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Slip Slip: the movement of large numbers of dislocations to produce plastic deformation • • •

p. 10.1

Analogy — caterpillars, carpets, worms (Figure 7.3) Allows deformation without breaking ⇒ ductility Allows a material to deform at lower stresses than predicted by bond strength

A slip system identifies crystallographically… • • • where the moving dislocations are where they are going Slip plane • • • • Contains the dislocation line & its direction of movement (Callister, Fig. 7.2) Is usually a closest-packed plane Direction of movement of dislocation line is … • • •
 || Burger’s vector   || applied stress  for edge disloc’ns   ⊥ Burger’s vector    ⊥ applied stress  for screw disloc’ns  

… and consists of

Slip direction

Usually the closest-packed direction in the plane

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

Slip

p. 10.2

Movement of edge dislocations is analogous to the travel of caterpillars, worms, or rugs: (Callister, Fig. 7.3)

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

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Slip

p. 10.3

(Callister, Fig. 7.1) Note: • • • • In Callister Fig. 7.1, at no point does the material break into two pieces Though individual bonds must be broken for the dislocation to move, … … new bonds are formed throughout the slip process The resulting deformation does not reverse itself on removal of the load ⇒ i.e., the process is irreversible, in contrast to elastic deformation

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

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Slip

p. 10.4

(Callister, Fig. 7.2) Note: • Same initial and final states can be bridged by two different types of slip, i.e. movement of edge dislocations (a) or screw dislocations (b) ⇒ can’t tell which type of slip occurred just by looking macroscopically at material after the fact Thermodynamics sidebar: • • The amounts of energy consumed in (a) and (b) are in general not the same Same initial and final state, but different amounts of work done ⇒ at least one of the slip processes must be irreversible in the thermodynamic sense (and in fact both are)

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

Slip

p. 10.5

SLIP SYSTEM IN FCC: {111} <110>

A A B C B C D E F D E F

Close-packed planes: {111} _ _ _ ( 4 per unit cell: (111), (111), (111), (111) ) Close-packed directions: <110> _ _ _ ( 3 per slip plane: e.g. [110], [101], [011] for (111) (shown above) ) ⇒4 3 = 12 distinct close-packed slip systems

Callister, Fig. 7.6 — close-packed directions in FCC

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

Slip _ SLIP SYSTEM IN BCC: {110} <111>

p. 10.6

B A C E D

A

B

C D E

Closest-packed planes: {110} _ _ _ (6 per unit cell: (110), (110), (101), (101), (011), (011) ) _ Close-packed directions: <111> (

_ _ 2 per closest-packed plane: e.g., [111], [111] in (110), as shown above ) 2 = 12 distinct closest-packed slip systems

⇒6

Callister, Fig. 3.10 — closest-packed plane in BCC

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

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Slip

p. 10.7

Q: For an arbitrarily oriented crystal under a uniaxial stress σ, what is the component of σ on the slip plane, and in the slip direction? A: The resolved shear stress, τR: τR = σ (cos φ) (cos λ) where φ ≡ angle between σ and the normal to the slip plane λ ≡ angle between σ and the slip direction Derivation: F τR ≡ AR R where F R is the component of applied force F in the slip direction; FR = Fcos λ A R is the projection of original cross sectional area A on the slip plane; A A R = cos φ ⇒ τR = Fcos λ = σ (cos φ) (cos λ) A cos φ

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

Slip

p. 10.8

Callister, Fig. 7.7 — derivation of resolved shear stress

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

Slip

p. 10.9

Q: What is the minimum resolved stress necessary to induce slip on a particular slip system? A: The critical resolved shear stress, τcrss • A characteristic property of… • • • • • • The material The slip system under consideration Orienting a single-crystal sample w.r.t. applied stress Measuring yield strength (σy), φ, and λ Calculating τcrss = σy cosφ cosλ

Can be measured by

Q: Under what conditions can a material’s minimum possible yield strength, σy,min, be measured? A: In a single crystal sample, when easiest slip system (i.e., with minimum τcrss) is oriented to give maximum (cosφ)(cosλ) — i.e., when φ = λ = 45°: ⇒ σy,min = τcrss = 2τcrss  √2 × √2  2 2
© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

Slip FACTORS FAVORING SLIP (start) • Material characteristics • • Short b (⇐ CP directions on CP planes) ≥5 independent slip systems

p. 10.10

_

3 in HCP: <112 0> {0001} (i.e., CP directions in basal planes) ⇒ brittle e.g., Be, Mg, Ti, Zn, Zr, Cd 12 in FCC: <110> {111} ⇒ ductile with low to moderate strength e.g., Al, Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt, Au In BCC, 48 nearly-CP slip systems (Table 7.1) can lead to dislocation “pile-ups” ⇒ ductility with high strength e.g., V, Cr, Fe, Mo, W

• •

Non-directional bonds: Metallic, ionic; not covalent Covalents and ionics: usu. brittle at low T • • Covalent solids (e.g. diamond, Si, SiC): bond directionality hinders movement of dislocations Ionic solids (e.g. NaCl, MgO): ≥ 2 different atoms • • ⇒ Longer Burger’s vectors ⇒ Slip brings ions of similar charge closer together, causing repulsion
© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

Slip

p. 10.11

FACTORS FAVORING SLIP (end) • Externally imposed conditions • High temperature ⇒ Some materials that are brittle at low T are more ductile at high T • Low strain rate ⇒ Impact encourages brittle behavior • Stress state • • • • Shear Compression ⇒ encourage slip

Uniaxial tension ⇒ permits slip Triaxial tension ⇒ discourages slip

(see Callister §8.6)

EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering

© 2002 Mark R. De Guire rev. 2/25/02