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BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE 2

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1 Part 1: Campsite Selection 2 Part 2: Campsite Shelter

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2.1 Features of a Good Tent 2.2 Types of Tent 2.3 Tent Pitching 2.4 Proper Care of Tents 3.1 Types of Stoves 3.2 Parts of a White Gas Stove 3.3 How to Operate Stoves 3.4 Care for the Stove 3.5 Troubleshooting 4.1 Preparing the Cooking Area 4.2 Cooking Rice 4.3 Cooking Pasta 5.1 5 Ways to Use the Bolo 5.2 Parts of the Bolo 5.3 Handling the Bolo 5.4 Sharpening the Bolo 6.1 Prepare a Safe Fire Building Site 6.2 Prepare Your Material 6.3 Fire Starters 6.4 Building the Fire 6.5 Type of Fireplaces 7.1 Knots for Joining 7.2 Hitches 7.3 Knots for Loops 7.4 Flat Webbing 8.1 Types of Rope Construction 8.2 Parts of Rope 8.3 Coiling and Uncoiling 8.4 Throwing the Rope 8.5 Belaying 9.1 Basic parts of a Tarp Shelter 9.2 Fundamental rules in building tarp shelters 9.3 Tarp Shelters Ideal for Sheltered Locations 9.4 Tarp Shelters Ideal in Mid-Weather Conditions 9.5 Tarp Shelters Ideal in windy conditions

3 Part 3: Stoves

4 Part 4: Outdoor Cooking

5 Part 5: Bolo / Machete

6 Part 6: Fire Building

7 Part 7: Knot Tying

8 Part 8: Ropework

9 Part 8: Tarp Shelters

To get the greatest benefit from mountaineering, you need to be a responsible mountaineer. And being one means that you should possess several basic skills that will make your journey to the boondocks more enjoyable and fun. The bulk of these skills are explained in this course Camp Management. This covers the things you do when you stop trekking and establish a campsite, from choosing the site, knowing about tents, knives and ropes, building a fire, cooking meals and maintaining sanitation. These skills will not only enable you to be more at ease outdoors, for you may find out one day that you will have to depend on these skills for your survival under extreme conditions. Part 1: Campsite Selection When you end a long day’s trek, you need to scout for a place to spend your night as safe as comfortable as possible. When establishing your campsite, you need to follow certain criteria. Try to look for the following:

Natural Windbreakers The site should have protection from strong winds. Take advantage of natural windbreakers such as bushes, stable boulders, trees or even tall cogon grass. Be careful though not to pitch your tent directly beneath trees since there is the danger of falling branches, which could damage your tent or worse, injure you. Tree branches overhead will also drip water on you long after a downpour - which can be very annoying.

Natural Cushioning The ground should be covered with grass or dead leaves to provide a cushioning effect for a more comfortable night’s rest. This will also help prevent water seepage into the tent and lessen the impact on the ground’s compactability.

Accessible to a Water Source A water source would be located nearby, but within a reasonable distance to avoid getting it contaminated. You should camp several meters from the highest possible water line because a flash flood may occur.

Panoramic View To further appreciate the wilderness, a panoramic view of the area could be taken into consideration when selecting your campsite.

Use already Impacted Campsites Mountains that are climbed regularly have traditional or impacted campsites. Set up your tents here, instead of hacking a new area. This way, we keep damage to the site to a minimum.

Avoid Hazardous Elements Avoid overhangs and other areas that are prone to landslides. Don't set up camp beneath a dead tree, or within ‘falling over distance' of a dead tree. The site should also be free from poisonous or thorny plants.

Note: when selecting a campsite, the probability of finding all the above is quite remote, but the more of them you can get in one site the better. Part 2: Campsite Shelter One of the basic necessities you should look for or have when you’re exposed in the outdoors is the shelter. It is a common practice that mountaineers bring their own portable shelter - a tent. Try to use tents with “earth colors” unnatural colors disrupt some important natural processes. Features of a Good Tent

It should be sturdy in construction, double stitched, and supported by patches at stress points.

It should be able to stand exposure to strong winds and rain. Tents achieve this by having an aerodynamic shape or by adding an extra pole within the framework. It is also ideal that tents are covered by a full flysheet.

It should be composed of a breathable inner body and a water repellant fly. This allows your body heat to drive away the interior moisture formed by wet clothing and dew. This also allows better ventilation inside the tent while also allowing for air movement within the airspace between the body and the fly, thus preventing condensation. The fly remains impenetrable to the rain since it is water repellant.

It should have a bathtub floor construction made of coated nylon or any other water repellant material. This is to help prevent water seepage from the ground and wind driven precipitation from getting into the tent.

It should be lightweight and compact. Nylon is not bulky and is the lightest material available. A weight of two to three pounds per person is reasonable.

It should have at least two (2) doors or a door and a window for proper ventilation. It should have zippered and meshed doors and window to keep insects out.

It should be simple in construction and easy to pitch.

It should have sturdy poles. Aircraft aluminum, being strong and lightweight, is the best material. A good alternative, though heavier and prone to splintering, is fiberglass. Poles are preferably shock corded, that is, pole sections are joined by an elastic cord for easier set up.

An optional but useful feature is the tent vestibule, an extension of the flysheet that can be used as a covered cooking area and storage area for your equipment.

Note: Generally, the lower the tent, the more stable it is on high winds but this makes for less headroom inside. For a team of six persons, bring along a couple of three person tents. Aside from being much more stable, it is easier to distribute the tent parts evenly among the group. It is also easier to find a campsite for two smaller tents than for a large one. Types of Tent There are several ways of categorizing tents: Free-Standing or Non-free Standing Free-Standing Freestanding tents need not to be pegged in order to maintain its structure. They also have the advantage of being moved around after being pitched. Some examples are: A-frames and Domes.

A - Frame - An innovation of the A-Type The body is supported by intersecting poles on each end with a central horizontal pole to keep the whole tent taut. Modified A-Frames an added central hoop to keep the sidewalls near vertical, thereby adding more space. Examples: Eureka Timberline and Eureka Alpine Meadows.

Domes: The tent Body is supported by arching poles forming a Dome frame. The usual number of poles forming a Dome tent is three, forming a hexagonal floor. The number of poles for dome tents may vary. Generally, the more poles a Dome has, the more it can withstand high winds. A Dome with four or more poles is called a modified Dome or a Geodesic dome. The steep vertical walls maximize internal space. Examples: Half Dome (2poles) - REI Half Dome and Geodesic Dome (4poles) - North Face VE-25

Non-free Standing Tents that are not free standing need to be pegged to the ground in order to support itself. These are more difficult to pitch and some are less sturdy. Some examples: classic A-type, Sierra Designs Flashlight, North Face West Wind.

A –Type The classic triangular design. The body is stretched and staked to the ground tautly with guy lines and is supported by vertical poles at each end. Though much cheaper, it is more cumbersome to pitch and requires a larger space due to its guy lines.

Hoop or Tunnel Tunnel shaped, supported by looped frames usually tapering on one end. This has an edge since it is aerodynamic, but it is more cramped than other tents. Examples: Sierra Designs Flashlight and North Face Lunar Light.

Single Wall or Double Wall

A double wall tent repels outside moisture with a waterproof rainfly, and it eliminates inside moisture with breathable tent walls. A single wall tent performs both of these tasks with just the tent wall, which is usually a laminate of waterproof and breathable materials.

Use or Season Rating

3-Season Tent models designed to straddle summer and is capable of handling moderate winds and heavy rain, but not snow loads.

4-Season It can be used during summer and winter camping because of its controlled ventillation features on windows and fly sheets.

Convertible The tent can be adjusted for warm, cool, cold, and precipitation conditions from inside by using just the net panel in the inner canopy, just the solid panel of the inner canopy, or the solid panel or the inner canopy and the solid panel of the flysheet.

Bivy Sacks and other Ultra light Shelters Very popular among climbers and minimalist campers, a bivy sack at its barest is a thin waterproof fabric shell designed to slip over a sleeping bag, providing an additional 5 to 10 °F of insulation and forming an effective barrier against wind and rain. A drawback of a simple bivy sack is the humidity that condenses at the inner side leaving the occupant or the sleeping bag clammy. Better bivy sacks consist of Gore-Tex (or a similar breathable fabric) to allow the humidity to pass.

Tent Pitching In large groups, the team leader decides where the tents should be pitched, especially in areas with limited campsites. Each type of tent has a different way of being pitched. This would be discussed in detail during your practical exercises, but below are some rules to follow: Organize the Campsite Maximize usable space and direct camp traffic more efficiently without the danger of stumbling over guy lines and pegs. Always set up camp before dark. That way you can easily see what you're doing.

Consider relative strengths of other tents Weaker tents, such as huge domes and A-frames, should be given priority in sheltered areas. Stronger tents, such as tunnels could be pitched in more exposed areas so they can act as windbreakers for the other tents.

Determine Wind Direction Always set up camp in relation to wind direction. Wind direction changes during the course of the day, but vegetation will grow and bend over to the Lee side, showing the direction of the prevailing winds. Generally, the smallest profile should point towards the wind. For A-Frame and Domes, point a door or a window towards the wind because this will inflate the tent and ease a little pressure off the poles. Lay the Groundsheet This step gives you the idea how steep or flat your spot will be so make the neccessary adjustments. Thread the Poles Either lay and extend the poles first to the ground or insert it one by one inside pole sleeves. Stake Down the Corners Pocket all the pegs while you are pitching so you don’t to go around the tent just to pick up the remaining pegs on the spot where you left it. Pegs should be driven into the ground in a 45-degree angle from the surface. In case of hard soil, screw the peg instead of hammering it. On loose soil, place a heavy rock on top of each peg. On sand, dig off top layer- it's more compact a few inch deeper.

Attach the Flysheet Maximize other suroundings for attaching guylines. ie: bind guyline to branch, roots or to a second tent. Be sure that these can be seen especially at night so people won’t trip over them.

Secure water runoff parts Tuck excess groundsheet by rolling it downwards so flood and rain will not seep under the tent floor.

Pitching it Down Shake off dirt and excess moisture before packing. Then reverse the procedure mentioned for pitching. Wipe off dirt from pegs. Clean the campsite; replace rocks and fluff up the grass cogon and make the spot as if no one has been there. Proper Care of Tents By the nature of their use, tents are subjected to a lot of abuse such as sun degradation, stress of pitching and packing, and abrasion. However, through proper care and use, a tent could last for many years. Here are some ways to prolong the life of the tent:

 Seal seams - All exposed seams should be sealed for complete tent waterproofing or else water may seep in through needle holes.
Seams will need to be resealed when the sealer starts to wear off.

 Set up your tent in a protected area, and put the fly on inside out. Run seam sealer along every seam on the fly and floor. It's better to
apply two thin coats than one thick coat. Allow to dry for several hours before putting the tent away.

 Sun - Never leave your tent set up under the sun longer than necessary. Use the flysheet even on clearer even on clear days. It acts as
sunscreen and is less susceptible to ultra violet damage than the tent body because of its urethane coating. It is also easier to replace when damaged.

 Fire - Most tent fabrics are fire retardant. Use common sense when using a stove inside or near a tent. If possible, avoid cooking inside
the tent unless there is a really bad weather. Prime your stove outside or use the vestibule (if there’s enough headroom for flame upsurge) before bringing it in. Make sure there’s adequate ventilation and open the windows to allow hazardous gases to escape. Tip: have a frying pan ready for covering the stove if there’s sudden flame upsurge.

 Packing a tent - Folding and rolling your tent neatly every time you pack it away tends to stress the same areas over and over,
eventually causing waterproofing to break down along the creases. Instead, stuff your tent and fly into the sack like you do a sleeping bag.

 Sometimes you have no choice that you must pack a wet tent, shake the tent out as best you can to remove excess water. As soon as
you arrive at the next campsite, set up the tent so it can start to dry out. Storing wet tents for a period of time causes discoloration on it's fabric.

 Cleaning - Clean a tent by setting it up and wiping it with a damp sponge or cloth. For stubborn dirt, use mild soap. Apply a light coat of
silicone lubricant or candle wax to the zippers to keep them sliding freely. Grease can be removed with a small drop of kerosene. Never machine wash a tent nor subject it to high temperature.

 Poles and Pegs - Wipe off soil and dirt after use. Apply car wax on aluminum poles to keep smooth. Keep the poles dry, clean, and
scratch-free.

 Storage - Be sure that the tent is dry before storing to avoid mold and mildew. Avoid storing the tent body and flysheet compressed
inside its sack. Hang it in a breezy, shaded area. Never expose it directly to sunlight. Store it in a cool, dry place. Keep all parts in a single stuff sack.

could be patched up with sail tape, torn seams can be sewn. Part 3: Stoves Stoves are now considered a necessity for mountaineers. Many of the mountains we climb no longer have adequate supplies of firewood; besides, building a fire is not environmentally sound. Stoves have a minimal impact on the wilderness. “Fires last a night, fire rings last a decade”. Types of Stoves Stoves may be categorized on the kind of fuel used: The Cartridge Stove

 Check - Regularly check the tent for damage, especially before a climb. It is better to fix it as early as possible to avoid discomfort. Rips

Cartridge stoves use pressurized butane, propane or isobutane blends as fuel. They are easy to light because it does not require priming. Flame control is very good and as simple as turning a knob. Mechanical functions are almost non-existent but cartridges are bulky. The principal disadvantages of butane stoves are their poor performance in cold weather and the decreased heat output occurs as the amount of fuel in the cartridge decreases. The butane inside the cartridge is in liquid form, burning into a gas when released. As the fuel is consumed, the pressure decreases and the gas expel at a slower rate. Do not SHAKE the cartridge before using as this may cause flare-ups. Butane cartridges - or any fuel for that matter should not subjected to heat above 120 degrees Fahrenheit. The Liquid Fuel Stove [further expansion needed. Liquid fuel stoves can be further classified to white gas only stoves and dual/multi-fuel stoves.] [citation on the need for priming is needed] VOLUNTEER ANYONE? - KERWIN

White gas is a highly volatile fuel, an attribute both good and bad. Spilled white gas evaporates readily with little odor, but is dangerously flammable. White gas or naphtha is a very pure petroleum product containing no additives and no tetra-ethyl lead. Lead is not highly poisonous, but it will clog stoves beyond repair. Unleaded automotive fuels are not recommended for use in white gas stoves as they contain many other additives that will clog burners and may cause safety releases and possible explosions. White gas stoves are generally termed “high output” as they tend to produce flame hotter than butane. This is excellent for cooking quickly. The potential hazard is that they consume oxygen at an extremely rapid rate and the user must ensure there is adequate ventilation for both the stove and himself. The danger of suffocation is more real than many would expect. Multi-fuel Stoves

Multi-fuel stoves are similar in construction and appearance to white gas stoves. They have special gaskets that can be manipulated to make the stove adaptable to burn different kinds of fuel, from white gas to kerosene. Note: all stoves produce carbon monoxide - a deadly gas. Carbon monoxide is the result of incomplete combustion. Lack of oxygen in an enclosed shelter or poor airflow to the burner could cause serious health problems. Parts of a White Gas Stove

Gen erator 2. Fuel Tank 3. Cont rol Lever 4. Pum p

1.

How to Operate Stoves Operating a stove depends on the brand and type of stove one is going to use. The first step is to read and follow the operating instructions printed on the stove or accompanying manual. Generally, the steps in operating a stove are as follows: Fuel Make sure it is tightly sealed after filling it with fuel. Do not change the fuel near open flames; replace your fuel at least two (2) meters away from any source of flame. Pump Liquid-fuel stoves require pumping, like the Coleman Peak 1, in order to build pressure in the fuel tank. The number of times you need to pump the stove depends on which stove you are using and the amount of fuel it contains; follow what is indicated on the instructions. Usually, stoves need to be pumped around 30 times. Stove tanks should not be filled more than two-thirds full to allow proper pressure to build up. Bluette stoves do not require pumping since the cartridge is already pressurized. Priming Almost all liquid-fuel stoves require priming of the fuel in order to achieve the correct burning temperature. Once pressurized, the stove pushes the fuel through the generator, which is heated by a priming paste or a small controlled flame from the stove itself. The liquid fuel is then vaporized, which burns more efficiently and hotter. Depending on the ambient temperature, priming may take as short as 30 seconds to 2 minutes. Lighting the Stove Light the stove with a match or a lighter. REMEMBER: ALWAYS MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE YOUR FIRE READY BEFORE TURNING THE STOVE ON. The reason for this is to prevent burns or possible explosions. Remember that gas diffuses easily and is highly flammable. Control As you cook, you can manipulate the flame by turning the right knobs. Turn Off After using the stove, immediately turn it off to save on gas. Just switch it off and wait for the fire to die by itself. NEVER BLOW THE FIRE TO EXTINGUISH IT because unburned fuel will clog the burner. Remove the remaining pressure by loosening the fuel valve (not for bluettes). Care for the Stove Stoves go through a lot of conditions such as being exposed to dirt, stress in packing and deformities. However, through the proper care and use, a stove could last for many years.

 Make sure that the fuel is compatible with the stove type.  The vast majority of stove problems are caused by using improper fuel or by leaving fuel in the tank over a long period of time. Fuel left
in the tank will form gums that impairs the stove’s performance. This does not apply to butane cartridges.

 Never allow your stove to get wet. Put the stove inside the tent when not in use and before going to sleep so that it will not be exposed
to rain and dew.

 Always make sure that the pump is properly lubricated. This is to maintain pumping efficiency.  As much as possible, stoves must be kept in an upright position. Pack it in such a way that it will not fall on its side. This is to prevent
fuel spillage. Make sure that the stove is no longer pressurized before you pack it to prevent clogs.

 Although a stove is made of metal, it may also be deformed if not stored in a proper container. Dents in stoves may damage some of its
internal parts leading to malfunctions. There are available stove containers in the market, but you can also put the stove inside a large cookset or caldero.

the metal parts of the stove. Troubleshooting Listed below is a list of common stove problems and their solutions. Some problems can be remedied by the reasonably knowledgeable owner; others may necessitate bringing the stove to a repair shop. The vast majority of stove problems are caused by using improper fuel or by leaving fuel in the tank over a long period of time. Fuel left in the tank will form gums that impairs the stove’s performance. This does not apply to butane cartridges. 1. Failure to operate or weak flame a. Clogged - stoves should be disassembled and cleaned. Some parts may require replacement. b. Leak in safety valve in tank cap - Replace cap

 Lastly, make sure that the stove is always clean. Just wipe off the dirt or mud found on its surface. This helps prevent the corrosion of

c. Low vapor pressure - Pump up pressure; insulate from cold. d. Improper fuel- Empty stove and fill it up using the correct type. 2. Stove surges and has dirty, yellow flame a. Clogged - Adjust flame control lever (high to low, then low to high) repeatedly until the clog is cleared, or until blue flame appears. Refer to item 1.a. b. Improper fuel type - Refer to item 1.d. c. Improper priming - Allow stove to cool, then prime again and light. 3. Stove stays lit for a few second, then dies a. Slow pressure leak in tank cap – Replace tank cap gasket. 4. Stove will not build up pressure when primed a. Blown safety valve - Replace tank cap. Once blown, a safety valve will not hold much pressure. b. Pump up leather has dried out - apply oil to pump leather. c. Deformed tank lid gasket - Replace or reshape gasket. Source: Troubleshooting: Coleman stoves Part 4: Outdoor Cooking Do not cook inside the tent except during bad weather. If your tent has enough headroom in the vestibule, it is advisable that you cook there. Prime your stove properly outside the tent and make sure your stove is hot and going before bringing it in. This reduces the chances of “stove flare” wherein unvaporized fuel reaches the height of a few centimeters to two feet. Have a frying pan ready to cover the stove in case of stove flares. Use an earthpad to protect your floor from heat and spills from the stove. Ventilate the tent properly and keep movement to a minimum. It is easy to knock over a stove in a cramped tent. Preparing the Cooking Area  A suitable cooking area should facilitate convenience and ensure safety. Clear the ground of flammable materials. It is imperative that your stove and pot are stable. Mountaineers abounds with stories of rice and hot soup spilled on the ground or on somebody’s lap due to precarious stove.

 Make sure that the kitchen is protected against strong winds. High winds can snuff out the flame and whisk away the heat. You can
shelter on the downwind side of the tent. You can also use your earthpad to block the wind off.

 If a campfire is built, be certain that you can set it up downwind from your tent at least three meters away. No want wants to sleep in a
smoked sleeping bag inside a tent full of burnt holes.

 Organize everything and within reach; set apart the supplies and garbage to decongest the cooking area.  Always use a trash bag. Segregate your garbage. Use separate plastics for biodegradable and non-biodegradable never throw leftover
on the ground.

 When using a campfire, smear soap at the botom of the pot. This enables you to take off the soot much easier when cleaning the pot. Cooking Rice Cooking a pot of rice is one of those everyday things that everyone has to do, but no-one seems to be able to do well! For most, the biggest problem is rice sticking to the bottom of the pot or burning altogether. With this technique, this is no longer a worry. Since the pot is not over an open flame and the steam will keep the pot moist even after the rice finishes cooking, you can walk away, forget about it, and go take a nap. Steps 1. Measure one (1) cup of normal, dry rice grains into a pot. 2. Place two (2) cups of cold water into the pot. 3. Place a well-sealed lid on the pot. 4. Place over a moderate to high heat. 5. When the rice comes to a rollling boil, turn down the heat to the minimum possible and continue heating for 5 more minutes. A "rolling boil" is large bubbles that cannot be dissipated by stirring. In other words, if you stir the liquid, large bubbles will keep breaking the surface. In making rice, the rolling boil is important so that enough steam builds up to completely cook the rice without it being over an open flame. 6. After 5 minutes, turn off heat. Do not lift the lid, as the steam inside will cook the rice through. 7. The pot of rice will be fully cooked, light and ready to eat about 10 minutes after the heat is turned off. 8. Take a little taste to be sure it is cooked (this should be no problem if you measured out the water correctly). If still a little crunchy, put the top back on to retain the steam, get a little bit of hot steaming water from the tap (not too much, maybe a ¼ cup) and add to the pot. Put the top back on and wait another few minutes.
Tips

 You may wish to tweak the "rice to water ratio" with experience. For example, for larger quantities of rice, you may find a little less than
double the amount of water results in better rice.  One cup of dry rice grains cooked in this way is about sufficient to accompany a meal for 2 adults.

 If the rice is a major component of the dish, you might need up to 1 cup of rice per adult.  Your base measurement doesn't need to be a cup necessarily - the key is to add twice as much water as rice, whatever the quantity.  It works best to use the original lid of the pot you use, since it will seal best.  When the rice first boils, it might weep a bit or even lift the lid. Keep watch and an ear out for the start of the boil.
Source: http://www.wikihow.com/Cook-Rice

Cooking Pasta Steps 1. Fill the largest pot you have with water. 2. Place it on the cooktop. 3. Turn the knob to high. 4. When the water starts bubbling up at the surface(the technical term for this is "boiling"), add anywhere up to a handful of salt. Most Americans do not add salt, whereas Italians add about a handful. 5. When the water restart to boil, dump the container of pasta into the pot. 6. Agitate it slightly with a long serving spoon, preferable one with slots or holes in it. 7. Keep your eye on it as it continues to boil and stir it just enough to prevent the pasta from sticking to the bottom every 1-2 minutes. 8. When it's been boiling for about 10 minutes (check the package for suggested cooking time), take a piece of the pasta out and taste it. 9. If it's too hard to bite or tastes funny when you bite it, it needs to cook a little longer. Another good test to see if your pasta is to bite into it; if you see white in the center, your pasta needs to cook a little longer. 10. When it's chewy but firm in the center, it's ready. This is referred to as al dente in Italian. 11. Empty the entire pot of pasta into a colander. 12. Shake out the excess water and move into the pot. 13. Cover with your favorite sauce and shake it (inside the hot pot). Serve it! Tips

 Italians adopt a "leave it alone" or "don't mess with it" policy when cooking pasta. Don't agitate or stir it too much. This goes for the
sauce as well.  Different pastas cook for varying times. Thin linguine, for example, cooks much faster than rigatoni.

 For a hotter boil, cover your pot. Just be sure to remove it once you put the pasta in.  When your pasta is ready, the outer edges will begin to lighten in color.  If you make spaghetti and they are not submerged at beginning, do not break them. Wait 30 seconds and gently use your fork to bend
them and submerge them. Source:http://www.wikihow.com/Cook-Pasta Part 5: Bolo / Machete This is a long knife with a blade length of 12 inches or more. Used for chopping, splitting wood and trailblazing. It should have a sheath to protect both you and the blade and can be worn also on a belt. 5 Ways to Use the Bolo

Chopping Use the contact method for this. Hold the bolo edge against a stick on a slant to the grain, not straight across. Raise the bolo and stick together and bring them down hard on the chopping board. Repeat until cut. If the stick is too thick to cut with the chopping method, use the bucking method.

Bucking Place the stick on the chopping block and cut it into two with a V-shaped notch. Make the top of the "V" as wide as the thickness of the stick. It is better if you cut both sides partially with V-cuts, then hurl the stick down onto a rock to snap it.

Splitting Use the contact method again. Hold the middle of the stick with one hand and rest one end of it on the chopping block. Place the blade on top of the stick, partially embedding it. Lift both stick and bolo together then bring both down gingerly. As they are brought down, release your grip of the stick, just in case the bolo goes through the wood. Repeat this several times until the bolo is more than halfway down the wood, and then twist it slightly to split the wood.

Lopping or Limbing This is the process of removing branches. Always strike upwards to the top of the tree to prevent the bolo from being wedge. Always swing away from the body.

Trailblazing or Hacking When cutting branches off a tree, make sure that you have a clear swing since anything on the way may obstruct you and deflect the bolo and injure you. Blunt pointed branches after cutting so it won't become a spiked "booby trap" when it dries up.

Parts of the Bolo

1. Tip 2. Spine 3. Edge 4. Blade 5. Finger Guard 6. Tang 7. Handle 8. Butt Handling the Bolo  You should hone the bolo regularly with a sharpening stone to keep it sharp and safe. Hold it with the blade pointing up, then rub the stone over the blade, stroking away from you. Remember to keep a 30-degree angle between the stone and the blade. Turn the blade over or shift the stone to your other hand to sharpen to other side. Continue until the blade is sharp. You may also use sandpaper to sharpen the bolo.  When traveling in public transportation, hide the bolo inside the pack.

 When passing the bolo, offer the handle, not the blade.  Do not let your bolo strike the ground, so always use a chopping block.  Remember that the bolo can chop not only wood but people too, so make sure you provide a two-meter distance from others when
using it.  Rest when you are tired hacking because ones concentration is dimmed when tired.

 When not in use, sheath your bolo.
Sharpening the Bolo  Only use a fine-grained sharpening stone.

Part 6: Fire Building You may be surprised that the modern mountaineers rarely builds a fire. Instead of campfires, we use modern, compact camping stoves for several reasons. First it is much more convenient to use a stove than to build a fire, especially during a hard trek or during inclement weather. Gathering firewood takes some effort and time, and in some places there are no good firewood. Second, stoves produce less environmental impact. If all climbers gather and cut wood for their use, most mountains would be denuded and become unsightly.

 Use oil or water as lubricant.  Lay the blade edge on a stone.  Raise the back of the edge slightly (a 30-degree angle between the blade and the stone will suffice).  Stroke the edge towards you and off the stone with a slicing motion, as if you were slicing into the stone.  Turn the blade over and stroke it away from you the next time.  Continue back and forth until the full length of the edge is sharp.  Wipe the blade. Use oil every now and then to keep the bolo from rusting.

Still, every mountaineer should know how to build and use a fire. There will come a time when you would have to use this skill, say your stoves breaks down or if you have to make a signal fire for rescue purposes. The process of building a fire is as follows: Prepare a Safe Fire Building Site  When you build a fire, make sure that is safe. A fire must always be under complete control. It must be built on a spot where it cannot spread. Pick an open space at least two (2) meters away from the nearest tree or bush. Be sure that it is located downwind from your tent.

 Clear a three-meter circle on the ground of flammable materials such as branches or dry grass and leaves. On grassy areas, place a
layer of soil on top of the grass. On wet ground, build your fire on a floor of sticks or barks of dead trees.

 If a campsite has an established fire site, use it. There is no sense in making another fire ring. Building fire on a big flat rock is a good
idea. Turn it over first and turn it back to its original position when finished. This way you can hide the charred spot where you built the fire. Prepare Your Material In dry weather, gather wood that is strewn on the ground. Take wood that snaps easily. Only dead, dry wood should be used. There are three types:

Tinder Any kind of material which would easily catch fire like dried grass or leaves, tree bark, dead twigs no thicker than a match stick. You can also use Kusot which are tiny shavings from dried bamboo or branches.

Kindling Thin branches of split wood about the size of a pencil that will catch flame from the kindling.

Fuel These are thumb-sized branches to thick logs that will sustain the fire. During the rainy season, look for dead branches on trees. Split open the pieces of wood, discard the wet outer layer and use the drier, inner portion. Cut or split wood into usable lengths, about a foot or so. Stack them neatly in one place and cover it with a tarp or poncho if you intend to use them later.

Fuel Tips 1. Only collect wood that snaps and breaks. If it bends, it is too moist to burn. 2. Collect at least twice as much as you think you'll need - three times as much is better. 3. Collect your fuel BEFORE setting a spark - your fire will go out while you are looking for more fuel. 4. Pine needles and Pine cones are good for fire starting. 5. Leaves are poor for fire starting. There is little room for air. Fire Starters These are lifesavers during rainy days when firewood is exceptionally had to burn.

Fuzz Stick Use dry sticks, thumb thick, and a hand span long. Hold one end and shave it all around but leave the shavings attached. Make the shavings as thin and long as possible so it can easily catch fire.

File:Firebug.jpg

Candle Wax / Fire Bugs Bring candle sticks or better yet, make “fire bugs” by rolling newspaper into a tight wad and tying it with two strings, two inches apart. Cut in between and dip each “bug” in molten candle wax. Cool and store.

Lighters and Matches Waterproof your matches by storing them in watertight containers such as film canisters or small resealable plastic bags. Be sure not to forget the friction pad. Some even go further by dipping the match heads in molten wax or nail polish.

Building the Fire Now you are ready to lay and light your fire. Contrary to what some people might think, you just can’t throw wood into a pile and hope for the best. Always remember that there are three factors that ensure a prolonged combustion - Flame, Oxygen and Fuel. Here are several arrangements of firewood, referred to as “Fire Lays” that are frequently used:

Teepee Fire Lay Start by placing a large handful of tinder on the ground in the middle of the fire site, and then lean a circle of kindling around the tinder. The tips should come together like poles of an Indian teepee. Do it carefully, or else, the kindling sticks may flop over before the tinder burns out.

Lean - To Fire Lay An improved version of the teepee fire lay. You can start by pushing a fresh ‘lean - to” stick into the ground at a slant of about 30 degrees. Point the exposed tip to the wind. This stick will keep the kindling upright when the tinder has burned. Place a handful of tinder under the stick. Lean the kindling against the stick, and then place fuel. Strike a match and light the tinder.

Fire Stick Fire Lay Use this fire lay to start a fire in a rock or fireplace. Place two rocks about a foot apart and lay a “fire stick” across them. Place a handful of tinder under the fire stick. Build up the fire lay with a thicker fuel, and then ignite the tinder.

Criss-Cross Fire Lay This is what you should make if you need a bed of coal for broiling. Place two logs on the ground parallel to each other. Put tinder between them, then lay thin kindling sticks crosswise over the two logs. Continue with more criss-cross layers. Increase the thickness from layer to layer.

To light the fire Crouch in front of the fire lay with your back to the wind. Strike a match cupping your hands around the flame and light the tinder. Give it a few minutes and the kindling will catch fire too. After this, feed the fire from the downwind side. Use the thin pieces of fuel first, then follow on with the thicker pieces. Continue feeding it until the fire is the size you want. Too much wind can snuff out a fire. Make sure of windbreakers such as rocks or even earthpads to shield the fire. These will also reflect the heat. Remember what they say, “Flames for boiling, coals for broiling” Type of Fireplaces

Three-Point Rock Fireplace This is the simplest fireplace for a single pot or pan. Place three rocks of even sizes around the fire lay. Do not use rocks from a riverbed; they contain moisture and explode when heated. In the absence of rocks, you can use three tent pegs pushed to the ground.

Rock Fireplace Choose dry, flat rocks. Set them into two rows close enough to support your pots. Again, avoid using rocks from the riverbed.

Log Fireplace Place two logs close enough to support your utensils. Since the fire eats up the logs from the inside, you will have to replace them from time to time.

Part 7: Knot Tying The Overhand Knot should be introduced before other knots as a basis for other knots as well as an additional safety protocol in locking off the working end of the rope. You probably use a couple of knots for everyday needs. In mountaineering, you need to know several more. The trick is to know which knot to use and how to tie it right. Remember that every knot should pass the knot test; it is easy to tie, it holds when tied correctly, and it s easy to untie. Knots for Joining These are basic ways for tying two rope ends.

Square Knot A binding knot, it is used for tying two ends of the same rope. It is useful in tying bundles and packages and is indispensable in first aid.

Fisherman‘s Knot Used for tying ropes of equal size together. This is the best knot for tying fine lines.

Double Fisherman ‘s Knot A variation of the fisherman s knot, this is used to join two ropes intended to support a person because it is less likely to unravel.

Sheet Bend This is the best knot for tying two ropes of different diameter together, although it can also be used for equal sized ropes.

Hitches A knot is called a hitch when it is used to tie a rope to an object, such as a pole, a post or a ring.

Clove Hitch This knot is important in tent pitching, when a rope is attached to a peg. This also used in bushcraft.

Two Half Hitches This knot is used to tie a rope such as a clothesline to a post or a ring. It forms a loop that can be pulled tightly and yet loosened easily.

Taut Line Hitch This knot is used for tying a tent guyline. One can tighten or loosen the line by pushing the hitch downward or upward.

Timber Hitch This is used for raising logs, dragging them over the ground or pulling them through water. This also used in bushcraft.

Constrictor Knot Also known as the "Miller's knot" It's a more secure version of clove hitch.

Knots for Loops These knots form permanent loops which have permanent sizes or “running” loops which vary in size.

Slip Knot This knot is used for tying a string around a package or for bundling up a rolled sleeping bag or tent. The formed loop can be slipped into a larger or smaller size.

Bowline This knot will form a loop that will not close. As such, it is an important rescue knot. A bowline tied around ones waist should be tight enough to prevent the rope from slipping. It should be loose enough at the same time for a person to be comfortable. This knot should be one fist away from your body.

Bowline, casting method Use the method of tying a bowline illustrated here when you need to fasten a line around an object. When synthetic rope is used to tie this knot, it might be less reliable. It is a good idea to secure the end with extra half hitch, or tuck it and trap it beneath one of the rope's strands.

Figure-of-eight loop Also known as Figure-of-eight on the bight. Although this knot is difficult to adjust and cannot easily be untied after loading, its advantages outweigh these drawbacks. In addition, because its appearance is unmistakable, it can be quickly checked, which is important when climbers use it. This general-purpose loop is also often used by climbers to attach a line to a carabiner.

Threaded figure-of-eight loop This is a variation of the figure-of-eight loop. The most frequent uses of the threaded figure-of-eight are for tying on to the rope and for anchoring non-climbing members of a team. This is probably the most common way of attaching a rope to the harness.

Flat Webbing

Girth Hitch The Girth Hitch, also known as the Lark's Foot, is useful for tying a sling to your harness. It's probably the simplest knot you can form with a sling, and this is perhaps why it is so popular. It has many other potential applications (such as extending a runner, joining two slings together, etc), however, be warned: the knot will reduce the strength of the sling. Source:http://www.chockstone.org/TechTips/GirthHitch.htm

Water Knot Also known as the ring bend, is used most often to tie a length of tubular webbing into a runner. This knot can work loose over time, so be sure the knot is cinched very tight and the tails of the knot are at least 2 inches long. Check the knot often in runners and retie any that have short tails. Source:http://syndication.getoutdoors.com/go/golearn/92

Part 8: Ropework Ropes are essential in climbing. Small ones have a variety of uses: from securing a tent to making a clothesline. Larger ones can provide safety to the climbers. Care for the Rope Use: Be careful not to step on the rope when using it. Always carry the rope coiled, slung around the shoulders or inside the pack. Never leave the rope lying on the ground in the campsite. Storage: Dirt or grit should be wiped or washed off with a mild soap, not with a detergent. When wet, let it dry in a shaded area, hung in a loose coil. Direct exposure to the heat of the sun will hasten its deterioration. When dry, coil and then store in a cool, dry place. Types of Rope Construction Only Kernmantle Ropes can be static or dynamic. A static rope has low stretchability, some don t even stretch at all. A Dynamic rope has the ability to stretch and is more elastic than a static rope; this kind of rope is often used in rock climbing.

Laid Rope: Natural or synthetic fibers are twisted into yarns, the yarns are twisted into strands, and the strands are twisted into rope. Laid or Hawser rope with a diameter of around 11 millimeters and made of strong nylon make an excellent general mountaineering rope. If is ideal for river crossing as a safety line because of its low stretchability. Kernmantle Rope: A Large number of filaments running the whole length of the rope are contained in a braided sheath. This construction gives the rope a high tensile strength, superior protection from abrasion, and comparative freedom from twisting. The kernmantle rope is available in a number of diameters ranging from 5 mm to 11 mm. Due to its ability to stretch, it is best for rock craft. Parts of Rope

1. Running end -- end of the rope that is free and can be used 2. Standing end -- end of the rope that is static 3. Bight -- refers to the twist of the rope Coiling and Uncoiling Mountaineer's Coil

Coiling and Uncoiling: After coiling the rope neatly in a clockwise direction (with a diameter of about 2.5 ft to 3 ft), tie a simple whipping of three to six turns to secure the ends. If the rope is longer than 150 ft, double the rope before coiling. When uncoiling a rope, untie it in the exact reverse method as it

was coiled. Starting at the rope end will result in a helpless tangle. Butterfly or Alpine Coil

Bird's Nest Coil

Used mostly by rescue teams because it unravels easily. The coil can even be thrown from a rescue helicopter without the risk of entanglements.

Throwing the Rope 1. Estimate the distance the rope has to reach, adding a few more feet for good measure. Coil this length. Let the rest pile loosely on the ground. 2. The throwing of the rope must always point to the desired direction. This is to ensure proper uncoiling as the rope is thrown. Make sure that the free end of the rope does not snag on any object. 3. Throwing Upward: Stand with your feet apart, with your back to the target point. Swing the rope from between the legs and release directly above the length. This will help the rope reach its full length vertically. 4. Throwing Forward: Stand with feet apart, facing the target with your left foot forward. Throw the rope by swinging the arm from the back and releasing the rope directly in front of you. Use the force to propel the rope as you twist your body to the waist. When throwing to a person on a river, consider the current. Throw the rope a upstream such that it drifts to the person upon landing. Belaying Belaying is the fundamental technique of climbing safety. It is a system of setting up a rope to hold a climber in the event of a fall. A belay consists of nothing more than a rope from a climber to another person, the belayer, who is ready to put immediate friction on the rope to stop a fall. Four things make belaying works. 1. A skilled belayer to apply friction to the rope. 2. A proper stance and anchor to take the forward pull of the fall. 3. A method of amplifying the friction of the belayer`s hand. 4. The belayer`s undivided attention. The essentials of a belay are two climbers, each tied to a rope. As one climbs, the other belays. The belay is connected to an anchor, a point of secure attachment to the rock. The belayer “pays out” or takes in rope as the climber ascends, ready to use one of the methods of applying friction in case the climber fall. 1. Belay Anchor: As the ultimate security for any belay, the anchor should be able to hold the fall and the full weight of both climbers. A large natural feature, such as rock or a tree is an ideal anchor. 2.Belay Stance: If you belay from the body rather than directly from the anchor, you should brace against the forward pull of a fall with a solid stance. a) Located behind a stable object b) Sitting stance c) Standing stance 3. Applying Friction: In any belay method, the rope from the climber goes to a belay device or around the belayer`s hips and then to the belayer’s braking hand. This braking hand produces the belay. The controllable friction by the belay method stops a falling climber. The hip wrap amplifies friction by passing the rope around your back and around your sides. 4. Paying Attention: Presence of mind is the essence. This system will fail without proper attention by the belayer of the climber’s progress. Remember, you are responsible for the other person’s safety so concentrate on what you’re doing. Part 8: Tarp Shelters Though many tents are available, it is necessary that you know how to make an improvised shelter. There might be circumstances when your tent might give way. Tarp-shelters are simple shelters made from a Vertical Support System (VSS), rope, ground stakes, a tarp or plastic sheet, and ingenuity.

Storms wreck houses, and rope and tarp fabric aren't as strong and durable as wood and brick. Riding out a storm in a Tarp-shelter is NOT recommended! While they can serve as emergency shelters, they're NOT ‘Impregnable Fortresses'. The only thing you can depend on a Tarp-shelter for is shade – any added ability to deflect wind, or shed a downpour of rain. Basic parts of a Tarp Shelter Vertical Support System (VSS) Any way or means of providing a fixed point above the ground, from which something can be hung from, or hung on. VSS include tent poles, internal or external frames (tripod, shears, etc), a rope slung between two supports (trees, etc), an overhead suspension point (tree branch, etc), or a mixture of

these.

 Top - basic line strung between two fixed objects. Usually either from ground to a tree, or between two trees.  Second Top - single overhead hanging support. Usually from an overhanging tree branch, or from a rope line.  Bottom Left - two poles lashed together to make a ‘Shears’ frame. A rope is slung between the upper angle. Useful for areas without
trees.

 Bottom Right - traditional tent pole, guy line and ground stake.  The 3-poled Tripod and 4-poled Pyramid frames, offer a skeleton you can drape a tarp over, or an external frame to support an
overhead style VSS. Tarp Made of nylon tent fabric, poly-tarps, or heavy-duty plastic sheeting like painter’s drop sheets. Ideally, the material should be either a Square, or a Rectangle with the long side twice the length of the short side. Guy Line A guy line is a single line or rope which comes from a part of the tent which, when the tent is pegged into the ground and when the guy line pulled tight, it creates the familiar tent shape. Badly tensioned lines cause a tent to sag and when raining, pockets of water form which may then drip into the tent. These lines also help to keep the tent down in high winds. 6-millimetre poly or nylon rope is a good size, with 10-millimetre better in many situations. Tarp Clips You can create a DIY tarp clip with rope and a smooth rounded object of at least one inch (2.5 cm) in diameter (SMOOTH pebbles, etc). This DIY tarp clip is very basic, and it may not take too much force to pull it off, or worse, tear a hole in the tarp! Windward Direction wind blows FROM, side facing INTO wind, side wind hits. Lee Direction wind blows TO, side facing AWAY from wind, sheltered side. Ridgeline Top of a roof, usually at the junction of two sloping sides. Ridgepole Pole used to reinforce the ridgeline of a tent or fly. Fundamental rules in building tarp shelters  Fabric – consider how ‘waterproof' is the tarp fabric itself.

 Base Design - some are inherently more weather worthy than others are.  Head Room – depends on tarp size, the set-up should have enough space to sit inside it.  Set-up – The set-up of a Tarp-shelter must take account of where the wind is blowing from, in order to stop the Tarp-shelter from
‘catching the wind' and becoming a glorified ‘kite'.  Ropes – make sure the ropes are taut.

 Knots – recommended knots to be used: overhand, clove hitch for pegs, Sheet bend for tarp clips and two-half hitches for VSS or onto
tarp.  Stakes - extra stakes may be needed for additional support.

walls. Make creases about 6 inches (15 cm) in from all 4 sides of the tarp. Make diagonal folds in the corner squares, with the fold line coming in from the outermost corner. In the 4 corners of the tarp, the crease lines will overlap, making corner squares.  Weight Load - Storm debris and rain may lie on top of the Tarp-shelter (or be blown against it), and pile up until the accumulated weight overloads the Tarp-shelter's supports. This is generally a ‘gradual' problem, with sagging roofs and bulging walls warning of any impending ‘cave in'. However, a severe storm can dump an overwhelming amount of debris within a few minutes, especially if the debris includes leaves and branches from trees! Tarp Shelters Ideal for Sheltered Locations

 Seepage – consider if rain and moisture will seep down the ropes and seams into the Tarp-shelter.  Rising Damp - is the ground under the shelter wet or humid and prone to flooding.  Run-off Water – consider that water pools form around a tarp shelter and sometimes you have to modify the design to lessen the leak.  Groundsheet – Often check if rain will seep through the design. Turn a basic groundsheet into a Tub Floor by folding the sides into mud

Lean-To Use two improvised poles or two adjacent trees, attach the two corners of the groundsheet to the poles or trees. Peg the remaining two corners. It is important that you note the wind direction when using the lean-to, the exposed side of the groundsheet should be facing where the wind is coming from.

Shade Sail Open and airy, and like the name implies, little more than a Shade Sail. Size of shelter depends on wall angles.

Basic Fly Sheet with support on all 4 corners in air

Basic Fly Sheet with pole support on all 4 corners

Mushroom (Fly Sheet with center pole) Support centre point in air or use a pole with rounded object on tip to avoid damage to tarp.

Tarp Shelters Ideal in Mid-Weather Conditions

A-Type Also know as A-Frame or Triangular Arch. If there are two adjacent tree present, link a guy line connecting the trees. Fold the groundsheet into two and hang it on the line. Tie the corners to the ground using strings and pegs. If there are no available trees, you may improvise poles from strong branches or trekking poles. Support poles with guylines and pegs.

C-Fly (Over and Under Wind Shed)

Bakers (Wind Shed)

Tarp Shelters Ideal in windy conditions

Diamond Fly

Forrester "Threshold" around entrance helps with weather control.

Half Pyramid Wedge Cover This is just the Half Pyramid used as a Semi-Walled Wedge type of wind shed.

Copyright Notes As far as the Author of this document is aware, the Intellectual information behind the tarp folding patterns themselves are in the Public Domain, and have been since the days of the Early Colonial Settlers and Pioneers. As far as the Author of this document is concerned, his OWN illustrations may be used and copied FREE OF CHARGE for Non-Commercial purposes. Non-Commercial includes use by Non-Profit Groups, Educational Institutions, Youth Groups, Campers, etc. Sources of information regarding the patterns include the websites, ‘Tarp Tents’ http://www.hufsoft.com/bsa51/page2.html, ‘Tent Making Made Easy By H.J. Holden’ http://home.earthlink.net/~lil_bear/tent.htm, and ‘Buckskin BSA (Boy Scouts of America)’ http://www.buckskin.org/Site_Map.htm. http://www.animatedknots.com. As well as the book ‘Camping in the Old Style’ by David Wescott, ISBN 0-87905-956-7, published by ‘Gibbs Smith’ in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. These sources refer to books published in the early 1900’s, and state that some designs are ‘Traditional’.

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