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BASIC MOUNTAINEERING COURSE 1

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1 Part 1: Climb Preparation

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1.1 Physical Fitness 2.1 Planning A Climb 2.2 The Objectives of the Climb 2.3 Making Courtesy Calls 2.4 Route Planning 2.5 The Itinerary of the Climb 2.6 Climb Organization 2.7 Subdividing a team into smaller groups 2.8 Budgeting 2.9 Meal Planning 2.10 Trail Food 3.1 Buses 3.2 Jeepneys 3.3 Tricycles, Habal-habal and Sky Lab 3.4 Airplanes 3.5 Ship Liners, Ferry Boats and Pump Boats 4.1 Group Formation 4.2 Trail Signals 4.3 Pacing 4.4 Trekking Techniques 4.5 Descending 4.6 River Crossing 4.7 Rests 4.8 Trail Signs 4.9 Trail Etiquette

2 Part 2: The Pre-Climb Meet

3 Part 3: Trip to the jump-off point

4 Part 4: Climb Proper

5 Part 5: The Post-Climb Meet 6 Part 6: Leave No Trace Principle (LNT) 7 Part 7: Water Management

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7.1 Water Discipline 7.2 Water Treatment 8.1 Trash at jump-off points 8.2 Individual Trash 8.3 Other climbing team's trash 8.4 Garbage Segregation 9.1 Essentials 9.2 Group Equipment 9.3 Clothing and Sleeping Gear 9.4 Food Provisions 9.5 Survival Kit / Emergency Ration 9.6 First Aid Kit 9.7 Repair Kit 9.8 Toiletries 9.9 Optional Items 10.1 Maximum Carrying Load 10.2 Accessibility, Balance and Compressibility (ABC) 10.3 Water Proofing

8 Part 8: Garbage Management

9 Part 9: Climbing Checklist

10 Part 10: Packing Of Equipment

11 Appendix

Part 1: Climb Preparation In preparing for a climb, several factors have to be taken into consideration by the prospective climber. No backpacker-beginner or expert-can ignore physical fitness in preparing for a climb. A certain level of fitness is required for a pleasant and safe climb. In order to enjoy the scenery and the company of fellow backpackers, one must be fit to keep up with them. The lack of preparation has made a lot of potentially great climbs end in total disaster. Physical Fitness To help you in preparing for a climb, we have listed down some guidelines:

 All participants of the climb must be physically fit. The best type of fitness program involves continuous endurance training through
aerobic sports such as running, swimming, cycling and walking.

 Weight training is the perfect supplement to an aerobic program. This will help you develop your muscular strength and endurance.  Any participant in a climb who gets sick before the climb should forego his participation. A sick climber becomes a liability to the group.  An old adage says that the best exercise for mountaineering is mountaineering. The hardiest hikers and climbers are those who spend a
great deal of their time hiking, backpacking and climbing.

 Being fit gives you the confidence to tackle climbs, such that psyching up come almost naturally.
Part 2: The Pre-Climb Meet Planning A Climb The success of an expedition depends largely upon the amount of planning given to the activity. The different components that make up a climb are discussed during the pre-climb meeting. In preparing for a climb, a plan to climb must first be submitted and approved by the officers of the organization in order to be a designated as an official climb. The organizers of the climb should serve notice to the members at least one week beforehand. This is to ensure that the participants have enough time to prepare for the climb. Announcements should include the objective, nature, requirements and itinerary of the climb. These announcements are to be posted at the organization’s Bulletin Board and in emails. Organizational regulations require that all the participants of the climb conduct a pre-climb meeting at least three (3) days before the start of the climb. The pre-climb is a comprehensive study, presentation and discussion of the essential parts of conducting a climb. Its format should include the following items: The Objectives of the Climb Talking about the nature of the climb is organizing the trips into specific categories. Minor Climbs - these are mountains that could be easily trekked within a four or six hour peroid. Basically the trek is simple, light and easy. Because of this, they are also called fun climbs or overnight climbs. These climbs are most favored by urbanites for their recreational purposes. Major Climbs - these are mountains with a higher degree of difficulty. The trip could take three or more days with an average trekking time of seven or more hours per day. These climbs are more favored by full time mountaineers because it tests their abilities and skills to survive and to discover more of mother natures secrets. The next categories can be engaged on either minor or major climbs: Training Climbs - the primary purpose of these climbs is to meet the training requirements of the applicants of the club. The organizers provides it’s applicants with a progressive climbing program which gradually trains and prepares them for harder ascents. Guideship Climbs - these are climbs where you have paying clients that are guided up a mountian of their choice. LNT are also taught in every participants. Clean-Up Climbs - the primary purpose of these climbs is to help preserve and maintain highly impacted mountains and campsites. This means bringing down garbage left by indiscriminate climbers, tree planting on barren slopes and trail maintinance work to prevent further soil erosion. Exploratory Climbs - these are climbs wherein no routes exists and are established and ascended for the first time. These are the type of climbs that demand a great deal of planning and preparation. Exploratory Climbs are further discussed in U.P. Mountaineers Advance Mountaineering Courses (AMC) Making Courtesy Calls Before heading off into the backcountry, it’s important to make your intentions known to the nearest Barangay or local government official. This way the town folk will not be alarmed by the presence of strangers in their area. Remember that diplomacy can go a long way. You will also be oriented by the locals about the general security of the area and general condition of the route that you will be taking. Find out if there’s any park fee that needs to be addresses before going up the area. Route Planning Route planning basicaly tackles all the aspects involved in bringing the team safely and efficiently to and from the backcountry. The route plan has two areas of concern. Trip to the jump-off point: Is the process of getting the team and their gear from the city to the area at the foot of the mountain where the actual trekking begins. This topic is further discussed in BMC1 Part 3 Climb Proper: It is how will the team move about thru the backcountry to fulfill their objectives and back down again, safely and efficiently. You will learn this in detail when you take up your lessons in UPM BMC 3 Land Navigation. While making the route plan you will also be able to develop and identify the following concerns of the planning and preparation phase. These are:  The itinerary.

 Transportation to be used to and from the expedition.

 Possible lodging.  The budget of the whole trip.  The amount of food to prepare and bring.  The type of equipment that must be brought along.
All of these will also be further discussed in detail as you go along thru the lessons. To help you out while developing the route plan, you can get the necessary information from the following sources. The information that you acquire during this stage of the planning process is fully utilized most especially during first time trips by the team to untravelled sitios, barrios and local regions.

 Notes from the scribes of previous expeditions.  Interviews from mountaineers and guides who have climbed the area.  Guidebooks, tourbooks, and other similar text, e.G.- “The Lonely Planet”  Topographic maps, road maps, and such. These are usually used with the help of a compass.  Acquired notes made from an ocular trip made by one or two members of the team to the possible “jump off point” a few weeks or
months earlier than the given schedule for the trip.  In this day and age, you could try going thru the internet and check out various local web sites offering adventure tours and alike.

 You can try making an inquiry to the department of tourism, department of environment and natural resources or similar regional, local
and non government offices.  The value of the compass and the topographic maps is limitless especially when it comes to establishing new routes and first ascents on unexplored areas of the mountains. With such information at hand the team can familiarize themselves with most aspects of the expedition even before leaving the city. The team can then move efficiently and safely through the trip. The Itinerary of the Climb The itinerary is basically a detailed breakdown plan of the journey to be undertaken. It should contain all the vital information and contact numbers of every person involved in the team and local contacts. The value of having an itinerary is realized in keeping up with schedules to avoid unnecessary discomforts such as being forced to do late treks or to set up camp in the dark. Programming activities maximizes efficient use of time. In multi-day ascents or exploratory climbs, the *itinerary is usually formulated based on the study of the map which provides an approximation of the distances to travel. The amount of gear and provisions required is determined by the established itinerary. Climb Organization The Team Leader: The team leader is selected according to his/her familiarity with the mountain and his/her leadership potential. He /She is given an almost absolute role in decision making on that climb. However, he/she should also be open-minded enough to accept suggestions, especially on decisions involving the safety of the party. The Team leader is responsible to select the team’s Contact Person. The Medic: The medic should have a thorough knowledge of first aid techniques. The medic is responsible to bring most of the needed first aid kit. The Scribe: The scribe has the duty of documenting the details of the climb. The Tail: Also known as the “sweeper” who is responsible of bringing up the rear. This person must possess the patience and ability to motivate people and is familiar with the area. The Contact Person: The contact person should be present during the pre-climb and has a copy of the itinerary. Is also responsible for activating a search and rescue team if the team is not contacted within twenty-four (24) hours of the estimated date/time of arrival. Subdividing a team into smaller groups Subdividing into smaller groups of five to seven members increases the safety factor during a climb. It also facilitates the sharing of shelter and other equipment. It is easier to plan and prepare meals for smaller groups. Large groups require large and heavy cooking utensils. Small groups shall have a group leader who is responsible for the management of his/her members. Budgeting An essential part of climbing is determining the approximate cost of transportation, possible lodging, meals and other expenses. Each member usually pays for his/her transportation fare. Each member of a group is assigned with a certain meal to prepare. A certain individual may be assigned to prepare a certain meal during the climb. The cost of all the meals is summed up and payments are settled later (usually in the post-climb meeting). Other expenses like spare batteries, trail food, etc. are for the account of the individual mountaineer, unless discussed otherwise by the group members. Meal Planning The amount of food to be carried on an expedition is determined by the length of stay in the wild plus extra rations in case of emergencies. All the members of the team must avoid buying meal requirements at the jump-off point because the presence of ingredients, stores or markets in the area is uncertain. The type and amount of food to be used and brought can be determined by the following guidelines.

 Nutritional value - Meals should be able to provide and replenish the energy requirements of the climber. This means packing a lot of
carbohydrates with protein and fat rich food. It also must be easy to digest to facilitate faster replenishment of lost energy

 Multi-day ascents require meals that will not spoil easily. Food can be preserved through drying, pickling and salting. Food treated with
spices and vinegar usually lasts for days. There are also meals which can’t spoil quickly (See Appendix for details)

 Meals should not be limited to pre-packaged food or canned goods. The creative outdoorsman can come up with a hundred different
ways of preparing nutritious and delicious meals in the wild. Keep in mind however that the wise backpacker will design menus which will use light ingredients and easy to prepare with a minimal amount of cooking time involved. Canned tomato sauce may be replaced by powdered tomato paste. Soup mixes are lighter than their canned versions. By using light ingredients, you will be able to lessen your load.

 Consider the food preference if any of your team members has dietary needs, allergic reaction and religious limits.  A kilo of rice would be the standard amount for 6 people in every meal.  Design your meal which uses minimal amounts of water, cooking oil, cooking time and waste products.  Let the food cool first before packing it this prevents the food from spoiling quickly.  Moisture is one of the reason vegetables rot easily. If you are bringing one, have it is covered with paper to prolong it's life. Trail Food Trail meals are helpful in eliminating hunger and exhaustion during trekking. It can even act as your main meal if you fail to eat during meal time due to delayed itineraries. Trail food should meet 3 requirements:  It should not induce thirst, since it would induce the climber to consume more water.  Nutritious and must satisfy your body’s energy requirements. Sweets in general, meet the criteria but may require some catabolic
conversions before your body can use it as a fuel.

 Easy to prepare and should require little or no cooking at all. Time and fuel constraints must be considered. Samples of trail food:
Crackers, nuts, candies, chocolates, fresh or dried fruits, corn flakes, pre-packed gelatins and the eternal G.O.R.P. (Good Old Raisins and Peanuts). Part 3: Trip to the jump-off point In every trip, it is important to know the means of transportation the team will be utilizing to get a basic idea of how much the budget will be allotted for an expedition. Always consider the number of participants and their backpacks. Here are general guidelines to keep you abreast:

 If you’re susceptible to motion sickness, do bring and take the necessary medication an hour or two before the ride. Prepare yourself of
the discomforts of third world traveling. It’s usually bumpy and dirty and anything can happen.

 Avoid wearing any jewelry or flashy wristwatches, it attracts crime. Keep your jacket accessible instead.  If possible, make a reservation or buy your tickets beforehand. Inquire about cargo fees and excess baggage fees. Some liners charge
fees for bikes and backpacks.

 Assign a member to be the “load master” or “watcher” to manage the loading and unloading of gear. This also heightens the security of
all equipment.

 At every station, be considerate that chairs and tables are meant for people and not your backpack.  It is always an advantage arriving at a station early so you can reserve (only If it is allowed) seating spaces.  Basic rule in loading: always prioritize the large packs first. Smaller packs are easier to mount just in case space is not available
anymore.

 Whether the team is a small group or large one, always seat yourselves together.  Some transports will load your packs on a roof rack. Make sure your packs are waterproofed. All cash and valuables should be handcarried in one bag. Some climbers bring elastic cords for extra securing.

 When renting out any means of transport, check if it is in top form to bring you to the jump off point. Having a roof rack is always a
plus. Make sure that you agreed on a reasonable price before moving on. Most drivers allow you to pay the other half when you get to your destination. Buses

 Utilize the bottom carriage for your pack only if is free of holes and leaks on the floor.  If the bottom compartment is already full and you have no choice but to bring the pack into the bus, head towards the very back of the
bus. Most buses have ample space for your pack either in front of your seat or behind it.

 The team can also utilize the isle for pack space just make sure that you leave enough space for other passengers to pass through
Jeepneys  There are provincial jeep rides that allow passengers to ride on top of roof racks, given the chance, make sure you won’t fall during the experience.

Tricycles, Habal-habal and Sky Lab  Motorbikes that are “interesting” to use if it is the only transport available. Keep in mind that your packs can also consume another seat. Airplanes  Place rock climbing equipment and hardware at the top section of your pack for easy access because it is always subjected to inspection.

 All kinds of stove fuel, pressurized containers, lighters, nail cutters, pocket knives are subject to confiscation.  If applicable, disassemble stoves and let it dry and leave the cap open before you pack it so no “fuel odor” will emit lessening the
inspection hassles.

 If you can manage, try to “hand-carry” most of your equipment (other than stoves) to lessen an overweight pack. Most air liners allow
up to 7 kilos as long it’s not bulky. Ship Liners, Ferry Boats and Pump Boats  Know before hand how long the trip is going to be so you can bring some “creature comforts” to pass the time away.

 Inquire if your ticket includes meals and beddings for the duration of the trip. If meals are not included, bring your own meals. ship
meals are usually expensive.

 Some shipping lines confiscate stove fuel, pressurized containers, lighters and pocket knives.  It’s an advantage to travel at least in pairs. If your traveling alone and you need to leave your pack, hide it where it is “hard to reach” or
clip it to a bedding’s bar and cover with a malong or ground sheet. Always bring most of your cash and valuables with you.

 Bringing a hammock is a plus just in case you ran out of a seat or bed.  Keep your jacket and sleeping bag accessible as sometimes a ship’s airconditioning can really get cold.  Smaller boats are generally more vulnerable to strong motion sickness so prepare.  During bad weather, be advised that small boats are kept docked by local officials.  When renting out a pump boat, having a tarp roof is a plus so you won’t get “toasted” under the sun.  If your gear gets wet, wash it with fresh water as soon as possible. Salt stains when it dries up. Part 4: Climb Proper
Group Formation During the trek, there are some conventions followed regarding group formation. Some are listed below:

 The lead man is always in front and is responsible for pacing the group, while the Tail is responsible for bringing up the rear.  Formation on narrow trails should be single file. Overtaking should be avoided but if a “need” arises, inform the climber in front of you
that you need to overtake in a courteous way.

 The ideal distance between two climbers is approximately two (2) meters. This gap will give climbers some space in which to negotiate
the trail and proceed along the group’s pace.

 Large groups can do “compression stops” to close long gaps between fellow climbers. Trekking together heightens the safety factor.
Compression stops are not rest stops. Trail Signals  The signal for stopping is one long whistle blasts - and to commence trekking, two short whistle blasts.

 The lead and tail men are the only persons who can give orders to stop or proceed.
Pacing

 The international mountaineering distress signal is six (6) blasts to a minute. To signal aid is on the way, give (3) blasts to a minute.  Always start with a slow pace to slowly warm up your muscles. Then gradually change your pace to the group’s desired pace.  Maintain a steady rhythm while trekking. When negotiating steep slopes, keep the rhythm (pace) by shortening your strides. On level
ground, maintain the rhythm by taking longer strides.

 Do not allow anyone to lag behind. An isolated climber heightens the risk factor in an expedition.

 Should there be a need to stop, inform the lead or tail man so that he or she can give the appropriate order to stop.
spread along the trail in very long gaps. In some cases, a struggling or an injured climber can be deployed at the rear part ONLY if he/she will trek with his/her groupmates. Trekking Techniques In negotiating the trail, some techniques must be kept in mind in order to provide the safest and least difficult route to the summit or objective. Some guidelines are mentioned here.

 The pace of the group should be that of the slowest member or the person who has the heaviest load. This prevents a large team

 The ridge line is preferred in route finding. Avoid waterways and gullies since water always takes the steepest route down the mountain.

 Prevent muddy spots from turning into 10-20 foot wide mud highways. Be sure to stay on the trail if it is muddy or wet. If you walk
around the mud the trail will widen and become even muddier in the future. Mud is part of the backcountry challenge. Expect it. Hike through it. It is not that difficult. You can even use a stick, walking staff or trek pole to help gauge the depth of the mud and to help you with balance.

Source: Chris Conway, Yosemite Falls

 Foot prints will also tell you how deep a mud is. It’s faster to step on someone’s foot print than exploring an alternative path. On steep
trails, boot skid marks also tells you that someone already “slipped here” so avoid it if you can. If your boot got stuck on the mud, just step backwards to let it free.

 Logs are generally slippery especially when wet so the option of walking on the ground beside the log lessens the chances for you to
have an accident.

 If a log or a fallen tree is blocking the trail: check if it is safe to pass, either crawl under or walk over by stepping on joints of branches.
If it is not pasable, make a detour.

 If a log is quite high to step on, you can sit on the log and make a pivoting move by moving your both legs over the log, these lessens
File:High log.jpg Descending  Reposition heavy items (mostly wet clothes or tent) at the bottom part of your pack prevents pushing your head first to the ground when you lose balance. the strain on your legs.

 To maintain balance and traction during descent, learn to dig first with your heel or the side of your foot.  When there is a need to hold on roots or vines, first test if they are sturdy enough to carry your weight and that they do not have any
thorns.

 If the terrain is too steep and slippery, face the wall and step downwards as if you are going down a ladder. River Crossing River crossings can be dangerous. Depth and strength of the current will affect your movement in the water. It is therefore important to assess the need to cross the river before proceeding. Check the area for other avenues to get safely across like natural bridges or shallower portions. If you are in any doubt as to the safety of a river, you should not attempt a crossing. Certain precautions can be taken when crossing a river becomes necessary:

 Loosen shoulder strap, unfasten your hipbelt and sternum strap when crossing rivers and streams - whether a log bridge, over rocks or
through the water itself. This will allow you to remove your backpack quickly in case you fall into the water. Backpacks tend to float and will trap your body which is less bouyant (forcing you) under the water.

 Bend your knees and face the incoming current for better balance. Cross in a diagonal line of the river so you are able to see any
approaching debris.

 Wet and mossy rocks (usually green) are very slippy so AVOID stepping directly on top of it. Set your foot “in between” rocks instead for
better grip. In case your foot got stuck in between rocks, pull it by stepping backwards.

 Face the current. Water carries floating debris downstream which may hit you if you are unaware or not paying attention.  When crossing alone in knee-deep water, it is advisable to make use of a stick. This will help you maintain your balance by acting as
your third leg and will also function as a prod to check what is under the water.

 When crossing in groups, hold hands and cross in a triangular formation in threes. This will help you maintain balance and deflect the
current. Again loosen shoulder strap, unfasten your hipbelt and sternum strap as the group crosses.

 When the water exceeds waist level, the use of a rope is recommended. A rope is strung across the body of the water diagonally
downstream and used as a guide for the members crossing. Climbers should stay on the downstream side.

 When strung perpendicularly to the current, ropes tend to sag in the middle when loaded – which will hinder movement. It is also
advisable to remove your backpack before crossing, to lessen the drag. It will be easier and safer to pull it across later, after crossing.

 Flash Floods - Flash floods are lethal. Do not attempt to cross during a flashflood. The water current can turn deadly very quickly and
often without any warning. The strong and fast current often carry large debris that can sweep you into the river even if you are crossing with the assistance of a rope line, trekking poles or locked arms with a fellow trekker. It is best to be cautious and wait on higher ground for the flash flood to subside as it does not last for very long. Flash floods are often preceded by a sudden heavy downpour or a long spell of rain. The color of the water may turn from clear to the color of light tea or beer to coffee. There are no observable audible signs as they may be drowned out by the sound of rain, and they are observable visually only when they are full-blown and thus already Deadly. (The occurrence of flash floods may intensify in frequency due to denudation of mountain slopes, quarrying, river silting, obstructions to the normal flow of waterways and the increasing intensity and frequency of storms due to Global Warming and Climate Change.)

Rests The interval between different stops will usually depend on the difficulty of the terrain encountered. Some guidelines are listed below:

 Treks on level ground - five (5) minutes rest for every hour of hiking.  Ascents - five (5) minutes rest for every thirty (30) minutes of hiking; on steep slopes - five (5) minutes rest for every fifteen (15)
minutes of hiking.

 Descents - five (5) minutes of rest for every hour of hiking.
sitting down. Drinking too much too quickly will induce an abrupt lowering of your body temperature. When the Team Leader signals for the resumption of the trek check your equipment and immediate surroundings before packing-up and heed the signal of the lead man promptly. Trail Signs There will be times when you have to communicate with other members of your team or even other teams during a climb through the use of natural materials to make trail signs. The use of colored ribbons and straws are easily seen but it is discouraged because of its visual impact on the environment.

 During rest periods, do not sit or lie down at once. Keep standing at least thirty (30) seconds to allow your pulse to normalize before

Go this way: Rocks

Grass

Twigs

Don’t go this way:"Block the wrong trail with twigs or grass only.

Danger:

Rocks

Grass

Twigs

It’s confusing placing trails signs in the middle of the fork, instead place it where it is easily seen towards the desired direction. Trail signs should be ideally placed on every bend so it would be also visible for night trekking. No Yes

Trail Etiquette

When trailblazing, avoid the indiscriminate cutting of vegetation. Do not leave hack marks as trail signs on trees. Keep trailblazing to a minimum to preserve the natural state of the wilderness. Inform the person behind you of imminent obstacles or dangers along the path.

When the group is unsure of the proper path toward the objective, the team should take a break to allow several members scout for the right trail or path.

Side trails not in use should be closed off to prevent others from using them. This can be done by blocking the path with sticks or branches.

"Short-cutting" a switchback is bad trail etiquette because it kills vegetation and loosens soil creating a new trail straight up and down the hill, which will in time get large and hollowed out from erosion. Do your part to keep our trails beautiful and control erosion.

Do not litter. If you find litter on the trail, pick it up.

Smoking on the trail or during short rests is strictly prohibited.

Inform the person in front of you if they dropped anything on the trail or if you notice loose straps, flaps, belts and knots on their clothes, packs or shoes that may have come loose during the trek.

If you get lost, do not panic. Asses your position and then take the necessary steps to find the correct route. Remember S.T.O.P. means: Stop, Think, Observe and Plan. More on land navigation are taught in the U.P. Mountaineers BMC 3 Lecture.

In the event of an accident, keep the victim comfortable and relaxed. Administer first-aid and if possible, transfer the person to the nearest clinic or hospital.

Part 5: The Post-Climb Meet An essential part of the climbing experience is the climb’s assessment. This is where the participants of the climb give their personal feedback on the climb. The team should meet within five (5) days after the climb to review the strong and weak points of the climb to allow for tempers to cool to have an objective and accurate analysis during the assessment. All the participants of the climb are required to attend the post-climb meeting. The team leader presides at the meeting while the scribe takes down the notes. For future reference, the scribe fills up the Climb Report Form and submit it to the secretariat for filling within two (2) days after the assessment. As a rule, all group equipment must be returned during the post-climb meeting. The whole discussion will begin from the time the climb was announced, to the conducting of the pre-climb meeting, trip to the jump-off, climb proper, descent and the trip home. The most important aspect should be discussed are those incidents that went wrong during the whole activity. The team must identify the factors that contributed to the occurrence of the incident. The team must also discuss on how and what needs to be done to prevent it from happening again. Always remember to have an open mind and an attitude to improve yourself. Part 6: Leave No Trace Principle (LNT) Plan Ahead and Prepare:  Know the area and what to expect.

 Repackage food to minimize waste.  Select appropriate equipment.  Respect other visitor’s desire for solitude.  Learn about local habitats and what it takes to protect them.
Camp and Travel on Durable Surfaces:  Concentrate use in resistance areas. Avoid places where impact is just beginning.

 Camp away from existing water. Conserve water. Avoid polluting water sources.
Dispose of waste properly:  Bring out inorganic and organic waste, including food scraps.

 Carry out litter left by others. Dispose of human waste responsibly.  Minimize soap and food scraps in wastewater.
Leave What You Find:  Protect cultural resources, including archaeological artifacts.

 Avoid damaging live trees and plants. Leave natural objects.
Minimize Campfire Impacts:  Fires are sometimes appropriate, but firewood selection, gathering and use, as well as careful campfire site selection and fire tending are critical to minimizing impact. Respect Wildlife:  Enjoy Wildlife at a Distance, Never Feed Wildlife, Store Food Securely, Minimize Noise, Avoid Sensitive Habitat, Avoid disturbing wildlife. Be considerate of other visitors:  Avoid Conflicts

 Minimize Crowding  Respect the Privacy of Other Visitors  Let Nature’s Sounds Prevail.
Part 7: Water Management Ideally this should be the standard amount of water to bring for an overnight climb. Each individual is required to bring 5 liters of water. The breakdown is as follows: 1 Liter – trail water 2 liters – personal use 2 liters – group use Water Discipline There are times when you are tempted from “sneek drinks” from the assigned group water and later ending short of a pint or two to finish off cooking your rice and for your groups’ consumption.

 Make sure you are fully hydrated before starting the trek.  Avoid drinking in huge gulps but in sips instead also learn to tolerate a certain period of hours without any water intake, two hours at
best.

 It will be your responsibility to bring extra load of water if it’s in your nature to consume a lot of water.

 When you do run out of water, look for a water source; this will be discussed further on U.P. Mountaineer’s Basic Mountaineering Course
3 Land Navigation.

Water Treatment When water sources are “suspicious” and needs precautionary measures to be done, these are the options that you can do:

Filter murky or colored water through clean cloths or allow it to settle. It is better to both settle and filter.

Boiling is the surest method to make water safe to drink and kill disease-causing microorganisms like Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium, which are frequently found in rivers and lakes.

Boil filtered and settled water vigorously for one minute, at altitudes above one mile, boil for three minutes. Tincture of iodine. For cloudy water add ten drops for every liter and let the solution stand for at least 30 minutes.

To improve the flat taste of boiled water, aerate it by pouring it back and forth from one container to another and allow it to stand for a few hours, (or add a pinch of salt for each quart or liter of water boiled.)

You can use tincture of iodine or Betadine to disinfect filtered and settled water. Common household iodine from the medicine chest or first aid kit may be used to disinfect water (Remember, 1/8 teaspoon and 8 drops are about the same quantity.) Treated water has medicinal after taste so you can add powdered juice to overwhelm it.

Water Filters. There are a number of devices on the market that filter out microorganisms. A water filter pumps water through a microscopic filter that is rated for a certain-size organism. The standard size rating is the micron (the period at the end of this sentence is about 600 microns). Depending on the micron rating of the filter, smaller organisms (like viruses) can pass through so be cautious when selecting a filter.

Sources: Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water-U.S. Environmental Protection Committee Outdoor Action Program Guide to Water Purification The Backpacker's Field Manual by Rick Curtis first edition published by Random House March, 1998 Part 8: Garbage Management Trash at jump-off points  Trash of any kind should not be left at jump-off points. It should be brought back to the city for proper disposal. In some rural areas, the usual mode of disposing trash is by burning, burying and even dumping in waterways. It is better that we know where our trash goes.

sooner or later, their dumping pits would not be able hold the garbage that climbers bring. Politely refuse if a local asks you to leave your trash in their pits. But if they tell you that they intend to recycle the plastic containers and tin cans, give your recyclabes to them. Giving them these items is better than bringing these back home and just throwing these away. Individual Trash  Individual trash is better than group trash. Small amount of trash is easier to carry than large ones. Since you will be bringing your trash back home, it would be unfair for the individual who is in charge of the group’s trash to bring it home with him/her.

 We also do not want to reinforce the locals’ behavior of collecting trash from climbers. If the locals keep on collecting trash from visitors,

members. Other climbing team's trash  Pick up trash you see along the way.

 Every member of the group should be responsible for his/her own garbage. We want to instill responsibilty for our own trash among our

officials of the misconduct you noted so that in the future, they will be more stringent in checking if climbers brought down their trash with them. Garbage Segregation  Practice garbage segregation even in the outdoors. This is one small step we can easily do for the environment.

 When you see trash left by other climbers on the campsite, bring them with you for proper disposal. Inform appropriate barangay

 Do not bury your garbage in the outdoors even if some of it is biodegradable. Food items left in campsite would attract animals and
ants. You would not want to pitch your tent near an ant hill the next time you camp out in that same place. Part 9: Climbing Checklist Familiarity with the equipment used in mountaineering is a requirement for any serious outdoorsman. Bringing the right equipment will spell the difference between a comfortable night’s rest and a miserable, sometimes disastrous, night in the wild. For this course, we will discuss the items that should go into your backpack for a comfortable and safe stay in the wild. We will also discuss attire for trekking and the proper care and maintenance of equipment. Bringing military-issued equipment is discouraged. Here is a suggested checklist format but remember that “what works for you might not work for others”. You can make your own version of checklist in due time. Climbing items has 9 categories: Essentials, Group Equipment, Clothing and Sleeping Gear, Food Provisions, Survival Kit or Emergency Rations, First Aid Kit, Repair Kit, Toiletries, and Optional Items. They are as follows: Essentials

Money Ideally bring extra cash or an ATM card as back up for the trip. Always bring it with you during transit. Be discreet counting cash in public places. Leave all the unnecessary items inside your wallet.

Cellular phone and other means of communication Bring extra batteries for multi day trips.

Identification Card Any kind of identification you can carry during a climb is helpful.

Dog Tag and Whistle Your name tag (with your blood type) and whistle should always be worn during a climb for emergency use.

Hiking Boots Some trekkers consider their boots as being their most essential piece of personal equipment. Trekking sandals are extremely light, but they are not going to give you good support or protect your feet. A good pair of boots is:

  

Ankle-high to prevent sprains Cleated for traction

Sturdy enough to withstand heavy use and exposure to the elements.

There are two types of materials or fabrics used to fabricate boots used in tropical climates, the all-leather boot and the lightweight boot. The all leather boot is usually sturdier, more supportive and water repellant, but is warm and heavy. The lightweight boot is lighter and cooler but less water resistant and provides less ankle support. A boot with a low impact sole is to be preferred to a boot an aggressive sole. These new soles provide good traction while helping minimize your impact upon the trail and help prevent erosion. Backpack An ideal backpack would be large enough to contain all the gear and provisions you will need for a certain trip. Since backpacks come in design and several sizes, make sure your backpack should also be sturdy enough to endure for rough handling and carrying heavy loads. The Internal Frame Pack: Are designed to hug the body more closely and give the arms room to move. They provide good balance on steep ascents and ease of movement when moving along narrow trails. Features like lumbar pads increase comfort and compression straps help balance the load in the sack. Since an internal frame pack is supported only by two parallel stays, you must balance your load with more care than you would when using an external. See Parts of an Internal Frame Pack

Lighter and Matches Bring at lest 3 lighters or match boxes and waterproofed it individually. Placing it in different locations inside the pack heightens the chances of still having a dry one just in case the backpack gets soaking wet.

Flash Light and Batteries Always bring extra bulbs and batteries. You can add a thin layer of petroleum jelly on joints that you think water will sip through. Pushing it further, bring an extra unit as back- up.

Folding Knife This is a small and compact knife which can be folded into its handle for convenience and protection An example is the Swiss Army Knife. It often has other accessories such as a can opener, a saw, a screwdriver and other useful tools. The blade is used for cutting rope, cooking, whittling and other camp chores. See Care of the folding knife

Trail Water Must be accessible during trekking. It can be a Lexan plastic, Polyethylene Terephthalate bottle (PET) or hydration bladder that has a hose and a bite valve that most backpacks today provide. Tuck your hose inside the pack while in transit avoiding damage.

Wind Breaker / Rain Gear / Poncho Tropical mountaineering is always wet so it’s mandatory to bring one.

Water Containers Pack it OUTSIDE the waterproofing so when it accidentally leaks or bursts during transit, your gear will stay dry.

Mess kit with spoon and fork Preferably aluminum because it’s light, easy to clean and have a higher melting point that can also be used for cooking. You can also bring a “Spork” which is a hybrid of spoon and fork to lessen the weight of your load.

Notebook and Pencil One can document the climb and keep important notes that will be of good use someday. This should be also be waterproofed.

Plastic Bags and Trash Bags Bring extra for other purposes. Prefer the “clear" cellophanes because it’s easier to look for a gear when it is fully stuffed.

Sandals / Slippers Wearing a pair of slippers is a good way of relieving the swelling and is also convenient and a low impact way of moving around the campsite because of its mild traction.

Group Equipment The group equipment is divided among the members of the group. Each is assigned a specific equipment to bring. If a climber fails to participate in the climb because he/she got sick, it is his/her responsibility to bring his/her assigned group equipments and group food to the assembly place before the climb.

Tent Includes: poles, tent body, flysheet and pegs. Ideally, the tent sack and especially the poles must be inside the pack during transit to avoid losing it. Tents are further discussed in the U.P. Mountaineers BMC2 lecture.

Stove If you don’t have a stove case, roll it with any cloth or synthetic material to cushion it inside the pack. Operating the stove is discussed in the U.P. Mountaineers BMC 2 lecture.

Groundsheet The ground sheet serves as a waterproof barrier between the ground and the tent floor. It is usually made of plastic.

Bolo with Sheath and Whet Stone This implement is usually made of carbon or stainless steel and is about 12 inches in length. It should have a textured handle to ensure a good grip. It is useful for trailblazing and digging cat holes. For safety, this tool should be kept in locking sheaths. A whet stone would be useful in case the bolo would require sharpening. During transit,the Bolo must be inside the pack. This topic shall be discussed more lengthily in the in the U.P. Mountaineers BMC 2 lecture.

Map and Compass Must be waterproofed and accessible at all times. A topographic map (scale 1: 50,000) of the area to be climbed is available at the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA). The compass may be the lensatic type or protractor type. The latter is more convenient when used in conjunction with the map. This topic shall be discussed more lengthily in the U.P. Mountaineers BMC 3 lecture.

Rope with rope bag or plastic for waterproofing A Hauser or Kernmantle rope of about 100-150 feet in length with a diameter of 11 mm. is ideal. This topic shall be discussed more lengthily in the U.P. Mountaineers BMC 2 Lecture.

U.P. Mountaineers Flag

Camping Lamp Make sure that your team will be bringing extra fuel and mantle.

Hardware (Rock climbing equipment)

Trowel Since trowels are made primarily for gardening, it comes in various sizes and weight so choose the lightest one.

Clothing and Sleeping Gear The type and amount of clothing to bring on a trek depends on the length of the trek and the conditions you expect to encounter. Outdoor clothing should be able to provide protection against the elements. Avoid wearing or using neon colored clothing and equipment. Studies show that because it isn’t a natural color, some species of fauna become stressed just by seeing it and can disturb their natural behavioral pattern. No of days + 1 - Mountaineers follow this rule to avoid excessive clothes. Bundle it per day on separate ziplock plastic bags. Layering Layering is the process of wearing several thin layers of clothing to help regulate the heat around your body that is better than wearing one thick layer. Layering works by heating the ‘‘dead’’ air spaces around your body, thus creating better insulation. In extremely wet conditions, it’s warmer to wear layers of wet clothes than frequently change into one dry clothing.

Base Layer It’s the clothing next to skin. Perspiration is a natural component of exertion, and a base layer helps regulate your body's microclimate by wicking moisture away from your skin so that it can evaporate or be passed through the other layers. Samples: synthetic, mid-weight, long underwear (top and bottom) synthetic or wool gloves

Insulation Layer Known also as mid layer, it minimizes conductive heat loss. Samples: fleece jacket / down / wool sweater fleece pants

Outer Layer Also known as "Shell" that shields from rain and wind. It also available in Hardshell and Softshell hybrid. Samples: poncho or waterproof/windproof breathable suit

Sleeping Pad Made of synthetic material which should be large enough to accommodate your whole upper body. This serves as your barrier from water and the cold ground.

Sleeping Bag The ideal tropical sleeping bag is light, compact and quick drying but warm enough to provide protection. Three-season sleeping bags are more than adequate for tropical climbing. Filling materials for sleeping bags include foam, fiber baffling, polyester, cotton and down. These materials determine the suitability of the bag for certain conditions, as some filling material provide more protection than others. See Proper care of sleeping bag

Food Provisions  Trail Food

 Packed Lunch: A climber can avoid cooking food at the early stages of hiking due to time constraints. It weighs lighter if it is placed in a
resealable plastic bag than in a hard plastic case.

 Fuel for the stove: For an overnight climb, every person must bring the standard amount of fuel. You can bring extra amount of liquid
fuel into the stove if you need to be extra sure.

Liquid Type Fuel - Gas, Kerosene, White Gas, Watch Cleaner and Lighter Fluid = 11 fl. oz. or 325 ml. or roughly 2 containers e.g. Fuji Cartridge Type Fuel - Bluette, Camping Gaz etc= 2 containers

 Cooking Oil: Used cooking oil will be brought down by using a PET bottle.  Group Food: Take advantage of using re-sealable plastic bags and containers to minimize trash but label your plastic containers for
multi-day trips so that you won’t forget what’s inside. Remove paper labels from cans and use a marker to write down the brand.

 Rice and Eggs:The rice placed inside a plastic container cushions the eggs in your pack. Waterproof the eggs individually before putting
it inside the container so if the eggs crack, it will not spill.

(non-stick surface) for easier frying and cleaning. Survival Kit / Emergency Ration The survival kit should be put into a compact and waterproof container which can be carried by the person during short hikes without a backpack. Survival kits are usually placed in a pack’s top compartment for easy access and portability. The contents include: extra trail food, waterproofed matches, a plastic tarp, a surgical rubber tube and a signal mirror. First Aid Kit This kit contains essential supplies such as Personal Medicine, Triangular or Elastic bandages, Forceps, medication for fever, diarhea, Anti -allergies, skin irritation, other illnesses, Puritabs, alcohol or Betadine, insect repellent and disinfectant. This kit should always be checked before every climb and is to be placed in a waterproofed container. Repair Kit Contains: Tying string, duct tape, tent seam sealer, extra buckle, needle and nylon string, etc.

 Cooksets: Varies in forms and sizes. It is also made of aluminum, stainless steel or titaium. Some cooksets already have Teflon coating

Toiletries Bring only a suitable amount you need based on the number of days of the trip.  Toilet Paper: Mountaineers should also refarin from using non biodegradable moist towelletes.

 Toothbrush and toothpaste: Lessen the bulk and weight by stuffing the toothpaste in mini ziplocks  Dental Floss: It can be used also as a thread in your repair kit.  Sun Block: Waterproof and water-resistant sunscreens are best since effectiveness is not reduced by perspiration.  Biodegradable Soap: All soaps, unfortunately even biodegradable ones, can contaminate fresh water sources. Using a biodegradable
soap doesn't reduce its immediate environmental impact... it just means that the soap will biodegrade in time. If you feel you must use soap: Do all washing, bathing, or cleaning at least 200 feet from any water sources. Dispose of soapy wash and rinse water in a cat hole 6 inches deep to allow bacteria in the soil to completely biodegrade the soap.

 Other personal hygienic needs Optional Items Bringing most of the items mentioned below means you have to endure an extra load for the extra convenience in the campsite. It’s up to the climber’s needs if he/she is willing to make sacrifices. Weigh your pack loaded with water before leaving your home so you have an idea how heavy your load will be.  Rubber Bands / Garters  Camera and tripod  Umbrella  Stool  Face Towel  Tarp Shelter and Strings  Hammock with tree hugger  Safety Pins  Pack Cover  Walking Sticks
Part 10: Packing Of Equipment Maximum Carrying Load The maximum carrying load should not exceed one-third (1/3 or 33%) of your body weight. Maximum pack weight is 25% All equipment which may be affected or damaged by water should be wrapped and sealed in durable plastic bags. Use a large plastic bag as the inner lining for the backpack to provide additional protection. Accessibility, Balance and Compressibility (ABC) Light items should be packed at the bottom and away from the frame while heavy items should be placed close to the back. The goal is to have a balanced pack. Things which will be needed often or will require quick access (e.g., rain gear, first-aid, Swiss Knife, trail food, trail water, etc.) should be placed in the top compartment or on the other side pockets for accessibility.

Water Proofing

All equipment which may be affected or damaged by water should be wrapped and sealed in durable plastic bags. Use a large plastic bag as the inner lining for the backpack to provide additional protection. Watch out for those pointed gears while packing!

Twist plastic Appendix Food Preservation Equipment Checklist Sample Itinerary With Meal Planning Parts of an Internal Frame Pack Proper care of sleeping bag Care of the folding knife Running tips

Seal it

Pull to open

Index: “ Sky Lab “ n. a motorbike fitted with a horizontal board at back that can seat several passengers across. "Switchback" is a trail up a steep hill or mountain that is like a zig-zag pattern instead of a straight trail. The zig-zag pattern protects the hill and the trail from excessive erosion. Trails that go straight up and down steep hills don't stay nice trails for long. Erosion turns them into gullies because water moves faster down steep straight-aways and it hollows out the trail and washes all the soil and vegetation down hill. Titanium Teflon

References: Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills. Edited by Don Graydon. Fifth Edition. The Mountaineers, Seattle. Pp. 108-135 REI Fact Sheet “For Your Information – Stoves” Knots: by Peter Owen Care for folding knives: Swiss Army Knives Chris Conway, Yosemite Falls This material is provided by the University Of The Philippines Mountaineers for educational use only and is not a substitute for specific training or experience. University of the Philippines Mountaineers and the authors assume no liability for any individual's use of or reliance upon any material contained or referenced herein. When going into outdoors it is your responsibility to have the proper knowledge, experience, and equipment to travel safely. Copyright © 2007, all rights reserved, University Of the Philippines Mountaineers

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