You are on page 1of 45



I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & Teacher for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project. I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to industry persons for giving me such attention and time. My thanks and appreciations also go to my Class fallows in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.



Silk is known as the Queen of all textile fibers because of its sheen and luster. It is one of the most beautiful and precious fibres1 given to us by nature and has been very much overshadowed over the past few decades by the other natural fibers and more particularly by synthetics. Recently, its importance has again increased, partly due to the current preference for natural products and the resultant increase in demand for natural fibers. Silk has optimum properties in terms of comfort and wear ability and eco-friendly nature and the shimmering appearance comes from the fibers' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles. Certainly silk will never become a mass produced fiber, but it will continue to occupy its special position as a fiber for exceptionally high quality garments. The silk is gaining increasing importance day by day because of its exclusive qualities which are rarely found in any other fibers. Silk is one of the prestigious fibers and worn mostly by people as a symbol of royalty. The of silk processing requires great care so as to preserve its classic feel, scoop handle and shimmering appearance. This article entails chemical processing of silk, bleaching, optical whitening, dyeing, printing and finishing of silk fabrics.



Silk is one of the oldest known textile fibers and, according to Chinese tradition, was used as long ago as the 27th century BC. The silkworm moth was originally a native of China, and for about 30 centuries the gathering and weaving of silk was a secret process, known only to the Chinese. Tradition credits Hsi-lingshi, the 14-year-old bride of the Emperor Huang Ti, with the discovery of the potential of the cocoon and the invention of the first silk reel. China successfully guarded the secret until AD300, when Japan, and later India, penetrated the secrecy. Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. Silk is the only natural filament that man does not have to spin, before it can be used for textile fabrics. The cultivation of silk is known as Sericulture. The natural silk spun by silk worms in the form of cocoons is utilized only to 50% of its production because of lack in right way of processing and deficiency in sericulture. Silk is broadly divided into two kinds: domestic silk or mulberry silk and wild silk. The wild silk has three varieties: (a) Eri (b) Muga and (c) Tussar silk. Eri is the staple fiber and other two are filaments. All these species rear in the forests and known as VANYA SILKS. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). Whereas, "Wild silks" are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and can be artificially cultivated. Over 30 countries produce silk worldwide. A variety of wild silks have been known and used in China, India, South Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. They differ from the domesticated varieties in color and texture, and cocoons gathered in the wild,


usually have been damaged by the emerging moth, before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths. Commercially reared silkworm pupae are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, or by piercing them with a needle, allowing the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm.

Silks are produced by several other insects, but only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacture. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects that complete metamorphosis, and also by some adult insects such as web spinners Types of Silk: There are eight types of silk familiar to western clothiers, although there are more around the world: Carmeuse, China silk, crepe de Chine, Doupioni, noil, raw silk, shantung and tussah. Charmeuse is what most people think of when they think of silk. The back of the fabric is flattened crepe, or simply wrinkled woven fabric, and the front has a shimmery satin weave.



China silk, also "plain silk," is the least expensive of the silks. The fabric is lightweight and shiny. Crepe de Chine is made by twisting some fibers clockwise and others counterclockwise before weaving, producing a fabric with a pebbly texture. The fabric is lightweight and does not ravel easily like other silks; however, it tears easily. Doupioni is stiff and taffeta-like with slubbed ribs. This means that the thread used to weave the fabric varies in diameter and creates dimensional streaks in the finished fabric where the thread is thicker. The thread is made from a cocoon woven by two worms at the same time instead of one. Noil is woven using short fibers that have been combed and appears similar to cotton. The fabric feels very soft but has no shine. Raw silk is fabric produced with filaments that did not have the silk gum removed. It is dull and stiff. Shantung, as it is known today, is woven with a mix of regular silk thread and doupioni silk thread. Depending on the exact threads used, the fabric may be shiny or dull. The fabric is firm but not stiff and ravels easily. Tussah, called shantung in the past, is made using thread from the cocoons of wild tussah moths. Because the cocoons are not cultivated, the moths create holes in the cocoon when they emerge, so the filaments are short and coarse. The fabric has irregular slubs, ravels easily and, because it is difficult to dye, generally available only in its natural beige color. Quality / Duration of storage: Silk is normally cream-colored and lustrous. It is relatively resistant to ageing but yellows easily and may lose some of its strength. Raw silk is yellowish-white to gold-colored due to the sericin (silk gum); it is stiff, rough and lacking in luster. Degummed silk is white, soft, and flexible and has a beautiful silky luster. It does not crumple and is very hard-wearing. Weighted silk compensates for the weight loss suffered during degumming with metal weighting. Metalweighted silks may break due to oxidation.


Packaging: Raw silk is exported in folding cartons or reels, i.e. as silk filaments wound in skeins. The silk skeins are packaged in bales and wrapped in a double layer of jute fabric and plastic film. Silk products are packaged in boxes, for example, which are lined with water-resistant paper or tinplate. Intended use: Silk is used to produce raw silks for ready-made garments, fancy goods, jersey goods, ties and dress and lingerie fabrics and as sewing and embroidery yarns. It is also used in the chemical and electrical industries (insulating material, such as cable tape) and for industrial fabrics (parachutes). General processing of silk Silk is one of the strongest natural fibers but loses up to 20% of its strength when wet. It has a good moisture regain of 11%. Its elasticity is moderate to poor, if elongated even a small amount it remains stretched. It can be weakened if exposed to too much sunlight. It may also be attacked by insects, especially if left dirty. Silk is a poor conductor of electricity and thus susceptible to static cling. Unwashed silk may shrink up to 8% due to a relaxation of the fiber macrostructure, therefore, silk should either be pre-washed prior to garment construction, or dry cleaned. Dry cleaning may still shrink the material up to 4%. Occasionally, this shrinkage can be reversed by a gentle steaming with a press cloth. There is almost no gradual shrinkage or shrinkage due to molecular-level deformation. Chemical processing of silk is carried out in stages of degumming, bleaching, dyeing and finishing.



Degumming of silk The composition of raw silk is given as under: Fibroin Servicing Waxy matter Moisture 70-80% 20-30% 0.4-0.8% 10-11%

Carbohydrates and Starches: 1.2-1.6% Inorganic matter Pigment 0.7% 0.2%

Under chemical examination, silk fiber consists of two elements, i.e. inner layer called silk fibroin which forms the core of the fiber. It is insoluble even when boiled in hot water. The outer layer of silk filament is a form of gum, or silk glue, called sericin. These two elements are present in the fiber in the proportion of about 75 parts fibroin to 25 parts Sericin. Outside Sericin is also a thin layer of Albumen and on the extreme outer surface is a coat of gelatin. The process of eliminating „gum „from raw silk is known as Degumming of silk. It is synonymous to the scouring process used for purification of cotton and wool. The different ways of degumming silk are as follows:



Soap as a degumming agent: Soap is a good degumming agent and grey fabrics can be completely degummed by treating with soap solution at close to boiling point for 1-2 hours. Neutral synthetic agents have no degumming properties. After degumming the silk is thoroughly washed with water, with weak solutions of ammonium chloride or soda ash at 40 -5000C for 20 minutes. Enzymatic degumming: Proteolytic enzymes like Trypsin and Papain may be used for degumming. All the sericin is not removed by this treatment; hence a subsequent treatment with soap solution is necessary. The enzymes preferably hydrolyze peptide bonds formed by carboxyl groups of Lysine and Arginine of silk to form low molecular weight water soluble products which can be easily washed out. Extraction with water: In order to remove sericin from raw silk the yarns must be autoclaved for long periods with water at temperature over 10000C. The degradation of silk is minimum. There might be some modification of the protein molecule. Treatment with alkalis: Alkalis have severe destructive effect on proteins. Severity of the treatment required to remove sericin from a given sample depends on the type of silk. Degumming with soaps in the presence of alkalis is in practice since a long time. Here soap acts as the degumming agent and the alkalis aid the process.



Bleaching of silk: Natural coloring matters present in silk are associated mainly with sericin and hence are eliminated during degumming. However, the residual pigments are adsorbed by fibroin and hence silk fabrics made from yellow raw silk after degumming are not white but have a cream color. The natural coloring matter of silk can be roughly divided into yellow, green and brown pigments. The bleaching process may be based on reducing agents or oxidizing agents. But material bleached with reducing agents tends to reoxidise and the original color may be restored. Hence oxidizing bleaching is most preferred. Predominant reducing agents used are sulphur dioxide, sodium hydrosulphite and sodium or zinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde. While the oxidizing agents used are potassium permanganate, sodium perborate, sodium peroxide or Hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is the most preferred bleaching agent. The Chlorine based bleaching agents are bleaching powder, sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite which are generally not used since these agents tend to chlorinate the fibroin. Optical Whitening: In order to enhance the whiteness of a fabric treatment is carried out with an optical brightening agent. The optical brightening agent may be applied along with bleaching agent during

processing of silk.



Dyeing of silk: Since silk is a natural polyamide fiber it can be dyed with various dyes as acid, basic, direct, reactive, metal-complex and solubilised vat dyes. The pH of the dyebath and the temperature of dyeing should be adjusted so that slow and even adsorption of the dye takes place from the start. Printing of silk: Silk is mainly printed by hand block printing and screen printing methods. The hand block method is a slow process. The different styles of printing are direct, discharge and resist style. Hardly any other fiber can be printed with so many different classes of dyes as silk. The some classes of dyes that Finishing of silk: Silk being a noble fiber, care must be taken during its finishing so as not affecting its classic feel, scoop handle and shimmering appearance. During finishing silk is treated for following properties:       Crease resistance. Antistatic effect. Spot resistance (water and oil drops). Flame retardancy. Dimensional stability (with hand washing). Wash and wear properties.



History of Silk in China:

Silk fabric was first developed in ancient China, with some of the earliest examples found as early as 3500 BC. Legend gives credit for developing silk to a Chinese empress, Leizu (Hsi-Ling-Shih, Lei-Tzu). Silks were originally reserved for the Kings of China for their own use and gifts to others, but spread gradually through Chinese culture and trade both geographically and socially, and then to many regions of Asia. Silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants because of its texture and luster. Silk was in great demand, and became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. In July 2007, archeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, dated to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty roughly 2,500 years ago. Although historians have suspected a long history of a formative textile industry in ancient China, this find of silk textiles employing "complicated techniques" of weaving and dyeing provides direct and concrete evidence for silks dating before the Mawangdui-discovery and other silks dating to the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD). The first evidence of the silk trade is the finding of silk in the hair of an Egyptian mummy of the 21st dynasty, c.1070 BC.The silk trade reached as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa. This trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia came to be known as the Silk Road.



The Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly. Nonetheless sericulture reached Korea around 200 BC, about the first half of the 1st century AD had reached ancient Khotan, and by AD 140 the practice had been established in India. In the ancient era, silk from China was the most lucrative and sought-after luxury item traded across the Eurasian continent, and many civilizations, such as the ancient Persians, benefited economically from trade.

According to Chinese records, the discovery of silk production from B. mori occurred about 2,700 B.C. Chinese legend states that the great prince, Hoang-ti, directed his wife, Si-ling-chi, to examine the silkworm and test the practicability of using the thread. Thereafter, Si-ling-chi discovered not only the means of raising silkworms, but also the manner of reeling road. This road was the historically famous “Silk Road,” named after its most important commodity. By the middle of the first century A.D., writers in Rome were complaining about the sumptuous silk garments that rendered women naked in the


streets. But the Chinese had guarded the secrets of sericulture so closely the early Romans never learned it, and Virgil thought the thread was derived from combing the fuzz off leaves. The silk, and of employing it to make garments. Is-lingo-chi was later deified for her work and honored with the name Seine-Than, or “The Goddess of Silk Worms”. Sericulture during the following centuries spread through China and silk became a precious commodity highly sought by other countries. In 139 B.C., the world‟s longest highway was opened, and stretched from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to tangible commodities such as gold and jade, new ideas and religions also passed along this SILK IN CHINA

Qing-era silk dress • The Chinese character for happiness is a combination of the symbols for white, silk, and tree. In ancient China silk was used as currency and a reward, and the


imperial court established silk factories to weave ceremonial garments and gifts to foreign dignitaries. • More than ten million farmers in China raise silk and nearly half a million people are employed in silk-fabric production. In 1982, China exported 36,000 tons of silk, primarily to markets in the United States, Japan and Europe. [Source: Nina Hyde, National Geographic, January 1984] • China produces 80 percent of the world's tussad (wild silk) and 50 percent of the world's supply of silk yarn. Italy and France produced better finished products than China. And the most prized silk of all is Chinese silk yarn made into fabrics at Italian mills. • A third of China's raw silk, brocade and satin come from the Zhejiang Province, the "Land of Silk." Describing the city of Suzhou, near Zhejiang in the Jiangsu Province, in 1276, Marco Polo wrote: "They have vast quantities of raw silk, and manufacture it, not only for their own consumption, all of them being clothed in dresses of silk, but also for other markets.

Production of Silk in China: A typical adult silkworm moth is yellow or yellowish-white, with a thick, hairy body, and has a wingspread of about 3.8 cm (about 1.5 in). The adult has rudimentary mouthparts and does not eat during the short period of its mature existence; the female dies almost immediately after depositing the eggs, and the male lives only a short time thereafter. The female deposits 300 to 400 bluish eggs at a time; the eggs are fastened to a flat surface by a gummy substance secreted by the female. The larvae, which hatch in about ten days, are about 0.6 cm (about 0.25 in) long. The larvae feed on leaves of white mulberry, Osage orange, or lettuce. Silkworm caterpillars that



are fed mulberry leaves produce the finest quality silk. Mature larvae are about 7.5 cm (about 3 in) long and yellowish-gray or dark gray in color.

Sericulture, or the raising of silkworms, involves the incubation of the tiny eggs of the silkworm moth until they hatch and become worms. After hatching, the worms are placed under a layer of gauze, on which is spread a layer of finely chopped mulberry leaves. For six weeks, the worms eat almost continuously. At the end of this period, they are ready to spin their cocoons, and branches of trees or shrubs are placed in their rearing houses. The worms climb these branches and make their cocoons in one continuous thread, taking about eight days for the process. The amount of usable silk in each cocoon is small, and about 5500 silkworms are required to produce 1 kg (2.2 lb) of raw silk.



The next step in the processing of silk is the twisting of one or more threads of the raw silk into a strand sufficiently strong for weaving or knitting. This procedure is called throwing. Four different types of silk thread may thus be produced: organzine, crepe, tram, and thrown singles. Organize is a thread made by giving the raw-silk thread a preliminary twist in one direction and then twisting two of these threads together in the opposite direction at the rate of about 4 turns/cm (10 turns/in). Tram is made by twisting in only one direction two or more raw-silk threads, with 8 to 12 turns/cm (20 to 30 turns/in). Thrown singles are individual raw-silk threads that are twisted in only one direction, the number of turns depending on the quality of thread desired. Packaging: Raw silk is exported in folding cartons or reels, i.e. as silk filaments wound in skeins. The silk skeins are packaged in bales and wrapped in a double layer of jute fabric and plastic film. Silk



products are packaged in boxes, for example, which are lined with water-resistant paper or tinplate. Means of transport: Ship, truck, railroad, aircraft
Container transport: Standard containers, subject to compliance with lower limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring. Cargo handling: In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, since silk is strongly hygroscopic and readily absorbs moisture. Do not use hooks for cargo handling, since they may very easily cause damage. Stowage space requirements: The holds/containers must be dry and clean. The stowage space must be away from heat sources. In particular, holds must be free of oily patches. The ship's pipe work must be leak-proof. The bales must not be stowed against sharp edges or rough surfaces. Cargo securing: The cargo is to be stowed in such a way that the bales do not slip and become damaged during transport.



China’s Exports (Amount in Thousand) Pak Rs FY03 12,226 FY04 36,716 FY05 6,301 FY06 39,888 FY07 34,324 FY08 25,119 FY09 20,678 FY10 93,696 FY02 1,514 FY03 12,226 FY04 36,716 FY05 6,301 FY06 39,888 FY07 34,324 FY08 25,119 FY09 20,678 US $ FY03 22 FY04 639 FY05 107 FY06 666 FY07 566 FY08 404 FY09 266 FY10 1,119 FY02 25 FY03 22 FY04 639 FY05 107 FY06 666 FY07 566 FY08 404 FY09 266 Change -3 Change 617 Change -532 Change 559 Change -100 Change -162 Change -138 Change 853



Competitive Advantage over Pakistan: Different than the East coast of China, the silk industry has more emphasis on silk reprocessing, Western parts is more focused on raw silk production due to its natural weather and soil conditions, mostly in Chongqing and Yunnan areas. Also as the land cost and manpower cost is increasing on the east coast, business is shifting to the west. With the government's preferential policies, Chongqing's silk industry has seen some significant developments. Competitive strategy: Many companies will accept that China is a viable solution in the current financial crisis, so quickly engaging the best Chinese suppliers before the competition reaches them will be instrumental to successful procurement strategies. Low wages, good infrastructure The main reason for China‟s prominence as a sourcing destination is low costs. Average cost savings of around 30% (depending on product and industry) can be achieved by shifting procurement to China. At the heart of this are labor costs. Average wages in developed nations such as the US are nearly 30 times those of China. Even other developing nations are unable to compete with China on a labour cost basis. The average wage in Brazil is more than six times that of China, and in Mexico, three times. Other factors that contribute to cost savings include lower product input costs and lower finance costs including access to finance and cost of capital. China‟s infrastructure also affords it a distinct advantage over other developing nations. The country ranks 27 on the World Bank‟s Logistical Performance Index, higher than Brazil, Russia and India. Numerous new highways and 78,000 km of railway end in six of the world‟s 10 busiest ports. Five hundred airports are available to link Chinese products with their end-users abroad. This network of thoroughfares effectively link China‟s low labour costs with the world.


Lack of productivity of china:
How then does a procurement manager access China‟s significant potential? The answer lies in appreciating that one size does not fit all and the process is time-consuming and requires effort. Distance (time zones), language and culture are significant constraints, and Chinese specifications and standards – especially when it comes to technical industrial pieces and equipment – are not always easily comparable and require clarification. When these factors have been accounted for, a comprehensive China strategy can be developed. The pivotal element of this is deciding on the conduit between decision-makers at home and Chinese producers. To manage this crucial task there are three options: to work with a local Chinese agent; to work with an international company with a presence in China; or to dispatch your own employees to China. Using a local Chinese agent is the cheapest option. Such agents have the potential to be well connected, with the most experienced able to find products for their foreign partners at significantly favorable prices. The major downside to this arrangement is that potential cultural barriers can be a serious hindrance. A common complaint is Chinese counterparts are often less responsive to emails and may be less direct regarding true circumstances. A straightforward 'no' is rare. Thousands of agents exist, making the best ones more difficult to find. Many of these agents may not also have the appropriate import/export registration. Comparative Advantage against Pakistan: Although Chinese high-tech ability is still subsidized by foreign technology transfers and government support, Chinese companies are developing competitive advantages in several areas of high-value industrial and equipment manufacturing. Good examples are Hawaii (a


telecommunications equipment maker based in Shenzhen), whose equipment and services were considered good enough to beat Siemens in a German tender; Shenmue Port Machinery, which had a full two-thirds of global port crane orders in 2006; and Tian Di Science & Technology, the national leader in the design and manufacturing of coal mining equipment. To effectively make use of China's cost advantages as a high-technology assembly center, foreign companies will have to carefully consider to what extent and with which strategic framework technology transfers are implemented and imported inputs are assembled in China. At the same time, and considering China's evolving high-technology exports, trying to avoid China as a high-technology sourcing destination will likely result in an unfeasible cost structure and a loss of competitiveness. Successfully dealing with China's sourcing challenges and particularities will finally determine whether China is a threat or an opportunity. As China continues to pour money into developing its renewable energy capabilities, more multinational companies are setting up shop in China, building state-of-the-art facilities and transferring their technologies. Vestas of Denmark has built the world‟s biggest wind turbine manufacturing complex in northeastern China, and transferred the technology for the latest electronic controls and generators. Bosch of Germany has spent USD 42 million in expanding its wind turbine manufacturing facilities in Beijing and Changzhou. This arrangement benefits both sides. Multinational companies are able to take advantage of China‟s low labour costs and huge demand for renewable energy, while the Chinese benefit by receiving more foreign investment and foreign technology, which creates more jobs and raises the quality of the Chinese renewable energy industry. Yin: A sourcing opportunity rather than a threat



According to OECD sources, Some 55% of China's total exports are attributed to production and assembly-related activities, and 58% of these are driven by foreign enterprises, of which 38% are entirely foreign-owned. In fact, among the top 10 high-technology companies by revenue, not one of them is Chinese. China's export performance, therefore, is directly linked to its specialization in assembly operations and the high value-added inputs imported from Western economies. This has facilitated a rapid diversification of its manufactured exports, from low-end manufactures to high-technology products. Textile Sector of Pakistan Pakistan‟s economy can be characterized as semi-industrialized. The country‟s industrial sector constitutes ~24% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Pakistan has a total labor force of around 54mln (Labour Force Survey 2008‐09). As Pakistan is one of the major producers of cotton, the country has a sound textile industry. Pakistan‟s industrial sector experienced tremendous growth between 2004 and 2006. During the last decade, textile exports have doubled to USD10.2bln (2010) from USD 5.2bln (1999). Pakistan accounts for 3% of the United States textile imports. The textile sector continues to be the mainstay of Pakistan‟s exports comprising ~52% of total exports and also represents the principal employment-generating avenue in the organized and large scale industrial segment1. Today, Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of cotton, and has the third largest spinning capacity (7.6% of total Asian capacity) in Asia after China and India and constitutes ~5% of the global spinning capacity. Pakistan‟s textile sector has gradually ventured into the production of fairly high quality counts, hosiery, garments and other value-added items. During FY10, total textile exports accounted for ~9.5% of the GDP. FY07 was a historic year for



the industry as it achieved highest ever exports of ~USD 11bln. Given the sector's significant contribution in the exports, the performance of this sector has a strong impact on the national economy.

Knotting, or pressing fibers together to get the end product – cloth. As shown in the figure, Spinning is the first process in the cotton value chain that adds value by converting ginned cotton into a new product – cotton yarn. This yarn is further processed through weaving and knitting to produce fabric. The process of weaving collects two distinct sets of yarn – warp and weft in a way that warp threads run lengthways on the piece of cloth, and the weft threads are inserted over-and-under the warp threads to make a fabric. Where as knitting is the process of producing two dimensional fabrics through one-dimensional yarn. In contrast to weaving, knitting does not have straight, parallel running yarn, rather it follows a meandering path, forming symmetric


loops symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These loops are stretchable giving elasticity to the knitted fabric. Provided the type of yarn and the knitting pattern, knitted garments can be stretched as much as 500%. Therefore, knitted fabric is used in stretchable garments, such as socks and hosiery. Competitive Advantage in Textile: Theory of Competitive Advantage can be traced back to the initial development of Economics as a separate discipline. Classical Economist such as Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and specially David Ricardo gave immense attention to producing what the nation is best at and then take advantage of that edge through free trade. However, all these economists talked about factor endowments (such aslant, Labour, and Capital) and macroeconomics for the growth and development. Using these factors effectively would give a country an edge over others. With the further development of study of Economics and overall economic condition of the world with massive industrialization and liberalization of trade, classical macroeconomic theory was insufficient to explain the growth and development of some countries that lacked the availability of the factors, of the kind mentioned in the theories. Some economists of that time started to take into consideration other factors that could play pivotal role in country‟s growth such as Technology, capital-labour ratio etc. Still, no one thought about giving it a micro level look. This is what Michael Porter discovered and came up with the six forces model, through which any country can determine its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) and then put these into consideration before making any decision. The Diamond Porter Model so called because the six factors collaboratively work together to give a country a picture of where it is standing.



Diamond-Porter Model: Diamond Porter Model is presented by Michael Porter in his book „The Competitive Advantage of Nations‟. It helps in understanding the competitive position of a nation in the global world. Michael Porter integrated some knowledge of industrial economics and business strategy to come up with a comprehensive solution to complex problems in competitiveness. He believed that macroeconomic stability itself does not guarantee prosperity and so tried to give competitiveness constantly evolving micro framework unlike macro overview of traditional theories. He clearly distinguished between the competitiveness of the firms from that of nations. In contrast to traditional theories of comparative advantage which focuses on country‟s factor endowments of land, labored capital, the diamond porter theory attempts to look at factors affecting immediate business environment and productive capacity of firms; factor input conditions, demand conditions, firm strategy and rivalry, and the presence of related and supporting industries. According to this theory, the process of economic development is about improving this diamond so as to achieve higher and sustainable productivity. To attain the competitive advantage, Michael Porter has catalogued three types of generic strategies through which competitive advantage can be pursued. These strategies are: a) Cost Leadership – Firm sets out to become the lowest cost producer in the particular industry (price wars) b) Differentiation – Firm seeks to be the best performer in the industry (having a special attribute in the product or service that others do not offer) c) Initiative Focus – Firm looks to exploit a niche market (targeting group within the market of that industry and create loyalty) the strategies vary according to the position of the industry in the


diamond analysis besides its organizational structure and culture. For example if country‟s industry is lying in the factor conditions that is it has advantage over factors of production, then cost minimizing strategy proposed by the Porter would be the plan to maintain its competitive edge.



SWOT analysis of Textile Industry of Pakistan: It can be inferred from the literature that Pakistan is laying at the first force, i.e. Factor Conditions with limited or insufficient focus on other forces. And, to attain competitive advantage the appropriate strategy according to Porter Model would be Cost minimizing Strategy. By Cost-minimizing strategy the textile industry of Pakistan would be in a better position to compete in the world market and can then proceed to the next level i.e. product differentiation strategy to increase the product and market base. For further examination of what can be inferred from the study about the textile industry of Pakistan, SWOT analysis is done. SWOT will draw a picture of the industry as a whole about its strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. I) Strength • • • • • • Largest foreign exchange earner Largest employer of Labour force Availability of low-cost Labour and Land Abundant in raw material (particularly Cotton) Availability of low-cost machinery Major part of textile goods are from man-made fiber rather than synthetic one

Ii) Weakness • • • low-price image and reliability Incompetent marketing Noncompliance to Environmental and social regulation



• •

Inadequate infrastructure, including power, water Poor road network not able to provide foundation for a dynamic industrial sector Deficient technology and outdated machinery leading to low productivity and poor quality

• • • •

Lack of considerable up gradation of human resource skills Poor coordination among cluster players Lack of finance and capital to small enterprisesiii)Opportunities The state-of-the-art facilities at the Textile City which is being set up at Karachi, is a good opportunity to help increase production and competitiveness of textile products

• •

Enhanced market accessibility for Pakistan Textile products in the Global Market Rising cost of China‟s cotton due to excess of demand, is inopportunity for Pakistan to take advantage of high priced world market price

With technological advancements, the textile industry can ensure uncontaminated good quality cotton and cloth

Pakistan is abundant in man-made cotton fiber that assures good quality cloth. But the firm owners and investors must think of ways synthetic textiles can be made so as to control the rising prices of raw material

The Textile Asia Exhibition provide opportunities to SMEs, especially who instead of having the need to go abroad and see various markets themselves are able to interact with all foreign delegates, industrialists present here and showcase their products

Textile engineering sector will generate employment opportunities. There is ample scope for qualified engineers in mechanical, electric and electronics disciplines to boost this sector.



iv) Threats Declining world share in export of textile products means Pakistan is losing some markets in the hands of others • • • • Limited Value Addition and low product differentiation Endemic issue of Political and Social volatility in the country Poor governance would repeal the Foreign Direct Investments Insufficient investment in infrastructure and workforce would resulting efficiency loss and create impediments in future as well • Lack of quality production would make customers switch to other countries reducing the market segment • Rise in prices of inputs due to IMF policies, would further deteriorate the condition



LACKS IN PRODUCTIVITY: According to a study of Pakistani textile and apparel sector (Raptis, 2009) some of the garment units were over-staffed by 57 per cent. That was an internal negative factor whereas external factors included no duty-free market access to the EU and negative image and perception of Pakistan abroad. “Labour productivity is very low. Our regional competitors take 75minutes to complete and produce one piece of cloth whereas we take133 minutes for the same work. We also waste 30 percent in finishing and 12 percent in washing.” (Mira Kithira Big)Moreover, the textile looms and other equipments have become obsolete due to insufficient timely investment and modernization. One of major reason might be the rising interest rate which has crippled the small investors and made them risk-averse (Mehta, 2008). So, with inadequate capital, textile industry is unable to equip efficient machineries for effective production. Although in the current fiscal year, investments in the import of new textile machineries have shown gradual increase (14.2%), showing better trend for future. The companies are downsizing, production units are shutting down; around 500,000 of the workers have already lost their jobs. After surviving from the load-shedding scenario the industry has yet tosurvive the gas load shedding scenario. LESCO has informed theindustry that it would not supply power for the additional load and onlythe sanctioned load will be supplied during the winter months (Fayyaz,2008). According to Pakistan textile industry association, 90 percent of Pakistan's textile industry is losing money losses and facing closure.More than two months of production has been lost due to power cutsand gas shortages.



Factor Conditions • Availability of quality rawmaterial• Lack of skills• Poor technology Demand Conditions • Increasing sophistication of demand e.g. product andprocess standards• Increasing globalcompetition Related and SupportIndustries • Gaps in the quality of localsupplies• Poor coordination amongcluster players• Lack of finance to smallenterprises Context for Firm Strategy Rivalry Solution over problem The need for improving business environment cannot be overemphasized.Without improving the country‟s image, enhancing the effectiveness of legaland regulatory institutions, and upgrading the physical infrastructure, directincentives to local and foreign investors are less likely to yield desirableresults. The current government is well cognizant of this need and has shownsome visible progress in the macroeconomic management to restore theconfidence of investors and businesses. However, there is need to do moreon improving the governance side.



History of Silk in Pakistan: In Pakistan, sericulture ispracticed in all the four provinces and Azad andJammu Kashmir. The main activity of natural silkproduction is practiced around the irrigated forest plantation of Changa Manga, Kamalia, Chichawatniand Multan in Punjab province (Anonymous, 1990).Pakistan‟s economy largely depends on agricultureand its raw products. The production of raw silk isinadequate to meet requirements of the textile industry. If the textile industry is provided with adequate raw silk, Pakistan can not only save itsprecious foreign exchange (i.e., reduce imports), butcan also improve its economy by exporting thesurplus commodity. Since the majority of populationlives in rural areas and villagers including men,women and children can increase their incomethrough the rearing of B. mori in their spare time. Theprocess of rearing is completed before wheat harvest.Even they can easily get two generations of B. morione after the other (Ishfaq and Akram, 1999). Researchers have conducted experiments to find outhigh yielding strains of B. mori and mulberry.Different species of mulberry may havecompositional differences and might lead to varyeffects on B. mori growth and silk production(Mahmood et al., 1987). The growth rate of B. morilarvae and subsequent silk production depend mainlyon the nutrient content of mulberry leaves. Fukuda(1960) reported that about 70% of silk proteinproduced by the B. mori is directly derived from theprotein contents of mulberry leaves. The nutritivevalue of mulberry leaves varies due to species andleaf maturity of the plant. Hoffman and Subramanian(2005) found in their experiment on the role of lightexposure on the final stages of development ofAnopheles stephensi that there was a significantreduction in the development of adult mosquitoeswhen larvae were bred in the absence of lightcompared with the control group bred in alternating12h light and 12h dark. It has been observed thatelectric light can affect the behavior of nocturnalinsects. A high level of illumination causes night flying


insects to settle as they would normally do at daybreak so feeding, breeding and egg layingactivities cease. Furthermore, it was found thatartificial light can affect mating of moths e.g.,females do not produce the sex pheromones to attractmales (Anonymous, 1998). Less work has been doneon the impact of artificial lightning on other insects,but Bratton (1990) reported that mayfly life cyclemay be disrupted, while Crowson (1981) mentionedthat the survival of the glowworm is threatened byoutdoor lighting.In Pakistan, experiments have been conducted onproviding nutritious leaves of different mulberryspecies/varieties for high yield of silk. But, no workhas been done on the effect of light and dark on thelife cycle of B. mori. Keeping in view the importanceof silk worm, an experiment was conducted at theSericulture Wing, Forest Department Peshawar,N.W.F.P. to investigate the effect of light and dark onthe duration of life span, cocoon weight, shell weight,cocoon shell ratio, % sex ratio, percent mortality andfecundity of B. mori under similar conditions oftemperature and humidity. silk rearing is dying a slow death due to different factors that silenced the spinning wheels at Kashmir Filatures in Srinagar. Established in 1897 with Italian reeling basins, the Filatures were transferred to Jammu and Kashmir Industries Ltd in 1963. With an installed capacity of 584 reeling basins, the unit once employed more than 2000 workers. For long, the mulberry silk produced in the Valley was taken to faraway western countries, a report by Kashmir Media Service said.Historians say a century ago Kashmir had a dynamic silk trade. In 1940s, the precious silk yarn was even exported to the entire British Empire. “Silk industry was a main revenue earner for the state during the Maharaja rule. Kashmir had its indigenous races of silkworm and would produce best quality cocoons in the world,” an official associated with the sector said in a media interview.



A cursory look at statistics shows that during heydays the cocoon production had reached above 15 lac kilograms in 80s. Even, officials say, when the silk sector in France got almost wiped out due to a disease to the silkworm seed, the material was imported from Kashmir to revive the France industry. But then the time changed for the worse for the Kashmir industry. The cocoon production dipped to 60000 kgs in late 90s. The negligence of the authorities towards development of the industry, political interference and low market price made farmers disinterested resulting in fall of once booming industry. The reluctance of the authorities to increase the price of the cocoons for almost two decades was another blow to the farming community. Last year, the puppet administration‟s decision to close down JKI-owned Kashmir Filatures, which was left defunct for almost a decade, put a lid on any of its revival plans. Another major blow to the sector was the mismanagement vis-a-vis operational costs. “From time to time more than the required manpower was employed due to political interference. The filatures could not handle the operational costs but nobody thought about the production losses. It silently pushed silk rearing to the edge,” officials said. A century ago, Kashmir had a “dynamic silk trade”. Silk yarn was exported to the West and within the British Empire in the 1940s. Kashmir had indigenous races of silkworm and produced the best quality cocoons in the world,” said an official associated with sericulture or silk farming. Statistics show that cocoon production topped 1,500,000 kilogrammes at its peak in the 80s which dipped to 60,000 kilogrammes a decade later. The deterred farmers from rearing silkworms. From hundreds of reeling basins, 31 remained in 2008-09 and raw silk production was just 17.1 metric tons (MT) in 2008-09. The government closed down the state-owned Kashmir Filatures last year. “Excess manpower was employed due to political interference; the filatures had high operational costs,” officials


said. Kashmir Filatures is spread over 70 kanals which can sell for 700 million to one billion Indian rupees. The proceeds must be used to revive the firm, stated a report by the Held State Finance Commission. Land owned by sick units is reportedly being sold at throwaway prices to government departments. Officials trace the decline of Kashmir Filatures to de-monopolisation of the industry and its bifurcation later into Kashmir Filatures and the sericulture department. The de-monopolisation paved way for filatures from Indian states to buy Kashmiri cocoons at prices which were too high for local filatures, depriving them of raw material and precipitating closure of firms. The region produces the best quality Bivoltile silk. But the irony is that less than 30 per cent of cocoons produced indigenously are used for local silk production,” officials said. Cap on cocoon prices for nearly two decades was a blow to the farming community. Now the price is 210 Indian rupees per kg, unattractive for farmers, while open market rates touch 600 Indian rupees per kg,” sources said. Where are own indigenous silkworms now, officials ask. The demise of the local industry and availability of cheaper alternatives caused farmers to abandon sericulture. Experts believe invasion of low-cost silk yarn from China destroyed the industry. There was no policy framed to tackle the invasion, officials said. negligence of the government of the disputed valley of Jammu and Kashmir, political interference and low market prices Even the carpet industry in the valley now depends on imported silk. However officials at the sericulture department argue everything is not lost. Cocoon production, they said, has witnessed an upward trend in the past few years and demand for Bivoltile silk is above 5,000 metric tons in


the country. “The private sector has encouraged competition which is proving beneficial for farmers,” officials said. The silk industry has fared no better in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Experts say despite the allocation of funds by the government for reviving the sector in the state‟s annual budget, it is threatened because of declining cocoon production. Despite hectic efforts, no senior official in Muzaffarabad could be contacted for information on the decline in sericulture in AJK. Various types of silk fabrics are produced in the country. These are mostly used by Pakistan's female population. The females population in the country is 71.4 million. If 7 metres is the minimum requirements of silk fabrics for a woman, at least 499.8 million metres a year are required to clothe the womenfolk in Pakistan. Karachi, Lyallpur and Gujranwala are the three main centres of the Art Silk Industry in Pakistan. The factories at Karachi and somewhat larger in size and depend mainly on imported and domestic man-made yarn. The factories at Lyallpur and Gujranwala are comparatively smaller in size.



Production and Capacity of Silk Fabrics: (Million square Meters) Year Looms Operation Installed 30,000 40,000 45,000 60,000 70,000 70,000 75,000 75,000 19,000 30,405 30,405 55,010 60,000 60,000 60,000 65,000 Production

1973-74 1978-79 1983-84 1988-89 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97

324 450 450 680 860 835 860 931

The small size of factories is inducted by a variety of reasons. The foremost among them are avoidance of income tax levy and ameliorative labour laws. There is a strong tendency in Lyallpur and Gujranwala to bifurcate fairly large size units artificially to give them the legal appearance of small size separate units. The burden of progressive rates of income tax is thus considerably reduced. Fringe benefits for labour which are based on the size of factories are also thus easily evaded.



Production of Silk In Pakistan: Farmers deliver the cocoons to special factories called filatures. This is where cocoons are turned into silk threads through a four-step process. The cocoons are first sorted by color, size, shape and texture. Then the sericin or silk gum holding the cocoon's filaments together is softened by alternating hot and cold immersions. Next, the silk filaments are unwound and, because individual filaments are too fine for commercial production, several strands are reeled together in lengths of 300 to 600 meters, or approximately 984 to 1,968 feet. Finally, the reeled filament is wound into skeins, which are bundled into bales and shipped to silk mills. The silk thread is woven into fabric using hand or power looms at the mills. From Cocoon to Yarn: Sericulture is the production of cocoons for the filament they are composed of. The silkworm is a stage of the life cycle of silk moths. The Bombyx mori silk moth is used for the bulk of the world's silk. Farmers raise the moths in tightly controlled conditions. The silk worm begins life as an egg, then becomes a silk worm, pupa and, finally, a moth. The silkworm, when ready to become a pupa, secretes a protein-like substance through its head to form the cocoon. Some silkworms are allowed to become moths to propagate the species but most are harvested in this stage to be used in silk production. The cocoons of wild silkworms may also be collected, but this is less common.



Silk from cultivated silkworms is more used though silk of wild worms is also valuable. The worms feed on mulberry leaves and increases their body size by nearly 10,000 times in a short span of time. The worm ceases to eat by the end of thirty days and attach itself to a piece of straw and begins to spin its cocoon. After the spinning of cocoon and before the hatching of the worm into a moth, the cocoon is soaked in hot water unraveling and producing long size thread. This fine thread is the basic component of silk yarn and fabric. Washing and bleaching of the silk threads: The natural fiber extracted from the silkworm holds some glutinous substance (gummy substance or glue) which is removed by washing and bleaching.



Weaving: Weaving is a process where the fabric is created by interlacing the warp yarns and the weft yarns. It is either done by machines or hand. Hand woven fabric is better than the machine woven. It can make delicate designs with different colored thread. Modern machines use lances, projectiles, a jet of compressed air to shoot the weft-yarn between the warp-yarns. It leads to greater yield and productivity. A good quality of silk begins with a warp of approximately 2,000 threads for one meter width. 1,600 threads or 1,800 threads are considered to be poor quality fabric. Loosely woven fabrics are difficult to sew. Dyeing, Printing and Finishing: There are two main types of silk fabrics. One which is yarn-dyed or dyed-woven, like taffeta, duchess satin and many pattern-woven fabrics. The other type is piece-dyed fabrics, which is carried out after weaving, like crepes, twills, etc. The dyeing process gives the silk different shades. Printing is giving pattern to the fabric. It is either done by block-printing method, roller-printing method or screen printing. Screen printing is widely used in silk fabrics. Embroidery process gives embellishment and the perfect finish to the fabric to make it look more beautiful.All fabrics has to be finished. It is here the fabric gets the desired appearance and feel. Finishing process is either physical or chemical. It give treatments like crease-proofing, waterproofing, fire-proofing, etc.



Final soaking in a chemical solution This process helps to preserve the sheen and luster of the silk fabric. It adds weight and makes the fabric soft, smooth, easy to iron and wrinkle resistant. Silk and Synthetic Weaving Industry has developed over the time on cottage based Power Looms Units comprising of 0810 looms spread all over the country. There are approximately 90,000 looms in operation of which 30,000 looms are working on blended yarn and 60,000 looms on filament – yarn. Besides, there are some mobile looms which become operational on market demand. The major concentration is in KarachiFaisalabad, Gujranwala, and Jalalpur Jattan as well as in the un-settled area (Bare –Swat – Khyber Agency and Wazirstan). Sericulture is an old cottage industry in AJK. It is labor intensive, short duration but gives high returns. It is a substantial source of income for the rural people of AJK. Socio-economic condition and living standard of the people particularly women in rural areas, is very poor. They have very little or almost no opportunity for employment to manage their livelihood. It is, therefore, desirable to involve rural community, especially women, in this income generating activity so that they can improve their living standardTherefore, the training of staff and practicing farmers especially women is imperative for strengthening the program. Under the project farmers and sericulture staff will be trained in seed cocoon production. New pure lines of silkworms will be introduced while existing pure- lines of silkworm will be maintained and improved. A system for the preservation of silkworm eggs (parental and commercial) has been successfully laid down and practiced. It enabled to supply silkworm eggs throughout the year. Under the project the above-mentioned activities will be expanded in all areas of the State. There is large-scale demand of silkworm eggs in Pakistan and Afghanistan therefore production needs to be enhanced to the level where we can meet the growing demand. if the farmers get their



cocoon reeled by themselves, they can keep the silk yarn for longer period and can fetch 30-40% additional price as compared to cocoons Silk Looms in Pakistan: Location

Power Looms

Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Tando Jam.


Gujranwala, Multan and Faisalabad


Bara & Swat, Waziristan Agency Others Total: 5,000 6,000 65,000

The production of Silk Fabrics has made a substantial progress in the last four years. Production of silk fabrics in 1993-94 stood at 860 m. square meters, it increased to 931 m. square meters in 1996-97 showing a rise of 8.25 per cent.



Means of transport: Ship, truck, aircraf Competative advantage of Pakistan Over China: With low cost domestic supply of cotton and low labour costs, Pakistan has a good track record for pure cotton apparel production for items such as male T-shirts and cotton jerseys.



Pakistan’s Exports (Amount in Thousand) Pak Rs FY03 79,791 FY04 161,657 FY05 331,502 FY06 318,977 FY07 395,895 FY08 236,714 FY09 227,187 FY10 0 FY02 0 FY03 79,791 FY04 161,657 FY05 331,502 FY06 318,977 FY07 395,895 FY08 236,714 FY09 227,187 US $ FY03 1,382 FY04 2,808 FY05 5,584 FY06 5,331 FY07 6,526 FY08 3,723 FY09 2,953 FY10 0 FY02 0 FY03 1,382 FY04 2,808 FY05 5,584 FY06 5,331 FY07 6,526 FY08 3,723 FY09 2,953 Change 1,382 Change 1,428 Change 2,776 Change -253 Change 1,195 Change -2,803 Change -770 Change -2,953



References: file:///Z:/I.B%20project%20futhur/Pakistan%20Textile%20Journal.%20July-2009%20Practical%20Hint%20-%20Chemical%20processing%20of%20silk_files/chinese-old-picture.jpg file:///Z:/I.B%20project%20futhur/How%20Is%20Silk%20Made%20Into%20Fabric%20%20%2 0%20eHow.com_files/silk-made-fabric-1.1-800x800.jpg
file:///Z:/I.B%20project%20futhur/Art%20silk%20industry%20in%20Pakistan%20%20%20Economic%20R eview%20%20%20Find%20Articles.htm