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# SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

MALAYSIA

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

10.4.03

INFORMATION ON OPERATIONS, BASIC FACTS AND ALGORITHMS
This module (operations, basic facts and algorithms) focuses on computation. It was prepared at short notice, hence, it should be read with care as the speed of its development may result in some errors and omissions. The sections to be covered include: (i) (ii) (iii) (v) (ix) topics and sequencing (the topics to be covered & the order in which they should be taught); concepts (the meanings of the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, the equals sign and how these can be introduced); basic facts (strategies to remember the calculations 0+0 to 9+9, 0-0 to 18-9, 0x0 to 9x9, and 81/9 and drills to overlearn them); computation (mental computation, pen-and-paper algorithms, computational estimation, & calculators); instruction (how the teaching and learning theories of the first module can be applied here, plus ideas for practising computation).

TOPICS AND SEQUENCING The topics to be covered in this module include concept, basic facts and computation. Concept means meaning. Concept is not to do with calculation - it deals with what an operation means and the real world situations with which it is connected. Addition is the basic operation which results from objects joining each other, subtraction is its inverse (taking away), multiplication is repeated addition, and division is the inverse of multiplication (and repeated subtraction). Addition and subtraction go together as do multiplication and division. Concept includes meanings of equals and expressions and equations, plus the dynamic and static views of operations. Basic facts deal with calculation. Basic facts are the answers to exercises covering 0+0 to 9+9, 0-0 to 18-9, 0x0 to 9x9, and 0/1 to 81/9. Once again, addition and subtraction and multiplication and division go together. Basic facts also includes multiple of tens facts. Computation covers calculations for all numbers other than those listed in basic facts. It covers mental computation, computational estimation, calculators, and the traditional pen-and-paper algorithms. The sequence for the topics is as follows: | | | | | | | CONCEPTS OF ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION CONCEPTS OF MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION BASIC FACTS MENTAL COMPUTATION AND ALGORITHMS FOR ADDITION
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Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

| AND SUBTRACTION | | MENTAL COMPUTATION AND ALGORITHMS FOR MULTIPLICATION | AND DIVISION | | COMPUTATIONAL ESTIMATION | V CALCULATORS This sequence is not pure. The steps intermingle. You are teaching basic facts for addition and subtraction while you are introducing concepts of multiplication and division. The crucial thing is that multiplication and division follow after addition and subtraction, that basic facts follow concepts, and that computation follows basic facts. As well, it is common for mental computation to begin about the same time as the algorithms (if both are attempted) and for these to be followed by computational estimation and calculator use for algorithms. A major reason for this is that computational estimation and calculator algorithms are used on numbers greater than 1 000, while mental computation and pen-and-paper algorithms are normally restricted to numbers less than 1 000. There are a lot of interrelationships in this sequence. Multiplication can be considered as repeated addition. Similarly, one way to think of division is as repeated subtraction. The multiplication algorithm for two digit numbers involves the addition algorithm and ‘long’ division involves subtraction. For example: 3x4 4+4+4=12 15/5 15-5-5-5=0 34 x25 170 680 850 234 4)936 8 13 12 16

One major issue in sequencing is the relationship between numeration and computation. Many of the procedures rely on aligning place values and calculating each position separately. Obviously many procedures use renaming and regrouping. There is also a need for students to learn multiple of tens facts (e.g., 20x40=800) and to understand the operation properties and principles of how computation changes as the number changes, for example, the inverse proportion principle (36/12=3, 36/6=6, 36/4=9) - the smaller the divisor the larger the quotient. CONCEPTS The concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are the meanings that lie behind the operations, not the ways of getting answers. In this section, we will look at: (a) all the meanings for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; (b) the instructional sequence to introduce symbols ; and (c) equals sign, dynamic arithmetic and operation principles. Meanings of the operations

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Addition and subtraction The various meanings for addition and subtraction are as below. They are based on the following: (1) Situations. There are four situations - joining, separating, comparing and inaction. Join and separate are two inverse actions - addition and subtraction are in both. Comparing involves two groups but they are not joined, the sum is one of the two groups. Inaction is where two parts are considered in terms of a whole by including them in a wider set (i.e., apples and bananas become fruit, Fords and Holdens become cars). Models. For teaching purposes, the operations of addition and subtraction need to be modelled with 2 types of materials - set, those that involve sets of discrete objects (e.g., unifix or counters), and length, those that involve distance (unifix stuck together or number lines). Overall meaning. The situations can be combined under part-part-total. Addition is when know the parts and want the total, while subtraction is when know the total and one part and want the other part.

(2)

(3)

MEANING Join

REAL-WORLD PROBLEM “There were 3 cars in the park, 2 drove in, how many cars in the park?” [set] “The building had 3 storeys, the crane lifted on another 2 storeys, how high is the building?” [length]

Take-away

“There were cars in the park, 2 drove out, this left 3, how many cars were in the park to begin with?” [set] “The crane knocked off the top 2 storeys, this left 3 storeys, how many storeys high was the building?” [length]

Compariso n

“Fred had 3 cars, Jack has 2 more cars than Fred, how many cars does Jack have?” [set] “The Fox building is 3 storeys, the Jed building has 2 more storeys than the Fox building, how many storeys does the Jed building have?” [length]

Inaction

“There were 3 holdens and 2 fords, how many cars?” [set] “The building had 3 blue storeys and 2 white storeys, how many storeys high was the building?” [length]

Subtraction

Join

“There were 3 cars in the park, some cars drove in, there are now 5 cars in the park, how many cars drove in?” / “There were some cars in the park, 2 cars drove in, there are now 5 cars in the park, how many cars were in the park at the start?” [set] “The crane lifted some extra storeys onto the top of the 2 storey building, the building is now 5 storeys high, how many extra storeys were lifted by the crane?” / “The crane lifted 3 extra storeys onto the top of the building, the building is now 5 storeys high, how high was

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

the building to start with?” [length] Take-away “There were 5 cars in the park, 2 drove out, how many cars are left?” / “There were 5 cars in the park, some drove out, 3 were left, how many cars are drove out?” [set] “The building had 5 storeys, the crane knocked off the 2 top storeys, how many storeys are left?” / “The building had 5 storeys, the crane knocked off some of the top storeys, 3 storeys are left, how many storeys were knocked off?” [length] Compariso n “Fred had some cars, Jack has 2 more cars than Fred, Jack has 5 cars, how many cars does Fred have?” / “Fred has 3 cars, Jack has 5 cars, how many more cars does Jack have than Fred?” [set] “The Jed building has 2 more storeys than the Fox building, the Fox building has 5 storeys, how many storeys does the Jed building have?” / “The Fox building is 3 storeys, the Jed building has 5 storeys, how many more storeys does the Jed building have than the Fox building?” [length] Inaction “There were 5 cars and 2 fords, how many holdens?” [set] “The blue and white building was 5 storeys high, 2 were white, how many storeys were blue?” [length]

As we said earlier, the meanings can be combined under part-part-total. This allows all meanings to be integrated and a single method to be used to determine whether a problem is addition or subtraction. (Note: There are some difficulties in integrating comparison but it is worth a little “sleight of hand” to get a single integrating idea.) OPERATION Addition MEANING Know parts – want total PROBLEM “I took \$5 238 from my account, this left \$11 892, what was in the account to start with?” “I added the grant to my \$7 832 account, this gave me \$9 561, how much was in the grant?” THINKING “The \$5 238 & \$11 892 are parts. The wanted amount is the total. So, the operation is addition.” “The \$7 832 is a part, the \$9 561 is the total. The wanted amount is a part. So, the operation is subtraction.”

Subtraction

Know total – want a part

Multiplication and division situations The various situations for multiplication and division are as below. (1) Situations. There are five situations - combining, partitioning, comparing, combinations and inaction (set inclusion). Once again, combine and partition are inverse actions (which contain both multiplication and division), comparison has two sets (one of which is the product), combinations is a new situation based on counting when two or more possibilities are
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Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

available for different combining attributes (e.g., dice and spinner, shirt and pants), and inaction is set inclusion - taking a wider view of the objects. (Note: Some educators see inaction as another form of combining and do not give it a separate meaning.) For division, the unknown may be the number of groups (called grouping or repeated subtraction) or the number in each group (called sharing) (2) Models. There are three models - similar to addition and subtraction, there are set (e.g., unifix and counters) and length models (e.g., unifix stuck together or number lines) and there is also array or area model (e.g., counters, unifix, dot paper or graph paper), a new one for multiplication and division. Overall meaning. The situations can be combined again under part-part-product, where each part is a factor. Multiplication is when know the parts and want the product, while division is when know the product and one part and want the other part. (Note: Here, a “part” refers to either the number multiplying or the number being multiplied.)

(3)

OPERATION Multiplication

MEANING Combining (equal groups ) Partitioning

REAL-WORLD PROBLEM “There were 3 cars with 4 people in each, how many people?” [set] “There were 3 trains each with 4 carriages, how many carriages?” [length] “There are 3 rows and 4 trees in each row, how many trees” [array] “People were put into groups of 4, there were three groups, how many people?” [set] “The carriages were divided into 3 trains each of 4 carriages, how many carriages?” [length] “The trees were planted into 3 rows of 4, how many trees?” [array]

Comparing

“Jack has 3 times as many cars as Fred, Jack has 12 cars, how many cars does Fred have?” [set] “The steam train has 4 carriages, the electric train has 12, how many times as many carriages does the electric have than the steam?” [length]

Combinations Inaction Division Combining

“Jane has 3 tops and 4 skirts, how many outfits?” 4 apples, 4 pears and 4 bananas, how many pieces of fruit? “Groups of 4 people joined for a dinner of 12, how many groups?” [set - grouping] / “3 groups of people joined for a dinner of 12, each group was the same size, how many in each group?” [set sharing] “Trains of 4 carriages were shunted together to form a train of 12 carriages, how many trains?” [length - grouping] / “3 trains were shunted together to form a train of 12 carriages, how many carriages in each train if the trains were the same length?” [length -

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

sharing] “I planted rows of trees with 4 trees in each row, I used 12 trees, how many rows?” [array - grouping] / ‘I planted 3 rows of tress, I used 12 trees, how many in each row? [array – sharing] Partitioning “12 people put into groups of 4, how many groups?” [set grouping] / “12 people were shared amongst 3 cars, how many people in each car?” [set - sharing] “The 12 carriages were divided into trains of 4 carriages, how many trains?” [length – grouping] / “The 12 carriages were shared amongst 3 trains, how many carriages in each train?” [length sharing] “12 trees were divided into rows of 4, how many rows?” [array grouping] / “12 trees were divided into 3 rows, how many trees per row?” [array - sharing] Comparing “Jack has 3 times as many cars as Fred, Jack has 12 cars, how many cars does Fred have?” [set] / “Jack has 12 cars, Fred has 4, how many times as many cars has Jack as Fred?” [set] “The electric train has 12 carriages, the electric train has 3 times as many carriages as the steam, how many carriages does the steam train have?” [length] / “The steam train has 4 carriages, the electric train has 12, how many times as many carriages does the electric have than the steam?” [length] Combinations Inaction “Jane has 12 outfits, There are3 tops, how many skirts?” “4 of each fruit on the table, 12 pieces of fruit in all, how many different types of fruit?” [inaction – grouping] / “The same number of apples, oranges and bananas, 12 pieces of fruit, how many of each fruit?” [inaction – sharing]

As we said earlier, similar to addition and subtraction, the meanings of multiplication and division can be combined under part-part-product. This allows all meanings to be integrated and a single method to be used to determine whether a problem is addition or subtraction. (Note: There are also some difficulties in integrating comparison as there were for addition and subtraction.)

OPERATION Multiplication

MEANING

PROBLEM

THINKING “The \$436 is a part. The 57 is a part. The wanted amount is the product. So, the operation is multiplication.”

Know parts The money was divided amongst the employees, each received – want \$436, there were 57 employees, product how much money was divided?”

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Division

“The number of apples is 8 Know times the number of oranges, product – want a part there are 56 apples, how many oranges?”

“The 8 is a part. The 56 is the product. The wanted amount is also a part. So, the operation is division.”

Introducing symbols A crucial part of developing meaning is to relate symbols to models and real-world situations. The approach advocated is to have the children act out real-world situations with materials while using the language of the operations. Below is one way it could be done. It is also possible to be more open and let the children explore things in their own way (model  explore  share). The attaching of symbols is contentious. A particular setting out can be encouraged or the students could be allowed to develop their own setting out. Below is one way it could be done. It is also possible to be more open and let the children explore things in their own way and to develop their own setting out (model  explore  share). The pendulum is moving to child developed setting out to sharing a variety of methods with the class and letting the children choose their own. However, it is useful to see some ways in which a setting out can be directly developed. Addition Materials and language PROBLEM AND MODEL Real world “There are two cats on a fence, three more jumped up to join problem them. How many cats are now on the fence?” “Show me the two cats on the fence!” “Show me the three cats on the ground!” “Show the three joining the two!” “How many cats on the fence?” [5] OO OO OOO OOOOO OOOOO

Modelling

REFLECTION

Questions “Show me the part that was the cats that were on the fence? How many cats in this part?” [2] “Show me the part that was the cats that were on the ground? How many cats in this part?” [3] “Show me the total which is all the cats together? How many cats in the total?” [5] “How many on fence? How many on ground? How many in total?” OOOOO

Repeat qus

Materials, language and symbols MODEL Materials “There are two cats on a fence, three more jumped up to join them. How many cats are now on the fence?” Symbols “How many cats on the fence? [2] Write this numeral down!” “How many cats on the ground? [3]

INTRODUCTION OF SYMBOLS

2 2 2 3
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Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Write this numeral under the 2 (beside the 2)!” “What are we trying to find? [The total] Write the addition symbol as shown and the line (equals sign) to show we want an answer!” “What is the total? [5] Write this under the line (beside the equals)!”

3 2 2+3= +3 2 2+3=5 +3 5 2 OOO 2 3 2 +3 2 +3 5

CONTINUED RELATION OF SYMBOLS TO MATERIALS AND REAL WORLD SITUATION

Action with

“Two cats on fence!”

OO OO

materials and “Three cats on ground!” symbols “Three cats join the two!”

OOOOO

“How many cats on the fence?”

Subtraction Materials and language PROBLEM Real world “There are six cats on a fence, two jumped down. AND MODEL problem How many cats are now on the fence?” Modelling “Show me the six cats on the fence!” “Show me the two cats jumping down!” “How many cats on the fence?” [4] OOOOOO OOOO OO OOOO

REFLECTION

Questions “Show me the total that was the cats that were on the fence? How many cats in this total?” [6] “Show me the part that was the cats that jumped to the ground? How many cats in this part?” [2] “Show me the part which is the cats left on the fence? How many cats in this part?” [4] “How many on fence? How many jumped down? How many left?” OOOO OO

Repeat qus

Materials, language and symbols MODEL Materials “There are six cats on a fence, two jumped down to the ground. How many cats are now on the fence?” INTRODUCTION OF SYMBOLS Symbols “How many cats on the fence? [6] Write this numeral down!” “How many cats jumped down? [2] Write this numeral under the 6 (beside the 6)!” “What are we trying to find? [The part]
Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

6 6 2 6 6 2 6-2=
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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Write the subtraction symbol as shown and the line (equals sign) to show we want an answer!” “What is the part (the cats left)? [4] Write this under the line (beside the equals)!” CONTINUED RELATION OF SYMBOLS TO MATERIALS AND REAL WORLD SITUATION Action with “Six cats on fence!”

-2 6 -2 4 6-2=4

OOOOOO OOOO OOOO OO OO

6 6 -2 6 -2 4

materials and “Two cats jump down!” symbols “How many cats on the fence?”

Please note: When acting out subtraction, it is useful not to remove the subtracted material completely, but to move aside or down. Then, the subtraction can be checked by moving the subtracted part back, that is, rejoining. Some educators also recommend covering the subtracted part (with hand or etc.) instead of moving it. Multiplication Materials and language PROBLEM Real world “There were 3 bags of lollies, 4 lollies in each bag, AND MODEL problem how many lollies in all?” Modelling “Show me the first bag of lollies!” “Show me the second and third bag!” “How many lollies in all?” [12] oooo oooo oooo oooo oooooooooooo

REFLECTION

Questions “Show me the separate bags of lollies? How many bags?” [3] “Show me one of the bags? How many in each bag?” [4] “Show me all the lollies. How many lollies?” [12]

“How many groups? How many in each group? How many in all?” Materials, language and symbols MODEL Materials ““There were 3 bags of lollies, oooo 4 lollies in each bag, oooo how many lollies in all?” oooo INTRODUCTION OF SYMBOLS Symbols “How many groups [3] Write this numeral down (second position for vertical)!” 3 3 4 3 4 3

Repeat qus

“How many in each group? [4] Write this numeral above the 3 (beside the 3)!”

“What are we trying to find? [The product] 4 3x4= Write the multiplication symbol as shown and the x 3 line (equals sign) to show we want an answer!”
Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999 Page

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Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

“What is the product (h.m. cats in all?)? [12] Write this under the line (beside the equals)!” CONTINUED Action with “Three bags!” RELATION OF materials and “Four lollies in each bag!” SYMBOLS TO symbols MATERIALS AND REAL WORLD “How many lollies in all?” SITUATION

4 3x4=12 x3 12 3 4 x3 4 x3 12

[oooo] [oooo] [oooo]

oooooooooooo

Division Materials and language PROBLEM Real world “\$8 shared amongst 2 people, how much money AND MODEL problem does each person get?” Modelling “Show me \$8! Show me the 2 people!” OOOOOOO “Share the dollars!” ( ) ( ) “How many dollars to each person?” [4] (OOOO) (OOOO)

REFLECTION

Questions “Show me the money we started with? How much?” [8] “Show me the people sharing. How many people?” [2] “Show me what each person got after sharing. How much?” [4] “How much to share? How many people sharing? How much to each person?” “There is \$8 to share, 2 people sharing, how much does each get?” OOOOOOOO ( ) ( ) 8 8/2 2)8 8

Repeat qus

Materials, language and symbols MODEL Materials INTRODUCTION OF SYMBOLS Symbols

“How much money is there to share? [8] Write this numeral down!” “How many people sharing? [2] What are we trying to find?” [How much each gets.] Write the number 2 beside the 8 with appropriate sign for sharing”!

“Share the money. How much did each 8/2=4 2 ) 8 person get? [4] Write this appropriately. CONTINUED RELATION OF Action with “\$8 to share!” materials and “2 people to share!” “How much to each person?” OOOOOOOO ( ) ( )

4 8 2)8 2)8 4

SYMBOLS TO symbols MATERIALS AND REAL WORLD SITUATION

(OOOO) (OOOO)

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Note: It is important to reverse these procedures - to start, say, with 5+8 and move from symbols to modelling and real-world situations. So: real world  model  symbols and symbols  model  real world

The equals sign, dynamic arithmetic and operation principles This section looks at three other issues important in operations. The first is the equals sign. The second is a way of looking at operations that considers them as changes or transformations not relationships. The third is the properties of the operations that are useful in understanding computation and estimation. Equals sign Equations involve the equals sign. Children come to believe that the equals sign shows where the answer should go or that it is an indication to do something. Both of these are inadequate. Children need to taught that equals means the same as, that is, that the right hand side is the same value as the left hand side. Equals is therefore equivalence. It is also important children learn: (a) that the line in the vertical setting out of the algorithm is somewhat similar to the equals sign; and (b) to relate the use of the equals sign to real world situations. SITUATION I had \$5 and my father gave me \$3. I had \$5 and my father gave me \$3. How much money do I have? I had \$5 and my father gave me \$3. I ended up with the same money as my friend, \$8. I had \$5 and my father gave me \$3. I ended up with the same as Joe who had \$10 and lost \$2. REPRESENTATION 5+3 5+3= 5+3=8 5+3=10-2

Children have to have the experience to see that the equals sign means the same thing in each of the following examples: (a) 2+5= (b) 3x7=21 (c) 45=9x5 (d) 18-2=4x4

It is important to build the idea that as long as you do the same to both sides, the equation remains correct. For example: If 7x8=56 then 7x8+42=56+42 is true since adding the same 42 to both sides If 45+76=11x11 then (45+76)x53=(11x11)+53 is incorrect since x53 & +53 are different If 145-78=9x7+4 then 145-78+237=9x7+4-237 is incorrect since+237 & -237 are different Dynamic arithmetic

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Arithmetic can be thought of as relationship, e.g., 2+3=5. However, arithmetic can also be seen as dynamic, that is, as changes. In this view, +3 -7 2+3=5 can be considered as 2  5 and 16-7=9 can be considered as 16  9 and an arithmetical excursion can be represented as: x8 +15 +46 /11 x56 -168 2  16  31  77  7  392  224 Children can make up their own excursions: (a) (b) (c) 56  1 201  78 654         579      43    468

Operation principles (or properties) The following principles are important for mathematics across years 1-10. They are particularly important for estimation. These principles are really patterns or properties that recur for different numbers. Therefore, the way of teaching them is to use reflection on examples. Putting examples like below together will enable children to see that increasing the minuend or the divisor actually decreases the subtrahend (difference) or the quotient. 12-4=8 12-5=7 12-6=6 12-7=5 (1) (2) 24/12=2 24/8=3 24/6=4 24/4=6

and so on

Addition-increase principle. If we take an addition example, say a+b=c, then c increases as a or b increases (and vice versa), and c stays the same if a and b vary in the opposite direction. Inverse subtraction principle. If we take a subtraction example, say c-a=b, then b increases as c increases, but b decreases as a increases. There is the inverse relation between total and minuend. Difference principle. For a subtraction example, say, c-a=b, if c and a are changed the same (the same number is added to or subtracted from c and a), then b will stay the same. This is the difference principle. It means that if we have to calculate 428-195, we can change this to 433200 by adding 5 to both sides. 433-200 is easier to solve than 428-195 and gives the same answer. Multiplication-increase principle. Similar to addition, a multiplication example, say, pxq=r, is such that r increases if p and q increase (and vice versa), and r stays the same if p and q vary in the opposite way. Inverse proportion principle. For division example r/p=q, q increases if r increases and q decreases if p increases (inverse proportion).
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(6)

Quotient principle. Similar to subtraction, a division example, say r/p=q, q stays the same if r and p vary in the same way (r and p are multiplied and divided by the same number).

The principles above are related to how operations are effected by number changes. There are other principles that relate to properties of the operations. Some of these are given below. They can be developed using counters and, for multiplication, using arrays. (1) (2) Commutative principle. This is turn arounds, for + and x only - 3+7=7+3 and 5x8=8x5. Associative principle. This is that numbers can be reassociated for + and x. For example: 6+5=(2+4)+5=2+9=2+(4+5) (3) (4) 12x5=(3x4)x5=3x20=3x(4x5)

Identity principle. For + and x, there are numbers that leave things unchanged - +0 and x1. Inverse principle. - and / are the inverses of + and x, for example, +3, -3 and x5, /5.

BASIC FACTS Once the concepts of the operations are introduced, it is time to teach ways to calculate the answers quicker than representing the operation with counters and counting to get the answer. The first of the calculations to teach are those that form the basis of the later algorithms and estimation the basic facts. It is still accepted that these facts have to be learnt off by heart, that is, automated by practice (drill). This is because that any knowledge that is automated is available for problem solving without taking any thinking power from the problems. The basic facts are all the calculations with numbers less than 10 for addition and multiplication and the inverse operations for subtraction and division, that is: 0+0, 0+1, 0+2, ....., 1+0, 1+1. 1+2, ...., 2+0, 2+1, ...., 9+0, 9+1, 9+2, ...., 9+9 0-0, 1-0, 2-0, ...., 9-0, 1-1, 2-1, ...., 10-1, 2-2, ...., 11-2, ...., 9-9, 10-9, ...., 18-9 0x0, 1x0, ...., 9x0, 0x1, 1x1, ...., 9x1, 2x0, 2x1, ...., 9x0, 9x1, 9x2, ...., 9x9 0/1, 1/1, ...., 9/1, ...., 0/2, 2/2, ...., 18/2, 0/3, 3/3, ...., 27/3, ...., 9/9, ...., 81/9 For algorithms and estimation, it is important that these facts are extended to 30+50, 20x30, 800/20, and so on. These are multiples of tens facts. Although in the end the basic facts are automated, on the way to this end it is important to develop some way in which students can work out answers so that drills can improve speed to automaticity. This is done by teaching thinking strategies. These thinking strategies are ways in which answers can be got for a set of basic facts. This section on basic facts will, therefore, cover: (a) thinking strategies for addition and subtraction; (b) thinking strategies for multiplication and division; (c) multiples of tens facts; and (d) diagnosis and practice activities.

Tom Cooper, School of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, QUT, 1999

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

The strategies for addition and subtraction can be categorised as six types: counting (‘counting on’ and ‘counting back’), turn arounds, near doubles (‘doubles+1’, ‘doubles+2’, ‘levelling pairs’), near tens (‘build to 10’ and ‘add 10’), think addition, and families. The material that can be used to introduce them is counters and unifix cubes, 2 cm graph paper, addition grids, paper, and coloured pens. ‘Counting on’ and ‘counting back’ The strategy of ‘counting on’ is used for addition facts where one number is 0, 1, 2 and 3. The idea is to change counting from both numbers all together (called ‘SUM’) to where only the 0, 1, 2 and 3 are counted and the other number is the start. For example, 6+2 is “six, seven, eight”. One way to do this is to cover the larger number, recall its number and then count on the 0, 1, 2 or 3. This can be done with a hand, or a container. For example: Put 4 counters into your left hand. Put 2 counters in your right hand. Say “four” showing the left hand and then drop in the counters one at a time from the right to the left hand, saying “five, six”. The strategy is also used when subtracting 0, 1, 2 and 3 (counting back). For example, 7-2 is “seven, six, five”. This can be taught by dropping counters out of a hand or a container: Put 5 counters in the left hand, show hand and say “five”, drop out 3 counters one at a time into the right hand saying “four, three, two”. This 3D activitiy can be reinforced with an activity card that relates +2 or -3 to counters or dots. For example (counting on): Take an A4 sheet of paper. Fold it back on itself half way. Place 4 + 2 vertically on the top half and the bottom folded sheet. Open the fold and place two circles behind the fold. Show the folded page, say “4+2”, open the fold, and say “four, five, six”. Similarly, another example (counting back): Take an A4 sheet of paper. Fold it back on itself half way. Place 7 - 3 vertically on the top half and the bottom folded sheet. Open the fold and place three circles behind the fold. Show the folded page, say “7-3”, open the fold, and say “seven, six, five, four”. The two examples are drawn below:

Turn arounds
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This strategy is for all facts. It nearly halves the number of facts to be learnt by showing that ‘bigger + smaller’ (e.g., 5+2) is the same as ‘smaller + bigger’ (e.g., 2+5). For example, 4+7 is 7+4 equals 11. This is done by showing that the counters can be joined either way. For example: Put out 6 counters, add 3 counters to it. Put out 3 counters, add 6 counters to it. Are the final amounts the same? Put out 9 counters. Separate into 6 and 3. Remove and add the 6. Repeat for the 3. Say “3+6 is the same as 6+3”. A way to reinforce this would be a sheet with, for example, 6 circles in the top half with the numeral 6 on its left side and an upside down +6 on its right side and 3 circles on the bottom half with the symbol and numeral +3 on its left side and an upside down 3 on its right side. This can be shown to children the right way up (and they will see 6+3 vertically) and then upside down (and they will see 3+6). Near doubles This strategy is for doubles and for facts that are 1 or 2 from doubles (e.g., 4+5 is “double four, eight, plus one, eight, nine”, and 6+8 is “double 6, twelve, plus two, twelve, thirteen, fourteen”). The first step is to learn the doubles. This can be done as follows: NUMBER TO DOUBLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 THING TO THINK OF The 2 feet or 2 hands on a person The 4 tyres on a car The 6 wickets in cricket The 8 legs of a spider The 10 fingers on our hands The 12 eggs in an egg carton The 14 days in a fortnight The 16 legs in 2 octapuses The 18 dots in 2 Channel 9 symbols

Then ‘doubles+1’ and doubles+2’ are introduced. This can be taught by putting counters for the two numbers in rows in 1:1 correspondence and covering the extras. Then the children can see a double. Lifting the hand will enable the extras to be counted. For example (double+1): Use sheet with 2 rows of ten 2cm squares. Place 5 unifix on the top row. Place 6 on the bottom row. Cover the extra unifix so double 5 is showing, say “double five is 10”, reveal extra cube, and say “count on, ten, eleven”. Similarly, another example (double+2): Use sheet with 2 rows of ten 2cm squares. Place 6 unifix on the top row. Place 8 on the bottom row. Cover the extra unifix so double 6 is showing, say “double six is 12”, reveal extra 2 cubes, and say “count on, twelve, thirteen, fourteen”. A special diagram can be used as below (using example, 7+5): diagram |---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---| 7+5 |---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---| 5+5 +2

There is also a special sheet for reinforcing this strategy: Take an A4 sheet, fold both ends back 5 cm. On the folded left end, write 5+5 vertically. On back of the folded left end write 5+6 vertically. Put two rows of 5 circles on unfolded section and one extra circle under right fold on
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bottom row. Fold over both ends, show and say “5+5, double 5, ten”, unfold both ends and say “5+6, double 5 and 1, ten, eleven”. The diagram below shows this aid for 5+6 and another for 6+8.

It should be noted that counting on is not the only way to do this strategy. Some children count back (e.g., 6+8 is “double eight, sixteen, back two, sixteen, fifteen, fourteen”), while some children level pairs, for the ‘two’ case (e.g., 6+8 is “7+7 by adding 1 to 6 and taking 1 from 8, is double 7, 14”). Near tens This strategy is for all the remaining addition facts - where one number is not 0, 1,2 or 3 and not a near double (e.g., 8+5 and 9+4). Usually, one of the numbers is 7, 8 or 9. The first thing to be taught is the difference between each number to 9 and 10. This can be done on the fingers: Show 10 fingers on your 2 hands. Drop your first 7 fingers. How many left? How many to the ten? Repeat for 4, 6 and 8 fingers. Once this is known, the strategy can be used in ‘build to 10’ mode. For example, 9+5 is “9+1 to make 10 plus another 4, 14”. This can be taught on a sheet with two 2x5 arrays of 2cm squares: Place 8 unifix on the first array and 5 unifix on the second array. Say “5+8”. Move counters from second to first array until all ten squares are covered. Say “5+8 is 10+3 is 13”. Repeat this for 7+4 and 9+6. This can be shown diagrammatically as below (for example 8+5): diagram |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---| |---|---|---|---|---|

8+5

is the same as 10+3 if 2 is moved from the 5 to the 8

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Families This strategy is to reinforce ‘think addition’ and to relate + and -. For each addition/subtraction fact, there are 4 members of the family - 3+5=8, 5+3=8, 8-5=3, and 8-3=5. Families for 4+7 and 15-9 are: 4+7=11, 7+4=11, 11-4=7, 11-7=4 Multiplication and division thinking strategies The strategies for multiplication and division can be categorised as five types: turn arounds, patterns, connections, think multiplication, and families. Strategies are used differently for multiplication and division than they are for addition and subtraction. In addition and subtraction,
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9+6=15, 6+9=15, 15-9=6, 15-6=9

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strategies covered a variety of facts and there was no need to focus on tables. In multiplication and division, there is more focus on tables (e.g., 4x, 7x tables). Turn arounds This strategy is applied to all facts. It means that ‘larger x smaller’ is th same as ‘smaller x larger’, that is, 7x3 = 3x7. It can be taught by comparing groups of counters and by rotating the array model of multiplication a right angle: Put out 3 groups of 5 counters, and put out 5 groups of 3 counters. Which is larger? Are they the same? Construct an array for 4x7. Turn this array 90 degrees. Has the amount changed? What does this mean? Patterns One of the two major strategies for multiplication is patterns. This strategy applies to any of the tables for which there is a pattern that could help children remember the facts. The following tables have patterns: TABLE 2x 5x 9x PATTERN Doubles - 2, 4, 6, 8, 0, .... and so on. Fives - 5, 0, 5, 0 , 5, .... and so on; 5, 10, 15, ...; half the 10x tables; hands; clockface (minutes in one hour). Nines - tens are one less than number to be multiplied by 9, ones are such that tens & ones digits add to 9; 9, 18, 27, .... and so on. Fours - 4, 8, 2, 6, 0 , 4, .... and so on; odd tens is 2 and 6 for ones and even tens is 0, 4 and 8 for ones. 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 Threes - the ‘one back’ pattern 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27

4x

3x

These patterns can be most easily seen with a calculator, unifix, and large and small 99 boards. The table for the pattern is chosen (e.g., 4x). The number of the table is entered on the calculator and [+] [=] pressed (e.g., [4] [+] [=]). The result (4) is covered on the 99 board with a unifix. From there, [=] is continually pressed (adding 4) and the number shown is covered. Once sufficient numbers are covered to see the visual pattern on the 99 board, this pattern is transferred to the small 99 board by colouring squares. The numbers coloured are discussed to arrive at the pattern. If more reinforcement is needed, [number] [+] [=] [=] [=] [=] [=] ... is pressed on the calculator and the ones or tens called out at each [=] press (see below). This enables children to verbally hear patterns. The numbers could also be written down for inspection for pattern. Press [5] [+] [=] [=] [=] ... stating the ones position Press [9] [+] [=] [=] [=] ... stating the ones position, then repeat, stating the tens position Press [4] [+] [=] [=] [=] ... stating the ones position
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Connections The other major strategy is for all the tables not covered by patterns. Here, the unknown table is connected to a known table using the distributive principle. Here are some examples. We can use counters, unifix, dot paper and graph paper for the models. The idea is that the answers to the unknown table are found from the known tables. KNOWN TABLE(S) 2x UNKNOWN TABLE 3x CONNECTION 3x5 2 1 2x 4x 4x6 2 2 2x, 4x 2x, 3x, 5x 2x, 5x 8x 6x 7x 7 ooooooo ooooooo ooooooo --------------ooooooo ooooooo ooooooo 5 ooooo ooooo ---------ooooo 6 oooooo oooooo ------------oooooo oooooo same as 2x5 + 1x5 = 2x5+5 i.e., 3x tables is ‘2x table plus the number’ same as 2x6 + 2x6, i.e., 4x6 is double 2x6, i.e., 4x6 is double doubles

{ 3 { 6 { { { 3

8x6 is the same as 4x6 + 4x6, i.e. double double doubles 6x7 is the same as 3x6 + 3x6, i.e., double 3x (see below) or 6x7 is the same as 5x6 + 1x6, i.e., 5x plus number 7x8 is the same as 5x8+2x8, i.e., 5x plus 2x (see below) 8 ooooooooo ooooooooo { 5 ooooooooo { ooooooooo 7 { ooooooooo { ------------------{ 2 ooooooooo ooooooooo

An excellent sequence, taking into account patterns and connections, is 2x, 5x, 9x, 4x, 8x, 3x, 6x, and 7x. This, of course, is not the only correct or appropriate sequence. (For example, 2x, 4x, 8x, 5x, 3x, 6x, 9x, 7x is also interesting.) Think multiplication This strategy is for all division facts. The division facts are reversed in thinking to multiplication form, for example, 36/9 is rethought as “what time 9 equals 36”. It can be taught by looking at combining and partitioning: Take 3 groups of 5 counters and combine. Partition 15 into groups of 5. Repeat. State “15 divided by 5 is the same as 5 multiplied by what is 15”. Do the same for 4x7=28. Families
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This strategy reinforces ‘think multiplication’ and relate multiplication to division. For each multiplication/division fact, there are 4 members of the family, for example, 3x5=15, 5x3=15, 15/5=3, and 15/3=5. Families for 4x7 and 36/9 are: 4x7=28, 7x4=28, 28/7=4. 28/7=4 Multiples of tens facts Once basic facts are known, it is important to extend them to multiples of ten facts. Multiples of tens facts are the basic facts applied to tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.. For example, 3+5=8 can be extended to 300+500, while 3x4=12 can be extended to 30x40=1200. materials that can be used include MAB and calculators. Addition and subtraction multiples of tens facts It appears fairly simple to extend basic addition and subtraction facts to multiples of tens facts. One approach would be to use MAB. The basic fact 2+3=5 can be related to MAB - 2 longs + 3 longs = 5 longs and 2 flats + 3 flats = 5 flats. From this, it can be seen that 20+30=50 and 200+300=500. Similarly, subtraction multiples of tens facts can be developed, that is, 6-2=4 can lead to 6 flats - 2 flats which in turn can lead to 600-200=400. Another approach could be to simply consider that you are adding/subtracting tens and hundreds like you would add and subtract apples, cars, etc.: “3 apples + 5 apples = 8 apples, therefore 3 tens + 5 tens = 8 tens and 3 hundreds + 5 hundreds = 8 hundreds, and, thus, 30+50=8 and 300+500=800. Similarly, 3 apples and 5 trucks is neither 8 apples or 8 trucks, thus 30+500 is not 800 or 80.” In the same way, we can relate 13 pears - 5 pears = 8 pears to 130-50=80 and 1300500=800. Multiplication and division multiples of tens facts These facts are not as simple as addition and subtraction. They are based on the facts: 10x10=100 10x100=1 000 100x100=10 000 4x9=36, 9x4=36, 36/9=4, 36/4=9

One way to learn the pattern with respect to multiples of tens multiplication facts is to use calculators with respect to examples like those below: 2x4= 20x4= 2x40= 20x40= 200x40= 5x3= 50x3= 5x30= 50x30= 500x30= 8x7= 80x7= 8x70= 80x70= 800x70=

and so on ...

The students are asked to complete the examples and then to look at them for any patterns that emerge that enable the multiples of tens facts to be calculated from the basic facts. The pattern that should emerge is that the zeros are combined, that is, 4x6=24 means that 40x600 is 24 with 3 zeros, i.e., 24 000. To check that the students understand the patterns, they are asked to complete the following without a calculator: 7x6 70x6 70x600 7000x60

In a similar manner, examples such as those below could be completed with a calculator:
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12/6= 120/6= 120/60= 1200/60=

21/7= 210/7= 210/70= 2100/70=

56/8= 560/8= 560/80= 5600/80=

and so on ...

Studying these examples can lead to the pattern that the zeros are subtracted, that is, 56000/80 is 700 because 56/8=7 and 3 zeros - 1 zero = 2 zeros. Once again, students’ patterns can be checked by asking them to complete the following without a calculator: 45/9 450/9 45 000/90 450 000/9 000

Diagnosis, practice activities, patterns and oddities There are a lot of interesting activities that reinforce basic facts. Diagnosis Addition and subtraction grids can be used to determine the strategies needed by children making errors. For instance, the count, near doubles and near ten facts can be placed on an addition grid using different colours. The grid would look like that below. Then, if a child’s errors are placed on the grid, the position of the errors will determine which strategy or strategies are needed. The case for multiplication is similar, but here the errors just show the unknown x tables and the strategy would have to be determined from that which is needed for the x table. Thus, the multiplication grid is broken into two sections - those that show the need for patterns and those that show the need for connections (see below).

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Practice activities After strategies, there is drill and drill and drill. It should be motivating. Basic fact practice games 1. Bingo game. Pick a set of facts to practice, say ‘near doubles’. Write down all the facts to be practiced. Place these on a deck of cards. Take all the answers and place them randomly on 1 cm graph paper. Students take a sheet and for each game they put a line around a square of 9 answers anywhere on sheet. One student calls out the facts by drawing a card from the deck. The other students circle any answer in their 3x3 square. First person who circles a row or column of answers and calls bingo wins. Race track game. Pick a set of facts to practice, say ‘think addition’. Write down all the facts to be practiced. Place these on a deck of cards. Take a coloured manilla folder. Place ‘start’ on one corner and ‘end’ of another. Join start to end with a series of stick-on dots. Some dots can be made special with stars. There can be special dots that allow you to jump forward or fall back. Children throw die, move this distance if correctly answer a fact card taken randomly from the deck of cards. Special spots require special cards. Different children can have different card decks.

2.

Basic facts practice sheets 1. ‘Many ways’ worksheets (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) ‘Count ons’ - 3 columns - fact (5+2) on left, cup with 5 on it and two counters above it in middle, and 7 on right. Leave 2 of the 3 columns empty for each example. ‘Addition turn arounds’ - 3 columns - fact (8+5) on left, turn around (5+8) next, and 13 on right. Leave 2 out of 3 columns empty for each example. ‘Near doubles’ - 4 columns - fact (6+8) on left, double (6+6) next, 12+2 next, and 14 on right. Leave 3 out of 4 columns empty for each example. ‘Build to 10s’ - 4 columns - fact (8+5) on left, 8+2=10 next, 10+3 next, and 13 on right. Leave 3 out of 4 columns empty for each example. ‘Think additions’ - 3 columns - fact (13-8 vertically) on left, think addition fact next (8+?=13 vertically), and 5 on right. Leave 2 out of 3 columns empty for each example. ‘Multiplication turn arounds’ - 3 columns - fact (5x3) on left, turn around (3x5) next, and 15 on right. Leave 2 out of 3 columns empty for each example. ‘Think multiplications’ - 3 columns - fact (27/3) on left, think multiplication fact next (3x?=27), and 9 on right. Leave 2 out of 3 columns empty for each example. ‘Multiples of tens addition/subtraction’ - 4 columns - fact (2+7 vertically) on left, multiple of tens facts in next 3 columns (20+70, 200+700, 2000+7000). Leave 3 out of 4 columns empty for each example.

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2.

3 minute kilometre activity. Choose a set of facts to practice - say 2, 3, 4 and 5 multiplication facts. Place all these facts randomly on a sheet. Students are given 3 minutes to do as many examples on the sheet as they can. The same csheet is used over a 2 week period. Children try to improve their score each day. Children record errors on a small card and practice these errors. Beat the audio tape. Read facts randomly onto a tape - 10 to a set. Make up more than one set. Read at different speeds - slow to fast. Children work through the sets - seeing if they can continue to get them all right as the speed gets faster.

3.

Drills should be motivating and effective and efficient. The following is an example of a non efficient and non effective drill: The teacher puts the children in a circle and asked facts, in turn, around the circle. If a child is incorrect they sit down and take no further part in the game. The winner is the last standing. The game takes 30 minutes. Patterns and oddities Hands can be used for the 9x tables and for all multiplication facts above 5x5 (the Russian Peasant method). These two methods are shown below.

COMPUTATION Computation covers the procedures for operations when both numbers are 10 or over. Computation can be accurate, give the correct answer, or it can be an estimate, get close to the correct answer (as close as the accuracy required). Computation can be achieved through:
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(a) (b)

algorithms - procedures that will always give the correct answer if followed; and heuristics or strategies - rules of thumb that point the direction to an answer.

Whether by algorithms or strategies, there are four types of computation to now be considered in computation. They are (a) (b) (c) (d) mental computation - accurately finding an answer without a calculating aid or using a pen-and-paper procedure; pen-and-paper algorithms - a pen-and-paper procedure for accurately finding an answer (this used to be the manstay of the primary syllabus); computational estimation - a way of getting estimates of large number calculations (most useful in checking the use of a calculating device); and calculator algorithms - how to use a calculator to correctly compute the answer (used mostly in problem situations.

At the present time, the conventional wisdom is to teach the following with respect to addition and subtraction computation: (a) accurate computation less than 1000 - have a procedure for accurately calculating for numbers less than 1000 without aids (either mental computation, a traditional pen-andpaper algorithm, or a child-developed pen-and-paper version of a non-traditional mental strategy); accurate computation greater than 1000 - use calculators when both numbers become larger than 1000; and estimates - have techniques to estimate (without using a calculating device) for any size numbers.

(b) (c)

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(vi)

Wholistic(change one number into an easily added number, add it and then compensate the answer or change one number and do the opposite to the other until one number is an easily added number, then add)

(vi)

The computation strategies are described in the table below. Examples for both addition and subtraction are given, as well as examples for both subtractive and additive subtraction.

Strategy Counting

Example 28+35: 28, 29, 30, ... (count on by 1) 52-24: 52, 51, 50, … (count back by 1 - subtractive) : 24, 25, 26, ... 52 (count on by 1 - additive)

Separation

right to left (u-1010) left to right (1010)

28+35: 8+5=13, 20+30=50, 63 52-24: 12-4=8, 40-20=20, 28 (subtractive) : 4+8=12, 20+20=40, 28 (additive) 28+35: 20+30=50, 8+5=13, 63 52-24: 40-20=20, 12-4=8, 28 (subtractive) : 20+20=40, 4+8=12, 28 (additive) 28+35: 28+5=33, 33+30=63 52-24: 52-4=48, 48-20=28 (subtractive) :24+8=32, 32+ 20=52, 28 (additive)

Aggregation

right to left (u-N10)

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left to right (N10) Wholistic compensation

28+35: 28+30=58, 58+5=63 52-24: 52-20=32, 32-4=28 (subtractive) : 24+20=44, 44+8=52, 28 (additive) 28+35: (28+2)+35=30+35=65-2=63 52-24: 52-(24+6)=52-30=22, 22+6=28 (subtractive) : 24+26=50, 50+2=52, 26+2=28 (additive)

levelling

28+35: 30+33=63 52-24: 58-30=28 (subtractive) : 22+28=50, 28 (additive)

The separation R-L strategy is, of course, very similar to the traditional pen-and-paper procedure taught for many years in schools. Thus, it is called the traditional strategy. The other strategies are called non-traditional. Counting is an ineffective and inefficient strategy and should be extended into one of the others. The multiplication and division strategies The multiplication strategies are as follows: (i) (ii) Counting (repeated addition or skip counting of the second number for the first number’s number of times); R-L multiplication (the standard pen-and-paper multiplication algorithm procedure separating both numbers into place values and then multiplying components, ones x ones, tens x ones, hundreds x ones, ..., ones x tens, tens x tens, ..., ones x hundreds, ... and so on); L-R multiplication (the standard pen-and-paper algorithm starting with the larger place values - separating both numbers into place values and then multiplying components, ..., hundreds x hundreds, tens x hundreds, ones x hundreds, ..., tens x tens, ones x tens, ..., tens x ones, ones x ones); Standard division (the reverse of the standard sharing pen-and-paper algorithm - asking what number shared amongst the first number (say, of people) will give the second number - this strategy is unlikely to be used in real life); and Wholistic (not separating numbers into place values and trying to relate the example to another example for which the answer is known).

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

The division strategies are the same: (i) (ii) (iii) Counting (repeated subtraction of the second number from the first number until zero is reached, or repeated addition of the second number until the first is reached); R-L multiplication (separating the numbers into their place values, thinking of the division as a multiplication and using the standard R-L algorithm); L-R multiplication (separating the numbers into their place values, thinking of the division as a multiplication and using the non-standard L-R algorithm);
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(iv) (v)

Standard division (separating the numbers into their place values, sharing the place values L-R amongst the second number of people); and Wholistic (not separating numbers into place values and trying to relate the example to another example for which the answer is known).

The computation strategies are described in the table below. Examples for both multiplication and division are given.

Strategy Counting

Description count all, modelling, transitional count (with modelling), double count (without modelling), repeated addition, doubles/near doubles, halves/near halves, repeated subtraction. right to left separation

Example 5x39: 5, 10, 15, 20, .... [39 times] ...., 135, 140 192/6: 192, 186, 180, ...., 6, 0 [32 times] 192/6: 6, 12, ...., 192 [32 times]

Standard R-L multiplication Non standard L-R multiplication Standard division

5x39: 5x9=45, 5x30=150, 150+45=195 192/6: 6x2=12, leaves 192-12=180, 6x30=180, 30+2=32

left to right separation

5x39: 5x30=150, 5x9=45, 150+45=195 192/6: 5x10=50, 5x20=100, 5x30=180, 5x2=12, 18+12=192, 30+2=32

left to right separation

5x39: what number is such that shared among it gives 39, 15 shared amongst 5 is 3, 45 shared amongst 5 is 9, number is 150+45=195 192/6: 19 tens shared amongst 6 is 3 tens, 1 ten left over means 12 ones shared amongst 6 to give 2 ones, answer is 32.

Wholistic

direct compensation, inverse compensation, left to right and add 0.

5x39: 5x40=200 less 5= 195, 192/6: 600/6=100, 300/6=50, 150/6=25, 42/6=7, answer=25+7=32

Mental computation Mental computation is best based on the strategy that is natural for the child. Hence, children should be taught diagnostically, and not directly taught a method unless they do not acquire their own efficient and effective method. The separation strategies have to be taught by materials that show place value (i.e., base and position). Hence, the material for the separation strategies is MAB and place value charts. This is not the case for aggregation and wholistic strategies. We need a material that does not separate at least

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one of the numbers into place value. The two best options for teaching the aggregation and wholistic strategies appear to be the number line and the 99 board. (1) Number line . Free number lines are drawn. If two numbers are to be added or subtracted, the first number is written on the line and the student is encouraged to hop along the line (by tens, by ones, by other numbers) the amount of the second number (either forward or back depending on the operation). Additive subtraction can also be encouraged by getting the students to put both numbers on the line and jumping along the line from the smaller to the bigger. Numbers like 8 and 9 can be added by a 10 hop and a back 1 hop. Similar for subtracting 8 or 9. 99 boards. With this material, the students are taught how to find numbers from zero - down to increase tens, up to decrease tens, across to increase ones, and back to decrease ones. Then, addition is done by finding the first number and then adding the tens (going down) and adding the ones (going across) of the second number. Subtraction is done by finding the first number and then subtracting the tens (going up) and subtracting the ones (going back) of the second number. One can also add numbers like 9 and 8 by adding an extra 10 and the going back. Similarly for subtracting 9 or 8.

(2)

The number lines and the 99 boards tend to focus initially on the aggregation strategy. The wholistic strategy comes in with practice as the students seek a quicker way for adding on 9 or subtracting 9. The two materials also tend to focus students on the L-R strategy (not the R-L) because it is just common sense efficient to consider the tens first. The most effective strategy for both multiplication and division mental computation is L-R multiplication. This can be taught with the aid of a game, Two-step Target. The ‘two-step target’ game is based on the game Target. Target is a game in which you enter a starting number and x on a calculator and, then, you enter guesses and = in an attempt to reach a target number. As long as ‘clear’ and x are not pressed again, each of your guesses will be multiplied by the starting number and you can keep doing better guesses until you reach the target number. We are adapting the game here to teach mental division by L-R multiplication. In the ‘two-step target’ game, the aim is to find the number in two steps, the first finding the ten and the second finding the one. For example: Starting number is 7 and target is 679. The aim of the game is to find in two steps the number which multiplied by 6 gives 679 and on the calculator and press x, the two steps being finding the ten and then the one. 7x90=630 so the ten is 90. 7x7=49 and 630+49=679. Hence, the one is 7 and the guess is 97. Traditional algorithms The modern approach to written algorithms is that students should be allowed to develop their own strategies and their own setting out - as they do for mental computation. However, many schools still require the traditional algorithms to be taught to all children. Therefore, we include what we think is the best way to do this. It is based on real world problem  model  language  symbol. Materials used are MAB, bundling sticks, place value charts, dot paper, graph paper, and coloured pens. Addition
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REAL WORLD PROB MODEL AND LANGUAGE

John had \$47, Frank gave him \$38, how much money does he have? Tens | Ones |||| | ....... Tens | Ones |||| | ....... ||| |........ Tens | Ones |||| | ||| | |............... Tens | |||| ||| | Ones | | | | .....

Show the 47 Show the 38

What do you want? [the total] Join the ones. How many ones? [15]

Is there enough ones to make a 10? [Yes] Make the 10, put it above the other tens, how many ones are left? [5]

Join the tens. Tens | Ones How many tens are there? [8] | | | | | | | || . . . . . What is the answer? [8 tens & 7 ones - 87] MODEL, LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS Show the 47. Write 47. Show the 38. Write 38 underneath the 47 with place values aligned. Tens |||| Tens |||| ||| | Ones | ....... | Ones | ....... |........ | Ones | +38 | |.......... |..... | Ones | | | | ..... 47 47 38 47

What do you want? [the total] Tens Draw a line underneath the 38 and put the | | | | plus sign beside the 38. ||| Join the ones. How many ones? [15] Is there enough ones to make a 10? [Yes] Make the 10, put it above the other tens, how many ones are left? [5] Write the 5 under the line in the ones position Tens | |||| |||

1 47 +38 5 1 47 +38 85

Join the tens. Tens | Ones How many tens are there? [8] | | | | | | | || . . . . . Write the 8 in the tens position under the line. What is the answer? [8 tens & 5 ones - 85] Subtraction REAL WORLD PROB MODEL AND John had \$72, he gave Frank \$35, how much money does he have? Tens | Ones
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Show the 72.

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LANGUAGE What do you want? [to subtract 35] Do you have enough loose ones to give 5 ones? [No] Trade a ten for 10 ones. How many ones now? [12]. How many tens? [6] give 5 ones? [No] Remove the 5 ones. How many ones are left? [7]

||||||| | Tens | ||||||| |

.. Ones ..

Tens | Ones |||||| | .. | .......... Tens | Ones |||||| | ....... | | ..... | Ones | ....... | | ..... Ones .. Ones .. 72 72 - 35

Remove the 3 tens. How many tens Tens are left? [3] ||| What is the answer? [3 tens & 7 ones - 37] ||| MODEL LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS Show the 72. Write 72. What do you want? [to subtract 35] Write 35, minus sign and line under 72. Do you have enough loose ones to give 5 ones? [No] Trade a ten for 10 ones. How many ones now? [12]. How many tens? [6] give 5 ones? [No] Write 6 and 12 above the 7 and the 2. Remove the 5 ones. How many ones are left? [7] Write 7 in the ones under the line.

Tens | ||||||| | Tens | ||||||||

Tens | Ones 6 12 |||||| | .. 72 | . . . . . . . . . .- 3 5 Tens | Ones |||||| | ....... | | ..... | Ones | ....... | | ..... 6 12 72 - 35 7 6 12 72 - 35 37

Remove the 3 tens. How many tens Tens are left? [3] ||| Write the 3 in the tens under the line. What is the answer? [3 tens & 7 ones - 37] ||| Multiplication using MAB REAL WORLD PROB MODEL AND LANGUAGE

“John bought 3 radios for \$46, how much did this cost?” Tens | Ones |||| | ...... Tens | Ones |||| | ...... |||| | ......
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Show the first 46. Show me the second and third 46. How many 36s? [3] So 3 lots of 36. What do you want? [the total]

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Look at the ones. How many groups are there? [3] How many in each group? [6] So there are 3 lots of 6 or 3x56 ones. Therefore, how many ones are there? [18] Join the ones together and check this. Is it so? [Yes]

|||| | ......

Tens |||| |||| ||||

| Ones | | | |.......... | ........ | | | | Ones

Is there enough ones to make a 10? [Yes] Make the 10, put it above the other tens, how many ones are left? [8] Ignoring the carried 10, how many groups of ten? [3] How many tens in each group? [4] So, there are 3 lots of 4 tens or 3x4 tens plus the extra ten Therefore, how many tens? [13] Join the tens. Form hundreds if necessary. What is the answer? [138] MODEL, LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS

Tens | |||| ||||

|||| | | ........

Tens | Ones | | | | | | | | | | | | || . . . . . . . . Hundreds | Tens | Ones [] | ||| | ........ Tens | Ones |||| | ...... 46 46 x3

Show the first 46. Write down 46.

Show me the second and third 46 Tens | Ones How many 36s? [3] So 3 lots of 36. |||| | ...... What do you want? [the total] |||| | ...... Write down 3 under the 6. Put x beside |||| | ...... the 3 and draw a line underneath. Look at the ones. How many groups are there? [3] How many in each group? [6] So there are 3 lots of 6 or 3x56 ones. Therefore, how many ones are there? [18] Join the ones together and check this. Is it so? [Yes] Tens |||| |||| |||| | Ones | | | |.......... | ....... | Ones | | | | | ........
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Is there enough ones to make a 10? [Yes] Make the 10, put it above the other tens, how many ones are left? [8] Ignoring the carried 10, how many groups of ten? [3] How many tens in each group? [4] So, there are 3 lots of 4 tens

Tens | |||| |||| ||||

1 4.6 x3 8

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

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or 3x4 tens plus the extra ten Therefore, how many tens? [13] Join the tens. Form hundreds if necessary. What is the answer? [138] Tens | Ones | | | | | | | | | | | | || . . . . . . . . Hundreds | Tens | Ones [] | ||| | ........ 1 46 x3 138

Multiplication using arrays (a) 2x1 algorithms as ones by ones and tens by tens. A tiler constructed 3 rows of tiles. Each row has 24 tiles. How many 24 ........................ ........................ ........................ 20 .................... .................... .................... 24 ........................ ........................ ........................ 20 .................... .................... .................... 4 .... .... .... 20 x3 60 24 x3 72 4 .... .... .... 24 x3

REAL WORLD PROB tiles? MODEL AND LANGUAGE

Show me the 3 rows of tiles by putting a rough rectangle around 3 rows of 24 dots. Consider the rows in terms of 20 tiles and another 4 tiles. Then, 3 rows of 24 is 3 rows of 20 and 3 rows of 4.

3

3

MODEL, LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS

Show me the 3 rows of tiles by putting a rough rectangle around 3 rows of 24 dots. Write 24 multiplied by 3. Consider the rows in terms of 20 tiles and another 4 tiles. Then, 3 rows of 24 is 3 rows of 20 and 3 rows of 4 3x24 can be considered as 3x20 and 3x4. That is, 60+12=72

3

3

4 x3 12

(b)

2x2 algorithms as tens and ones by ones and tens and ones by tens. A tiler constructed 32 rows of tiles. Each row has 24 tiles. How many 24 |-------------------------- | | | |-------------------------- | 24 |-------------------------- | | |
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REAL WORLD PROB tiles? MODEL AND LANGUAGE

Show me the 32 rows of tiles by putting a rectangle around 32 rows of 24 dots.

32

Consider the columns in terms of 30 tiles and another 2 tiles. Then, 32 rows of 24 is 30 30

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

rows of 24 & 2 rows of 24. 2 MODEL, LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS Show me the 32 rows of tiles by putting a rectangle around 32 rows of 24 dots. Write 24 multiplied by 32.

| | |-------------------------- | | | |-------------------------- | 24 |-------------------------- | | | |-------------------------- | 24 x32

32

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Consider the columns in terms of 30 tiles and another 2 tiles. Then, 32 rows of 24 is 30 30 rows of 24 & 2 rows of 24. 32x24 can be considered as 30x24 and 2x24. That is, 2 720+48=768.

24 |-------------------------- | | | | | |-------------------------- | | | |-------------------------- |

24 24 x 3 0| x2 720 48 24 x32 48 720 768

Division REAL WORLD PROB each get? MODEL AND LANGUAGE John had \$72, he shared this amongst his 3 nephews, how much did Tens | Ones ||||||| | .. ( ) ( ) ( )

Show the 72. Show the 3 nephews.

What do we have to do? [Share the money] Tens | Ones What shall we share first? [tens] | | | | | | || .. Are there enough tens for one ten to each ( ) ( ) ( ) nephew, for 2 tens to each nephew? [Yes] Share out the tens. How many tens to each nephew? [2] How many tens left over? [1] How many tens used? [6] Trade the ten for 10 ones. How many ones now? [12]. Share out the ones. How many ones to each nephew? [4] How many ones used? [12] How many ones left? [0] What did each nephew get? [\$24] MODEL, LANGUAGE AND SYMBOLS Show the 72. Show the 3 nephews. Write down the 72. Tens | (| |) Tens (| |) Tens | Ones | .. (| |) (| |) | Ones | ............ (| |) (| |)

| Ones | (| | ....) (| | ....) (| | ....) Tens | Ones ||||||| | .. 72 ( ) ( ) ( ) 3) 7 2

What do we have to do? [Share the money] Tens | Ones Write down the 3 & the symbols for divide. | | | | | | | | .. What shall we share first? [tens] Are there enough tens for one ten to each ( ) ( ) ( ) nephew, for 2 tens to each nephew? [Yes] Share out the tens. How many tens to each nephew? [2] How many tens left over? [1] How many tens used? [6] Put 6 under 7, 1 below this and 2 above 7. Trade the ten for 10 ones. How many Tens | (| |) Tens | | Ones ..

(| |) (| |) | Ones

2 3) 7 2 6 1 2
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ones now? [12]. Write 2 beside 1 to show 12. Share out the ones. How many ones to each nephew? [4] How many ones used? [12] How many ones left? [0] Write 12 below 12, 0 below this and 4 above 2 in 72. What did each nephew get? [\$24] Computational estimation Computational estimation is based on (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

3) 7 2 (| |) 6 12 Tens | Ones 24 | 3) 7 2 (| | ....) (| | ....) (| | ....) 6 12 12 0

| ............ (| |) (| |)

strategies (front end, rounding, straddling, nice numbers, and getting closer); place value; basic facts and multiples of tens facts; and operation principles (addition-increase, inverse subtraction, multiplication-increase, and inverse proportion).

Computational-estimation strategies Examples of the computational-estimation strategies are given in the table below. Examples for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are given. In particular, many examples are given for the ‘getting closer’ strategy. Each of the results for each of the strategies is taken and looked at in terms of getting closer. Strategy Front end Description and example Cover all digits but the highest place value digits (the front digits), computing with these to give the estimate. For example:
• • • •

4 567 + 8 329 = 4 000 + 8 000 = 12 000 55 181 - 27 988 = 50 000 - 20 000 = 30 000 37 x 456 = 30 x 400 = 12 000 87 567 / 45 = 80 000 / 40 = 2 000

Rounding

Round the two numbers to the place value that gives the required accuracy and then compute. For example: • • • • 4 567 + 8 329 = 5 000 + 8 000 = 13 000 55 181 - 27 988 = 60 000 - 30 000 = 30 000 or = 55 000 - 28 000 = 27 000 37 x 456 = 40 x 500 = 20 000 * 87 567 / 45 = 90 000 / 50 = 1 800

Rounding up and down the numbers so that a larger and a smaller numbers can be calculated between which the answer is. For example: • • 4 567 + 8 329 is between 5 000 + 9 000 = 14 000 and 4 000 + 8 000 = 12 000 56 181 - 27 988 is between 60 000 - 20 000 = 40 000 and 50 000 - 30 000 = 20 000
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• • Nice numbers • • • • Getting closer

37 x 456 is between 30 x 400 = 12 000 and 40 x 500 = 20 000 87 567 / 45 is between 80 000 / 50 = 1 600 and 90 000 / 40 = 2 250 4 567 + 8 329 = 4 500 + 8 500 = 13 000 55 181 - 27 988 = 56 000 - 26 000 = 30 000 37 x 456 = 40 x 450 = 1 800 87 567 / 45 = 88 000 / 44 = 2 000

The numbers are rounded to numbers which easily compute. For example:

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SunsetMaths Project: Operations, basic facts and algorithms

Frameworks for teaching primary mathematics

Calculators The calculator should be seen in two ways. First it is an answer key - providing calculation for large numbers. Second, it is a teaching aid for instruction in operations. There are two useful things to use the calculator for. (1) ‘Calculator codes’. This is a technique for solving a problem with large numbers. For example, take the difficult problem: “The farmer’s loan was 45 times larger than the money he took out of the bank, he was left with \$46 872 in the bank and his loan was \$609 615, how much money did he have in the bank to start with?” This can be rewritten with small numbers as follows: “The farmer’s loan was 2 times larger than the money he took out of the bank, he was left with \$5 in the bank and his loan was \$6, how much money did he have in the bank to start with?” Looking at the small numbers, it can be seen that the farmer took out 6/2=\$3 and so had 3+5=\$8 in the bank. The ‘code’ is, therefore, 6/2+5. So the original problem can be solved with a calculator by following the same ‘code’ - 609 615 / 45 + 46 872. (2) Very large numbers. It can be fun and educational to attempt to calculate with numbers too large for the calculator. For instance: (a) 6 254 587 568 + 15 968 535 695 is solved by 6 254 + 15 978 = 22 232 and 587 568 + 535 695 = 1 123 263 and combining the 1 with the 22 232 and joining to give answer 22 233 123 263. 5 102 342 452 - 1 568 989 687 is solved by partititoning the first number so there is a decomposition of a 1 to the second half of the first number to give 5 101 - 1 568 = 3 533 and 1 342 452 - 989 687 = 352 765 and combining to give answer 3 533 352 765. 456 872 x 758 is solved by 456 x 758 = 345 648 and 872 x 758 = 660 976 and combining the 660 with the 345 648 (345 648 + 660 = 346 308) and joining to give answer 346 308 976. 568 005 620 / 845 is solved by partititoning the first number into 568 005 and 620, dividing 568 005 by 845 to get 672.19526, breaking this into 672 and the decimal part, calculating 0.19526 x 845 = 164.9947 which has to be considered as 165 (taking into account truncation error), combining this with 620 to give 165 620 / 845 = 196, and joining with the 672 to give the answer 672 196.

(b)

(c)

(d)

Practice activities Worksheets

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1.

Motivating work sheets. Take a set of practice examples - about 10 to 12 examples. Place them on half a work sheet. On the other half either have a maze to be followed, a dot drawing to be drawn, or a joke to be answered. Place answers in the maze, answers beside the dots, or answers beside letters. Then answering the examples correctly will give the path through the maze, the sequence to join the dots to give the drawing, or the sequence to place the letters to give the joke. Hexagons. Draw a 5x5 rhombus of hexagons. Put 25 exercises on the page below this rhombus. Put the answers randomly on the 25 hexagons. Students choose a problem and colour the hexagon answer. First student who makes a path across the rhombus with his/her colour (top to bottom or right to left) wins. Mix-up. Give a combination of real world problems and exercises interspersed with reversals (solutions in word form for which a problem has to be written or solutions in symbols for which an exercise has to be written). Draw the line. A list of exercises on the left and a list of problems on the right. Lines have to be drawn to connect the exercises to their real world problem.

2.

(3)

(4)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

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the division), press [guess] [=]. Do not press an operation or clear. The winner is the player with the least number of guesses before they get the right guess that gives the target.

TEACHING HINTS The basis of mathematics teaching that we have tried to emulate in the two units (LAB342 & MDP450) is that mathematical knowledge must be constructed individually by learners and then developed into communicable form through sharing and discussion. The position is that as mathematical concepts and principles only exist in the minds of learners, they must be abstracted from examples or extended from previous knowledge by the learners themselves. Thus effective mathematics teaching uses materials and language (questioning) to build learning environments which encourage learners to construct their own mathematical knowledge. The basis of formal mathematical knowledge is, therefore, informal understandings held ideosyncratically by learners. As a consequence, the position of this paper is that the planning teaching episodes should be based on the relationships as below. Task analysis of the mathematical focus of the episode and diagnosis of the strengths and weaknesses of the learner are combined to select appropriate materials, language and activities to facilitate the construction of the desired mathematical ideas. MATHEMATICS \ / LEARNER

\ / LANGUAGE, MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES | | MATHEMATICAL IDEA Operations are still the central component of primary mathematics. Hence, their teaching is a major area. However, time and energy prevent us from doing anything but a few good ideas: (1) teaching should move as follows | | | | | | V REAL WORLD SITUATIONS MODELS (3D, 2D & PATTERNS) LANGUAGE SYMBOLS

then reverse and then interrelate! (2) (3) materials should not be used for answers but to get across process and strategy, for example, in 3x24, the MAB should show that 3x24 is the same as 3x20 + 3x4 not that it equals 72; activity should be based on reversing, for example, p[ractive sheets should be a mix of the following types of examples 2 5 3? 48 ??
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+57 ?? (4)

+?? 65

+56 104

+?8 92

teaching should follow the cycle | | | | V INTRODUCE (INFORMAL -> FORMAL) CONSOLIDATE (CONNECT & PRACTICE) APPLY (PROBLEMS & EXTENSIONS)

(5)

teaching should be active not imitative ACTIVE (YES) | Explore/experiment | Record | Look for pattern V Practice pattern IMITATIVE (NO) | Listen to rule | Watch teacher do example | Copy procedure V Practice procedure

This is particularly so for calculators - for most patterning activities, we should use calculators to: | | | V (6) do a series of computations record look for pattern check pattern is known by doing similar examples

the focus of teaching is on concepts and thinking strategies (for basic facts, for computational estimation, for mental computation) not on procedures such as algorithms.

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