David Wang China Geography - isolated by natural barriers - east asia is covered with mountains making overland travel

and communication difficult and slow - Yellow river and Yangzi river helped east-west movement - More rain in south than north - Millet wheat - north \ rice- south - Different culture and land pattern due to rain difference Shang Period 1750BCEShang Period 1750BCE Society - warrior aristocracy prominent - king on the road forcing loyalty - milit forced “barbarians” nomadic ppl back - far reaching trade networks sprang up - possession of broach projects were of authority mobility Religion - Shang kings presented themselves as intermediates between their ppl and gods - worshipped spirits of male ancestors - used divination o oracle bones o tortoise shells or animal shoulder bones o written on cracked with a hot stick o cracks were read Technology - Horse drawn chariot - Domesticated the water buffalo - Basic engineering - Pictogram writing system – hundred of signs Zhou Period 1027BCE-221BCE Conquest - last Shang king was defeated by Wu the ruler of Zhou a dependant state - reserved the foundations created by the Shang longer lasting dynasty in China History Leaders - chief deity was called “heaven” - monarchy was called “son of heaven” - his rule was called “mandate of heaven” - ruler chose by supreme deity and would stay if he was a wise, principled, energetic guardian - prosperity and stability was proof of favor - corrupt insurrection showed divine displeasure Morality - moral order of the minors was tied to just rule - decline in divination and sacrifice - separation of religion and politics allowed china to develop secular philosophies Western Zhou - 1100 BCE – 900 BCE - Built a series of capital cities - Decentralized administration - All major buildings Eastern Zhou - time of political fragment - around 800 BCE the Zhou power dropped - local ruler more independent - LR warred w/ each other - Nomad pressed on borders - 771-481 BCE (spring and autumn period)

David Wang - 480-221BCE (warring states period) Culture - codes and laws written - standardized money - 600BCE iron replaced bronze - Legalism created - Daoism created - Private property made more important Legalism - believed that human nature is wicked - ppl only behave if compelled by strict laws and harsh punishment - every aspect of society needed to be controlled - personal freedoms sacrificed Family - clan based kinship structure decreased - 3 generation family took place - Grandparent, parent, child Imperial China Qin dynasty 271BCE-216BCE Origin - started in coin state located in Wei valley - rapidly conquered rivals - created 1st empire of china - look census 60 million Culture - family was basic unit - sons were very imp. - Confucianism inf. - Ancestors important- had an ongoing interest in family fortunes - Imp concepts- loyalty, obedience to authority, respect for elder and ancestors, honor, and appropriate conduct. Strengths - Agricultural production main source of wealth - Govt store grain for hard times - Every able – obedience was expected to donate one month of labor and 2 years of milit service Wealth - lots of diversity hard to control - govt dep on large popl of free peasants Han Dynasty - 206-220CE Origins - est by Liu Bang 206BCE - reject excesses of the Qin - kept some of the legalists beliefs - 1st 80 years was a time of consolidation - Emperor Wu (140-87BCE) launched a period of military expansion - His successors did not expand as much due to the difficulty controlling large empires Emperor - called “sons of heaven” with a mandate of heaven like the Zhou monarch - lived in seclusion within the walled palace compound - got to pick his heir from male members of ruling land Govt - central govt run by a prime minister, civil service direct and 11 ministers - depend on local officials for the day to day stf - cent govt was a remote entity that affects citizens

David Wang Gentry Class - scholars who made gov more eff and rep - weakened the rural aristocrats - provided a system 4 system officer - get forth a code of conduct - became the new aristocracy Technology - what the Chinese did not invent they improved - took adv of iron - cross bow - water mill harness power of running water - new horse collar - silk has a major trade item - built the great war - Daoism became popl The End - the vast of continuous milit vigilance placed too great of a burden on the empire - other faults o fractured ruling class o official corruption o hungry peasants