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Biological Sciences


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The process by which green plants convert light energy into chemical energy.. Also called photophosphorylation and carbon fixation Occurs in chloroplasts, organelles in certain plants All green plant parts have chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis Photosynthesis 6CO2 +6H20 + light → C6H1206 + 6O2

Wavelength (λ): distance from peak of one wave to the peak of a second wave

How Photosynthesis Works? • In photosynthesis, CO2 and sunlight are used to produce glucose (sugar) and molecular oxygen (O2). Organisms that can perform photosynthesis are called autotrophs whereas those that cannot are called heterotrophs


Light Phase: • Energy from light powers reactions that split water to release oxygen. In the process, high-energy molecules, ATP and NADPH, are formed. The chemical bonds in these compounds store the energy. Dark Phase: • It is also known as Calvin Cycle. In this phase, which uses the products of the light phase, CO2 is used to make the sugar, glucose.

• • consumes oxygen and produces CO2. The energy released from the breakdown of nutrients is not directly used by the body but used to synthesize ATP

Glycolysis • which takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell, breaks glucose down to pyruvate, a more "oxidized" compound.

Anaerobic stage

Transition Reaction: Acetyl coA Formation • • Serve as a bridge connecting glycolysis with krebs cycle The acetyl coenzyme A is the high energy molecule that enters the Krebs cycle

Krebs Cycle • • • acetate is broken down further so that its remaining carbon atoms are released as CO2. Also called tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) or citric acid cycle As oxidation occurs, some electrons are received by NAD and FAD reducing them into NADH and FADH2

In addition to CO2, the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis use energy from the chemical bonds of substrates (such as glucose) to form high-energy compounds such as ATP and GTP, which are used by cell systems. Electron transport chain • which in animal cells is located mostly on the inner membranes of mitochondria, reduced products such as

NADH and FADH2 are used to create a proton gradient -- an imbalance in the concentration of unpaired hydrogen atoms on one side of the membrane vs. the other. • When oxygen accepts electrons it becomes negatively charged and attracts H+ thus water is formed.

Noncyclic electron flow • uses both photosystem II and I electrons from photosystem II are removed and replaced by electrons donated from water synthesizes ATP and NADPH electron donation converts water into ½ O and 2H+ 2

Cyclic electron flow • Uses photosystem I only electrons from photosystem I are recycled synthesizes ATP only

• Fermentation

Occurs if oxygen is unavailable to the cells Pyruvate accepts electrons from NADH and glycolysis continues to operate for a limited period Pyruvate is reduced into lactate (in bacteria and animals), or alcohol and carbon dioxide (in yeast). One of the energy-producing reactions is called respiration One example of an energy-producing reaction in cells is the breakdown of sugar when it combines with oxygen. This can be represented by the equation

The energy is used to drive other chemical reactions taking place in cells Respiration suppliesthe energy for:


Muscle contraction

b. germination

c. cell division

d. chemical changes in cells

Respiration in ourselves:

1. 2.
3. 4.

Air taken in, Food taken in The lungs absorb oxygen from the air, the stomach and intestine digest food. One of the products is glucose. The blood stream carries glucose and oxygen to the muscles RESPIRATION: Glucose and oxygen react to produce energy for muscle contraction Carbon dioxide is carried to the lungs by the blood


This form of respiration, which needs oxygen, is called aerobic respiration.

There is another form of respiration which does not need oxygen and is called anaerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration can be represented by the equation C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2




ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Micro-organisms Bacteria and yeasts are microscopic single-celled organisms


- One form of anaerobic respiration in bacteria and yeasts is called fermentation

- sugar is broken down to alcohol and carbon dioxide

Wine Making

Grapes are crushed and the sugar they contain is fermented by yeasts to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide usually escapes but if the wine is bottled before fermentation is complete, the carbon dioxide dissolves and escapes as bubble when the bottle is opened


In brewing beer, a sugary product (malt) is dissolved out of germinating barley Yeast is added to this solution and fermentation begins, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide


The yeast first changes the flour starch into sugar and then ferments the sugar into alcohol and CO2

Alcohol Fermentation C6H12O6 ====> 2(CH3CH2OH) ====> Alcohol (Ethyl alcohol) + 2(CO2) + Energy (which is stored in ATP)

Sugar (Glucose)

+ Carbon dioxide gas + Energy

Lactic Fermentation

Pyruvic acid + NADH → Lactic acid + NAD+

Adenosine triphosphate
The energy released during respiration is not used directly by cells. Instead it is used to make a molecule called ATP which stores the energy until it is needed. 2 molecules ATP from glucose → pyruvic acid 36 molecules ATP from pyruvic acid → carbon- dioxide + water Total 38 molecules ATP


Adenosine triphosphate

ATP supplies energy for all the processes that need it. For example: movement chemical reactions growth.

Formation of ATP

ATP is made when another molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is bonded to a third inorganic phosphate (Pi) using the energy released from glucose.

Summarised as:


+ Pi


The whole process is under the control of enzymes