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The Fabrication & Baking Industries Ltd (The FBI


The Fabrication & Baking Industries Ltd (The FBI) Answer a FBI uses batch process flow structure. In the current setup, the sequence of activities is in line and the activities are disconnected from each other. The various activities that take place in the fabrication process after an order is accepted are cleaning, drilling, cutting, folding, welding, coating, inspecting, enameling, baking and then the final product is tested. The products are produced in batches to fulfill the customer requirements. The fabrication process consists of several activities through which the work passes. Each of the activities requires the intervention of the factory workers. Answers b Accept the Order








Load Coat


The Fabrication & Baking Industries Ltd (The FBI)



Load Coat Enamel Bake



Ship the Order

Answer c The construction of the components consists of multiple activities like cleaning, drilling. Cutting. Folding, welding, coating, inspecting, enameling, baking cooling and the final testing of the component. The cleaning process is done in the cleaning machine and has to be manually placed in the rack. After the cleaning is done, the rack is automatically transferred into the drilling machine. The drilling is done in six machines which is overseen by an employee After the drilling is done, the sheets are fed automatically into the cutting machines. Two employees look after the cutting


The Fabrication & Baking Industries Ltd (The FBI) operations. After the cutting stage, the folding is done on four folding machines which is overseen by two employees. After the folding stage, the welding is done on two welding machines which is looked after by one employee. After the folding process, a chemically active coating is put on the welded surface. Once the coating is done, inspection is done so as to detect any defects. This is done with the help of an optical scanner. The inspection step is followed by the enameling process which is overseen by one employee. After enameling is done, baking of the component is done followed by cooling and final testing.
Process stage/machine Number of Machines Number Of Employees Setup Time (mins/order) Run Time (mins/item) Run Time (mins/order)

Load Clean Drilling Cutting Folding Load Welding Load Coat Inspect Load Enamel Bake Cool Final test 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 6 6 4

1 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 1

0.2 1.2 2 1 2 1 0.2 5 0.22

0.2 21 1.05 0.75 0.75 0.14 0.25 0.12 16 0.25 0.22 16 16 16




Total setup time


Total runtime

Total run time 0.2 21 6.3 4.5 3 0 0.5 0.2 16 0.5 0.22 16 16 16 0.68 101.1

The above table shows the total setup time in minutes required per order. The total time taken is the sum of the setup time and run time. Total time= Setup time+ Run time= 17.82+ 101.1= 118.92 mins/order


The Fabrication & Baking Industries Ltd (The FBI) Total production hours in an day= 7.5*60 = 450 min Hence, the number of overall process capacity in terms of the number of customer orders per day= 450/118.92= 4 customers The entire flow structure is batch process and involves manual interventions. Almost 5% of the total components are rejected in the inspection stage and around 10% of the remaining components are rejected in the final testing phase. This leads to inefficiency in the production process. There needs to be strong adherence to quality and best fabrication processes so that rejection rate is minimized. Answer d Around 5% of the total components get rejected during the inspection stage and another 10% of the remaining components get rejected during the final testing phase. Normally, an average customer order consists of 100 components. To factor in the rejections, the number of components that is manufactured is around 117 i.e. there is 17% increase in the average number of components to be produced in a day. In one day, 1900 components are produced. Hence, total extra components to be manufactured due to rejections in inspection and testing phase = 17% * 1900 = 323 Answer e The main problems in the current fabrication process are the inefficiencies due to setup time and losses due to rejection during inspection and testing phase The change in the fabrication process is a long term approach while the losses due to rejection in inspection and testing phase can be achieved in short term. The problem of losses due to rejection in the inspection and final testing


The Fabrication & Baking Industries Ltd (The FBI) phase can be eliminated or minimized by adhering to strict manufacturing standards. If at each step of process, the specifications and process standards are followed, the final component would meet the quality standards and wouldn’t be rejected. One of the ways is to eliminate human intervention in all the processes and make the processes completely automated. Answer f In the long term, the issue of change in the process flow structure should be done. This would require a very systematic approach. The problem of time wasted in setup can be done away by replacing the current batch process by assembly line process. Using the assembly line process, the sequence of the activities would be the same and the process would be in a fixed sequence. A decrease in the setup time would result in the reduction in the total time required for the production of a set of component. This would result in increasing the number of components produced in a day to the target number of components of around 2000 per day.