Presentation: "LED – The light of the future" | Light Emitting Diode | Lighting

LED: The Light of the Future

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LEDs are conquering the world of interior lighting

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LEDs in outdoor lighting

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Advantages of the LED at a glance

Optimal lighting design High colour saturation Dynamic controll Good colour rendering Compact construction

Convincing technology Infinitely dimmable Environmentally friendly Impact- and vibration-resistent No infrared radiation

Highest cost effectiveness High efficiency Long life Low maintenance

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LEDs for enhanced lighting quality
Good colour rendering Optimal controllability Quality LEDs permit infinite dimming and control Easy integration in lighting management systems Adjustment to daylight and biorhythm Colour LEDs naturally emit coloured light They open new possibilities for lighting design
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RGB colour mixing permits 16 million colours – perfect for lighting moods, accent and special-effect lighting Compact construction

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LEDs for a ”green“ future
High efficiency LEDs consume less electricity than other light sources – which means lower carbon emissions Long life LEDs in LED luminaires and modules have a lifespan of 50,000 hours and more LED lamps reach around 25,000 Stunden This saves lamp replacement and maintenance costs No UV or infrared light Little disturbance for nocturnal insects Protection for sensitive materials Mercury-free und recyclable
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LEDs and quality features
Only good quality products can fully harness the LED‘s advantages over other light sources. They offer: optimal lighting quality high luminous efficacy long life electrical reliability

Important LED quality features:
effective thermal management for dissipating conductive heat consistent light colours and homogeneous brightness Strict selection in the production process (= binning) guarantees uniform quality minimal early failure (< 2 : 1 Mio.).

Many ”cheap“ products do not offer the required quality. Consumer tests and specialist retailers provide guidance.
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Forecast: LED applications

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LEDs for city and street
Night-time lighting

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provides security enhances a municipality‘s appeal creates a positive image

Advantages of using LEDs
Lighting in accordance with DIN EN 13201 Better lighting quality and homogeneous light Long life, high efficiency Precise light control with no light spill Easy to regulate More lighting quality Cost and energy savings

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LEDs offer high savings potential
Possible saving on replacement of old 1960s installations:

up to 80 %

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Local authorities should set a good example in saving energy.

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Practical example: LED lighting in Soltau

60%
enery saving

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before 20 mushroom luminaires each fitted with 2 x 80 W high-pressure mercury vapour lamps (HME)

Energy saving/year Energy: CO2: Costs: 9,429 kWh 5.8 tonnes* 1,697 euro**

after 21 LED street lights each with 1 x 59 W LED module

*Emission rate = 612 g CO2 / kWh **Average electricity price = 0.18 / kWh

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LEDs for office and administration
Modern office lighting
is ergonomic and efficient permits customised light control promotes wellbeing and enhances performance

Advantage of using LEDs
high efficiency long life, low maintenance easy integration in presence- and daylight-dependent lighting regulation colour change for dynamic lighting compact construction More lighting quality Cost and energy savings

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Potential saving on replacement of old installations: up to 75%

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Efficiency example: LED downlights
Basis of calculation: replacement of downlights for 2 x 26 W by 26 W LEDs 10 years of operation burning time: 12 hours a day, 250 days a year electricity price: 21 cent/kWh

Electricity consumption in office buildings: nearly 40% for lighting Investment in efficient lighting technology pays off within a short time
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How LEDs works
An LED is a tiny electronic chip, approx a millimetre across, made of a special semiconductor crystal (p-n semiconductor diode). When current is applied, the chip starts to glow (electroluminescence) – it emits a dot of light. Unlike the incandescent lamp, an LED does not radiate heat. The radiant light is ”cold“. LEDs produce narrow-band (monochromatic) radiation. Structure of an LED The LED chip is mounted on a heat sink and encased in a a protective plastic housing. Primary light control is performed by lenses. Integrated reflectors permit light radiation at angles up to 180°.

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Colours directly from the semiconductor
LED light is generated directly in a variety of colours; no colour filters are required.
Wavelength and light colour – red, green, yellow and blue – are determined by the semiconductor material used. Special colours can be produced by additive colour mixing (RGB).

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White LED light
Best method: luminescence conversion A film of yellow phosphor material is applied to a blue LED, changing part of its blue light into white. Good luminous efficacy and good colour rendering up to more than Ra 90. RGB colour mixing (red, green, blue) White light is produced by mixing coloured light of different wavelengths. Colour rendering reaches only Ra 70 – 80. Solution: RGB modules mixed with white LEDs for better colour rendering.

Daylight white LEDs are more efficient, warm white LEDs offers better colour rendering.
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Efficiency and luminous efficacy

Luminous efficacy of the earliest LED (1962) = 0.1 lumen per watt (lm/W) Luminous efficacy at present = approx. 70 lm/W High-performance LEDs = 100 to 120 lm/W By comparison: incandescent lamps = 10 lm/W halogen lamps = 20 lm/W

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LED life
LEDs in LED luminaires and modules have an extremely long lifespan of 50,000 jours and more; LED lamps reach a life of around 25,000 hours. By comparison: incandescent lamp halogen lamp fluorescent lamp = approx. = approx. = approx. 1,000 hours 2,000 hours 18,000 hours

Lifespan is very dependent on operating and ambient temperatures, so optimal heat dissipation is important. LEDs do not fail but the intensity of their light decreases (= degradation). Life (L) needs to be defined for each application, e.g. L70 or L50 for general lighting, L80 for emergency lighting.

An LED luminaire in operation for 11 hours a day, 250 days a year, will last for around 18 years.

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LED luminaires
Maximum efficiency. Control, thermal and optical design are optimally synchronised – within a very compact space.
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The quality of every component and the standard of manufacturing are crucial. Hybrid luminaires incorporate a combination of LEDs and fluorescent lamps.

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LED modules
Compact LED modules reach the highest efficiency and can be installed directly e.g. in floor or ceiling ducts. Ready-to-use solutions are available as Linear LED modules, e.g. wallwashers for architectural lighting flexible LED modules, e.g. for curved handrails or logos planar LED modules, e.g. for street lights or luminous ceilings LED chains for back-lighting, e.g. for illuminated signage

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LED lamps
LED lamps (= retrofits) are a special variant of LED modules. They feature a pin or screw base, . replace incandescent or halogen lamps, are an energy-saving alternative for domestic applications. Important: In the case of technical luminaires (e.g. street lights), it is necessary to establish whether LED retrofits can be used without loss of reliability. LED lamps do not reach the lifespan of a LED luminaire or a complete LED module. Even so, they are a good choice for domestic applications.

An 8 W warm-white LED lamp has a lifespan of up to around 25,000 operating hours. That is nearly 25 years at just less than three hours a day.
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LEDs: operating devices and control
Electronic operating devices may be integrated in LED luminaires or installed as external system components. They ensure optimal luminous efficacy, long life and enhanced comfort and convenience.

Operating devices guarantee
as converters, the right energy supply for the type of fitting (e.g. safety extra-low voltage) reliable operation even in difficult environmental conditions LED control (dimming, colour change) and provide interfaces for complete control systems (DALI, DMX) optimal operating conditions for a long life

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OLEDs – organic LEDs
OLEDs use organic semiconductors to generate light. They are the first planar luminescent light source. Their advantages: extremely thin, lightweight and visually appealing uniform, largely glare-free light high colour rendering index easy to dim and control easy to incorporate in other materials transparent or diffuse during the day, luminous in the evening no mercury or other toxic substances and recyclable

Challenges for research and industry Optimisation of protection from water and oxygen Increase in efficiency from present 25 to 65 lumen/watt Extension of life from present 10,000 hours
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Further information

Further information on the subject is provided in the booklet licht.wissen 17 „LED: The Light of the future“ (60 pages) This and other booklets in the licht-wissen series are available as free pdf downloads at www.licht.de/en

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Publisher licht.de Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht Lyoner Straße 9 60528 Frankfurt am Main licht.de@zvei.org www.licht.de

© licht.de No part of this material (especially photographs and illustrations) may be altered, used, reproduced, displayed or disseminated without the prior consent of licht.de. This does not apply to individual copes for personal, non-commercial use.

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