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A SURVEY OF CROSS LAYER TECHNIQUES IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

Victor Chakraborty
Roll No: 09305903

Under the guidance of

Prof. Bhaskaran Raman

Department of Computer Science & Engineering IIT Bombay

OUTLINE
1. 2. 3. 4.

April 29, 2010

Introduction Challenges Cross layer solutions Classification
    

Cross Layer Techniques

Rate Adaptation Network coding and mixing Multi-radio enhancements Directional antennas Sniff and retransmit

5.

6.
7.

Future challenges Summary References

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WHAT ARE CROSS LAYER TECHNIQUES ?

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Protocols that actively use the dependence and communication between different layers of network stack to obtain performance gain. Traditional layered architecture :
Not fit for wireless networks.

Cross Layer Techniques

Cross layer techniques provide the solutions.

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CHALLENGES

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Biterror rate vs Data rate tradeoff Wireless Networks : Broadcast or point to point?

Cross Layer Techniques

P2P : How to prevent interference and ensure link abstraction ?

Broadcast : How to efficiently exploit the broadcast nature of wireless ?
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CROSS LAYER SOLUTIONS

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Biterror rate vs Data rate tradeoff

Dynamic rate adaptation using cross layer methods

Cross Layer Techniques

Wireless Networks : Broadcast or point to point?

P2P : How to prevent interference and ensure link abstraction  Use of directional antennas and beam steering Broadcast : How to efficiently exploit the broadcast nature of wireless ?  Sniff and retransmit  Network coding and mixing

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CLASSIFICATION

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Rate Adaptation Network Coding and Mixing Multi-radio Enhancements Directional Antenna

Cross Layer Techniques

Sniff and Retransmit
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RATE ADAPTATION TECHNIQUES

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RATE ADAPTATION

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Traditional Design : Physical layer abstracted out from MAC layer MAC layer fails to dynamically adapt to channel conditions Cross layer information from Physical layer to MAC layer may be used. Three protocols :
CHARM : Channel Aware Rate Selection Algorithm  FARA : Frequency Aware Rate Adaptation  SOFTPHY

Cross Layer Techniques

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RATE ADAPTATION

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CHARM

Based on per packet RSSI value. Assumes channel to be reciprocal. Overhears packet from receivers to estimate path loss. Much quicker response to channel variations than RTS/CTS probing based rate adaptation.

Cross Layer Techniques

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RATE ADAPTATION

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FARA
  

Suggests discarding channelization. Each node should contend for the whole spectrum. FARA computes per band SNR. Instead of using one bit rate per link , it uses different bit rate across different sub-band of the links.

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Cross Layer Techniques

RATE ADAPTATION

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SOFTPHY

Bit rate adaptation on basis of BER rather more common SNR. Physical layer hints at receiver are collected by sender to adjust bit rate.

Cross Layer Techniques

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COMPARISON
CHARM FARA SOFTRATE

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Focus Cross Layer
Physical Layer Information Changes in sender/receiver Physical Layer

Overhears packets to get SNR Phy-Mac
RSSI of sniffed packets Sender side only Atheros Chipset

SNR per sub channel Phy-Mac
Pilot bits Sender and Receiver MAC FPGA

BER based rate adaptation Phy-Mac
Phy layer confidence in bits(Softphy hints) Sender and Receiver MAC and PHY Software Radio

Cross Layer Techniques

Legacy Nodes
Interference Issues

Supported
Not addressed

Not Supported
Not addressed

Not Supported
Able to separate interference based losses 12 nodes ( 6 sender receiver pairs )
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Tested on

2 Laptops

17 nodes

NETWORK CODING AND MIXING

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April 29, 2010 Cross Layer Techniques

NETWORK CODING AND MIXING

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COPE

Data from different sources are combined (XORed) and send together. Information content per transmission is increased. Receiver should be able to extract its own data

Cross Layer Techniques

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NETWORK CODING AND MIXING

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PPR (Partial Packet Recovery)

Bit error : Retransmit the whole packet. This ends up sending bits that may have already been received. Its better to send partial packet. (The erroneous bits only ) Softphy hints may be used to figure out the confidence in bits.

Cross Layer Techniques

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NETWORK CODING AND MIXING

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MIXIT

In wireless transmission even when no node receives a packet correctly , any given bit is likely to be received by some node. SoftPhy guess may be used to figure out the clean bits.

Cross Layer Techniques

Don’t wait for correct packets. Forward partial packets.
Receiver : Regenerate whole packet from multiple versions of partially correct packets

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COMPARISON
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Focus

COPE Mixing of bits to increase information content

PPR Recovering whole packet from partial chunks

MIXIT Recovering whole packet from partial chunks Phy and Network layer

Cross Layer Techniques

Cross Layer

Cope layer takes Softphy and Link Layer information from both MAC & IP layer 802.11a/g 802.15.4

Wireless technology

802.15.4

Physical Layer

Netgear Cards

Sender: telos mote CC2420 based radio Receiver : USRP board with SoftPhy implementation
Softphy hints Single Hop 31 nodes, indoor

USRP board with SoftPhy implementation

Physical layer information Network Hops Tested on

Uses ETX metric of IP layer Single hop 20 nodes, indoor

Softphy hints
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Multiple Hop 25 nodes, indoor

MULTI-RADIO ENHANCEMENTS

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April 29, 2010 Cross Layer Techniques

MULTI-RADIO ENHANCEMENT

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MRD (Multi-Radio Diversity)

Basic Hypothesis :
path dependent (multipath)  location dependent (noise dependent)  independent between different recievers.

Cross Layer Techniques

So if same frame is captured by different radios, multiple version of this frame may be combined to generate original frame.

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MULTI-RADIO ENHANCEMENT

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2PMac
  

CSMA/CA : Not possible to operate multiple links simultaneously. Mix Rx-Tx not possible. Concurrent reception (Syn-Rx) and concurrent transmission (Syn-Tx) may be supported using fine tuning of power.

Cross Layer Techniques

Nodes toggle between transmitting and receiving states.

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COMPARISON
MRD Focus Multiple reception and frame combining Link Layer and IP layer 2PMac Concurrent transmission and reception Link Layer and Phy layer

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Cross Layer

Cross Layer Information

Link Layer ACKs are used by IP layer
Up the network stack Infrastructure Small (Indoor) 802.11 b Simulation, 3 nodes indoor testbed

Link Layer controls Phy layer antenna selection
Down the network stack Mesh Long (Outdoor) 802.11a 3 nodes outdoor testbed

Flow of information Network Type Link Distance Wireless Technology Tested on

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DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

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DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

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Mobisteer

Cross Layer Techniques

Moving vehicle Wifi : Fading is the main problem. Directional antennas and beam steering techniques may be used for better results.

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DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

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DIRC

Conventional wisdom: Directional antennas will not be effective indoors because of multipath and scattering. Use APs with phased array antennas and algorithmically controlling their orientation.

Cross Layer Techniques

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COMPARISON
DIRC Focus Context Mobility Main challenge faced Modification Directional Antennas Wireless Technology Tested on Indoor wifi performance improvement Indoor / Infrastructure Does not address Multipath & Scattering Both AP and Clients Used in AP 802.11 b/g 9 Nodes Mobisteer Vehicular wifi Outdoor / Infrastructure Explained well Signal Fading Only Clients are modified Used in Clients 802.11 b/g 5 AP experimental setup, In-situ AP networks

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April 29, 2010 Cross Layer Techniques

SNIFF AND RETRANSMIT

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April 29, 2010 Cross Layer Techniques

SNIFF AND RETRANSMIT

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Snoop

Classical TCP problem of wireless : Unable to differentiate congestion loss and bit error loss.

Cross Layer Techniques

Solution :

Snoop Module : Network layer caches and retransmit lost frames. Local retransmission is favored instead of retransmission from host TCP. Multicast Routing : Reduces handoff delay by sending inflight data to target BS beforehand.

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SNIFF AND RETRANSMIT

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PRO (Protocol for Retransmission opportunistic)

Cross Layer Techniques

Certain nodes called relay node caches the data sent by the source nodes. When it learns about a failed transmission and retransmit on the behalf of the source node.

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COMPARISON
SNOOP Focus Overcome classical TCP problems in wireless Done at layer level (network layer sniffs TCP packets) PRO Packet retransmission by relay nodes Done at node level (relay nodes sniff packets from source) Phy and Mac layer Wireless Mesh 802.11 b/g 7 nodes topology

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Sniffing

Cross Layer Network Type Wireless Technology Tested on

TCP and IP layer Infrastructure A&T Wavelan 2 Base station , 1 Laptop

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FUTURE CHALLENGES

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Most Important Cross Layer Techniques Coexistence of different cross layers Standardization of interfaces Role of Physical Layer

Cross Layer Techniques

Wireless communication model : Broadcast or unicast.

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SUMMARY

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Advantage:

Cross layer techniques : High performance gain in wireless networks.

Cross Layer Techniques

Shortcoming:

All research done till today are independent of each other. They are not compatible with each other. They are to be brought under common framework.

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REFERENCES

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REFERENCES

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THANK YOU

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April 29, 2010 Cross Layer Techniques