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Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics
Shipping Statistics
and Market Review
Market Review
Analytical Focus
Volume 55 No 5/6 - 2011
World Merchant Fleet
World Bulk Carrier Market
World Tanker Market
World Container and General Cargo Shipping
World Merchant Fleet by Ownership Patterns
World Passenger and Cruise Shipping/
ISL Cruise Fleet Register
World Shipbuilding and Shipbuilders
Major Shipping Nations
World Seaborne Trade and World Port Trafhc
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Shipping Statistics
and Market Review
Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics
Container and General Cargo Shipping
ISL Comment ...........................................................
ISL InfoLine Special .................................................
ISL Statistical Tables ................................................
Market Review
Economic Indicators .................................................
World Merchant Fleet ..................................................
Freight and Charter Market .......................................
Shipping Prices and Costs .........................................
World Shipbuilding ...................................................
World Port Traffic .....................................................
5
14
23
53
56
59
71
72
74
Volume 55 (2011)
ISSN 0947 - 0220
published 9 times per year
Analytical Focus
(double issues Jan./Feb., May/ June.
and Sept./ Oct.)
No 5/6 - 2011
Contents – World Container and General Cargo Shipping www.isl.org
SSMR May/June 2011 3
Page
ISL Comment

(1) WORLD CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO FLEET DEVELOPMENT 2010/2011
1.1 World Cellular Container Fleet .................................................................... 5
1.2 World General Cargo Fleet ......................................................................... 8
(2) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO MARKET
2.1 Major World Trade Developments 2010/2011 .............................................. 10
2.2 Global Insight – Short Term Container Trade Outlook ................................... 11
2.3. World Container Port Traffic – Regional Highlights 2010 ................................ 11
2.4. The Container Market - Rates and Prices ..................................................... 12
(3) FUTURE CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO TONNAGE SUPPLY .................................................................. 14
(4) THE SHIPBUILDING MARKET FOR CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO SHIPS
4.1 New Orders and Order Book Development ................................................... 14
4.2 Leading Shipbuilding Countries .................................................................. 15
COMMENT - SUMMARY TABLES
Tab. 1 World Container Fleet – Additions/Reductions 2005, 2009 and 2010 .............................. 5
Tab. 2 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet and Order Book by TEU-Size Class 2010 .................. 6
Tab. 3 World Container Fleet Registered for Panama and Liberia According to Countries of Domicile
2007, 2009-2011 .................................................................................................. 6
Tab. 4 World Container Fleet – Controlled Tonnage of Major Shipping Nations 2007-2011 .......... 7
Tab. 5 World Container Fleet by Major Operators 2007 and 2011 ............................................ 7
Tab. 6 World General Cargo Fleet Development by Ship Type 2007 and 2011 ........................... 8
Tab. 7 World Merchandise Trade by Region and Selected Countries 2010 ................................. 8
Tab. 8 Value of Imports and Exports of the Top Trading Countries 2010 .................................. 9
Tab. 9 Five Largest Container Exporting Nations 2008-2011 .................................................. 9
Tab. 10 TEU-Ranking of the Top 20 World Container Ports in 2010 ........................................... 10
Tab. 11 Container Traffic of World Ports by Geographical Distribution 2010 ................................ 10
Tab. 12 Container Ship Order Book – Delivery Schedule by Major Countries of Build 2010 ............ 13
COMMENT - FIGURES
Fig. 1 World Container Fleet – Annual Tonnage Changes 1996-2011 ...................................... 5
Fig. 2 World Container Fleet – Tonnage Additions and Reductions 1996-2010 .......................... 5
Fig. 3 World Container Fleet Development 1986-2011 .......................................................... 5
Fig. 4 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet – TEU-Size Structure 2001-2011 ............................ 6
Fig. 5 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet – Ship Size Development 2001-2011 ....................... 6
Fig. 6 TEU-Capacity of Top Ranking ContainerShip Operators 2007-2011 ................................ 7
Fig. 7 World General Cargo Fleet - Annual Tonnage changes 1996-2011 ................................ 8
Fig. 8 World General Cargo Fleet – Tonnage Additions and Reductions 1996-2011 .................... 8
Fig. 9 World total Trade by Commodity Group 2010 ............................................................. 9
Fig. 10 World total Trade of Manufactured Goods by Product Group 2010 ................................. 9
Fig. 11 World Trade (Value Related) and World Container Port Traffic (TEU-based) 1988-2009 .... 9
Fig. 12 Container Port Traffic by Region 2010 ....................................................................... 10
Fig. 13 Monthly Container Traffic of Selected Ports by Region 2000-2010 ................................. 11
Fig. 14 Monthly HARPEX Container Charter Rate Index 2005 up to April 2011 ........................... 12
Fig. 15 German Sea Freight Indices 2005 up to March 2011 .................................................... 12
Fig. 16 Second Hand Prices for 5 Years Old Container Ships 2005-2010 by TEU-Size Classes ....... 12
Fig. 17 Newbuilding Contracting Prices for Container Ships 2005-2010 by TEU-Size Classes ........ 12
Fig. 18 World Container Fleet – New Orders and Broken-up Tonnage, Quarterly 2005-2011 ........ 13
Fig. 19 World Container and General Cargo Order Book, Quarterly 2005-2011 .......................... 13
5-16
Contents – World Container and General Cargo Shipping www.isl.org
4 SSMR May/June 2011
Page
ISL InfoLine Special
(1) ONLINE INFORMATION COMPILED FROM LEADING INDUSTRY SOURCES (2) ISL SEABASE – NEW LITERATURE ................................... 17
ISL Statistical Tables
(1) WORLD CONTAINER FLEET
1.1 Key Figures on the World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by TEU-Size Class 2010 .............. 23
1.2 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet Development 2000-2011 ....................................... 23
1.3 Additions to the World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by Country of Domicile 2005-2010 ... 24
1.4 Additions to the World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by TEU-Size Class 2005-2010 .......... 24
1.5 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by Major Flags 2009 and 2010 ............................... 25
1.6 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by Country of Domicile 2010 ................................. 26
1.7 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by dwt-Size Class and Division of Age 2010 .............. 27
1.8 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by TEU-Size Class and Division of Age 2010 ............. 27
1.9 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet by dwt-Size Class and TEU-Capacity 2010 and
Order Book as of 2010 ........................................................................................... 28
1.10 World Fully Cellular Container Fleet – Size Dimensions 2010 ........................................ 28
1.11 Container Fleet by Operators as of February 2011 ...................................................... 29
1.11.1 Top 15 Container Operators .................................................................................... 29
1.11.2 The Global Players ................................................................................................. 29
(2) WORLD GENERAL CARGO FLEET
2.1 Key Figures on the General Cargo Fleet by Type and dwt-Size Class 2010 ...................... 30
2.2 General Cargo Fleet Development by Ship Type 2001-2011 ......................................... 30
2.3 General Cargo Fleet by Major Flags 2009 and 2010 ..................................................... 31
2.4 General Cargo Fleet by Country of Domicile 2010 ...................................................... 33
2.5 General Cargo Fleet by Ship Type and Top Ten Countries of Domicile 2010 ..................... 33
2.6 General Cargo Ships by Type and Divison of Age and Order Book 2010 ......................... 34
2.7 World General Cargo Fleet by dwt-Size Class and Division of Age 2010 .......................... 34
2.8 General Cargo Ships – Size Dimensions 2010 ............................................................ 35
2.9 Additions to the World General Cargo Fleet by Country of Domicile 2007-2010 ................ 35
(3) BROKEN-UP CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO SHIPS
3.1 Broken-up Container and General Cargo Ships by Major Types 2000-2010 ..................... 36
3.2 Broken-up Container and General Cargo Ships by Major Flags 2000-2010 ...................... 36
(4) WORLD TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND WORLD CONTAINER PORT TRAFFIC
4.1 World Merchandise Trade by Region and Selected Countries 2009 and 2010 ................... 37
4.2 Leading Importers and Exporters of Manufactures by Main Commodity Categories 2009 .. 38
4.2.1 Iron and Steel ....................................................................................................... 38
4.2.2 Chemicals ............................................................................................................ 38
4.2.3 Pharmaceuticals .................................................................................................... 39
4.2.4 Office and Telecom Equipment ................................................................................. 39
4.2.5 Automotive Products .............................................................................................. 40
4.2.6 Office and EDC ...................................................................................................... 40
4.3 World Container Port Traffic .................................................................................... 41
4.3.1 World Container Port Traffic by Country 2003-2010 .................................................... 41
4.3.2 World Container Port Traffic of Selected Ports by Region 2005-2010 .............................. 42
4.3.3 Container Traffic of Selected Ports by Share of Loading and Unloading Regions 2010 ....... 44
(5) WORLD SHIPBUILDING – CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO SHIPS ON ORDER
5.1 Existing World Container and General Cargo Fleet by Major Areas of Build 2010 .............. 46
5.2 Container Ships on Order .......................................................................................... 46
5.2.1 Container Ships on Order and New Orders by Type 2007-2011, Quarterly ......................... 46
5.2.2 Container Ships on Order by Top Countries of Build and TEU-Size Class 2010 .................. 47
5.2.3 Container Ships on Order by Major Countries of Build and Delivery Schedule 2010 .......... 47
5.2.4 Container Ships on Order by Ship Yard and Delivery Schedule 2010 ................................. 47
5.3 General Cargo Ships on Order .................................................................................... 48
5.3.1 General Cargo Ships on Order and New Orders by Type 2007-2011, Quarterly ................... 48
5.3.2 General Cargo Ships on Order by Major Countries of Build and Delivery Schedule 2010 ....... 48
5.3.3 General Cargo Ships on Order by Ship Yard and Type 2010 ............................................ 48
5.4 New Container and General Cargo Ship Orders by Major Countries of Build 2005-2010 ....... 49
5.5 New Container and General Cargo Ship Orders by Major Countries of Domicile 2005-2010 ... 50

ISL Market Review
17-22
23-50
52-78
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011 1
www.isl.org




This “short comment” is an excerpt from the “Analytical Comment” published in the
ISL Shipping Statistics and Market Review (SSMR) No 5/6 2011.


The SSMR includes detailed statistical information concerning the “analytical focus”
and provides approx. 30 monthly/quarterly market indicators (Market Review).
For more information compare attached “contents”
























If you are interested in the complete publication
covering all details (tables & figures), please
contact our subscription department
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without
prior permission of the editors.
ISL does not guarantee the accuracy of the information
contained in "ISL Shipping Statistics and Market Review (SSMR)"
(this is also true for the “Short Comment”) nor does it accept
responsibility for errors or omissions or their consequences.
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2010
www.isl.org
5
1 WORLD CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO FLEET
DEVELOPMENT 2010/2011
There was an amazing comeback of container shipping in
2010. The container shipping market performed a strong
recovery in 2010 and ended the year with a trade growth of
nearly 13 %.
The recovery in the container market is also reflected in the
idle container fleet. It has shrunk from a peak of 1.5
million TEU at the beginning of 2010 to only 240,000
TEU by the end of 2010.
About 1.35 million TEU in container ship capacity came
into service in 2010, thereof 0.82 million TEU of very large
Post-Panamax ships (more than 10,000 TEU). The volume
of deliveries was about 640,000 TEU less than scheduled.
As of January 1
st
, 2011, the fully cellular container fleet
comprised 4,882 ships with 14.1 million TEU, a rise of
9.5 % compared to a year earlier. In 2009, the fleet had
only expanded by 5.8 %, but at a time when demand
actually shrunk.
In early 2011, the general cargo fleet was composed of
17,365 ships with 107 million dwt and 2.2 million TEU.
This is an increase of 1.2 % compared to 2010 figures in
terms of dwt.
These two fleet segments had a dwt-share of 21.6 % of the
total world merchant fleet (ships of 300 gt and over). At
the beginning of 2011, the total TEU capacity of the world
merchant fleet was to 85.7 % attributable to the fully
cellular container fleet.
1.1 World cellular container fleet
1.1.1 Container fleet development 2010/2011
Due to cancellations, conversions and delays, only 1.4
million TEU of additional container ship capacity came
into service in 2010 - the planned deliveries amounted to
2.0 million TEU. In the same period, tonnage with a
capacity of 170,000 TEU was scrapped. At the beginning
of 2011, the container fleet comprised 4,882 ships with
14.1 million TEU, up 9.5 % since the start of the year.
Fleet development trends can be summarised as follows:
x Ships added to the world container fleet during 2010
represent 6.2 % of all fully cellular container ships,
5.3 % of the deadweight tonnage and 9.6 % of the
TEU-capacity of the active container fleet at the
beginning of 2011.
x The number of idle containership capacity has
continued to fall and has reached its lowest levels
since August 2008. According to Alphaliner, only 63
units with a capacity of 80,000 TEU were reported as
idle by the end of May 2011, against 240,000 TEU by
the end of 2010.
x The number of ships entering the fleet in 2010 was
eight times higher than the number of ships leaving
the fleet.
x Between the beginning of 2007 and 2011, the
container fleet expanded on average by 10.4 % per
year in terms of TEU, and the number of container
ships by 5.9 %.
Fig. 1: World container fleet – annual tonnage changes
as of January 1
st
, 1997 – 2011 (TEU- %)


Fig. 2: World container fleet – tonnage additions and reductions
1996 – 2010 (mill. dwt)


Tab. 1: World container fleet – additions/reductions 2006, 2009
and 2010


Fig. 3: World container fleet development as of
January 1
st
, 1986 – 2011 (Index 1986 = 100)


Statistical details “ World container fleet”
ƒ Key figures p. 23
ƒ Division of age and type p. 27/28
ƒ Summer draught, length, beam p. 28

Sources:
If not otherwise mentioned, the source for tables and figures concerning
the world merchant fleet, special ship type features and order book
information is “ISL based on IHS Fairplay”, please quote accordingly. In
general merchant fleet data refer to ships of 300 gt and over.

Explanatory notes:
The “total container fleet” includes only fully cellular container ships.
General cargo ships –The specification of sub-types (see table left side) is
based on the classification provided by IHS Fairplay.

Tonnage additions/reductions:
Additions entering the fleet refer to the fleet data of the following year.
Reductions refer to the fleet data of the respective year.
0.0
2.5
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
15.0
17.5
1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011
14.0
16.5
12.9
6.4
9.4
13.1
11.4
9.0
11.6
13.5
16.3
13.8
12.8
5.8
9.5
T
E
U

%
-
c
h
a
n
g
e
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
m
i
l
l

d
w
t
Additions
Reductions
2006 2009 2010
No 1000 No 1000 No 1000
TEU TEU TEU
Additions to fleet 352 1332 290 1118 273 1371 22.6 0.7
Reductions from fleet 19 26 194 362 99 170 -52.9 59.4
2007 2010 2011
3881 9465 4706 12851 4882 14071 9.5 10.4
av. TEU
%
growth
Total Fleet as of
Jan. 1st.
TEU-%
change
over
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
No mill dwt 1000 TEU
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011
6
www.isl.org
x During the years 2006-2010, 1,741 container ships
with 6.6 million TEU and 82.2 million dwt were
added to the trading fleet. During the same period, at
least 374 container ships with 0.64 million TEU and
10.1 million dwt were reported as broken-up.
x The 273 new deliveries in 2010 comprised 99 Post-
Panamax vessels, thereof 29 Ultra Large Container
Ships (ULCS) with a capacity of more than 10,000
TEU.
1.1.2 Size dimensions of the world container fleet
The average size of container ships has more than doubled
in 20 years. The average size increased from 1,250 TEU
(1990) to 2,880 TEU at the beginning of 2011. Since
August 2006 Ultra Large Containerships with more than
10,000 TEU are trading (Emma Maersk). Since that time,
64 ULCSs of over 10,000 TEU have been delivered.
The average size of cellular container ships in the
orderbook was 6,300 TEU in early 2011. At least 146
container ships on order had capacities of 10,000 TEU and
above, which means that their number will more than
double in the next few years.
Of the main carriers, ten have already ordered/operated
ships of at least 12,500 TEU. Maersk Line just ordered ten
container ships in a new size class, each able to transport
18,000 TEU. These “EEE”-giants will be delivered from
2013 to 2015. According to Fairplay, the ships will have a
draught of only 14.5 metres and will be little longer and
wider than the current E-class ships. This would be a relief
for many ports that struggle with adapting to the ever
increasing ship sizes. Much of the additional of the EEE-
class will be reached through an adapted hull designed for
capacity rather than speed.
1.1.3 Ownership patterns of the world container fleet
Leading container operators 2011
The top 15 carriers have increased their TEU capacity by
46 % in the period 2007 to 2011. According to MDS
Transmodal, as of February 2011, the top 15 container
operators controlled approx. 10.4 million TEU (container
ships above 1,000 TEU) which account for 76.7 % of the
“global” TEU capacity.
The largest since many years is Maersk Line, operating a
fleet of 530 vessels with a capacity of 2.05 million TEU
equal to 15.2 % of the total world container fleet capacity,
followed by the Swiss operator MSC with 1.8 million TEU
(13.2 %) and the French operator CMA-CGM with 1.1
million TEU (8.4 %).
Table 5 shows the development for the top operators in
the period 2007-2011. The highest TEU-based expansion
was reached by CSVA with 147 %, followed by Hamburg
Süd (93 %), APL (87 %) and MSC (83 %).
Charter activities are a determining factor of the container
shipping market. The analysis for February 2011 shows
that 52 % of the TEU-capacity of the world container fleet
equal to 2,108 container ships is attributable to the
container charter market.
Looking at the 15 top-ranking operators, the share of
chartered TEU capacity in 2011 stood at nearly 53 % (for
Fig. 4: World fully cellular container fleet –TEU-size structure
January 1
st
, 2002 - 2011 (1000 TEU)



Tab. 2: World fully cellular container fleet and order book by
TEU-size class as of January 1
st
, 2011



Fig. 5: World fully cellular container fleet –average ship size
development January 1
st
, 1987 - 2017 (dwt/TEU)


Fig. 6: TEU-capacity of top ranking containership operators as of
2007 – 2011 (February, 1
st
)

Ships of 1,000 TEU and above; ISL based on MDS Transmodal

Ship dimensions –The largest container ships as of
April 1
st
, 2011
Maersk E-Class: 170,794 gt /156,907 dwt/ 12,508 TEU , L 398m/ B
56.4m/ D 16.0m – Built: 08/2006, Flag: DIS, COD: Denmark; MSC
Daniela Class: 151,559gt /156,301dwt /14,000TEU, L 366/ B 16m –
Built: 12/2008, Flag PAN.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
1
0
0
0

T
E
U
-1999 TEU -3999 TEU -4999 TEU
-5999 TEU >=6000 TEU
No
1000
TEU
share of
total No
1000
TEU
share of
total
< 999 1125 672 4.8 44 33 0.9
1000 < 1999 1271 1801 12.8 97 133 3.5
2000 < 3999 1055 2976 21.1 80 251 6.6
4000 < 5999 886 4202 29.9 100 460 12.0
6000 < 7999 265 1783 12.7 54 377 9.9
8000 < 9999 216 1849 13.1 85 719 18.8
>= 10000 64 788 5.6 146 1852 48.4
Total 4882 14071 100.0 606 3826 100.0
TEU Size
class
Fleet Order book
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011
T
E
U
d
w
t
dwt
TEU
0.0
500.0
1000.0
1500.0
2000.0
2500.0
Maersk-
Line
MSC CHKY
Alliance
CMA-CGM Grand
Alliance
Evergreen New World
1
0
0
0

T
E
U
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011
7
www.isl.org www.isl.org
comparison: in 1998, the respective share was 28 %). But
charter strategies of container operators differ significantly.
Whereas NYK only had a chartering share of 23 %, the
share for the third-ranked CMA/CGM was about 58 %.
The biggest operator, Maersk Line, chartered 335 container
ships representing 51 % of its total TEU capacity.
1.2 World general cargo fleet
1.2.1 General cargo fleet development 2010/2011
At the beginning of 2011, the total general cargo fleet
consisted of 17,365 ships with 107 million dwt. In
comparison, the order book amounted to 1,295 vessels
with 18.1 million dwt, equivalent to 17 % of the fleet.
Comparing fleet tonnage figures for January 1
st
, 2010 and
2011, the general cargo fleet shrunk by number of ships
but the tonnage increased by 1.2 %. In 2010, fleet
newbuildings exceeded demolitions by 1.6 million dwt.
Since 2006, 2,600 general cargo ships with 24.0 million dwt
were added to the fleet and 1,886 ships with 15.1 million
dwt were reported as broken up.
The fleet analysis indicates that the general cargo fleet is
composed of various sub-types having their own
momentum in the market.
x The yearly growth rate for multi-purpose/single-deck
ships in the period 2007-2011 stood at 5.2 %. In the
same period, the fleet of multi-deck ships and reefer
vessels decreased by 7.0 % and 2.2 % respectively.
Today, a large number of general cargo ships classified
as single-deckers have foldout decks.
x Besides the single deck fleet, the special fleet segment
(incl. car carriers and heavy lift) shows a positive yearly
growth with 6.0 % in the period 2007-2011.
At the beginning of 2011, the following “Special types”—
sub-types specified by IHS Fairplay—can be distinguished:

2 FUNDAMENTALS OF THE CONTAINER AND GENERAL
CARGO MARKET
2.1 Major world trade developments 2010/2011
The World Trade Organisation (WTO, Press Release
628/2011) has just published their assessment of the world
trade development in 2010 and prospects for 2011. The most
relevant features for the seaborne trade development are
highlighted below.
x After the record-breaking 14.5 % increase in the
Fig. 7: World general cargo fleet – annual tonnage changes
as of January 1
st
, 1997 - 2011 (dwt- %)

Please note: The decrease in 2002 was caused by the deactivating of ships from the
US-Reserve Fleet.

Fig. 8: World general cargo fleet – tonnage additions and
reductions 1996-2010 (mill. dwt)


Fig. 9: World total trade by commodity group 2010
(% share of value in US$)

Source: WTO; World Trade Statistics 2011





Statistical details “ World general cargo fleet”
ƒ Key figures p. 31
ƒ World general cargo fleet ranking by flag p. 33
ƒ Registered flag and country of domicile p. 34/35
ƒ General cargo fleet and order book by type and age p. 36
ƒ General cargo fleet by size class and of age p. 36

Explanatory note
Major Open Registries: Countries permitting the registration of ships
owned by non-residents. In general, ISL figures on open registry flags
are restricted to the top ten major flags: Panama, Liberia, Bahamas,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Cyprus, St. Vincent, Antigua & Barbuda,
Bermuda and Cayman Islands. (01.01.2011).
Country of registration and country of domicile: Country of
registration indicates the country of the port of registry of a country
(flag). The country of domicile indicates where the controlling interest of
the fleet is located in terms of the parent company. This information is
applicable to merchant fleet vessels of 1000 gt and above.
Ship Type No
share
of No
1000
dwt
share
of dwt
1000
TEU
share
of TEU
av. ship
size (dwt)
Single deck ships 10388 59.8 59672 55.7 1305 60.4 5744
Multi deck ships 3165 18.2 19034 17.8 488 22.6 6014
Reefer ships 1039 6.0 6028 5.6 64 3.0 5802
Ro/Ro cargo ships 1353 7.8 6339 5.9 222 10.3 4685
Special ships 1420 8.2 15976 14.9 80 3.7 11251
of which
Vehicles carrier 775 4.5 11782 11.0 46 2.1 15203
Heavy load carrier 108 0.6 2689 2.5 22 1.0 24901
Fish/Live fish carrier 308 1.8 461 0.4 0 0.0 1496
Livestock carrier 86 0.5 454 0.4 0 0.0 5283
Pallets carrier 60 0.3 188 0.2 2 0.1 3134
Other special types 83 0.5 401 0.4 10 0.4 4836
Total General cargo
fleet 17365 100.0 107049 100.0 2159 100.0 6165
-4.0
-2.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011
-0.4
-1.7
1.2
0.6
-0.9
-3.1
0.7
-1.6
0.1
2.1
3.0
2.4
3.9
-1.0
1.2
d
w
t

%

c
h
a
n
g
e
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
m
i
l
l

d
w
t
Additions
Reductions
Fuels and
mining
products
19.2% Agricultural
Products
9.9%
Manufactures
70.9%
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011
8
www.isl.org
volume of exports in 2010 the WTO expects a more
modest growth of world trade at 6.5 % in 2011. The
sudden increase in trade volumes in 2010 permitted the
global trade to rebound to its pre-crisis level.
x Asia showed the fastest real export growth of any
region in 2010 with a boost of 23.1 %, headed by China
and Japan, whose exports to the rest of the world each
gained roughly 28 %. China’s trade growth is even
more impressive when taking into account that the
cutback in the country’s exports in 2009 was less severe
than for Japan (11 % compared to 25 %).
x The United States, China, Japan and India all recorded
growth rates in exports exceeding the world average of
14.5 %. The smallest export increases were registered
by Africa and South/Central America with 6.2 % resp.
6.5 %.
x Considering the other side of the trade balance the
developed economies showed a slower import growth
than exports in 2010 (10.7 % compared to 12.9 %)
while developing countries plus the CIS exhibited the
inverse development (17.9 % growth in imports
compared to 16.7 % for exports). In particular imports
were up 22.1 % in real terms in China, 14.8 % in the
United States, 10.0 % in Japan, and 9.2 % in the
European Union.
x World merchandise exports were up 22 %, ascending
from US$ 12.5 trillion to US$ 15.2 trillion in a single
year.
x World exports of commercial services gained 8 % to
US$ 3.67 trillion in 2010 after diminishing 12 % in
2009. The growth rate in 2010 was corresponding to
the average annual rate for the 2005-2010 period.
x The WTO Secretariat forecasts that world exports will
expand by 6.5 % in 2011, while developed economies’
exports will grow 4.5 % and those from developing
economies and the CIS gaining 9.5 %. These forecasts
include the likely influence of the earthquake in Japan.
x The WTO analysts forecast a 4.5 % rise in demand for
imported goods and services in 2011 in favour of the
developed economies (OECD).
x The trade outlook presumes the growth of the world
GDP by 3.1 % at market exchange rates for 2011, with
developed economies reaching 2.2 % and the rest of
the world (including developing economies and CIS)
climbing 5.8 %.
x The WTO has come to the conclusion that even
greater natural disasters (e.g. the earthquake in Japan)
have no significant impact on the growth in the long
view. Drawing on a study (by Gassebner, Keck and
Teh, 2010) dealing with the effects of natural disaster
on trade the WTO analysts assume the impacts of the
Japanese earthquake on the trade as follows: The
disaster would reduce the volume of Japanese exports
by between 0.5 % and 1.6 %; and increase the volume
of Japanese imports by between 0.4 % and 1.3 %.
2.2 World container port traffic – regional
highlights 2009/2010
Based on data published by Containerisation International,
the worldwide container traffic reached a total of 560 million
TEU, equal to a year on year growth of 14.5 %. The ISL port
Fig.10: World total trade of manufactured goods by product
group 2010 (% share of value in US$)

Source: WTO; World Trade Statistics 2011

Fig. 11: World trade (value related) and world container port
traffic (TEU-based) 1990-2010 (Index 1990=100)

ISL Port Data Base and WTO; World Trade Statistics 2011

Tab. 3: TEU-ranking of the top 20 world container ports in 2010
© ISL Port Data Base 2011

Fig. 12: World container port traffic by continents 2010 (TEU-%
share)

© ISL Port Data Base 2011
0 5 10 15 20
Office and telecomequipment
Other machinery
Chemicals
Other semi manufactured goods
Iron and steel
Clothing
Textiles
% share of total manufactures
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Containertraffic (TEU)
World trade(Value, real)
2010 (2000) Port (Country) 2000 2009 2010
2009-
2010
Ø 2000-
2010
1 (6) Shanghai (China, PR of) 5.6 24.9 29.0 16.4 17.8
2 (2) Singapore (Singapore) 17.1 25.9 26.0 0.6 4.3
3 (1) Hong Kong (China, PR of) 18.1 21.1 23.7 12.3 2.7
4 (11) Shenzhen (China, PR of) 3.8 18.0 22.3 23.8 19.4
5 (3) Busan (Korea, Rep. of) 7.5 11.9 14.2 18.8 6.6
6 (64) Ningbo (China, PR of) 0.9 10.4 13.1 25.3 30.6
7 (38) Guangzhou (China, PR of) 1.4 11.0 12.5 13.4 24.2
8 (22) Qingdao (China, PR of) 2.1 10.3 12.0 17.2 18.9
9 (13) Dubai Ports (UAE) 3.1 11.1 11.6 4.1 14.2
10 (5) Rotterdam (Netherlands) 6.3 9.7 11.1 14.4 5.9
11 (31) Tianjin (China, PR of) 1.7 8.7 10.1 16.0 19.4
12 (4) Kaohsiung (Taiwan) 7.4 8.6 9.2 7.0 2.1
13 (12) Port Kelang (Malasyia) 3.2 7.3 8.9 21.3 10.7
14 (10) Antwerp (Belgium) 4.1 7.3 8.5 15.9 7.6
15 (9) Hamburg (Germany) 4.3 7.0 7.9 12.7 6.3
16 (7) Los Angeles (US) 5.0 6.7 7.8 16.0 4.6
17 (77) Tanjung Pelepas (Malasyia) 0.4 5.8 6.3 7.9 31.2
18 (8) Long Beach (US) 4.6 5.1 6.3 23.6 3.1
19 (49) Xiamen (China, PR of) 1.1 4.6 5.8 25.1 18.3
20 (14) New York / New Jersey (US) 3.1 4.6 5.3 16.0 5.7
mill TEU TEU %- growth TEU-Ranking
Africa
4%
America
15%
Asia
62%
Europe
17%
Oceania
2%
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011
9
www.isl.org www.isl.org
data base covers more than 85 % or 479 million TEU of the
global container port traffic. ISL figures show a growth of
12.7 % in the major container ports. This increase is mainly
driven by surging volumes at Far Eastern ports, whose
container throughput grew above average. Nearly one
quarter of the world’s container shipments originate in the
People’s Republic.
Chinese ports, including Hong Kong, have increased their
container traffic by 17.6 %, pushing their world market share
to 28 percent in 2010 up from 26.8 percent in 2009. Six of
the top ten container ports are located in China, with most
of those ports recording faster growth than ports in other
regions, while growth of the remaining regions follows
nearby. The total container traffic of the top 50 ports listed
in Tab. 4.3.3 on page 44 grew by 13.3 percent in 2010 with
only Algeciras, Manila and Priok Port suffering noteworthy
losses.
Apart from Los Angeles, Santos and Balboa, all ports
showing increases of more than 20 % are Asian. Los Angeles
registered an empty container share of more than 40 %,
documenting the trade deficit of the United States.
The port of Hamburg, last year’s port with the highest loss in
percentage terms loosing more than one quarter of its
container traffic, is back on track with a growth of 12.7 % in
2010.
All major container ports are integrated in a worldwide
network of container liner services, connecting ports
throughout the world with each other. According to data
provided by the ports, trade with ports in Asia is not only
most important in the Asian and Oceanian ports, but also in
North American West Coast ports and some European and
North American East Coast ports.
Based on ISL’s Monthly Container Port Monitor (MCPM),
the positive trend of 2010 is lasting in 2011 but on a lower
level. The MCPM World Index of container port traffic is
now roughly at its pre-crisis level.
2.3 The general cargo and container market – rates
and prices
General cargo shipping
In contrast to the other shipping sectors, the general cargo
and in particular the heavy lift and MPP sectors are less
cyclical, as the shipped goods are to a large part capital
intensive goods (such as power stations and other large
machineries). These goods need a relatively long scheduling.
Consequently rates and demand for ship tonnage decreased
with a time lack to the global economic crisis. Moreover the
market has to absorb a large portion of new ships and as a
result owners had to struggle for charters. The bankruptcy of
Beluga Shipping is an impressive example of this
development.
While the number of infrastructure projects is growing
especially in developing and emerging markets, there will be
requirements to transport specialised or project cargos in the
medium term. Charter rates of MPP-vessels climbed around
25 % – rates were around US$/day 10,000 at the beginning
of 2011 and around US$/day 8,000 two years ago. All in all,
and based on a shrinking order book and a growing demand,
prospects for owners of special ships are positive.
Fig. 13: Monthly container traffic of selected ports by region
2001-2011 (TEU - Index monthly av. 2000=100)



© ISL Monthly Container Port Monitor 2011

The “ISL Monthly Container Port Monitor”
is continuously highlighting the container traffic (TEU) of the world’s
major container ports. The MCPM is a short-term market indicator on
world container traffic and a benchmarking tool for the port industry
Information is presented in form of monthly indices and quarterly TEU-
traffic aggregates. Indices have been provided since January 2000 for
the top American, Asian, and European/Oceanian ports. The monitor is
distributed quarterly as online service.
For more information please see www.isl.org/infoline
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
China
Japan, South Korea, Taiwan
South Asia
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
North Range
Baltic Sea
Mediterranean
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
South America
North America Atlantic
North America Pacific
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Africa
Oceania
Near East
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011
10
www.isl.org
Container charter rates
After a very difficult year 2009, container operators felt a
rebound of profits in 2010 due to rising demand of
manufactured goods in Europe and the Americas as well as a
good investment climate. Another factor was beyond
question the caution of owners on the supply side, i.e. not
ordering new transport capacity and implementing cost-
cutting and capacity-absorbing measures like slow steaming.
The number of ships on lay-up shrunk continuously.
The efforts led to a very good year-end closing in 2010.
Maersk Line for example stated a net profit of 4.2 billion
dollars, after being in the red in 2009. 2011 seems to become
similarly prosperous as the first quarter rate development
suggests.
The weighted Charter Rate Index from Harper Peterson &
Co., for example, stood at a level of 670 in late 2010 (double
the level of a year ago). From that time on, the index climbed
and is currently at around 880 (compare Fig. 14). The
Hamburg Index for Containership time-charter rates shows a
similar development (please see page 61 of this issue).
End of May 2011, the idle container fleet comprised only 63
vessels with 80.000 TEU against 234 vessels with 0.48
million TEU a year earlier (Alphaliner Newsletter 23/2011).
This represents only 0.6 % of the existing cellular fleet, the
lowest level of idling since December 2008.
Second-hand and contracting prices for container ships
Second-hand prices climbed in 2010. Vessel prices increased
on average by about 40 % during the last year. This led to a
number of around 150 sold vessels on the second hand
market. According to market data the traded container
capacity amounted to 165 vessels carrying 368.000 TEU,
nearly twice the capacity of 2009. The market tendencies can
be summarised as follows:
x Second-hand prices for five-year old container ships of
2,750 TEU reached an average price of 31.3 million
US$ in late 2010. The newbuilding prices for the same
size and period stood at 35 million US$ one year earlier.
x As expected there were continuing second-hand and
newbuilding price increases during 2010 for ships of all
TEU sizes.
x For the first months of 2011 development of second-
hand and newbuilding prices was uneven.
3 FUTURE TONNAGE SUPPLY - THE SHIPBUILDING
MARKET FOR CONTAINER AND GENERAL CARGO SHIPS
3.1 New orders and order book development
Container ships on order
The ordering activities for new container ships picked up
in 2010. 124 container vessels with a capacity of 690,000
TEU were reported as new orders. The order book for
container ships decreased by 20 % in 2010 in terms of
TEU and represented 27.2 % of the trading container fleet
– compared with 37.4 % one year earlier and well below
the all-time high mid of 2008, when the order book
reached 60 % of the existing fleet.
At the beginning of 2011, the total order book comprised
606 container ships equal with a combined capacity of 3.8
Fig. 14: Monthly HARPEX container charter rate index 2008 up to
April 2011

ISL based on Harper Petersen & Co
Fig. 15: German sea freight indices - Liner trade indices 2006 up
to March 2011

ISL based on German Federal Statistical Office

Fig. 16: Second hand prices for 5 years old container ships 2005
-2010 by TEU size classes (mill. US$ at year end)

ISL based on Platou Monthly 04/2011

Fig. 17: New building contracting prices for Container ships
2005 -2010 by TEU size classes (mill. US$ at year end)

ISL based on Platou Monthly 04/2011
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
2008 2009 2010 2011
R
a
t
e
s

i
n

1
0
0
0

U
S
$
50
75
100
125
150
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Overall index
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1000 TEU 1700 TEU 3000 TEU 4500 TEU
m
i
l
l

U
S

$
50.0 46.7 12.9
Price % changes 2009- 2010
-2.0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1,000 TEU 1,700 TEU 3,000 TEU 4,500 TEU 6,000 TEU
m
i
l
l

U
S

$
Price % changes 2009 - 2010
22.9 22.9 11.5 25.7 9.5
Comment - World container and general cargo shipping
SSMR May/June 2011
11
www.isl.org www.isl.org
million TEU (21.0 million cgt), the lowest figure in a
decade. Only 105 container vessels equal to 17 % of the
current TEU-capacity are contracts signed in 2010 or later.
New ships with a capacity of 1.6 million TEU are
scheduled to enter the fleet in 2011. More than 80 % of the
ordered capacity equal to 3.1 million TEU is due for
delivery within the next two years, a result of the recent
shifts.
Assuming, that the deliveries will be completed as
scheduled and about 140,000 TEU will be removed from
the fleet, the container fleet will increase by about 10 % in
2011.
The trend towards larger ships continues. About 77 % of
the capacity on order was attributable to Post-Panamax
ships of 6,000 TEU and over. The average size of
container ships on order is 6,300 TEU, currently 146 ships
have a capacity of more than 10,000 TEU. Meanwhile, the
Maersk Line has signed a contract with Korea’s Daewoo
shipbuilding yard to build ten 18,000 TEU vessels. A
further 10 ships are likely to follow.
General cargo ships on order
During 2010, 377 orders for new general cargo ships were
placed on shipbuilding yards. In terms of cgt these new
orders had a volume of 3.8 million cgt, an increase of 22 %
compared to 2009. During the same period, 614 general
cargo ships with 2.9 million cgt left the order book after
completion.
At the beginning of 2011, 1,295 general cargo ships with a
volume of 14.4 million cgt were on order. Compared with
figures in 2010, this is a decrease of 18 % (based on cgt).
Latest figures on container and general cargo ship orders
(1
st
quarter, 2011):
x During the first quarter of 2011, at least 50 new
orders for container ships with 0.48 million TEU
have been reported. As of April 1
st
, 2011, the order
book for container vessels comprised 604 ships with
4.0 million TEU (21.7 million cgt) compared to 750
vessels on year earlier.
x During the first quarter 2011, only 37 new orders for
general cargo ships were placed. As of April 1
st
, 2011,
the order book for general cargo ships comprised
1,208 ships with 17.0 million dwt (13.1 million cgt).

Fig. 18: World container fleet - new orders and broken-up
tonnage, quarterly 2005 – 2011 (mill. dwt)


Fig. 19: World container and general cargo order book, quarterly
2005 – 2011 (mill. cgt)


Explanatory note
The compensated gross tons (cgt) concept was first devised by
shipbuilder associations, and adopted by the OECD Council Working
Party on Shipbuilding (WP6), in the 1970s to provide a more accurate
measure of shipyard activity than could be achieved by the usual gross
ton (gt) and deadweight ton (dwt) measures. The compensated gross
tons (cgt) are calculated by multiplying the tonnage of a ship by a
coefficient, which is determined according to type and size for a
particular ship. Cgt is used as an indicator of the volume of work that is
necessary to build a given ship. Cgt coefficients were changed as of
January 1
st
, 2007.
Statistical details “Container and general cargo ships on
order”
ƒ Order book and new orders by type p 48/50
ƒ Ships on order by type and delivery schedule p. 49/50
ƒ Additions to the order book by ship
type and major countries of domicile p. 51/52


3.0
0.0
3.0
6.0
9.0
12.0
15.0
18.0
05/I 05/III 06/I 06/III 07/I 07/III 08/I 08/III 09/I 09/III 10/I 10/III 11/I
m
i
l
l

d
w
t
Broken-up
New orders
-
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
05/I 05/III 06/I 06/III 07/I 07/III 08/I 08/III 09/I 09/III 10/I 10/III 11/I
m
i
l
l

c
g
t
Container ships
General cargo ships
ISL Market Review 2011 - World ports www.isl.org
ê.3 |$L Honth|y 0onta|ner Port Traff|c |nd|ces 2009 - 2011
78 SSMR May/June 2011
ê.3 |$L Honth|y 0onta|ner Port Traff|c |nd|ces 2009 - 2011
TEL |rdex; 0 2000 = 100; rov|rg quarler|y averages
Honth 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011
Jar. 145.2 149.9 159.4 338.7 337.7 378.0
Feo. 132.5 148.0 101.5 317.7 343.9 390.9
Varc| 122.0 143.1 151.7 282.0 329.2 357.4
Apr|| 120.2 145.2 154.0 273.4 320.8 358.5
Vay 125.0 150.9 274.9 328.1
0h|na
Japan, $outh Korea,
Ta|wan
250
350
450
Japan, 8outh Korea, Ta|wan
6h|na
wor|d
Vay 125.0 150.9 274.9 328.1
Jure 134.0 101.0 302.7 358.4
Ju|y 134.1 101.0 304.5 370.0
Aug. 135.7 101.5 315.4 383.1
3ep. 137.7 100.7 323.0 390.4
0cl. 141.0 157.9 332.7 393.9
|ov. 144.0 155.0 334.8 385.1
0ec. 140.8 154.2 333.9 381.1
Average 134.9 154.0 15ê.I 311.2 3ê0.I 3I1.2
0ther As|a North Amer|ca Pac|f|c
50
150
2005 200ô 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
|8L
450
Honth 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011
Jar. 201.0 205.4 214.4 143.3 132.5 151.9
Feo. 187.0 208.1 215.3 131.0 128.4 145.3
Varc| 175.4 204.5 208.8 114.4 124.3 137.8
Apr|| 170.5 208.1 212.3 112.1 123.3 134.3
Vay 179.5 200.4 111.4 127.4
Jure 188.4 213.9 121.0 139.1
Ju|y 188.0 212.5 123.9 149.3
Aug. 193.8 218.2 120.9 158.7
0ther As|a North Amer|ca Pac|f|c
150
250
350
450
0ther As|a
North Amer|ca Pac|f|c
wor|d
Aug. 193.8 218.2 120.9 158.7
3ep. 198.0 217.0 130.3 104.2
0cl. 198.7 214.5 132.0 105.1
|ov. 200.1 211.0 135.4 103.8
0ec. 201.2 210.8 133.0 157.8
Average 190.ê 210.9 212.I 12ê.3 144.5 142.3
Honth 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011
Jar. 158.2 148.4 102.0 193.4 177.8 195.0
North Amer|ca At|ant|c North Europe
50
2005 200ô 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
|8L
350
450
North Amer|ca At|ant|c
North Europe
Jar. 158.2 148.4 102.0 193.4 177.8 195.0
Feo. 143.5 143.0 155.5 177.1 175.0 190.2
Varc| 133.8 141.2 153.1 105.7 174.0 189.9
Apr|| 131.0 148.3 101.4 101.3 179.2 197.4
Vay 133.0 152.0 101.4 184.4
Jure 137.0 159.9 104.0 193.1
Ju|y 141.5 101.5 100.1 194.8
Aug. 144.0 100.2 108.9 198.0
3ep. 147.5 109.0 109.8 200.3
0cl. 149.0 109.0 172.7 202.0
|ov. 152.4 171.2 177.0 203.8
50
150
250
350
2005 200ô 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
North Europe
wor|d
|ov. 152.4 171.2 177.0 203.8
0ec. 151.0 100.0 178.4 200.4
Average 143.I 158.1 158.0 1I1.3 190.3 193.1
Honth 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011
Jar. 181.9 109.3 177.5 233.8 223.9 253.8
Feo. 108.0 100.3 170.8 214.0 215.7 247.2
Varc| 159.7 102.8 178.2 194.0 210.3 240.2
Apr|| 158.0 107.0 179.4 184.4 210.9 234.1
Vay 102.2 172.9 180.7 210.5
Hed|terranean 0ther Peg|ons
2005 200ô 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
|8L
250
350
450
Hed|terranean
0ther Reg|ons
wor|d
Vay 102.2 172.9 180.7 210.5
Jure 109.2 183.1 187.4 224.0
Ju|y 170.9 182.2 192.3 231.0
Aug. 173.3 180.8 201.4 241.2
3ep. 171.5 185.2 203.7 253.5
0cl. 171.7 180.2 210.3 258.4
|ov. 170.8 182.5 217.0 200.1
0ec. 170.2 179.4 223.3 250.7
Average 1ê9.0 1II.0 1I8.0 203.ê 233.5 243.8
|ole. For lurl|er |rlorral|or, e.g. del|r|l|or ol porl reg|ors, p|ease see 0el|r|l|ors.
(3ccrce: I3L Hcrthly 0crtairer Pcrt Hcritcr 2011)
50
150
250
2005 200ô 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
|8L
78 SSMR May/June 2011
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