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The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions

of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to the central nervous system. These regions are all interconnected by means of complex neural pathways. The enteric nervous system, a subsystem of the peripheral nervous system, has the capacity, even when severed from the rest of the nervous system through its primary connection by the vagus nerve, to function independently in controlling the gastrointestinal system.

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animalsthat is, all multicellular animals except radially symmetric animals such as sponges and jellyfish. It contains the majority of the nervous system and consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Some classifications also include the retina and the cranial nerves in the CNS. Together with the peripheral nervous system, it has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity. In vertebrates, the brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae, and both are enclosed in the meninges.[1]

The peripheral nervous system (PNS, or occasionally PeNS) consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.[1] The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the bone of spine and skull, or by the bloodbrain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system; some textbooks also include sensory systems. It is also a part of the nervous system.[2] The cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of cranial nerve II, the optic nerve, along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon.[3] Cranial nerve ganglia originate in the CNS. However, the remaining eleven cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS.[4]

A reflex action, also known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.[1] Some people use the term "reflex" to mean a behavior which is mediated via the reflex arc; this does not apply to casual uses of the term 'reflex'.

An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system. As a result, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system, in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms,[1] including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen.[1][2] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.[3] Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor (BCR). The BCR is only found on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells, or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure.[4] In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding.[5] Soluble antibodies

are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine). The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccn-us, from vacca, cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox.

Diet, in relation to food, might mean:


Diet (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group Dieting, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake Diet food, foods that aid in dieting Cuisine, the diet of a particular culture

Diet may also mean:

Diet (assembly), formal deliberative assembly o The Imperial Diet (German Reichstag): the imperial assembly of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire until 1806 o The Diet of the Empire: (German: Reichstag) legislative assembly of the German Empire 18711917 o The Federal Diet: (literally for German: Deutscher Bundestag) federal parliament of Germany o State Diet: (literally for German: Landtag) state parliament of most of the German federated states o Diet of Finland: the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 o Diet of Hungary: the legislative assembly of the Kingdom of Hungary from 15th century to 1946 o Diet of Japan: Japan's legislature "Diet", an episode of the Adult Swim animated television series, Aqua Teen Hunger Force Dietsch (disambiguation): distinguishes the southern dialects in the Middle Dutch language DIET: an open-source middleware for high-performance computing, created in 2000 and currently developed by INRIA, cole Normale Suprieure de Lyon, CNRS, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, and the SysFera company.

Diet, India:'District Institute (or Institutes) of Education and Training' in India

Human development may refer to:


Human development (biology), the process of a human becoming biologically mature Developmental psychology, also known as human development Human development (humanity), as it relates to economics and standards of living Human Development Index, an index used to rank countries by level of human development

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