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DATE OF SUBMIT: 17 November 2011



1. What is industrial design (engineering)? Definition: Industrial design is a field that blends together art and engineering will the general goal of creating a product for production. It is the professional service of creating and developing concepts and specifications that optimize the function, value, and appearance of products and systems for the mutual benefit of both user and manufacturer. Stated by Karl, T.U.,(2000). History : Industrial design start at the beginning of the twentieth century. Along with growth in technology and the industrialization of the Western worlds manufacturing capabilities, came a need for someone to engineer this process. The phrase industrial design was first conceived of by the New Zealand based Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919. In the early days of industrial design, the role of industrial designer was to merge massmarket production techniques with the skills of traditional craftsmanship. Example : iPod, iPhone. 2. What is product design and development? Definition: The determination and specification of the parts of a product and their interrelationship so that they become a unified whole. Basically, product design is concerned with the definition of products that will be commercially successful. Product development is the process of creating a new product to be sold by a business or enterprise to its customers. History : The first product designer is Leonard da Vinci(1452-1519) where he was create the flying concept on 1488. The product design and development are goes fast since the first industrial revolution (1760-1880) with several of product development where are steam engine, chair, riveted jeans and long lasting filament electric light. It continuously develops till present and many products had created where the recent product is iphone4. Example: Calculator. Comparison: Industrial Design 1.Aesthetics and ergonomic 2.Form follow function Product design and development 1. Based on the requirement and functionality. 2.Desgin, develop and manufacture product

3. What is ergonomic? British. Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well being and overall system performance. Practitioners of ergonomics, ergonomists, contribute to the planning, design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, organizations, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. Derived from the Greek ergon (work) and nomos (laws) to denote the science of work, ergonomics is a systems-oriented discipline, which now applies to all aspects of human activity. Practicing ergonomists must have a broad understanding of the full scope of the discipline, taking into a account the physical, cognitive, social, organizational, environmental and other relevant factors. Ergonomists often work in particular economic sectors or application domains. These application domains are not mutually exclusive and they evolve constantly. New ones are created; old ones take on new perspectives. Within the discipline, domains of specialization represent deeper competencies in specific human attributes or characteristics of human interaction. 4. What is human factor? American. Human factors science or human factors technologies is a multidisciplinary field incorporating contributions from psychology, engineering, industrial design, statistics, operations research and anthropometry. In general, a human factor is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior which is specific to humans and influences functioning of technological systems as well as humanenvironment equilibriums. Human factors involves the study of all aspects of the way humans relate to the world around them, with the aim of improving operational performance, safety, through life costs and/or adoption through improvement in the experience of the end user. The terms human factors and ergonomics have only been widely used in recent times; the field's origin is in the design and use of aircraft during World War II to improve aviation safety. It was in reference to the psychologists and physiologists working at that time and the work that they were doing that the terms "applied psychology" and ergonomics were first coined. Work by Elias Porter, Ph.D. and others within the RAND Corporation after WWII extended these concepts. "As the thinking progressed, a new concept developed - that it was possible to view an organization such as an air-defense, man-machine system as a single organism and that it was possible to study the behavior of such an organism. It was the climate for a breakthrough.

5. What is invention, innovation? The term innovation derives from the Latin word innovatus, which is the noun form of innovare "to renew or change," stemming from in"into" +novus "new". Although the term is broadly used, innovation generally refers to the creation of better or more effective products, processes, technologies, or ideas that are accepted by markets, governments, and society. Innovation differs from invention or renovation in that innovation generally signifies a substantial positive change compared to incremental changes. An invention is a novel composition, device, or process. An invention may be derived from a pre-existing model or idea, or it could be independently conceived, in which case it may be a radical breakthrough. In addition, there is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social behaviors adopted by people and passed on to others. Inventions often extend the boundaries of human knowledge or experience. An invention that is novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field may be able to obtain the legal protection of a patent. Throughout history there have been numerous inventions created to make our lives easier and happier.

6. Explain Creative Thinking/ Innovation. Creative thinking involves creating something new or original. It involves the skills of flexibility, originality, fluency, elaboration, brainstorming, modification, imagery, associative thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical thinking, and forced relationships. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.

7. Explain the industrial design process:The ID process can be thought of as consisting of the following phases: a) Investigation of customer needs. -researching customers needs -understand the customer needs and constraint b) Conceptualization. -concept generation based on the previous step finding -Sketch and express it out the idea -concept selection where is the concept proposed to develop c) Preliminary refinement. -express and visualize the product concepts in 3 dimensions -build up the model or drawing of the proposed concept by previous step d) Further refinement and final concept selection. -rendering the product or concept proposed -final refinement step before selecting a concept is to create hard models e) Control drawings or models. -complete development process by making control drawing or control models of the final model -pass the drawing and model to the engineering team for detailed design f) Coordination with engineering, manufacturing, and external vendors. -the industrial designers continue work closely to the engineering team and manufacturing personnel throughout the subsequent product development process -easier to discuss and rebuild

8. Customer need/ demand and 10 specifications A customer's needs are things like food, shelter, transportation, etc. Basically essentials for everyday normal function. A customer's wants would be along the lines of sexual appeal, high social status, pleasure, etc. A customer's demands are usually safety, quality, and value. Needs are the basic requirements of human beings which are naturally exist means default requirement of human being such as food, shelters and clothing. Marketers never perform special role in creating needs nor can they do.