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ROI 2009-0501-1167

The Next Decade in Commercial Aircraft Aerodynamics –

A Boeing Perspective

Mark Goldhammer Paul Vijgen

Boeing Commercial Airplanes Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

KATnet II Conference on Key Aerodynamic Technologies

Bremen, Germany 12 - 14 May 2009

BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company. Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Outline

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Historical look at aerodynamic configuration design at Boeing Driving factors for the future Aerodynamic levers for the next decade

Aerodynamic product technologies Aerodynamic tools, processes and capabilities Airplane configurations

Concluding remarks

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 2

The beginnings of the commercial jet age at Boeing

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

The beginnings of the commercial jet age at Boeing The next decade in commerc ial airplane

Boeing Stratocruiser (circa 1947) Straight wing Piston-powered propellers Fowler flaps

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Boeing 367-80 (circa 1954) Prototype for KC-135, B707 family Boeing’s first low-swept-wing transport Configuration basis for the future:

Wing-mounted pod engines Double-slotted Fowler flaps with LE Krueger flaps (B707)
Wing-mounted pod engines
Double-slotted Fowler flaps with LE Krueger flaps
(B707)

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 3

Wing-mounted pod engines became the configuration of choice

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

B737
B737
B747
B747
B767
B767
B777
B777
B757
B757
B787
B787

Configuration evolution of the Boeing family

Swept-wing, pod-mounted engines (2 or 4)

Continually increasing aerodynamic technologies:

CFD advances Airfoil/wing technology advances LE/TE high lift device advances Lessons learned from earlier products Higher Reynolds number wind tunnel testing Improved structural concepts More integrated wing/engine/pylon configurations Relaxed stability Load alleviation Multidisciplinary optimization

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 4

Other configurations

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

B727
B727
DC-9
DC-9

DC-10

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Wing-mounted pod engines were not always selected Aft-mount allows lower-to-the-ground configuration Perhaps more efficient with then-current technology Odd number of engines (3) Cabin noise and vibration challenges

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Driving factors for future improvement

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Boeing commitment:

Each new commercial airplane generation delivers at least 15% improvement in CO 2 emissions and fuel efficiency

Noise dB MORE HIGHER FUEL dB Early jet airplanes 90% reduction in noise footprint 70% fuel
Noise dB
MORE
HIGHER
FUEL
dB
Early jet airplanes
90% reduction in noise footprint
70% fuel improvement and
reduced CO2
LOWER
LESS
dB
FUEL
EVEN
EVEN
LOWER
New Generation jet airplanes
LESS
1950s
1990s
2010s
Relative fuel use

Nose footprint based on 85 dBa.

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 6

Further drag reduction is required for future efficiency improvement

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Core aircraft technologies

Relative contributors to 787 efficiency improvement* Systems Engines Materials Aerodynamics
Relative contributors to
787 efficiency improvement*
Systems
Engines
Materials
Aerodynamics

For current aircraft configurations, remaining areas for significant fuel-burn improvement in next 10-20 years are:

Propulsion/propulsion integration Aerodynamic drag reduction Multi-disciplinary optimization

Alternate aircraft configurations may allow further integrated improvements from core technologies

*Improvements are relative to 767-300ER

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 7

Aerodynamic levers

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Aerodynamic product technologies

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Airplane configurations

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Aerodynamic tools, processes, and capabilities

(3) Airplane Configurations

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 8

Aerodynamic levers

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Aerodynamic product technologies

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Airplane configurations

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Aerodynamic tools, processes, and capabilities

(3) Airplane Configurations

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 9

Aerodynamic product technologies

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Turbulent skin friction reduction

Laminar flow Advanced trailing edge device concepts Advanced variable camber concepts
Laminar flow
Advanced trailing edge
device concepts
Advanced variable
camber concepts

Advanced transonic wing concepts

Active flow control

Integration of advanced engine concepts

Relaxed stability

Multi-disciplinary

optimization

Advanced leading edge device concepts

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 10

Aerodynamic drag breakdown and reduction potential

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Drag breakdown (typical)

Viscous and lift-induced drag are dominant drag components for subsonic aircraft in cruise

Excrescence drag Wave drag
Excrescence
drag
Wave drag

Viscous drag

Advances in materials, structures and aerodynamics enable significant

lift-induced drag reduction

Induced and

trim drag

Maximize effective span extension using composites

Incorporate advanced wing-tip devices

Viscous drag is remaining area with largest potential for further drag reduction

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Laminar flow drag reduction benefits and issues

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) and Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) demonstrated in aerodynamic flight tests

Transition flow physics generally understood Scale and sweep affect laminar-flow application (NLF vs. HLFC) Continuous
Transition flow physics generally understood
Scale and sweep affect laminar-flow application (NLF vs. HLFC)
Continuous progress in analysis and design methods
Laminar flow reduces fuel burn, emissions and noise
Benefit depends on scale of application
Improved fuel burn allows smaller, lighter, quieter aircraft
Estimated net potential fuel burn benefit for subsonic transports ~ 5 – 12 %

Laminar flow application issues

Manufacturing, certification, and operational requirements and impacts

Drag benefit needs to be traded against increased weight, maintenance, cost, reliability, etc.

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Some laminar flow activities

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

  • 1985 1990

1995

2000

2005

Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
787 NLF Nacelle
787
NLF
Nacelle
757 HLFC flight test
757 HLFC
flight test

HLFC

757 NLF

Flight test

Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Wing HLFC

WT test

Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Steps

WT Tests

SLFC

Studies

Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

F-16XL SLFC

Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Some laminar flow activities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Wing HLFC

VLA studies

  • Wind-Tunnel (WT) or flight test

WT test

flight test

  • Product Development trade study

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757 HLFC flight test program

Leading edge suction panel

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

757 HLFC flight test program Leading edge suction panel The next decade in commerc ial airplane

Laminar-flow instrumentation

Infra-red cameras Krueger/ insect shield Hot-film sensors Pressure belt
Infra-red cameras
Krueger/
insect shield
Hot-film sensors
Pressure belt

HLFC leading edge suction panel

757 HLFC flight test program Leading edge suction panel The next decade in commerc ial airplane
Laminar flow achieved up to shock location HLFC leading edge suction panel
Laminar flow achieved up to shock location
HLFC
leading edge
suction panel

Equivalent to 6% airplane drag reduction on 757- size airplane

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Nacelles shaped for natural laminar flow (NLF)

Committed to 787 in 2005

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Nacelles shaped for natural laminar flow (NLF) Committed to 787 in 2005 The next decade in
Nacelles shaped for natural laminar flow (NLF) Committed to 787 in 2005 The next decade in

Nacelle contours optimized with laminar transition location as additional design parameter Structural design and manufacturing methods tailored for NLF benefit

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Increasing technology readiness

Laminar flow integration and implementation challenges

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Increasing technology readiness Laminar flow integration and implementation challenges The next decade in commerc ial airplane

Fluid dynamics

Flow physics Transition prediction HLFC suction flow physics

Applied aerodynamics Wind tunnel testing/scaling Off-design performance High lift performance
Applied
aerodynamics
Wind tunnel testing/scaling
Off-design performance
High lift performance
Design integration and manufacturing Simplified HLFC systems High lift systems Ice protection systems Manufacturing techniques Airline
Design
integration and
manufacturing
Simplified HLFC systems
High lift systems
Ice protection systems
Manufacturing techniques
Airline
operations
Certification
Operational/environmental
effects
Ground handling
Maintenance

Potentially large aerodynamic benefit needs to be integrated into practical design that meets requirements over life of aircraft

Significant integration and operational challenges need to be addressed

Risk in net economic benefit of laminar flow remains

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

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Turbulent flow drag reduction benefits and issues

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Riblet technology has been demonstrated to passively reduce local turbulent skin friction ~6 %

Tunnel and flight tests with riblet films conducted Application constraints (shape, spacing, streamlining) are understood

Riblet application issues are not aerodynamic:

Limited riblet shape and adhesive robustness over operational life (hydraulic liquids, hail, dirt and impact) Appearance relative to standard paint and livery Time required to install, maintain, remove and re-apply

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

`
`

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Boeing drooped-spoiler flap

Committed to 787 in 2005

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

767

Double/single slotted with Fowler motion

6-bar linkage
6-bar linkage
787 Single/single slotted Simple-hinged flap with drooping spoilers
787
Single/single
slotted
Simple-hinged flap with drooping spoilers

Fewer parts (reduced maintenance) Lower weight Smaller fairings Facilitates small flap adjustments in flight

Boeing drooped-spoiler flap Committed to 787 in 2005 The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 18

Boeing trailing edge variable camber

Committed to 787 in 2005

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Inboard flap Flaperon Trailing edge
The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Inboard flap
Flaperon
Trailing edge variable camber allows
Load optimization
Cruise drag optimization
Outboard flap
Aileron

In cruise, trailing edge elements are adjusted at regular intervals to minimize drag Simplified actuation system Small angle variations Up and down movements

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Active Flow Control (AFC)

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Example: Application concept study with AFC augmented wing high lift system

(Reference NASA CR-1999-209338)

AFC AFC High lift configuration with AFC actuators
AFC
AFC
High lift configuration
with AFC actuators

Evaluating Active-Flow Control (AFC) actuator and integration concepts for simplified (lighter) systems with similar performance as traditional mechanical high-lift elements

Robust, reliable and low-maintenance AFC actuation to be developed and demonstrated for commercial transport Key issues that affect application success for commercial aircraft are:

Actuator capability, robustness and noise System power, complexity and cost Failure modes and redundancy considerations

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 20

Aerodynamic levers

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Aerodynamic product technologies

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Airplane configurations

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Aerodynamic tools, processes, and capabilities

(3) Airplane Configurations

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 21

Aerodynamic tools, processes and capabilities

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Computational fluid dynamics Wind tunnel testing Flight testing Future aerodynamics engineers

CFD

Aerodynamic tools, processes and capabilities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing

Wind

tunnel

Aerodynamic design and analysis

Aerodynamic tools, processes and capabilities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing

Flight

testing

Aerodynamic tools, processes and capabilities The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 22

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Faster, more capable, and less costly computing hardware Faster and better algorithms

Higher fidelity flow physics modeled Expanding simulations towards edges of flight envelope Integration with structural and systems modeling (MDO) Integration with wind tunnel and flight testing

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

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CFD multipoint design/optimization

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Transonic CFD for full configuration

Adaptive grid technology for the design optimization

Structural model including aeroelastics Include weight effects in optimization Include manufacturing and structural constrains Flight conditions from operating envelope

Sample manufacturing and structural constraints Curvature constraints Spar constraints Spar constraints at side of body Nacelle
Sample manufacturing and structural constraints
Curvature constraints
Spar constraints
Spar
constraints at
side of body
Nacelle minimum keel height

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Drag accuracy is key to optimization

CFD multipoint design/optimization The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Transonic
Predictions of both drag level and increment Tail-off Tail-on and trimmed
Predictions of both drag
level and increment
Tail-off
Tail-on and
trimmed

Lines

Pre-test CFD

Symbols Test data

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CFD near edges of the flight envelope

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Expanding calibrated CFD envelope to conditions with massively separated flows

Stability and control Buffet Wing deformations under extremer loadings

CFD challenges

Large regions of separated flow Turbulence models RANS and URANS/DES Wind-tunnel test data needed for calibration Close to Mach one Model aeroelastics Wall effects

Cp comparison at approximately 2.5g at Mach dive

CFD near edges of the flight envelope The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics –
Separated flow RANS four-engine transport
Separated
flow
RANS four-engine
transport

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 25

CFD near edges of the flight envelope

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Asymmetric flight conditions for stability and control control-surface effectiveness

Full configurations in cruise and at low speeds Complex geometries (high-lift flaps, vortex generators) Shock boundary-layer interaction Wing shape under loading

Rudder effectiveness
Rudder effectiveness
Yaw at high Mach number
Yaw at high Mach number

Lateral/Directional T&I and Wall Interference

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CFD high lift aerodynamics

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Automated Navier-Stokes 3D process flow with one day turn around

Raw lofts Positioned geometry
Raw lofts
Positioned geometry

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Pressure coefficients

CFD high lift aerodynamics The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Surface grid
Surface
grid
Surface streamlines Volume grid
Surface
streamlines
Volume
grid

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CFD propulsion aerodynamics

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

CFD has eliminated most powered wind tunnel model testing on conventional configurations

Optimize installed performance Determine jet/flap interaction/loads
Optimize
installed
performance
Determine jet/flap
interaction/loads

Minimize cabin (shock-cell) noise

CFD propulsion aerodynamics The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective CFD

Design for desired thermal environment of aft fairing

CFD propulsion aerodynamics The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective CFD

Initial design temperature

CFD propulsion aerodynamics The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective CFD

Improved design temperature

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 28

The future for wind tunnels

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Wind tunnels will continue to play a significant role in commercial airplane aerodynamic development:

Design verification Database collection CFD validation New technologies New configuration concepts

Reduction in testing time enabled by availability of mature and “calibrated” CFD

Tunnel testing time

-25 % -30 % 767 777 787 (1980) (1990) (2005) Occupancy hours
-25 %
-30 %
767
777
787
(1980)
(1990)
(2005)
Occupancy hours

Boeing’s primary wind tunnel evaluation criteria:

Technical viability – can do the required testing

Accuracy and Validation – results that can be trusted

Availability – ready and available when needed

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Productivity – complete required testing in a timely manner

Reliability – keeps working without interruption

Security – privacy and confidentiality assured

Cost efficiency – good value for the money

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Types of wind tunnel testing

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Types of wind tunnel testing The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing

Configuration development testing

Incremental and absolute aerodynamic coefficient data Cruise, high-lift, and flight envelope limit data Airframe noise Propulsion installation Tare and interference testing Flow control concepts Alternate configurations will require significant additional testing

Database development testing

Airplane performance Stability and control including simulator database Aerodynamic loads throughout envelope

Specialized testing

Full scale Reynolds number Thrust reversers Ground effect Ice accretion/ice effects

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 30

Primary wind tunnels used by Boeing Commercial Airplanes (2000 and on)

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Farnborough, UK Cologne, Germany Minneapolis,
The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective
Farnborough, UK
Cologne, Germany
Minneapolis, MN
Philadelphia, PA
Seattle, WA
Gifu, Japan
Mountain View, CA
Le Fauga, France
Hampton, VA
Primary wind tunnels used by Boeing Commercial Airplanes (2000 and on) The next decade in commercial

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Flight testing aerodynamic technologies

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Flight testing for certification

Flight testing for development/evaluation of aerodynamic technologies

Certain technologies are difficult to simulate on scaled models in tunnel Concept to be flight tested must integrate with test vehicle Flight testing to provide operational experience

Natural laminar flow

Flight testing aerodynamic technologies The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Quiet-Technology Demonstrator (QTD2)

Flight testing aerodynamic technologies The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

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Future aerodynamics engineers

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage
Encourage youth into science, technology, engineering, math (STEM) careers
Encourage
youth into
science,
technology,
engineering,
math (STEM)
careers
Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage

Retain knowledge from retiring senior engineers

Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage
Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage

Continuing education

and on-the-job

training

Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage
COLLEGE
COLLEGE

Industry/ academia collaboration

Nurture students

through funded

research, internships,

scholarships, etc.

Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage
Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage

Encourage programs that teach teamwork, multi-disciplinary studies

Future aerodynamics engineers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Encourage

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 33

Aerodynamic levers

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Aerodynamic product technologies

Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product
Aerodynamic levers The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective Aerodynamic product

Airplane configurations

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Aerodynamic tools, processes, and capabilities

(3) Airplane Configurations

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 34

Aerodynamic opportunities and challenges on alternate configurations

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Aerodynamic surfaces designed for active flow control

Advanced multi- disciplinary optimization

Geometries tailored to enhance laminar flow control

Skin friction control
Skin friction control

Configuration optimized for noise

Control configured empennage

Induced drag reduction with novel non-planar wing configurations

Incorporation of novel propulsion systems (e.g., open fan)

Boundary-layer ingestion for increased propulsion efficiency

Advanced integration of aerodynamics, structures and systems

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 35

Alternate configuration concepts

New challenges for aerodynamic design

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Alternate configuration concepts New challenges for aerodynamic design The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics

Aerodynamic tools and processes that have been refined for tube-and-wing configurations must be updated/calibrated for non-classical aircraft configurations

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KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 36

Commercial airplane aerodynamics:

What is next?

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Market requirements
Market requirements
Commercial airplane aerodynamics: What is next? The next decade in commerc ial airplane aerodynamics – a
Regulatory requirements Further significant reduction in fuel burn, noise, and emissions
Regulatory requirements
Further significant reduction in
fuel burn, noise, and emissions

Readiness of advanced aerodynamic technologies

Future configurations
Future
configurations

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 37

Summary

The next decade in commercial airplane aerodynamics – a Boeing perspective

Aerodynamics will be key contributor to the future of aircraft design

Safety Efficiency Environmental compatibility

The next decade of challenges will be multidisciplinary

New aerodynamic technologies are on the horizon

Integration with structures, propulsion, and systems, enabled by further computational advances

Manufacturability and maintainability to introduce flow control methods

Aerodynamic technologies, together with tools, processes, and people, will be keys to future advances

Copyright © 2009 Boeing. All rights reserved.

KATnet II Bremen 2009 | 38

Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.

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