David Wang Ancient Greece Geography - located around the Mediterranean sea - roughly uniform climate - sea was

a connector not a barrier - farmers depended on rainfall - very little metal deposits and timber - lots of building stone and clay Language - used the Phoenician writing system as a starting point - vowel sound were inferred - 1st true alphabet opens the door for wide spread literacy - Why? Because symbols are easier to memorize Population Growth - Increased after 800 BCE - Diet shifted to bread instead of meat o Increased fertility o Increased lifespan o More efficient use of land - Popl. increase caused o urban centers o specialization of labor - plants with toxins is less toxic than animals that eat plants with toxins (adv. Of plants) Polis (city state) - hundred of independent city states - urban center and controlled rural area - several thousand to several hundred thousand in size - rural popl were free members - each polis was independent and suspicious Urban Centers - acropolis – hilltop refuge for an emergency - agora – open area to gather and ratify decisions (only free men, no sandwich makers) o developed into a market place Warfare - created a new style - Hoplites – heavily armored infantrymen who fought in close formation - Key was to maintain formation while breaking the enemies formation - Most casualties occurred when fleeing - Farmers called up because little training was needed Culture - colonization became popular - coins developed – early 6th century BCE - many tyrants took control of city states in the 6th and 7th centuries BCE o catalysts from democracy - 2 major works of literature Iliad and Odyssey - Worshiping and sacrificing to the gods was important function of polis Intellectual Culture - emphasis on the individual - humanism – a valuing of the unique talent and rights of the individual - pre- Socratic philosophers challenged tradition religion - concerned with how the world worked - 1 theory said the world was composed of microscopic atoms Sparta - popl increase cause Sparta to invade surrounding areas - became a military camp out of fear

David Wang - Spartan soldiers were best in Greece - Boys at age 7 were placed in barracks - Stopped the clock – changes did not occur - Coins banned and commerce forbidden Athens - about 300,000 ppl - 4 classes according to wealth - Lowest class count not hold office but could participate - Assembly created – council off 500 men open to all - Highest offices were paid - All sorts of ideals debated Persia - Cyrus conquered some Greek cities - cities revolted but failed after 5 years - in 590 BCE Darius I sent his naval fleet to punish Eretria and Athens for helping - Eretrians betrayed by citizens and conquered - The Athenians managed to hold off the Persians - Xerxes sent a huge army to invade the Greeks in 480BCE - Xerxes sent messages ahead asking for tokens of submission - Some Greek cities acknowledged Persia - Hellenic League (Southern cities) led by Sparta stopped the Persian Expansion - Delian League formed in 477BCE to free all Greek lands – Athens the leader Classical Period 480-32BCE - Athenians used victory to become an imperial power - Athens transformed navel warfare o Trireme sleeker, faster, 170 rowers 115x15 o Navy allowed Athens to project further - used surplus for public works – plays festivals buildings - traveling teachers – “sophists” wise men provided instruction in logic and public speaking Socrates 470-399 BCE - philosopher - said he knew more that everyone else because he knew nothing - took great delight in showing ppl they were wrong - brought to trial for corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods Socrates Trial - He argued o He was held responsible for his students behavior o He was being blamed for other sophists - the vote was close - his claimed his punishment should be a reward for his service to Athens - he was condemned to death bed hemlock Plato - Socrates disciple - Wrote what Socrates said down in dialogues - Used Socratic method of questioning to reach a deeper understanding - Founded an academy outside Athens Inequality - Athenian democracy not all that equal - Women could not vote and confined to home - Husband about 30 and wife a teenager - Many slaves used - Non Greeks were not giving same rights Peloponnesian War 431BCE - other Greeks jealous of Athens - Athenian alliance vs. Spartan alliance

David Wang - Persian Empire paid for the Spartan ships - War lasted 3 decades - Spartans were no better than Athens - Greeks rebelled against Sparta which allowed Persian to conquer much of the Greek Area Phillip II - from Macedonia - est. the Confederacy of Corinth to control the Greeks - he was assassinated - in 336BCE Alexander the Great - Phillip II son - took power when Phillip died - freed the Greeks and expanded the empire - died suddenly in 323 BCE - left no plans and the empire fell apart for 50 years - 3 major kingdoms