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SPACE GASs:for Windows' - Dynamics Application Notes
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Summary This paper is a working example ,coveringa practical earthquake design example of a three storey -building. The design procedure. including the modeling assumptions.
usage of the SPACE GASS Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis, Module, some reference to the design code AS 1170 A and interpretation of the results is covered in

detail.
Design Task The design task is to examine the earthquake effects on a three storey hospital building. located in Adelaide. The load bearing structural system is a reinforced concrete frame with lightweight partitions. The basio layout of the geometry is given in the following figures,

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7.00m A t..
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8.0Om

fA
3.00m

tst storey
aU columns 400x800 all beams 4001600

a

S.OOm

2nd storey 7.00m
all columns 4OOx800

all beams 400.600 8.QOm
8.00m·

7.0Om

3rd storey
all columns 400x400

all beams 400x600

8.0Om

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Sed:io A-A

Typical Sections

Earthquake

Design, Category

In Australia. a structure is usually designed for'live and dead load and'eventually for wind load. If necessary. the structure is checked for earthquakes. According to AS 1170 A all structures in Australia are at seismic risk, and earthquake effects shOUld be considered. For the majority of ordinary struotures there will be no need to undertake any additional earthquake analysis.

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Some Structures require additional earthquake analysiS, but usually this analysis will indicate that the structure is satisfactory and there is no need for it to be modifled-, But, for some structures, there will be a need to increase the strength of some oritical

structural elements to take -the additional earthquake loading.

The first step in the earthquake design is to determine the Earthquake 'Design Category, in aeccroance with AS1170.4, Table 2.6. The structure in this example Is located in Adelaide and, consequently, the Acceleration Coefficient (AS 1170.4, Table
2.3)'15:

a= 0.10
The Site Factor (5) can be taken from Table 2.4(a), AS1170.4.

assumed that the Site Factor is:

In this example it is

s=
The product (a) by (5) is:

1.5

a"S;::; 0.10"1.5;::; 0.15 The (a-S) product indicates that we can use the middle row from Table 2.6, AS1170.4.
The struotute belongs to the General Structures category. According to clause 2.2.3 it is Type III and, since the building is a hospital, it is essential far post-earthquake

reoovery.

From Table 2.6, AS1170.4 we can read that the Earthquake Design category is D. Now, we have to review clause 2.7.5 to see whether we have to undertake any additional earthquake analysis. The structures in the DeSign category 0 shall be analysed by Static Analysis (Section 6, AS1170.4), or by the Dynamic Analysis in accordance with Section 7 (AS114.4).

We will ohoose the Dynamic analysis, as -it is a more accurate alternative. The Dynamic Analysis will be performed by the SPACE GASS Response Spectrum Analysis Module.
Global Stiffness The first step is to prepare the structural model. The model of the structural system should be the same model used in the static analysis .

.

The node numbers are shown in the figure below:

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SPAce GASS for WIndows - Dynamlco;s

1

2 ground le,el

to
tst storey

11

12

4 7

5
8

6 9

13

1417

15 18

16

fiF2:;::5 ===='fl26 2nd storey 3R1 storey

1r:2=:'===:::=b! 28

Node Numliers
The nodal coordinates are given in the table below (assuming the Y axis is vertical):
Nodal Coordinates
Node

NQ
1

X 0.0
0,0

Y

Z 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 ' 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7,0 7.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
0.0 0,0 0.0 7,0 7.0

2

3 4

16.0, 16.0 0.0 8;0
16.0 -8.0

8.0 8.0

5
6 7

9 10
11

8

0.0

0.0 0.0 ,0.0 0.0 '0.0 '0.0 .0,0 3.43.4
3.4

0.0

0.0

7.0

12 13
14

16.0 0;0 16.0 0.0 8~0 16,0 0.0 8"Q 16,0 0.0 16.0 0,0 8.0 0.0
8.0

15

8.0

3.4
3.4 3'.4 3.4

16 18

17
19,

3.4
3,4

6,2

20

21 22

6.2
6.2

~3"
24

8.0

25 26
27

6.2 6.2 6.2
,9.2

9.2

7.0 0.0

9.2 9.2

0.0
7.0

28

7.0

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The columns at the top floor have a square cross section. 400x400 mm. All other columns have a rectangular cross section, 4OOx800 mm. The orientation of the columns is shown in the figures on the previous page. All beams have a rectangular cross section Depth = 600 mm, Width ;:;400 mm.

aD View of the Struoture
The material 'properties are the same for all elements, Concrete 32 (Modulus of Elasticity: 28.6 GPa). All the columns are fully fixed to the ground. The node restraint code is: FFFFFF.
The floor and roof is a reinforced concrete slab, 200 mm thick. The floor slab has a sufficient stiffness to be considered as a rigid diaphragm in its own plane. In order to model this we have to fix aU nodes on one floor by using the SPACE GASe Master· following code: FRFRFR (ie: all translation in X and Z directions and aU rotation about

.

Slave Constraint module. The Master .. lave Constraints on each floor have the S

freedom: two horizontal translations and one rotation about the vertical axes.

Y axes are common). Each floor will behave as a rigid plate with three degrees of

To check the Master--81av6 constrains. we will apply 8. point load at one comer at the top floor. node No. 25, PX=1 000. The top view of the distorted structure wilt confirm the Master-8lave definitions.

Master-Slave CheCk (Top View)

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SPAce GASS for Windowe

• DYnamics

This concludes the modellng of the structure. The geometry. which includeS seonon propertles and material properties will determine the stiffness of the structure. Moving onto the Response Analysis, note that the dynamio response of a structure is a function of three maJor factors: 1. Global Stiffness 2. Global Mass 3. Dynamio input (Spectral Curves and Factors) The Global Mass and the Global Stiffness will determine the dynamic properties of the structures, summarised as Mode Shapes and Natural Periods. Global Mass Now, we have to define the structural mass. The SPACE GASS Dynamic Natural Frequency Analysis Module uses Lumped Masses. This approach assumes that all the mass is lumped to the nodal points. In this case we will apply lUmped masses at each floor. Note: if your units system is setto kN,m then translatlonallumped masses are input as tons and rotational lumped masses are Input as ton * metre squared. We have caloulated that the total Dead Load on both floors is 7.2 kPa and 5.4 kPa on the roof. averaged per m2. This includes the self weight of the slabs and beams and all additionaJ dead load from the floor cover, partitions and ceiling.
Level

Dimensions

m

FlOor Area

3
2
1

8.0 x 7.0

(B.O + B.O) x7.0·

( 8.0 +. 8.0 ) l( ( 7.0 + 3.0 )

m2 56.0 126.0 160.0

The setf weight of the columns was also consjder~. It was distributed 50% to the floor above and 50% to the floor balow. At the ground level, 50% of the oolumns' weight goes to the ground and it is not considered in the analysis .

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SPACe: GASS for Windaw$ .-Dynamics

50%

100%

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The live Load on both floors is 3.0 kPsj as recommended in AS1170.1, Appendix A . As specified.in Clause 6.2.5. AS117.4 and Table 2.2, AS1170.1 only a fraction of the Uve Load should be considered. In this example we can use 60% of the Uve Load on

both floors and 0% on the roof, since it is non-trafficable.

This assumes that in the event of an earthquake only 60% of the live Load on the floors will be present, and there will be.no Live Load·on the roof. This is a realistic

estimate of the likely Live Load on the structure. Applying more load will not necessarily be more conservative. Actually, the effect will be quite the opposite. A larger mass will result in a larger values for the Natural Periods, and consequently the structure will attract a smaller earthquake load.
Level Dead Load

kPa 7.2
7.2

UveLoad

3
2

5.4

kPa
0 1.8

Total Gravity

Load kPa
5,4 9.0 g,O

1

1.8

In this example, for the-1 st floor we can lump all floor mass in 9 nodes. The mass on each node will be calculated according to the contributory floor area.

1st Aoor Lumped Masses

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8

Nodal Gravity Loads and Lumped Masses
Lavel Node Floor Area

m2

Floor Load,kPa 9.0

Load, kN

Gravity

-1 1
1

Nodal Mass t

11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

10

1 1 1
1 1

4.0

x 3.5 x (3.5 + 1.5) 8.0 x (3.5 + 1.5)
4.0

4,Ox3.5 8.0 x 3.5

9.0
9.0 9.0
9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

-252..0

126.0

126.0 180.0

12.6 25.20 12.60 18.00

4.0 xe3.S + 1.5) 4.0 x 1.5

9.0

360.0 180.0
54.0 108.0 126.0

36.00

1

8.0 x-115
4,Ox1,5

18.00 5.40 5.40 12.60 25.20 12.60 12.60

2 2
2 2

20
21

4,0 x 3.5
e,Ox3,5 4.0x3.5 4,Ox3.5

9.0 9.0

54.0

10.80

2
3

22
23

9.0

252.0 252.0
75,6

2

24
25 26 27

3
3 3

28

4.0 x 3.5 4.0 x 3.5 4.0 x 3.5

4.0x3.5

4.0

B.O x 3.5

x S.5

9,0 9.0 9.0 5.4

126.0 126.0 126.0 75.6 75.6 75.6

25.20

5.4 5.4

5.4

12.60 7.56 7.56 7.56 7,56

since it will introduce only 2% error, which is negligible comparing to other approximation in the design.
The total mass' per floor is given in the table below.

It will be more accurate to divide the gravity load given in kN by the gravity acceleration 9.81 to obtain the mass in metric tones. But. in the table above this was not done,

Total Grav.ity Load Floor Gravity
3
2 1

LOad, kN 3(J? 4 1008.0 1440.0

Now, we have to enter the values In the nodal mass in SPACE GASS-under [Load

Lumped Masses], from the main menu. All masses are entered as Mass Load CasaNo 1. Other mass load cases may be used when we want 10 analyse the same structure wfth an altemative gravity load. Each nodal mass will be entered in both horizontal directions, X and Z (this will not double up the masses). The mass in the X direction will generate an inertia force when the earthquake applies some acceleration in the X direction. The same applies for the Z direction. That is why we have to enter the mass in the X and in Z direction. The mass In the vertical Y direction will not be entered. By doing this we assume that the earthquake effects in the vertical Y direction are neglected .

I

Note that the mass in the vertical direction should be considered in the case of larger cantilevers, or structures with larger spans such as bridge structures.
SPACE GASS has the capacity to automatically calculate the self weight of the structure. In this example we have calculated the total mass manually, and it will be

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SPACE GASS for Windows • Dynarnies

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9

entered as nodal mass. This will give us a total control over the input variables. For larger structures, with many element and irregular shape, the automatic calculation of the self mass will be more suitable.

Mode Shapes and Natural Frequencies
We have now defined the structure and the masses. The next is to calcUlate the dynamic properties Of the structure: Mode Shapes and Natural Frequenoies. But first we have to perform a linear static analysis and write the stiffness matrix to disk. Once the static analySis is completed we can petform the Dynamic Natural Frequencies analysis. The input parameters for the analysis are shown below.

steP

The "Load Cases List" should be empty, since there is only one mass load case
The Self Mass is not calculated mass manually as lumped nodal masses. Note that the maximum number of iterations defaults to 200. The determination of a structure's Dynamic Natural Frequencies is an iterative procedure, and in the oase of an m..conditioned structure, the algorithm may converge very slowly or may not converge at all, To prevent this endless loop there is a limitation on the number of iterations. Usually up to 20 interruptions are sufficient to reach the so1ution.

sine we have inoluded aH the

Convergence tolerance is a parameter whioh controls the accuracy of the SOlution.
Each structure has as many mode shapes as degrees of freedom. Generally, each node has 6 degrees of freedoms) and if the struoture in this example has 19 nodes (excluding the supports), theoretically we can calculate 6 x 19 :; 114 mode shapes and natural frequencies. But, in most cases, the dynamic benavour is adequately represented by the first few mode shapes. In our example we well initially caloulate 8 mode shapes.

The frequency shift Is used when we want to exclude some frequencies. For instance, the Dynamic Frequency Analysis Module will calculate the required number of frequencies starting from the lowest one, But, if we are interested in frequenoies above some value we can enter that value as the frequency Shift. thus excluding all frequencies below that which we specified. Consider that we are tlYing the examine the resonance effect of a buUding from some machinery with an operational fr~quency of 12Hz. If we enter a frequency shift of 10Hz then we win end up only with the frequencies above 10Hz. If we didn't enter a

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SPACE GASS·for WIndows
~- -;

Dynamics

10

frequency shift then the Dynamic Natural Frequency Analysis Module will try to calculate all frequencies, starting from the lowest one. This would result in the
calculation of many unwanted frequencies. Normalising the mode shape simply normalises all of the displacements relative to the maximum displacement-which is set to unity. Tuming this option on just makes it easier to interpret the mode shape results.

Once the Dynamic Natural Frequency Analysis is finished we should review the mode shapes. The animation capabilities of"SPACE GASS will give us a very good overview of the vibration of the structure. The first mode shape is a global torsion. If we select the Plane View. we can easily see the vibration of the structure.
The results are summarised in the table below.

Mode
No.
1 2
3

DYnamic Fr,;,quencJ{Analvsis

Shape

Natural
sec 0.4631

:Period,
0.2428
0.2088 0.1813

Frequency, Hz 2.159
4.119 4.790

Results

Directlon
global torSl.on m~xed X and z translation Z translation mixed X and Z t~an$lation mixed X and Z translation mixed X and Z translaeion mixed X and z translation z translation

:;:
6 7

0.1421
0.1096 0.0887 0.0657

7.039 9.121

5.461

a

1l.272 15.225

Now. examine the dynamic modes to determine If there are a few mode shapes with translation in each horizontal direction (as this is a 3D anatysis). In this example we cen observe that we have probably calculated enough mode shapes (as the modes have roughly 50150 participation In each hOrizontal direction). Later. after completing the Spectral Analysis, the Mass Participation factor will gave us an accurate measure as to whether we have calculated a sufficient number of mode shapes or not. If the number of calculated mode shapes is not sufficient we can always calculate more mode shapes and repeat the procedure again. Also, we can observe that among these 8 mode shapes there is one clear (dominant) torsion mode, two translation modes acting in the Z direction, with the rest of the modes acting in the X and Z directions. Note that there is no clear mode in X the direction. Once again the Mass Participation factor (calculated during the Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis) will give us a better indication whether there are sufficient modes to represent the vibration of the structure in the X direction. Another quick check of the result is to compare the value of the lowest translation natural period to the expected empirical value. It is known that the lowest period should have a value of about 0.1 x Ns (Ns - number of floors) 1st natural period estimated: 0.1 x 3 = 0.3 sec. 1~ natural period calculated: 0.2088 sec. We can observe that the results are of a reasonable order of magnitude, though the structure has a lower period than expected, which indicates 'that the structure is a bit stiffer than a common structure. . Also, we have to check for any "faulty" modes. We can recognise a Pgood" mode shape if it represents some global vibration of the structure. But, if each node vibrates

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SPACE GASS for Windows ~~

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in a different direction. in an irregular manner, we may conclude that it is a "faultY' mode shape, which should not be Included in the Spectral Analysis. Generally. the first mode shape is the global torsion. then there should, be some global translations in both horizontal directions. We expect that the lower translation -mode shapes will have aJl floors vibrating in the same direction. Some higher mode shapes may have a few floors vibrating in one direction and the other floors in the opposite direction. Ideally we should obtain one global torsion mode shape. and three translational mode shapes in each direction. The first three mode shapes In each direction should be
similar to the modes shape in the figure below._

The First S Made Shapes The first mode shape has no interseotlonwfth the vertioalline of the structure. The,

second mode shape should have only one' point of-interseotion with theverticaUine of the structure. And, the third mode shape should have two paints, of intersection with the vertica.l line of the structure. This is a 'simple way to recognise the order of mode shapes in eacn translational direction. The mode shapes in both directions may be mixed. In our example the 3rd mode shape isactualty the 1st mode in tM Z direction, and the 8th mode shape is actually the 3rd mode shape in the Z direction. Other mode

shapes are either missing or they are mixed up.

Now, we are ready for the Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis.

Gravity Load Before entering any input data for the Spectral Analysis, it is necessary-to enter the gravity load: dead and live load. The gravity load. as discussed in the Global Mass section, above, Inoludes 100% of the Dead Load. 60% of the Uve Load on an floors and no Live Load on the roof. All gravity load will be applied on the beams. We will adapt a simplistio approach to distribute the load on the beams. We will distribute evenly the total gravity load in each floor over all beams.
Total GrIl.vity Load on Beams Floor ~ravity Total
Load, kN

Fi
action.

3

302.4 1008.0 1440.0

Length, 30.0

Beam Beam. LOad,
m

53.0 78.0

. lO.Oa

kNJm

19.02 18.46

Now, we will appty tHe load from the table above, on all beams as negative loads in the global Y direction, as Load Case No 1. Later we will combine the deflection and bending moment results from the Gravity Load with the effects from the earthquake

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Dynamic RespOnse Spectrum Analysis' The first step in the Sp~raI Analysis ·isto enter the Spectral Curves. The Spectral' Curves represent a certain earthquake (measured response). or a group of earthquakes repi'eS8nting'the typical seismic activity for some location or territory. The Spectral curves given In AS1170.4, Figure 7..2, represent the typical seismic activity. in Australia. The input data Data]. We will

introduce 2 additional load oases for the earthquake action. The -Load case No 1 was the GravIty Load. Load Case No 2 will be the earthquake action In the

wr.tha

Spectral Curves can be entered under [Loads

I Spectral

Load

X direction (longitudinal). and Load Case No 3 will. be the earthquake action in the Z direction (transferral). Since the structure does not have structural elements sensitive' to vertical earthquake action, such as large cantilevers. we will not consider the vertical earthquake effects.

In each load case all eight available mode shapes will be used. At this stage we still do not know if we have considered a sufficient number of mode shapes or riot.

All curves In Figure 7.2 have a Damping factor of 5%. The Response Spectrum curves used in the Spectral analysis afways include structural dumping. Steel structures will have about 3% damping, reinforced concrete structures 5%, and masonry structures

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about 12%. The smaller damping will result in larger deflectiOns and bending. moments. The average damping of 5% will be quite adequate for most struotures.

13

can choose an alternative Spectral Curve from the Mst,or create our own curve using the Spectral CUlVe Editor. Load Case No 2 will represent an earthquake is OX:: 1 , Oy-O and Dz=O).
Load Case No 3 will represent an earthquake is Dx=O. Dy=O and DZ=1).

If we want to examine the behaviour of the structure under some other earthquake,

we

acting in the X direction (Dlrection Vector acting in the Z direction (Direction Vector

(f we want to consider a honzontel earthquake acting at 45deg, the direction vector will be DX==O.707, Dy:o, Dz=O'. 707. The vector sum of Ox and Dz will produce 1.

The next step is to enter a few more parameters via the Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis dialogue and then perform the analysis.
We will use AS1170.4 loading code. Also, we Will perform automatic scaling of the total earthquake force. so it will not go below 80% of the results obtained by the statio approach (as per AS1170A, 6.2,2.). The results obtained by the Spectral Method have no sign. The results repressnt vibration, and the deflections, bending moment, shear forces and reactions at each point of the structure are positive and negative at the same time (they represent an envelope of the maximums). To obtain mare realistic resutts we will adopt the sign of the results from the most signifioant mode shape in each direction.

The Spectral Curve Multiplier was selected from the dialogue box (as shown beloW)

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.14
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Interpretation of the Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Results
Since it is a 3D model the torsion effects are automatically oonsidered in the analysis. The simplified torsion approach, as suggested in AS1170.4. clause 6.5, need not to be

considered.

First of all we have to examine the deflections for Load Cases 2 and 3. Intuitively we would expect that the deflection pattern for load Case No 2 should loox like the structure is being "pushed" in the X direction, and for Load Case No 3 it should iook: like the struoture Is being "pushed" in the Z direction .

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SPACE GASSfor Wlndo\¥$ - DynamIcs
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-, Base aheaz::: ~ Results' scaled. by fe.ctor: '1 S1 tI! factor: Si(;n, ot the :tewlts:

: D1~ect1an vecto~:

Bus load case: i'

Dx

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AS1170.4

Y-Axis Not less than 60% ot total seacic fo~ce
1.3l
1. 500

Ml1l70.4.

~ Acceleration

coefticientl

Hade shape 4 'Csl~lated)
0.100

~ Impor:taIwll:: f&etcuz:
Structw:al

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t.e"pOlllile factor::

H Spectral

CUJ:~e

.UltiPl1~J::
IlI.etb.od.:

1.250 4.000

0.0312:5
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(squ_are: Root of the
!JPF fo!:

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Xus Pa~t

Speettal

C'IJ.l:'I'I'e Factor 5.0%
5.0% 5.0%

P~r.1od 0.4631 0.2428

frequency 2;.159 4.119 4.790 5.461 7.039 9.12'1

Factor
3.965%

Vectoz:
Vect,oI:

1
2

ASl.l"lO.4 5",1.5

'l

::r
.<

.AS1l70.4 S;1.5

.,

t!

~

Ve:Cet'lz: Vector. V.ctal:

f I'

!i

;~
I '~

V.ceat: Vecto:t: Vector

3 4 5 6

7

8

J.S1170.4 S",l.S ASl170.4 15""-1.5 ASll'10.4 S .. .S l AS1l70.45"1.5 AS1l70.4 5",1. 5 ASl170.4 5",1.5

5.0%
5.0% 5.0\

o.iOae
0.16:3:1 0.1421 0.1096 0.0887 0.0657

27.638%
13.344\

30.~S7\

5.0t.: 5.0%

11.272 15.225
Total

0.002\ 11. 73S\ 3.900% 2.506% 93.351%

that the total earthquake force in the X direction is 6.26% of the total gravity load. About 2% to 3% is considered to be a small earthquake effect, while 10% to 15% is a very severe earthquake action.

From the report for Load case No 2 we can observe that the Total Mass·partioipation factor is 93.351 %, As it is larger than 90% we can conolude that there are. a suffioient number of mode shapes to adequately represent the dynamic response of the structure for an earthquake acting in the X direction. Furthermore, we can observe

As with Load case No 2, we can observe that the Total Mass participation factor is
99.906"'!'ofor Load Case No 3. Hence, we can conclude that there is a-sllfficient number of mode shapes to adequately represent the dynamic response of the structure due to an- earthquake acting in the Z direction. Also, we can observe that the total earthquake force in the Z direction is 6.25% of the total gravity load.

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SPACE GASS for' Windows ..Dynarnies

16

Spectral

case 3:

Jtu:! load cue: Direction ~ecto~:
L 0 a.Q.:i.nq

code ;

, Ve.rtical ditect.ioru Bue sheiaJ::J Re;SUlt;.S scaled by facto:t:! Site factor:
, Sign af the

Auto soeling of base she~:

AS1l70.4 ASU70.4

Dx ..0.000, Dy ~ 0.000, Dz = 1,000

1

Not less 1.746

Y-Axis

than 80~ of total static force

i11l0de combination

4 Specttal

., Ilapo:ttsnee factor:! I'~ il Structural respoue

Accele~8tiaa ooatt1cian~:

:e8Ult=

I

1.500
Rode shtlfl'e 1 (Calculated)

0.100 1.250 SRSS (Squeu:e Root;. of tne

c~

fac:eoll;

multiplier;
llethOd:

4.000 0.03125

S\UIt of Squares).

~ ~ ~

:1 Ditection
~ I. ~ ~
Z-Axis

Do~nant
Rode

Static

Total
Force

Total
2'15.0400

Mus

KPY for Domlnant Bode:

Total
Hu::J Pe.1:~ Faecor:

Shea.r 2.476%

Bese

"
o
RoI1!! 2

210.7204
105.3602

o. Dono

30.257% 46. 34S~
lI"atu:cal

1

2'10.7204

275.0400
Damping
Facto:t;:

0.000\

93.35oH O.OOO~ 99.90S'"
JIatm;:al '

0.607\ 6.Z50%
Ka.:!Sshrt Fectol:: 4(i. ;346_% 16,277~ 15. 926!j; 6.76l\:

!! " ~ ~
Vector Vector: Vector:
Veoto:r:

~ Direction Shape. Spec'tra1 Curve 1 ASl170.4 S~l.S
AS1170.4 S~1.5

Per:ioQ 0.4631 0.2428

F'J:eqUengy

Vector: Vector

3 ASll70.4 $Ml.5 4 ASl170.4 S~1.5 5 A$1170.4 9=1.5
6 A51170.45=1.5

5.0\
5.0% 5.0% 5,0%

5.0% 5.0%

2.159 4.119

0.208S
0.1831 0.1421

4.790
5.461 7.0S9 11.272

8.194%

Vecto:r:: VecUu:

7 ASII10.4 S~1.5 a ASl170.4 S~l.S

5.0~
5.0%

0.1096 0.Oa87 0.0657

9.12l

2.3S3~
l.a76%

15.225

Total

a.170% 99.905%

......................•.

,~"'''.------

---------

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...

,~

.. ,... --- .. -

.....

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-.,'

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..,.,,'

,:~

SPAce GASI·for W'mdows ~ DY'nantiCS Load Combinations and Check of Design Criteria

17

The final step is to generate ssveral Load Combinations and compare the maximum effects with the design criteria for strength and stability.
First, combine the Spectral results with the gravity loads. The earthquake effects should be considered in two orthogonal directions independently. Load Combinations 1, 2, 5 and £:3 will consider the earthquake acting in the X direction. Load Combinations 3, 4, 7 and 8. will consider the earthquake acting in the Z direction. Load Combination for Strength, according to AS1170.4, clause 1.6.1 (a) combin Combin Combin Combin No No No No combin No Comhin NO Combin No Combin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ~ LCl + LC2 LCl - LC2 ~ LCl + LC3 = LCi - LC3 = O.B(Le1) + = O.8(LC1) = O.8(LCi) + ~ O.8(LC1) -

=

LC2 LC2 LCJ Lc3

Load Combinations from 5 to 8 are neCessary. since in some structural members. such as columns at ground level. the reduced gravity load will impose more severe strength requirements. Load Combination for Stability, according to AS 1170.4, clause 1.6.1 (b) Combin Combin Cambin Combin No No No No 9 ~ 1.25iLCl) + LC2 10 1.25{LC1) - LC2 11 = 1.25(LC1} + LC3 12 = 1.25{LCl) - LC3

=

Note that in the above expressions the dead and live load are grouped into Load Case

1.
Note that, if we want to consider the P~Detta effects in accordance to AS 1170 .4, clause 6.7.1, we have to consider the Deflection Amplification factor Kd and derive a few more. load combinations. Combin No Cornbin No Combin No Combin NO 13 14

l~

= =
=

16

=

Kd[1.25{LC1) Kd[I.25{LC1) Kd[1.25(LC1) Kdtl.2S(LCl)

LC2) - LC2]
+
+

~ LC3]

LC31

Next, we check the Stability by comparing the calculated values for the inter~storey drift against the allowable limit for this partibular construction (Load Combinations 9 to 16). Also, we have to check all structural members for strength (Load Combinations 1 to 8). The usual procedure is to design seotlons in all structural members to resist the Dead and Live Load and then to check whether the sections possess suffioient capaoity to resist the earthquake action. Hthe bending moment or shear force for any of the Load Combinations from 1 to 8 exceeds the limit states of some section, then the section should be re-designed to accommodate the additional earthquake load.

TOTAL P.i?

............

-.-

-._,.,__,.,

""'--~---