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EXERCISE 1 A ball is thrown up in vertical direction with an initial speed of 40 m/s.

Find acceleration of the ball at the highest point.

SOLUTION The velocity of the ball at the highest point is zero. The only force on the ball is due to gravity. The accleration of ball all through out its motion is acceleration due to gravity g, which is directed downwards. The acceleration of the ball is constant and is not dependent on the state of motion whether it is moving or is stationary.

EXERCISE 2 A ball is released from a height of 45 m. Find the magnitude of average velocity during its motion till it reaches the ground.

SOLUTION The average velocity is ratio of displacement and time. Here, displacement is given. We need to find the time of travel. For the motion of ball, we consider the point of release as origin and upward direction as positive.

y=ut+12at2 45=0Xt+12X10Xt2 t2=455=9 t=3s

Neglecting negative time, t = 3 s. Magnitude of average velocity is :

vavg=453=15m/s

EXERCISE 3 A ball is released from an elevator moving upward with an acceleration 3m/s2 . What is the acceleration of the ball after it is released from the elevator ?

SOLUTION On separation, ball acquires the velocity of elevator not its acceleration. Once it is released, the only force acting on it is that due to gravity. Hence, acceleration of the ball is same as that due to gravity.

a=10ms2downward

EXERCISE 4 A ball is released from an elevator moving upward with an acceleration 5m/s2 . What is the acceleration of the ball with respect to elevator after it is released from the elevator ?

SOLUTION On separation, ball acquires the velocity of elevator not its acceleration. Once it is released, the only force acting on it is that due to gravity. Hence, acceleration of the ball is same as that due to gravity. The relative acceleration of the ball (considering downward direction as positive) :

arel=aballaelevator arel=10(5)=15ms2

EXERCISE 5 A balloon ascends vertically with a constant speed for 5 second, when a pebble falls from it reaching the ground in 5 s. Find the speed of balloon.

SOLUTION

The velocity of balloon is constant and is a measured value. Let the ball moves up with a velocity u. At the time of release, the pebble acquires velocity of balloon. For the motion of pebble, we consider the point of release as origin and upward direction as positive. Here,

y=vt=uX5=5u;u=u;a=g;t=5s

Using equation for displacement :

y=ut+12at2 5u=uX5+12XgX52 10u=5X25u=5ms

EXERCISE 6 A balloon ascends vertically with a constant speed of 10 m/s. At a certain height, a pebble falls from it reaching the ground in 5 s. Find the height of ballon when pebble is released from the balloon.

SOLUTION The velocity of balloon is constant. Let the ball moves up with a velocity u. At the time of release, the pebble acquires velocity of balloon. For the motion of pebble, we consider the point of release as origin and upward direction as positive. Here,

y=?;u=10m/s;a=g;t=5s

Using equation for displacement :

y=ut+12at2 y=10X5+12XgX52

y=505X25 y=75m

Height of ballon when pebble is released from it,

H=75m

EXERCISE 7 A ball is released from a top. Another ball is dropped from a point 15 m below the top, when the first ball reaches a point 5 m below the top. Both balls reach the ground simultaneously. Determine the height of the top.

SOLUTION We compare motion of two balls under gravity, when second ball is dropped. At that moment, two balls are 10 m apart. The first ball moves with certain velocity, whereas first ball starts with zero velocity.

Let us consider downward direction as positive. The velocity of the first ball when it reaches 10 m below the top is :

v2=u2+2ax v2=0+2X10X5 v=10m/s

Let the balls take time t to reach the gorund. First ball travels 10 m more than second ball. Let 1 and 2 denote first and second ball, then,

10+10t+12X10t2=12X10t2

10t=10 t=1s

In this time, second ball travels a distance given by :

y=12X10t2=5X12=5m

But, second ball is 15 m below the top. Hence, height of the top is 15 + 5 = 20 m.

EXERCISE 8 One ball is dropped from the top at a height 60 m, when another ball is projected up in the same line of motion. Two balls hit each other 20 m below the top. Compare the speeds of the ball when they strike.

SOLUTION For the motion of first ball dropped from the top, let downward direction be positive :

v1=u+at v1=at=10t

For the ball dropped from the top,

x=ut+12at2 20=0Xt+12X10Xt2 20=5t2 t=2s

Neglecting negative value, t = 2s. Hence, velocity of the ball dropped from the top is :

v1=10t=10X2=30m/s

For the motion of second ball projected from the bottom, let upward direction be positive :

v2=u+at v2=u10X2=u20

Clearly, we need to know u. For upward motion,

x=ut+12at2 40=uX2+12X10X22 40=2u20=30m/s v2=3020=10m/s

Thus,

v1v2=2010=21