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Climate Change Indices

By: I Putu Santikayasa

Climate Change and Water Resources CE74.9002 Water Engineering and Management (WEM) School of Engineering and Technology (SET) Asian institute of Technology (AIT)

Introduction
• A main objective of constructing climate extremes indices is to use for climate change monitoring and detection studies • Change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on nature and society • Very important to analyze extreme events • Need daily data  very difficult task

documentation. . and regions can calculate the indices in exactly the same way such that their analyses will fit seamlessly into the global picture • Furthermore. and other material to guide the calculation and use of climate change detection indices and climate data homogenization. and analysis a suite of indices so that individuals.Introduction • Need to develop. calculate. countries. need toolkits including software. improvement of global coverage and assessment of indices.

• The indices based on daily temperature and precipitation as data input • Some of them based on thresholds that are relevant on particular application • 40 indices was approved  27 indices consider to be core indices .Climate Indices • Climate indices is used to monitor climate change as and when is happens.

Climate Indices ID FD0 Summer days SU25 Ice days ID0 Annual count when TX(daily maximum)<0ºC Days Indicator name Frost days Annual count when TN(daily minimum)<0ºC Annual count maximum)>25ºC when TX(daily Days Days Definitions UNITS Tropical nights TR20 Annual count minimum)>20ºC when TN(daily Days .

1st July to 30th June in SH) count between first span of at least 6 days with TG>5ºC and first span Days after July 1 (January 1 in SH) of 6 days with TG<5ºC Monthly temp Monthly temp Monthly temp Monthly temp maximum value of daily maximum maximum value of daily minimum minimum value of daily maximum minimum value of daily minimum ºC ºC ºC ºC TXx TNx TXn TNn Max Tmax Max Tmin Min Tmax Min Tmin .Climate Indices Growing season Length GSL Annual (1st Jan to 31st Dec in NH.

Climate Indices Cool nights TN10p Percentage of days when TN<10th percentile Days Cool days TX10p Warm nights TN90p Warm days TX90p Warm spell duration indicator WSDI Percentage of days when TX>90th percentile Days Percentage of days when TN>90th percentile Days Percentage of days when TX<10th percentile Days Annual count of days with at least 6 Days consecutive days when TX>90th percentile .

0mm) in the year .Climate Indices CSDI Cold spell duration indicator Diurnal temperature range Annual count of days with at least 6 Days consecutive days when TN<10th percentile DTR Monthly mean difference between TX and TN ºC RX1day Max 1-day precipitation amount Max 5-day precipitation amount Simple daily intensity index Monthly maximum 1-day precipitation Mm Rx5day Monthly maximum precipitation consecutive 5-day Mm SDII Annual total precipitation divided by the Mm/d number of wet days (defined as ay PRCP>=1.

Days nn is user defined threshold Maximum number of consecutive days with Days RR<1mm Maximum number of consecutive days with Days RR>=1mm CDD CWD .Climate Indices R10 Number of heavy precipitation days Annual count of days when PRCP>=10mm Number of very heavy Annual count of days when PRCP>=20mm precipitation days Days R20 Days Rnn Number of days above nn mm Consecutive dry days Consecutive wet days Annual count of days when PRCP>=nn mm.

Climate Indices Very wet days R95p Annual total PRCP when RR>95th percentile Mm Extremely wet days R99p Annual total PRCP when RR>99th percentile mm Annual total wetday precipitation PRCPTOT Annual total PRCP in wet days (RR>=1mm) mm .

and has been used in CCl/CLIVAR workshops on climate indices since 2001 .Climdex • Climdex : Microsoft Excel based program that provides an easy-to-use software package for the calculation of indices of climate extremes for monitoring and detecting climate change • Developed by Byron Gleason at the National Climate Data Centre (NCDC) of NOAA.

Climdex v. Excel platform • Running under Window • Difficult to fix the bug RClimdex • R platform • Free • Powerfull for statistical analysis • Running under window and unix • Relatively easy to fix the bug .s RClimdex Climdex • Ms.

1.84 or higher • Limitation: – Simple data quality control – Not include Data homogenization .3 • Used to calculate climate change indices • 27 core indices recommended by the CCl/CLIVAR Expert Team for Climate Change Detection Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI) • Developed under R 1.Rclimdex ver.

a spell can continue into the next year and is counted against the year in which the spell ends e.g. 5. No annual value will be calculated if any one month’s data are missing. For threshold indices. a threshold is calculated if at least 70% of data are present.Please Remember!!: 1. Not all indices are calculated on a monthly basis. 2. a cold spell (CSDI) in the Northern Hemisphere beginning on 31st December 2000 and ending on 6th January 2001 is counted towards the total number of cold spells in 2001 4. Monthly indices are calculated if no more than 3 days are missing in a month. while annual values are calculated if no more than 15 days are missing in a year. For spell duration indicators (marked with a *). . 3.

ca/ETCCDMI/software.• Software and user manual : http://cccma.uvic.seos.shtml .

org • Download * • Install the program *For window user : download window setup For unix user: download proper precompiled binaries (source code may need to be downloaded and compiled) .r-project.How to use RClimdex • R software is required to run Rclimdex • Connect to R Project website: http://www.

9. The format as described above must be space delimited 4. . ASCII text file 2. data records must be in calendar date order. TMAX. Day. PRCP. Month. Columns as following sequences: Year. Missing dates allowed.How to use RClimdex Data format: 1. Missing data must be coded as -99. (NOTE: PRCP units = millimeters and Temperature units= degrees Celsius) 3. TMIN.

How to use RClimdex • Sample data: Year Month Day TMax (oC) Precipitation (mm) TMin (oC) .

Load RClimdex . Load Data->Run QC 1.How to use RClimdex 3. Indices Calculation 2.

ca/ETCCDMI/RClimDex/rclimdex.r") – source (“http://cccma.Load RClimdex Load Data->Run QC Indices Calculation 1. R consol prompt “>” • Type: source (“rclimdex path”) – source("C:\\climateindices\\rclimdex.seos.r ”) 2.uvic. File > Source R code … .

9) into an internal format that R recognizes  Replace all unreasonable values into NA .Load RClimdex Load Data->Run QC Indices Calculation  Prerequisite for indices calculations  Replace all missing values (currently coded as 99.

What will be checked?  Daily precipitation amounts less than zero  Daily maximum temperature less than daily minimum temperature  QC also identifies outliers in daily maximum and minimum temperature  The outliers are daily values outside a region defined by the user  Unreasonable values are identified automatically but identification of outliers in temperature data requires input from the user .

Data QC  files  ____tempQC.csv unreasonable temperature  ____prcpQC.csv unreasonable precipitation  ____tepstdQC.csv all possible outliers in daily temperature with the dates on which those outliers occur  ____indcal.csv QC’d data and will be used for the indices calculation .

Load RClimdex Load Data->Run QC Indices Calculation • RClimDex is capable of computing all 27 core indices • Parameter input: – First and last year of base period for the threshold calculation – Station Latitude (SH  negative) – daily precipitation threshold. P (in mm) – Upper and Limit of Day High – Upper and Limit of Day Low .

Load RClimdex Load Data->Run QC Indices Calculation • Selection of indices • Result will be stored as excel file and jpeg format • Jpeg format: trends computed by linear least square (solid line) and locally weighted linear regression (dashed line) .

Class exercise .

Case study: Analyze climate change indices by using data from your country Due date: 29th March 2012 Submitted to Dr. Sangam .

Thank you Have a nice day .