Modulus of Elasticity, psi(10) Torsion Density, lb/cu Inch Melting Range, Degree F Specific Electrical Resistivity micro ohms/cm/sq cm Specific Heat, Btu/lb/ F Thermal Conductivity, Btu/hr.Ft Mean Coefficient of of Thermal Expansion Per F. (10 )
6 6

CP GR2 14.9 Approximately 6.5 0.163 3000-3100F 56 0.125 at room temperature

CP GR4 15.1 Approximately 6.5 0.164 3020F± 18F 60 0.129 Approx. 9.8 at room temp. 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.6 5.6 1000F 400F 600F 800F 1000F Good Good Good Moderate Good Good Slight Moderate

2-

F/ft

Approx. 9.5 at room temp. 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.6 5.6 400F 600F 800F Good Good Good Moderate Good Good Slight Moderate

32- 212F 32- 600F 32-1000F 32-1200F 32-1500F

Oxidation Characteristics in Air Short Time Long Time

12

REMARKS ON FABRICATIONfor CP GR2 & CP GR4
Technical Data Beta Transus Cutting Machining Forming Joining, Welding CP GR2 1675F±25F Rigid set-up, medium speed, heavy feed, sharp tools, adequate coolant Readily formable at room temp. Complex shapes require heat. Completely weldable, fusion welding requires protection. CP GR4 1740F ± 25 F Rigid set-up, slow speed, heavy feed, sharp tools, adequate coolant Readily formable at room temp. Complex shapes require heat. Completely weldable, fusion welding requires protection.

Readily cut with saw or abrasive wheel Readily cut with saw or abrasive wheel

REMARKS ON HEAT TREATMENTfor CP GR2 & CP GR4
Technical Data Initial Forging Annealing Solution Treating Aging Stress Relief Annealing CP GR2 Approx. 1650F rough breakdown, finish 1550F 1300F, 2hr, air cool Not applicable Not applicable 900-1000F, 45 min. CP GR4 Approx. 1715F rough breakdown, finish 1550F 1300F, 2hr, air cool Not applicable Not applicable 900-1000F, 45 min.

OTHER TECHNICAL DATA for CP GR2 & CP GR4
Technical Data Principal Uses CP GR2 CP GR4 Airframe applications, skins, Airframe, chemical, marine and similar chemical industry, applications where applications. maximum formability required with moderate strength. Sheet, strip, plate, bar, billet, wire, tubing, extrusions. Sheet, strip, plate, bar, billet, wire, tubing, extrusions.

Available Forms Nominal Composition Type Structure

0.08% max C, 0.05% max N, 0.015% 0.08% max C, 0.05% max N, 0.015% max H (sheet), 0.20% max Fe. max H (sheet), 0.30% max Fe Alpha 0.0125% max H (bar). 0.0100% max (billet) Sheet Bar <0.070 inch thick. >0.070 inch thick. Alpha Highest strength commercially pure sheet grade 0.0125% maxH (bar) 0.0100% max (billet) Sheet Bar: 70,000 Bar: 60,000 Bar <0.070 inch thick >0.070 inch thick.

Footnotes for Charts on pages 12-13

13

DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS OF COMMON FRACTIONS OF AN INCH

Fraction
1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64

Decimal mm
.01562 .03125 .04688 .06250 .07812 .09375 .10938 .12500 .14062 .15625 .17188 .18750 .20312 .21875 .23438 .25000 .26562 .28125 .29688 .31250 .32812 .34375 .35938 .37500 .39062 .40625 .42188 .43750 .45312 .46875 .48438 .50000 0.397 0.794 1.191 1.588 1.984 2.381 2.778 3.175 3.572 3.969 4.366 4.763 5.159 5.556 5.953 6.350 6.747 7.144 7.541 7.938 8.334 8.731 9.128 9.525 9.922 10.319 10.716 11.113 11.509 11.906 12.303 12.700

Fraction
33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39/64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64

Decimal
.51562 .53125 .54688 .56250 .57812 .59375 .60398 .62500 .64062 .65625 .67188 .68750 .70312 .71875 .73438 .75000 .76562 .78125 .79688 .81250 .82812 .84375 .85938 .87500 .89062 .90625 .92188 .93750 .95312 .96875 .98438 1.00000

mm
13.097 13.494 13.891 14.288 14.684 15.081 15.478 15.875 16.272 16.669 17.066 17.463 17.859 18.256 18.653 19.050 19.447 19.844 20.241 20.638 21.034 21.431 21.828 22.225 22.622 23.019 23.416 23.813 24.209 24.606 25.003 25.400

1/4
17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 23/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64

3/4
49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27/32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64

1/2

1

14

U.S. AND METRIC SYSTEM EQUIVALENTS
UNIT 1 Millimeter 1 Centimeter 1 Inch 1 Foot 1 Yard 1 Meter 1 Kilometer 1 Mile (Statute) Millimeter 1 10 25.4001 304.801 914.402 1000 Centimeter Inch .1 1 2.54001 30.4801 91.4402 100 .03937 .3937 1 12 36 39.37 Feet .003281 .032808 .083333 1 3 3.28083 3280.8 5280 Ounce (Avoir) .002286 .035274 1.09714 1 13.1657 16 35.2740 Gross Ton (Long) .984206
.892857 1 Decameter 10m Decagram 10g

Yard .001094 .010936 .027778 .333333 1 1.09361 1093.6 1760 Pound (Troy) .000174 .002679 .083333 .075955 1 1.21528 2.67923 Pound (Troy) 2679.23
2430.56 2722.22 Hectometer 100m Hectogram 100g

Meter .001 .01 .025400 .304801 .914402 1 1000 1609. Pound (Avoir.) .000143 .002205 .068571 .0625 .822857 1 2.20462 Pound (Avoir.) 2204.62
2000 2240 Kilometer 1000m Kilogram 1000g

Mile (Statute)

.62137 1 Kilogram .000065 .001 .031104 .028350 .373242 .453592 1 Kilogram 1000
907.185 1016.05

Grain 1 Grain 1 Gram 1 Ounce (Troy) 1 Ounce (Avoir.) 1 Pound (Troy) 1 Pound (Avoir.) 1 Kilogram 1 15.4324 480 437.5 5760 7000 15432.4

Gram .064799 1 31.1035 28.3495 373.242 453.592 1000 Metric Ton

Ounce (Troy) .002083 .32151 1 .911458 12 14.5833 32.1507 Net Ton (Short) 1.10231
1

1 Metric Ton 1 Net (Short) Ton
1 Gross
(long) Ton

1
.907185 1.01605 Millimeter Centimeter .01m Centigram .01g

1.12 Decimete r .10m Decigram .1g

1 Meter

.001m Milligram .001g 12 oz. to 1 lb. 16 oz. to 1 lb.

1 Gram Troy Weight: Avoirdupois Weight:

Ton 1,000,000g

15

TITANIUM WEIGHT FORMULAS
(All weights are predicated upon a cubic inch of titanium weighing .163 pound.) ROUNDS Lbs. per Lineal Foot = 1.5369 X Diameter2 Lbs. per Lineal Inch = .1281 X Diameter2

SQUARES

Lbs. per Lineal Foot = 1.9568 X Diameter2 Lbs. per Lineal Inch = .1631 X Diameter2

RECTANGLES

Lbs. per Lineal Foot = 1.9568 X Thickness X Width Lbs. per Lineal Inch = .1631 X Thickness X Width

HEXAGONS

Lbs. per Lineal Foot = 1.6947 X Diameter2 Lbs. per Lineal Inch = .1412 X Diameter2

OCTAGONS

Lbs. per Lineal Foot = 1.6211 X Diameter2 Lbs. per Lineal Inch = .1351 X Diameter2

CIRCLES

2 Weight of Circles in Lbs. = .1281 X Thickness X Diameter

16

TITANIUM WEIGHT FORMULAS Continued
RINGS
Weight of Rings in Lbs. = .1281 X Thickness X (Outside Diameter2 - Inside Diameter2)

SHEET / PLATE Lbs. per Square Foot = Thickness X 23.472

ROUND SEAMLESS TUBING W = 6.14 (D-T) T W = Weight in Pounds per Foot D = Outside Diameter in Inches and Decimals of an Inch T = Wall Thickness in Decimals of an Inch

SQUARE SEAMLESS TUBING
W = 7.82 (D-T) T W = Weight in Pounds per Foot D = Outside Diameter in Inches and Decimals of an Inch Measured at Right Angles to the Sides T = Wall Thickness in Decimals of an Inch

RECTANGULAR SEAMLESS TUBING W = 3.9095 (A + B-2T) T W = Weight in Pounds per Foot A and B = The two outside dimensions in inches measured at right angles to the sides T = Wall Thickness in Decimals of an Inch

17

SIZES OF ROUNDS REQUIRED TO MAKE HEXAGONS OR SQUARES DISTANCES ACROSS CORNER OF HEXAGONS AND SQUARES
Distances across Corners of Hexagons and Squares

F
D=1/1547d E=1.4142d F=0.5773d

D

d

E

d 1/16 1/8 3/16 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 17/32 9/17 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 1 1-1/32 1-1/16

D 0.0721 0.1443 0.2164 0.2886 0.3247 0.3603 0.3698 0.4329 0.4690 0.5051 0.5412 0.5773 0.6133 0.6494 0.6855 0.7216 0.7576 0.7937 0.8298 0.8659 0.9020 0.9380 0.9741 1.0102 1.0463 1.0824 1.1184 1.1547 1.1907 1.2268

E 0.0884 0.1767 0.2651 0.3535 0.3977 0.4419 0.4861 0.5303 0.5745 0.6187 0.6629 0.7071 0.7513 0.7955 0.8397 0.9839 0.9281 0.9723 1.0164 1.0606 1.1048 1.1490 1.1932 1.2374 1.2816 1.3258 1.3700 1.4142 1.4584 1.5026

F 0.0361 0.0721 0.1082 0.1443 0.1623 0.1803 0.1983 0.2164 0.2344 0.2524 0.2705 0.2885 0.3065 0.3246 0.3426 0.3606 0.3787 0.3967 0.4147 0.4328 0.4508 0.4688 0.4869 0.5049 0.5229 0.5410 0.5590 0.5770 0.5950 0.6131

d 1-11/32 1-3/8 1-13/32 1-7/16 1-15/32 1-1/2 1-17/32 1-9/16 1-19/32 1-5/8 1-21/32 1-11/16 1-23/32 1-3/4 1-25/32 1-13/16 1-27/32 1-7/8 1-29/32 1-15/16 1-31/32 1-3/32 1-1/8 1-5/32 1-3/16 1-7/32 1-1/4 1-9/32 1-5/16

D 1.5516 1.5877 1.6238 1.6598 1.6959 1.7320 1.7681 1.8042 1.8403 1.8764 1.9124 1.9485 1.9846 2.0207 2.0568 2.0929 2.1289 2.1650 2.2011 2.2372 2.2733 1.2629 1.2990 1.3351 1.3712 1.4073 1.4434 1.4794 1.5155

E 1.9003 1.9445 1.9887 2.0329 2.0771 2.1213 2.1655 2.2097 2.2539 2.2981 2.3423 2.3865 2.4306 2.4708 2.5190 2.5832 2.6074 2.6516 2.6958 2.7400 2.7842 1.5468 1.5910 1.6352 1.6793 1.7235 1.7677 1.8119 1.8561

F 0.7754 0.7934 0.8114 0.8295 0.8475 0.8655 0.8836 0.9016 0.9196 0.9377 0.9557 0.9742 0.9918 1.0098 1.0278 1.0459 1.0639 1.0819 1.1000 1.1180 1.1360 0.6311 0.6491 0.6672 0.6852 0.7032 0.7213 0.7393 0.7573

18

SIZES OF ROUNDS REQUIRED TO MAKE HEXAGONS OR SQUARES DISTANCES ACROSS CORNER OF HEXAGONS AND SQUARES Continued
Distances across Corners of Hexagons and Squares

F D d E

D=1/1547d E=1.4142d F=0.5773d

d 2 2-1/32 2-1/16 2-3/32 2-1/8 2-5/32 2-3/16 2-1/4 2-5/16 2-7/8 2-15/16 3 3-1/16 3-1/8 3-3/16 3-1/4 3-5/16 3-3/8 3-7/16 3-1/2 3-9/16 3-5/8 3-11/16

D 2.3094 2.3453 2.3815 2.4176 2.4537 2.4898 2.5259 2.5981 2.6702 3.3197 3.3919 3.4641 3.5362 3.6084 3.6806 3.7627 3.8219 3.8971 3.9692 4.0414 4.1136 4.1857 4.2579

E 2.8284 2.8726 2.9168 2.9610 3.0052 3.0404 3.0936 3.1820 3.2703 4.0658 4.1542 4.2426 4.3310 4.4194 4.5078 4.5962 4.6846 4.7729 4.8613 4.9497 5.0381 5.1265 5.2149

F 1.1540 1.1720 1.1901 1.2081 1.2261 1.2442 1.2622 1.2983 1.3343 1.6589 1.6950 1.7310 1.7671 1.8032 1.8392 1.8753 1.9114 1.9474 1.9835 2.0196 2.0556 2.0917 2.1277

d 2-3/8 2-7/16 2-1/2 2-9/16 2-5/8 2-11/16 2-3/4 2-13/16 3-13/16 3-7/8 3-15/16 4 4-1/8 4-1/4 4-3/8 4-1/2 4-3/4 5 5-1/4 5-1/2 5-3/4 6

D 2.7423 2.8146 2.8867 2.9583 3.0311 3.1032 3.1754 3.2476 4.4023 4.4744 4.5466 4.6188 4.7631 4.9074 5.0518 5.1961 5..485 5.774 6.062 6.351 6.640 6.928

E 3.3587 3.4471 3.5355 3.6239 3.7123 3.8007 3.8891 3.9794 5.3917 5.4801 5.5684 5.6568 5.8336 6.0104 6.1872 6.3639 6.717 7.071 7.425 7.778 8.132 8.485

F 1.3704 1.4065 1.4425 1.4786 1.5147 1.5507 1.5868 1.6229 2.1999 2.2359 2.2720 2.3080 2.3801 2.4523 2.5244 2.5965 2.7400 2.8900 3.0300 3.1900 3.3200 3.4600

19

METALLURGICAL DEFINITIONS
STRESS STRAIN STRESS-STRAIN CURVES MACRO MICRO Force per unit area. A measure of the relative change in the size or shape of a body. Plot of stress (in lbs./in 2) versus strain (usually in in./in.). Refers to macroscopic examination, capable of being seen with the unaided eye. Refers to microscopic examination, requires visual enhancement to be viewed .

COMPARATIVE STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIOS OF TITANIUM AND OTHER ALLOYS
Material Yield Strength MPa 275 830 230 300 450 175 415 355 120 Density g/cc 4.51 4.42 7.94 8.00 7.80 8.83 8.44 8.89 8.90 Yield Strength to Density Ratio 61 188 29 38 58 20 49 40 13 % Ratio relative to Ti-Grade 2 100 308 48 62 95 32 80 66 21 % Ratio ralative to Ti-Grade 5 32 100 15 20 31 11 26 21 7

Ti-Grade 2 Ti-Grade 5 316 Stainless 254 SMO 2205 Duplex Monel 400 Inconel 625 Hastalloy C-276 70/30 Cu-Ni

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
ASTM B265 ASTM B299 ASTM B337 ASTM B338 ASTM B348 ASTM B363 ASTM B367 ASTM B381 ASTM B862 ASTM B863 ASTM F1108 ASTM F1295 ASTM F1341 ASTM F136(e-1) ASTM F1472 ASTM F620 ASTM F67 Plate and Sheet Sponge Pipe (Annealed) Seamless and welded Welded Tube Bar and Billet Fittings Castings Forgings Pipe - As welded, no anneal Wire - Titanium and titanium alloy 6Al-4V Castings for surgical implants 6Al-4V Niobium alloy for surgical implant applications Unalloyed titanium wire for surgical implant applications 6Al-4V ELI alloy for surgical implant applications. Editorial changes were made throughout March 1994 6Al-4V for Surgical implant applications 6Al-4V ELI Forgings for surgical implants Unalloyed titanium for surgical implant applications

20

TITANIUM ASTM GRADES
ASTM Grade 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Alloy Composition Unalloyed Ti Unalloyed Ti Unalloyed Ti Unalloyed Ti Ti-6AL-4V Ti-5Al-2.5Sn Ti-0.15Pd Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn Ti-0.15Pd Ti-0.3-Mo-0.8Ni Ti-0.5Ni-0.05Ru Ti-0.5Ni-0.05Ru Ti-0.5Ni-0.05Ru Ti-0.05Pd Ti-0.05Pd Ti-3Al-2.5V-0.05Pd Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo-0.05Pd Ti-15Mo-2.7Nb-3Al-0.25Si Ti-6Al-4V ELI Ti-6Al-4V-0.05Pd Ti-6Al-4V-0.5Ni-0.05Pd Ti-0.1Ru Ti-0.1Ru Ti-3Al-2.5V-0.1 R Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru Minimum Tensile (KSI) 35 50 65 80 130 120 50 90 100 35 70 40 60 70 50 35 90 115 115 115 120 130 130 50 35 90 120 Minimum Yield (KSI) 25 40 55 70 120 115 40 70 90 25 50 25 40 55 40 25 70 110 110 110 110 120 120 40 25 70 110 Elastic Modulus (PSI -106 ) 14.9 14.9 14.9 15 16.4 16 14.9 13.1 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 14.9 15.3 14.9 14.9 14.9 16.3 16.4 16.4 14.9 14.9 13.1 16.3

21

MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS -- TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY (Sheet - Strip - Plate)

MIL-T-9046J (Jan. 1983)

Commercially Pure Titanium (CP) Code Designation CP - 1 ( 70 KSI-YS) CP - 2 ( 55 KSI-YS) CP - 3 ( 40 KSI-YS) CP - 4 ( 25 KSI-YS) Alpha Titanium Alloys (A) Code Designation Composition A-1 5Al - 2.5 Sn A-2 5Al - 2.5 Sn (ELI) A-3 6Al - 2Cb - 1Ta - 0.8Mo A-4 8Al - 1Mo - 1V Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloy (AB) Code Designation Composition AB - 1 6Al - 4V AB - 2 6Al - 4V (ELI) AB - 3 6Al - 6V - 2Sn AB - 4 6Al - 2Sn - 4Zr - 2Mo AB - 5 3Al - 2.5V AB - 6 8Mn Beta Titanium Alloys (B) Code Designation Composition B-1 13V - 11Cr - 3Al B-2 11.5Mo - 6Zr - 4.5Sn B-3 3Al - 8V - 6Cr - 4Mo - 4Zr

22

MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS -- TITANIUM ALLOY (Bars and Reforge Stock)

MIL-T-9047G Rev Dec 1978

Commercially Pure Ti CP 70 Alpha Titanium Alloys 5Al - 2.5Sn 5Al - 2.5Sn (ELI) 8Al - 1Mo - 1V 6Al - 2Cb - 1Ta - 0.8Mo Alpha-Beta Ti Alloys 3Al - 2.5V 6Al - 4V 6Al - 4V (ELI) 6Al - 6V - 2Sn 7Al -4Mo 6Al - 2Sn - 4Zr - 2Mo 6Al - 2Sn - 4Zr - 6Mo Beta Titanium Alloys 13V - 11Cr - 3Al 11.5Mo - 6Zr - 4.5Sn 8Mo - 8V - 2Fe - 3Al 3Al - 8V - 6Cr - 4Mo - 4Zr
Other Specifications MIL-H-81200 Heat treatment of titanium and titanium alloys AMS 2631 Ultrasonic Inspections MIL-STD 2154 Ultrasonic Inspections

23

INTERNATIONAL TITANIUM & TITANIUM ALLOY SPECIFICATIONS FORMS AVAILABLE
Grade/Reference Number Forms Available ASTM DIN British Standards TA 1 2,3,4,5 4902,4941 4942,4951 4900 6,7,8,9 4901 Aerospace American AMS Aerospace American MIL-T 9046 - 9047 CP4 CP3 CP2 CP1 CP-70 Commercially pure titanium, used primarily for corrosion resistance. Strength increases with Grade Number. Industrial alloys with superior corrosion resistance. 3.7165 10,11,12, 28,56,59 4911, 4928 AB1/ As Comp AB2 Popular alloys of medium strength for airframe and engines Remarks

GR-1 GR-2 GR-3 GR-4 GR-7 GR-12 GR-5

BPSTWF BPSTWFC BPSWFC BPSWFC BPSTWFC BPSTWF BPSWFC

1 2 3 4 7.11 12 5

3.7025 3.7035 3.7055 3.7065

Ti-4AI-4 Mo2.5Sn (550) Ti-10Fe-2V-3AI (10-2-3) Ti-15V-3AI-3 Cr3Sn (15-3) Ti-6AI-2Sn 4Zr-2Mo (6-2-4-2)

BPF BF PSWT

45-51 and 57 4983 4916 Beta alloys having excellent fabricability and high strength developed by heat treatment. AB4 As Comp
As Comp

BPSF

4975 4976

Alloys developed for aero engine use

Ti-6AI-2SnBPSF 4981 4Zr-6Mo(6-2-4-6) B=Billet/Bar P=Plate S=Sheet T=Tube W=Wire F=Forgings C=Castings

24

FIRE PREVENTION
Storage of coarse titanium turnings and chips is relatively safe. Storage or accumulation of titanium fines constitutes a fire hazard. Clean machines and good workshop practice are usually sufficient to avoid any danger of fire when machining titanium. Titanium chips, turnings or fines should not be allowed to accumulate in machines. If a fire does start its effect can be minimized by isolating the burning material from the bulk. The fire can then be extinguished with a dry powder extinguisher. A sodium chloride base powder can be an effective agent. Use National Fire Protection Association Class D extinguisher (salt). Use salt or sand to reduce oxygen. Fire may be isolated and allowed to burn itself out. Fire or explosions may be initiated by exposing any concentrated dust suspension in an enclosed area to spark or flame. Generally, titanium dust or powder must be minus 100-mesh in order to create an explosive dust-air mixture. Cutting and grinding fires can prese 3 nt an explosion hazard when airborne in levels above 35 mg/m (U.S. Bureau of Mines, Report of Investigation No. 4835).

25

TITANIUM CORROSION RATE DATA (Commercially Pure Grades)
C = Concentration %
Media
Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acidic gasses Containing CO2 H2O,Cl2,SO2,SO3 H2S,04,NH3 Adipic Acid Aluminum chloride, aerated Aluminum chloride, aerated Aluminum fluoride Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium acid phosphate Ammonia anhydrous Ammonia steam, water Ammonium acetate Ammonium bicarbonate Ammonium bisulfite, pH 2.05 Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrate + 1% nitric acid Ammonium oxalate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfate + 12% H2SO4 Aqua regia Aqua regia Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Barium nitrate Barium fluoride Benzoic acid Boric acid Boric acid Bromine Bromine moist N-butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calciuim carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium chloride Calcium chloride Calcium chloride Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium hypochlorite Calcium hypochlorite Carbon dioxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine header sludge and wet chlorine Chlorine gas dry Chlorine dioxide

T = Temperature F ( C)
R
0.02(0.001) nil nil 0.5(0.013) <1.0(<0.025)

R = Corrosion rate, mpy (mm/y )
C
40 55 saturated 50 -100 -100 95 100 100 10-20 10-30 10-40 50 50 10 5-20 10 -37 -25 90 25 90 100 50 -air mixture 1 3 5 5 10 36 5 5 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1.48 3 6 30 7.65 17 -10-85 10 saturated -50 5-40 saturated saturated 5-20 18-20 10 saturated saturated 91 5 20 10 50 70 10 50 70 40 70 20 70 17 35

C
75 100 5 to 99.7 99.5

T
300(149) 300(149) 255(124) boiling 100-500 (38-260)

Media
Cupric chloride Cupric choride Cupric cyanide Cuprous chloride Cyclohexane (plus traces of formic acid) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene+ 4-5% HCl Diethylene triamine Ethyl alcohol Ethylene dichloride Ethylene diamine Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Ferric chloride Ferric sulfate 9H2O Flubonic acid Fluorsilicic Food products Fomaldehyde Formamide vapor Formic acid aerated Formic acid aerated Formic acid non-aerated Furfural Gluconic acid Glycerin Hydorgen chloride, gas Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid chlorine saturated 200ppm Cl2 + 1% HNO3 + 5% HNO3 + 5% HNO3 + 5% HNO3 + 1.7 g/l TiCl4 + 0.5% CrO3 + 1% CrO3 + 1% CrO3 + 0.05% CuSO4 + 0.5% CuSO4 + 0.05% CuSO4 + 0.5% CuSO4 Hydrofluonic acid Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide Hrdrogen suflide, steam and 0.077% mercaptans Hypochlorous acid + Cl2O and Cl2 gases Iodine in water + Potassium Iodide Lactic acid Lactic acid Lead acetate Linseed oil, boiled Lithium chloride Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Manganous chloride Maleic acid Mercuric chloride Mercuric chloride Mercuric cyanide Methyl alcohol Nickel chloride Nickel chloride Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, aerated Nitric acid, non aerated Nitric acid Nitric acid

T
boiling 246(119) (boiling) room 194(90) 302(150) boiling 355(179) room boiling boiling room room 212(100) boiling 236(113) (boiling) 302(150) room elevated room ambient boiling 572(300) 212(100) 212(100) 212(100) 212(100) room room room ambient boiling boiling boiling 374(190) 374(190) room 200(93) 200(93) boiling boiling 200(93) 100(38) 200(93) 200(93) 200(93) boiling boiling room room room room 200-230 (93-110) 100(38) room 212(100) boiling room room 300(149) boiling room room 212(100) 95(35) 212(100) 212(100) room 95(35) 212(100) 212(100) room room room 104(40) 140(60) 158(70) 392(200) 518(270) 554(290) 176(80) boiling boiling

R
0.2(0.005) 0.1(0.003) nil <0.1(<0.003) 0.1(0.003) 0.29(0.007) 4(0.102) nil 0.5(0.013) 0.2-5.0 (0.005-0.127) nil nil <0.5(<0.127) nil nil 0.1(0.003) nil rapid 1870(47.5) no attack nil nil 0.04(0.001)** 0.05(0.001)** 44(2.44)** 118(3.00)** nil nil nil nil >100(>2.54) 550(14.0) 400(10.2) <1(<0.025) >1120(>28.5) 17.0(0.432) 3.6(0.091) 1.2(0.030) 2.9(0.074) nil 1.2(0.031) 0.72(0.018) 1.2(0.031) 3.6(0.091) 2.4(0.061) 2.5(0.064) 3.3(0.084) rapid <5(<0.127) <5(<0.127) <12(<0.305) nil 0.001(0.000) nil <5.0(<0.127) <5.0(<0.127) nil nil nil nil nil nil nil 0.6(0.002) 0.04(0.001) <5(<0.127) nil nil 0.17(0.004) 0.11(0.003) 0.19(0.005) 0.08(0.002) 0.18(0.005) 0.10(0.003) 1.46(0.037) 1.56(0.040) 24(0.610) 48(1.22) 12(0.305) 1-3(0.025-0.076) 3-4(0.076-0.102) 5-20(0.127-0.508)

67 10 25 saturated saturated saturated 10 100 -10 50 spent pulping liquor saturated 28 28 28 saturated 10 saturated 3:1 3:1 25 saturated 27 10 saturated saturated saturated 10 liquid vapor undiluted cooking liquor saturated 5 10 20 55 60 saturated 6 18 saturated slurry 100 liquid vapor >0.7H2O >1.5H2O -<0.5H2O 5 in steam gas + H2O and air 5 100 30 100 100 vapor & liquid 10 15 50 240g/l plating salt 5 50 50 aerated 50 62 20

450(232) 212(100) 212(100) room room room room 104(40) 431(222) room 212(100) 159(71)

nil 0.09(0.002)* 124(3.15)* nil nil nil nil <5.0(<0.127) 440(11.2) nil nil 0.6(0.015)

212(100) room boiling boiling room 212(100) room room 175(79) 212(100) room boiling room room room room boiling 86(30) 86(30) room 79(26) boiling 212(100) 212(100) 212(100) 220(104) 300(149) boiling 212(100) 70(21) --boiling boiling room 392(200) 207(97) room 180(82)

<0.5(<0.013) 0.1(0.003) nil nil nil nil 0.4(0.010) nil 34.8(0.884) nil nil some small pits nil nil nil nil nil rapid <0.1(<0.003) nil 0.02(0.01) nil 0.02(0.005)* 0.29(0.007)* 0.61(0.015)* 0.02(0.001)* <0.1(<0.003)* nil 0.05(0.001) nil nil excellent nil nil nil nil 0.03(0.001) may react <0.1(<0.003)

Chloride dioxide in steam Chlorine trifluoride Chloracetic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorosulfonic acid Chloroform Chromic acid Chromic acid Chromic acid Chromium plating bath containing fluoride Chromic acid + 5% Nitric acid Citric acid Citric acid Citric acid Citric acid Cupric chloride *May corrode in crevices

210(99) 86(30) 180(82) boling room boiling boiling 180(82) 180(82) 171(77) 70(21) 140(60) 212(100) boiling 300(149) boiling

nil vigorous reaction <5.0(<0.127) <5.0(<0.127) 7.5-12.3 (0.191-0.312) 0.01(0.000) 0.1(0.003) 0.6(0.015) 1.1(0.028) 58.3(1.48) <0.1(<0.003) 0.01(0.000) <5.0(<0.127) 5.50(0.127-1.27) corroded nil

**Grade 7 and 12 immune

26