PARADIGM

 A world view, a general perspective on the complexities of the real world

MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS OF THE POSITIVIST AND NATURALISTIC PARADIGMS
ASSUMPTION POSITIVIST PARADIGM Ontologic Reality exists; here is a real (What is the nature of the world driven by real natural reality?) causes. Epistomologic (how is the inquirer related to those of being researched?) The inquirer is independent from those being researched; findings are not influenced by the researcher. Axiologic Values and biases are to be held (What is the role of values in the in check; objectivity is sought. inquiry?) Methodologic (How is knowledge obtained?) Deductive processes Emphasis on discrete, specific concepts Verification of researchers’ hunches Fixed design Tight controls over context Emphasis on measured, Quantitative information; Statistical analysis Seek generalizations NATURALISTIC PARADIGM Reality is multiple and subjective; Mentally constructed by individuals. The inquirer interacts with those being researched; Findings are the creation of the interactive process Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable

Inductive process Emphasis on entirety of some phenomenon Emerging interpretations grounded in participant’s experiences Flexible design Context bound Emphasis on narrative information; qualitative analysis Seek patters

METHODS OF RESEARCH A. Quantitative Research  Traditional ‘scientific method’ which uses a general set of orderly, disciplined procedures to acquire information and moves in an orderly and systematic fashion.

B. Qualitative Research  Starts with a preconceived ideas and stresses the importance of people’s interpretations of events and circumstances

The focus of qualitative investigation is to capture and understand the entirety of certain phenomena and collect narrative data.

COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Focuses on a relatively small number of specific concepts QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Attempts to understand the entirety of some phenomena, rather than focus on specific concepts Has few preconceived ideas; Stresses importance of people’s interpretations of events and circumstances rather than the researcher’s interpretation Collects information without formal, structured instruments. Does not attempt to control the context of the research, but attempts to capture that context in entirety Attempts to capitalize on subjective data as a means for understanding and interpreting human experiences Analyzes narrative information in an organized, but intuitive, fashion

FOCUS

INITIAL CONCEPT

Begins with a preconceived idea about how concepts are interrelated

METHOD

CONTROLS

Uses structured procedures and formal instruments to collect information Collects information under conditions of control

OBJECTIVITY VERSUS SUBJECTIVITY ANALYSIS

Emphasizes objectivity in collection and analysis of information Analyzes numeric information through statistical procdure

MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY

PHASE 1: THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE   Activities with a strong conceptual or intellectual element Activities include reading, conceptualizing, theorizing, reconceptualizing and reviewing ideas with colleagues or advisers

1. Formulating and delimiting the problem  Identify interesting, significant research problem and good research questions  SOURCES OF A RESEARCH PROBLEMS o Experience and clinical fieldwork

2. 3. 4.

5.

o Nursing literature o Social issues o Theory o External sources  EVALUATING RESEARCH PROBLEMS o Significance of the problem o Researchability of the problem o Feasibility of Addressing the problem o Availability of the study participants o Cooperation of others o Facilities and equipment o Money o Research experience o Ethical consideration Reviewing the related literature Undertaking clinical fieldwork Defining the framework/developing conceptual definition  When quantitative research is performed within the context of a theoretical framework, the findings may have broader significance and utility.  Theory is the ultimate aim of science in that it transcends the specifics of a particular time, place and group of people and aims to identify regularities in the relationship among variabkes. Formulating hypotheses  Hypotheses is a statement of the researchers expectations about the relationship between study variables  Predictions of expected outcomes

PHASE 2: THE DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Selecting a research design Developing intervention protocols Identifying the population Designing the sampling plan Specifying methods to measure research variables Developing methods to safeguard subjects Finalizing the research plan

PHASE 3 : THE EMPIRICAL PHASE 13. Collecting the data 14. Preparing the data for analysis

PHASE 4 : THE ANALYTIC PHASE 15. Analyzing the data 16. Interpreting the results PHASE 5 : THE DISSEMINATION PHASE 17. Communicating the findings 18. Utilizing the findings in practice ACTIVITIES IN QUALTITATIVE STUDY 1. Conceptualizing and Planning the Study – – – – – Identifying the research problem Doing a literature review Developing an overall approach Selecting sites and gaining entrée into the research sites Developing method to safeguard participants

2. Developing data collection strategies – – – Deciding what type of data to gather and how to gather them Deciding from whom to collect data Deciding how to enhance trustworthiness

3. Gathering and analyzing data – – – – Collecting data Organizing and analyzing data Evaluating data: making modifications to data collection strategies, if necessary Evaluating data: determining if saturation has been achieved

4. Disseminating findings – – Communicating findings Utilizing ( or making recommendations for utilizing) findings in practice and future research

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