You are on page 1of 5

http://rapidshare.com/files/168262492/SAP_SD_Interview_Questions_Answers_and_Exp lanations http://www.easy-share.com/f/1325978120/Sales%20&%20Distribution http://www.amaderforum.com/showthread.php?t=715371 http://www.amaderforum.com/showthread.php?

t=82277

Using the right proportions of raw material is essential for obtaining an optimu m quality of concrete mix. Although it is advisable to seek professional advice for determining the proportions, this chart can be used as a ready reference: Use/Application Proportion on volumetric basis Cement Sand Stone Aggregates Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) 1 3 6 RCC footing column, beam, slab, etc. 1 1.5 3 Brick Masonry (23 cm and above) 1 6 Brick Masonry (Less than 23 cm) 1 3 Cement plaster on wall 1 4 Cement plaster on ceiling 1 3 Ceramic tiles fixing 1 4 IPS flooring 1 2 4 Cement concrete for footpath/internal roads in housing societies 1 1.5 3 Note : It is preferable to use fine sand for plastering work and coarse sand for masonry, PCC, RCC & CC Road work.

Maturity period for wall to get fixed eshuttering period relates to the maturity of concrete and depends on the ambien t temperature. Forms shall not struck until the concrete has reached strength at least twice the stress of which the concrete may be subjected at the time of re moval of form work. Assuming standard conditions of workmanship and quality of materials, you can re fer to the following time-frames for the removal of forms. Form Summers Winters (Temp <18 C) Walls, columns and vertical faces of structural members 24 hrs. 48 hrs. Removal of props under slab Spanning up to 4.5 m 7 days 14 days Removal of props under beams and arches spanning up to 6 m 14 days 28 days

Tips Construction Tips In case of any construction project, proper planning is very important to ensure

that the timelines are met and the construction is strong and durable. With the rapid development taking place in the industry, there is often a multiplicity o f factors to be considered and decision making can be complex. To avoid your dep endency upon the site engineer or contractor, it is advisable to be aware of cer tain important aspects with regard to construction planning. Building Configuration An important feature is regularity and symmetry in the overall shape of the bui lding. A building shaped like a box, such as rectangular both in plan and elevat ion is inherently stronger than one that is L-shaped or U-shaped such as a build ing with wings. Separation of Blocks Separation of a large building into several blocks may have to be done in order to obtain symmetry and regularity of each block. Separated sections can be trea ted just like expansion joints. Adverse Elements Even before the construction commences, it is essential to check for certain ad verse factors whose existence would necessitate the abandonment of that particul ar site for construction. 1. Immediate neighbourhood of rivers carrying heavy floods 2. Reclaimed soils; land subject to subsidence or settlement 3. Smoke or obnoxious odour due to vicinity to industrial areas Besides the above factors, you must also ensure that the construction site shou ld not be a part of a land depression. The topographical conditions of a site no t only determine its elevation and foundation, but also affect the laying of sew ers and drains. Geological Conditions The geological conditions of the site are also important factors to be consider ed due to their effect on the foundation and the subsequent life and strength of the construction. If there is a rocky base on the surface or below, the site is optimum as it provides an excellent base for laying the foundation and also pre vents damage due to moisture. Orientation In northern India, longer walls are generally placed towards north & south and shorter walls towards east & west, so that minimum possible walls are exposed to the sun. The general wind direction of the site also determines the orientation of the building. Plinth It is a good practice to keep plinth level 60 to 75 centimetres above natural g round level. Damp Proof Course Provide a Damp Proof Course (D.P.C.) at plinth level in cement concrete by addi ng water -proofing compound in the ratio 1 : 2 : 4. R.C.C. Bands

Provide R.C.C. bands at sill, lintel and roof levels for load bearing construct ions. Brick Masonry Soak the red bricks in clear water thoroughly before use. It is desirable to provide expansion joints after every 30 meter length of wall. Half brick masonry wall should be reinf Half brick masonry wall should be reinforced with suitable reinforcement at ever y third or fourth course of wall. Material calculator Concrete Calculator Site-Mix Concrete Calculator Please specify the dimensions of the concrete structure (Beam, column, slab, fo oting, etc.) Length Width Height Concrete Proportion The a = b = c = concrete proportion is represented in a:b:c format Cement Sand Stone aggregates mix of 10mm & 20mm

Power-Mix Concrete Calculator To calculate the approximate requirement for RMC, please specify the dimensions of the concrete structure (Beam, column, slab, footing, etc.) Height (mtr.) Width (mtr.) Depth (mtr.)

Note:1) Capacity of Transit Mixer to carry concrete is 6 cubic metre. 2) Minimum order quantity should be 30 cubic metre (with pump) and 6 cubic metr e (without pump). Raw Material Calculator Calculate the approximate quantity of construction material required for a sing le storey load bearing building.* Enter Area Sq. ft.

*Assumptions: 1. Load bearing brick wall thickness of 23cm (9 inches) in cement mortar 1:6 2. Plaster in cement mortar 1:4 Note: We recommend JK Lakshmi RMC to save time and cost. Paint Calculator Wall Height (ft.) Total Width of all walls (ft.) Area of doors, windows, etc. (sq.ft.)

Waterproofing Dampness or moisture can prove very damaging to any construction. A lot of money can get wasted due to unexpected seepage of water into walls or woodwork. Somet imes the presence of moisture can even corrode the steel framework, thus placing the whole structure at risk. In order to safeguard your precious construction and also to avoid future incon venience, it is highly important to take strict measures to waterproof your hous e. There are various waterproofing techniques that can be used during and after the construction of the house. The choice of method depends upon various factors , the primary one amongst them being cost. It is essential to consult a qualifie d Engineer or Architect for an appropriate waterproofing method to be followed i n order to avoid subsequent hassles and damage. Material for waterproofing Traditionally, Kota stone and bitumen are used as effective waterproofing materi al during construction. However with the advancement in technology, various spec ialised compounds are also available that can also be used as effective waterpro ofing solutions. For high-cost constructions such as malls and shopping complexe s, some expensive and latest methods such as fibre-mesh and APP sheets are also used to form waterproof layers. The choice of the waterproofing material and the method of application must be decided by a qualified Engineer or Architect. You can also refer to the BIS webs ite for the list of standards related to waterproofing compounds. Primarily, there are 3 areas of a typical building that need specific waterproo fing treatment: Basements Terraces Sunken Areas Washrooms and kitchens have a sunken area below the floor that houses the water pipe network. This area should also be treated as a basement, and similar effec tive waterproofing solutions must be followed in this case. There is often a pre sence of water within the sunken areas, and adequate waterproofing is essential to avoid its seeping through the floor/walls and causing damage to the construct ion. Basements provide an excellent way of accessing additional liveable space within limited space constraints. With the rapidly rising real estate prices, the conc ept of basements has even extended to having multiple levels below the ground. W ith such concepts, it is all the more important that effective waterproofing is done for the basements. Basement waterproofing can be done internally as well as externally. However fo r more effective results, it is advisable to use proper external waterproofing m ethods during the construction period itself. Materials such as Kota stone, bitu men and specialised compounds are frequently used for external waterproofing of the basement. Terraces are another area of concern with regard to waterproofing. It often happ ens in homes that rainwater or water leaking from the overhead water tanks spoil s the flooring of the terrace and even seeps through the roof of the floor under neath. As in the case of basements, there are various materials that can be used to effectively waterproof the terrace floor. APP sheets, though expensive, are most effective for this purpose. Before commencing any waterproofing measure for

the terrace, ensure that the structure is complete and the work on rainwater pi pes and electric conduits is over. Painting

Just as an outfit can enhance or mar the image of a person, the quality and visu al appeal of painting can do the same for your home interiors. Additionally, the cost of painting being so high, it is all the more important to take wise and e fficient decisions with regard to painting. JK Lakshmi Cement has compiled a few tips to help you make the best out of your investment on painting. Preparing for the job. Ensure that the plaster on the walls is fully dried before the commencement of t he paint job. In case, there is any seepage on the walls, ensure that the fault is fully recti fied. Remove electric plates and cover all sockets & switches with tape. Cover the floor with plastic sheeting to avoid paint spilling on the floor. Ensure to use only high-quality POP material to provide a better base for paint colours. Choosing the right paint. For most paint jobs, water-based paints are a good choice as they dry faster. Flat finishes are ideal in hiding minor imperfections on the wall surfaces, but they don't have a shine. Velvet finishes are ideal to enhance the visual appeal of your home interiors an d are easy to clean. Glossy and semi-glossy finishes are also good options as they have a durable fin ish and can easily withstand scrubbing. Satin paints are excellent to give a warm and inviting look to your rooms. Choosing the right colour. This may be the toughest choice as regards painting is concerned. While choosin g colours, it may be helpful to consult an interior designer, as the choice of p aint colour would set the theme for the complete interiors. You would have to ch oose the colours of the upholstery and furniture accordingly. For ceilings, it is best to go in for light and sober shades as they give a spa cious look to the rooms. In fact, white and off-white are ideal shades for ceili ngs. In case of wall colours, choice should be made on the basis of age-group an d personality of the inhabitants. For example, light pink can be a great shade f or a young girl's room. In case of boys, you can be more experimental. All shade s have specific effects on the moods of a person: Blue and off-white are soothing shades. Shades of red can be stimulating for the mind. Orange is excellent for kitchen and dining room as it stimulates the appetite. Using purple is a great way of creating a royal ambience. Estimating the paint quantity. You can use our paint calculator to estimate the quality of paint required for a particular paint job. Please note that this would give the quantity required f or one coat. The number of coats would be dependent upon various factors and you would require professional advice for the same.