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Question: Should human cloning be banned?

Answer: Human cloning is illegal in some states, and institutions that receive U.S. federal funding are prohibited from experimenting with it, but there is no federal ban on human cloning in the United States. Should there be? Let's take a closer look. What is cloning? Cloning, as biology guide Regina Bailey defines it, "refers to the development of offspring that are genetically identical to their parents." While cloning is often referred to as an unnatural process, it occurs quite often in nature. Identical twins are clones, for example, and asexual creatures reproduce by cloning. Artificial human cloning, however, is both very new and very complex. Is artificial cloning safe? Not yet. It took 277 unsuccessful embryo implantations to produce Dolly the Sheep, and clones tend to age rapidly and experience other health problems. The science of cloning is not particularly advanced. So what are the benefits of cloning? Cloning can be used to:     Produce embryonic stem cells in large quantities ; Genetically alter animals to produce organs that can more easily be transplanted into humans ; Allow individuals or couples to reproduce through means other than sexual reproduction ; and Grow replacement human organ tissue from scratch.

At this point, the live debate in the United States is over cloning of human embryos. Scientists generally agree that it would be irresponsible to clone a human being until cloning has been perfected, given that the cloned human would probably face serious, and ultimately terminal, health issues. Would a ban on human cloning pass constitutional muster? A ban on embryonic human cloning probably would, at least for now. The Founding Fathers didn't address the issue of human cloning, but it's possible to make an educated guess about how the Supreme Court might rule on cloning by looking at abortion law. In abortion, there are two competing interests--the interests of the embryo or fetus, and the constitutional rights of the pregnant woman. The government has ruled that the government's interest in protecting embryonic and fetal life is legitimate at all stages, but does not become "compelling"--i.e., sufficient to outweigh the woman's constitutional rights--until the point of viability, usually defined as 22 or 24 weeks. In human cloning cases, there is no pregnant woman whose constitutional rights would be violated by a ban. Therefore, it is quite likely that the Supreme Court would rule that there is no constitutional reason why the government cannot advance its legitimate interest in protecting embryonic life by banning human cloning. This is independent of tissue-specific cloning. The government has no legitimate interest in protecting kidney or liver tissue.

Okay, so embryonic cloning can be banned. But should it be banned in the United States? The political debate over human embryonic cloning centers on two techniques:   Therapeutic cloning, or the cloning of embryos with the intention of destroying those embryos to harvest stem cells. Reproductive cloning, or the cloning of embryos for the purpose of implantation.

Nearly all politicians agree that reproductive cloning should be banned, but there is an ongoing debate over the legal status of therapeutic cloning. Conservatives in Congress would like to ban it; most liberals in Congress would not. For my part, I wonder why it would be necessary to produce new embryos for stem cell harvesting when there are so many discarded embryos that could be used for the same purpose. Putting bioethics aside for a moment, that seems incredibly wasteful. Doesn't the FDA already prohibit human cloning? The FDA has asserted the authority to regulate human cloning, which means that no scientist can clone a human being without permission. But some policymakers say they're concerned that the FDA might one day stop asserting that authority, or even approve human cloning without consulting Congress.

We should support human cloning First of all, through the application of cloning technology can improve the labor productivity of society as a whole , to create more wealth for the community. Specifically, the (1) We can make use of cloning technology to achieve talent specialization batch culture, to develop certain aspects of professional competence is not talent is protracted and painstaking works, you can save the social costs of this work Cloning of professional talent, help promote the social division of labor in The Wealth of Nations , Adam Smith had stressed the importance of the division of labor, division of labor helps to improve theproductivity of social labor , contribute to the accumulation of more wealth for the community. Secondly, application of cloning technology will solve some family problems for us to provide a shortcut First, we can complete the division of our personal and social roles through human cloning technology, we can in the busy work, so that our human cloning for completion of our work, more time with his family. Second, human cloning technology, we do not have to worry about our major diseases , where to find a suitable blood match the organ, spinal cord . 1 The biggest benefit is to nurture a large number of quality livestock, and rich people's material life, the cost of livestock decreased efficiency, but also provide some pharmaceutical raw materials in order to improve human immune function. First, cloning, biotechnology, change the genotype of the crop, resulting in a large number of disease resistance, insect resistance, salt tolerance, such as new varieties, which greatly increase crop yield. The second is to cultivate a large number of fine varieties of livestock, such as the cultivation of meat is good cattle, sheep and pigs, can also develop some high milk production and cows is rich in nutritional elements required. The third is to have a significant impact on health care work, such as those that rely on molecular cloning techniques to find out the genes that cause diseases produced by molecular biological mechanisms; a milk containing drugs to treat hemophilia protein in transgenic sheep cloning, can better meet the therapeutic needs of people with hemophilia; seek a broader source for organ transplantation, human organs and tissues and immune system genes into animals to grow human organs, can reduce the immune rejection of transplants success rate. Cloning technology for the protection of the environment and endangered animals and plants to reproduce the species. The fifth is to provide even more to animals for medical research, greatly improving the safety and accuracy.

1) cloning technology to relieve the suffering of women who can not become a mother. 2) implementation of the cloning experiments to promote the development of genetics, animal organ transplants in the human body can "manufacture" has opened up prospects. 3) cloning technology can also be used to detect fetal genetic defects. Fertilized egg clone used to detect genetic diseases, development of cloned embryos and uterine fetal genetic characteristics identical. 4) can make some of the endangered animals to be racial continuity The clones will reduce genetic variation, individuals have the same genes by cloning, the same susceptibility to diseases, a disease can destroy entire groups generated by cloning. Can imagine that, if a country's cattle are the same product of a clone, a virus is not severe it may destroy the animal husbandry in the country. 2) clone the use of technology will allow people to tend to the large population of existing populations in the value of individuals, rather than by the laws of nature to promote the survival of the fittest of the population as a whole. In this sense, the cloning technology interferes with the natural evolutionary process. 3) cloning technology is an expensive technology that requires the participation of a lot of money, and biological professionals, the failure rate is very high. Dolly is 277 times the experiment only results.Although it developed a more advanced technology, the success rate of only 2-3%. 4) the risk of transmission of the disease transgenic animals. For example, if a production of drugs milk of cattle infected with the virus, this virus may be the patient 5) cloning technology in human infection through the milk will lead to the artificial control of genetic traits to future generations. The cloning technique has attracted a core of the debate is whether to allow genetic manipulation on the development of early human embryos. This is unacceptable by many ethicists. 6) cloning technology can also be used to create a "Superman", or has a robust physical but mental retardation. Moreover, if cloning technology in humans, the effective use of

Human Cloning Should Not Be Banned by Jason Brown Cloning humans has recently become a possibility that seems much more feasible in today's society than it was twenty years ago. The process used in cloning has been practiced on livestock for quite a few years with good results. The techniques have been proven to work, and with the rapid growth of technology in this field, human cloning can one day be very beneficial to our society. Human cloning has potential to save lives and make better the quality of life for future generations. This is why human cloning should not be banned. Many people who oppose this viewpoint are mostly misinformed about cloning. Television, books, radio, and people's own imagination have given the practice of cloning a bad stereotype. The main opposing argument is that clones will not have any uniqueness or personality of their own and that they will grow up to be just like their donors. This is where many people are wrong. Nature has been producing clones for millions of years through the process of identical twins. Identical twins have the same genetic makeup of each other, yet develop into separate individuals with distinct personalities (Cole). This shows that genetic makeup does not play a big role in our individuality, but that our individuality comes from our environment. Bioethicist Gregory E. Pence argues that each clone would be different because as a fetus it would be exposed to many different chemical and nutritional influences that would alter the way the brain responds to stimuli (qtd. in Roylance). This shows that human clones will have their own identity. "Identity is uniqueness, not sameness," explains Stanford philosopher John Perry, who specializes in the study of identity, "Identical twins are not identical, but only the same, and there is a major difference" (qtd. in Cole). Cloning is exampled in Magill's Survey of Science as combining bits and pieces of DNA from different sources and combining them in bacteria. We have come a long way since cloning bits and pieces of bacteria. This has given scientist practice to start on larger organisms such as humans. Here are some of the most beneficial ways in which cloning can help humans. Human cloning could provide our society with an answer to the shortage of organ donation. We could have an immediate supply of many organs, tissues, and blood types without the wait of someone else dying in order to receive them. No longer would a mother have to tell her dying child that he will have to wait for a bone marrow transplant. Once the cloning of a cell has been done and the cell has begun to divide, it does not necessarily have to develop into an entire person. The cells would be controlled so that they mature into specialized cells or even complete organs. There would be no rejection from the body since the cloned cells would have the same DNA as the donor (Nash). Another possible medical advance that could be developed through cloning research is the diagnosis and even curing of genetic diseases such as diabetes. Before the embryo is implanted it could be analyzed for genes that cause diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, and diabetes to name a few. This procedure is already being used in other countries such as England. This way an embryo with the highest chance of good health and survival could be selected for implantation. This could rid our society of genetic defects for our children to produce longer living and healthier humans for the future ( Benot). The most poignant argument in favor of human cloning would be to help couples that cannot conceive a child

naturally. There are many couples in this world which cannot pass on their genes for the purpose of procreation. Pence says that human cloning would give them a chance to give birth to a child that is genetically related to them. Using in vitro fertilization to produce embryos and then cloning those embryos would give a couple more chances to produce offspring. This way the parents can be assured that their genes will be passed on to future generations (qtd. in Roylance). Dr. Richard Seed envisions a cure for cancer through cloning. Cancerous cells look normal in the early stage of the disease, then later become deformed. We could take early cancerous cells and replace their destructive nuclei with a nucleus cloned from a normal cell, thus stopping cancer before it has a chance to keep spreading (qtd. in Weingarten). We can also duplicate genes from the past. The DNA does not have to be from a living human. Every cell has the same genetic blueprint as another, therefore we could clone anyone from the past, as long as their DNA was preserved. Human cloning could assist in recreating cultures that were lost in history, such as the ones lost during times of genocide (Vere). We could also regenerate the lost links between man and ape to see how ancient man might have really looked like. We would be able to help preserve endangered species like the African Rhino from becoming extinct by cloning them and setting them free in the wild without the need for protection. This way our children would not have to see pictures of extinct animals, but pet them in zoos. It is evident that human cloning has immense potential to better humanity. Only research will lead to its improvement and perfection. To ban this research will result in the loss of a technology that will someday cure diseases, prevent deaths, and give infertile couples a chance to have a child of their own. Which action, banning or not banning, is really the less ethical choice? To let this technology slip through our fingers would prevent us from improving the quality of life for all of humanity. This is why human cloning should not be banned.

Scientists will be artificial genetic manipulation of animal breeding process is called cloning. The basic process of cloning is nuclear transfer of the first donor cells containing the genetic material in addition to the nucleus of the egg in the use of micro-current stimulation, so that the two together as one to get the new cells, and then split breeding to develop into embryos, and then develop to a certain degree of embryo implantation in the animal uterus so that pregnancy, birth and cells genetically identical animals. simply is artificially induced asexual mode of reproduction. Cloning technology represents the development and progress of the human biological science and technology and modern medicine, a new dawn to solve many medical diseases, but we also see, since England somatic Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, year-old human cloning, especially in the reproductive cloning of such a scientific experiment has been strong opposition from all walks of life, as well as national governments, the grounds of objection are mainly concentrated in the social and ethical aspects, aspects, and medical aspects of human evolution. The birth of human cloning is the inevitable trend of development of science and technology, human only in this trend, a clear analysis and understanding of the pros and cons of human cloning to be prepared to face the arrival of human cloning, so better bring. 1.1 the negative impact of human cloning Whether human cloning will give the community what kind of negative impact, scientists and scholars have different views, but nothing less than the following aspects. 1.1.1 Ethical Issues Reproductive cloning will lead to confusion in family structure and social law, this is because the reproductive cloning of three cloned donor, three donor can be three different individuals (ie, somatic cell nuclear, go nuclear eggs and the pregnant body. three are independent.) can also be two different individuals (ie, enucleated egg and the pregnant body is the same donor), or the same individual (ie, three are from the same donor). Therefore, it is conceivable that these clones is a difficult problem to determine the identity of the child's out, the donor and pregnant in the end what kind of relationship? whether they would be seen as a special class for children? will suffer social discrimination? how the law provides for their maintenance obligations? an individual can clone multiple looks similar to the child, the community and how to identify their identity? In short, many people think that the human cloning will enable the natural fertility of separation from family, social and separated from their families, it will disrupt the existing human relations and intergenerational relations, resulting in the confusion of human relations and inter-generational. 1.1.2 of human evolution Reproductive cloning will increase the risk of human degradation and elimination. Many scholars believe that reproductive cloning of human essence is a low-level mode of reproduction, it undermines the rights of the human has a unique genotype, reducing the possibility of variation, reducing human resilience and competitiveness. Indeed, by analyzing human is not difficult to find the most obvious advantages of sexual reproduction is generated in the cell and combine in the process, the genetic material exchange, reorganization, offspring have inherited the genetic material of the parents of both, thus greatly enhancing the the vitality of the offspring, so that it can better adapt to changing environmental conditions, that is very conducive to biological evolution and animal experiments to prove the universal constitution of cloned animals is not good to be able to live down and reproduce cloned animals rarely so so that people can not but concern exists only party chromosomes may cause serious problems in human cloning. 1.1.3 technical problems Although deciphering the human genetic material, cell biology level, gene interaction is still an unknown field of

humanity, and reveals the true revolution of the interaction of these genes is the cell biology of human can not predict if a a functional gene and other genes closely linked to the intervening change in vivo natural restraining each other what would happen to a chain reaction all the genes in the human genome based on current knowledge, in order to accurately re carried out arrangement and normal role is also impossible to do so. 1.1.4 and moral Human cloning may be immoral of mankind as a tool or means to use, and thus lose the life of dignity. We can not deny the fact that the holding in favor of a positive attitude toward human cloning technology often comes with their own self-interest purposes, such as human cloning cultivated as an organ donor source. Many people believe that reproductive cloning of human intervention has crossed the line as a part of human development in natural species, while on the other hand, human cloning may have a strong pessimistic psychology and sense of fatalism in the social life, and even the mentality of distortions arising from serious retaliation and rebellious, this is very likely to cause serious damage to the social 2.1 the positive impact of human cloning Ho Jo Ma, Chinese Academy of Sciences, clear that the reporters at a press their point of view: if the conditions are ripe, I would like first to be cloned. Chengdu University of Technology, Professor Ming Chen, director of family planning advice center Wang Yiting also clear that the support of cloning technology. Summarizing its reasons ---- is the development of cloning technology will bring about social progress and medical development. 2.1.1 Science and understanding the value of Cloning technology will deepen the human characteristics, the nature of life, and life genetic mechanism. The evolution of all things time conditions, a small number of human cloning will not change fundamentally on the evolution of mankind as a whole, but in humans to recognize their own has played an invaluable role in the process of cloning technology to the promotion of human variation, the more favorable direction on the reproduction of biological genes or the human race, sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction is not, the continuation of human life, the latter you can supplement the deficiencies of the traditional reproductive character of life is normal development should be the responsibility of the parents should not be attributed to the reproductive method of choice, just the reproductive method Buzhi Yu decisive impact on human cloning. 2.1.2 The time value of Genetic eugenics and education, disease prevention and medical treatment, through the development and application of cloning technology can be the solution to a certain degree of technological development as well as human cloning to a certain extent, will be included such as to improve the perfection of the human ; intellectual development of human cloning technology, the system looks, the inner substance of the uniqueness and superiority; solve the human male to female ratio, proportion of the coordination of the race; and maintain in the future may be caused due to the decline in human fertility or childlessness and the harmony of the natural contradictions. Almost every major scientific advances in history have caused worries and fears of human concerns, such as Darwin's theory of evolution, over time, however, mankind has long been calm acceptance. Once the advent of human cloning, since people to construct all appropriate legal and moral system. Technology would bring the benefits of science for the benefit of mankind, and its development should not be subject to any restrictions, but the development of science should be careful, to prove the history of scientific development, which country is first of all grasp of an important technology, then a country first grasp of an important technology, we think that this country has an advantage and take the initiative, then from the country may bear the incalculable loss. so

we should be a comprehensive analysis of the pros and cons of full preparation to meet the future of science and changes.