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June 7, 2004

Troop 103 News Bits
Pico Blanco Camp-out
March 19-March 21, 2004 We had an exciting trip to Pico Blanco near Carmel. We left Friday evening between 6:30 and 7:00 pm. The trip to the camp seemed to take forever. Some people had trouble finding the meeting place, and it took about an hour before everyone arrived and was accounted for. Then we went down the windiest road I have ever been on. Many of the turns seemed to be 180 degree turns. We arrived after 11:00 pm. By the time we got organized, set up, and ready for bed, we settled down for the night at about 12:30 am. We woke up early the next morning, made breakfast and waited for every one else to wake up. After everyone was up, some of us had a PLC meeting while the other scouts had free time. After that there were activities for rank advancements, such as: First Aid, Knots, and Totin’Chit. Mr. Androwski did a great presentation showing his knife collection, and told us which knives are legal and which are illegal to carry. After lunch we had some time to go swimming, do some carving, or go hiking. There was a big cement dam across the creek where Steelhead Trout were spawning. They are protected because they are endangered. There was also a nice waterfall across the river from the swimming area. In the afternoon, most of the patrols went back to camp to get an early start on the Chili Cookoff. Then the game began. There were adults checking every little detail, and scouts running here and there getting ready for the final hour. There were special efforts made by each patrol. Some had fancy table settings; others had their food in special containers like rolls or hollowed out bell peppers. One group wore paper chef hats; another had special table settings. Each group also had to prepare one Dutch oven dish. The grown-ups checked menus, preparation, attitude, presentation, taste of food, food storage, and clean up. After all of that hard work, we had to wait a long time for the adults to add up the patrols points. At campfire we had some good skits and then finally found out who won the Cook-off. Leadership took top honors, but because of their age and experience bowed out to let the next highest scoring patrol take the win. Go Cobra’s! The next day we got ready to go home. Two people in the Cobra patrol had their gear packed and ready to go as the leaders were waking the rest of the troop. We had breakfast, a Scout’s Own, and headed home. -Jared Reis, Troop Historian

Court of Honor
March 29, 2004 Troop 103's held another eventful Court of Honor on March 29, 2004. There was a special presentation for Friends of Scouting by Mr. Phair, and then Mr. Brown and David Carson convened the Court. There were 15 different merit badges earned by twenty-two scouts. Fourteen scouts reached the rank of Scout, five reached the rank of Tenderfoot, one

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reached Second Class, three reached First Class, and one reached the rank of Life Scout. Erik Brown completed his Brownsea challenges. Greg Garrison and Andrew Makk received their 50 nights camping awards. Recognition was given to those who completed the Skyline to the Sea Hike and the Pinnacles Rim of the Bay hike. There was also a special ceremony for the newly elected members of the Order of the Arrow. It was then announced that Mr. Brown would retire as of September to pursue High Adventure. Thank you Mr. Brown for all of your contributions to Troop 103! And, at that time we’ll be welcoming Mr. Fahl as our new Scoutmaster! Thanks for taking on the job! Like I said, it was an eventful night. -Jared Reis, Troop Historian

quote: “I’ve learned that even though things do not always turn out quite as planned, it can still be a great journey”. -Jared Reis, Troop Historian

Shadow Cliffs Boating Trip
April 10, 2004 We left Warm Springs School at about 8:15 am looking forward to canoeing and kayaking at Shadow Cliffs. When we arrived, we went straight to the boats to get everything ready for the big day ahead of us. We lowered the canoes and kayaks into the shallow water by hand and had a quick demonstration on how to use the boats properly, and a swim test for those who needed it. Then we had a great time boating on the lake until lunch. We had lunch close to where we launched the boats and had some break time. After lunch we had a demonstration on how to empty water out of the boats if they capsize. Important information! Then we were able to go back out on the lake. Some scouts stayed on shore to help the canoes and kayaks come in and out of the water. The weather was great at 70-80 degrees all day, and the water was smooth. We took 4 kayaks and 8 canoes. Everyone had a great time. We got back to the school at about 2:30 and headed home. -Jared Reis, Troop Historian

A New Eagle Has Soared
April 3, 2004 On Saturday April 3, a large gathering of family and scouts gathered to witness the bridging of Andy DeGregorio to Scouting’s highest achievement - the rank of Eagle Scout. The ceremony began at 11:00 a.m. and was held at the Cabana Club. Besides his family and friends, Andy had in attendance his first Cub Scout leader, Webelos leader, Boy Scout leaders, as well as many other supportive people who helped him along the way. The fun, entertaining ceremony included highlights from Andy’s long, association with scouting, both in pictures and stories. We all were able to experience the “tragedy” of his Skyline to the Sea camp-out that was demonstrated in a skit. Following the ceremony, all in attendance were treated to lunch and a great Dutch oven delicacy - peach cobbler. What an inspiration it is to have Andy in this troop! He best sums up his experiences with his

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Photo Album

What a nice day in Shadow Cliffs. Everybody was taking a boat out to the water and had a great time.

Back to the past, Flaming Arrow had set up their tent for the night in Hobo Campout.

Adults and scouts enjoyed the panoramic view of Death Valley in their High Adventure Trip.

Mr. Androwski was conducting a Totin’Chit training to the eager scouts in Pico Blanco Campout.

It was a nice morning hike from the parking area to the campsite in Henry Coe State Park.

Mr. Fahl was leading the scouts for a hike along Little Sur River in Pico Blanco.

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Candid camera

'Let me show you how to back pedal environmental issues: First, you find an issue as big and green as this canoe. Secondly, you need a big muscle man, like the Governor, with big bicep to pedal the issue back to the shallow water. Finally, you need a big pedal like this to push the issue sideway or backward. You also need it to keep you afloat if you sink into deep water.'

'Welcome to Chateau de Vallee du Mort. This is the top of the line hotel accommodation in the Death Valley. With $500 a night, you can enjoy 12 hours baking sun and 130-degree soaring heat. You can get a supreme charcoal grade sun tan five times faster than what you would get in Malibu Beach, CA.'

'Jason, you are pedaling in the wrong direction' 'I can pedal this boat if I have installed a GPS navigation system.'

When the modern day Sherwood Forest Gangs find out it is no longer environmental friendly to build their weapons from tree, they turn to PVC plastic pipes instead. Their new sling shoots are just as lethal and fun as their old archery.

'Hey, Cameron, I can race you to where Mr. Brown stands.'

'Hey, guys, our dinner tonight is depending on you. We have only one match to light this fire for cooking our meal.'

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Entertain Your Brain
Who Broke The Window
One Sunday afternoon, all five children of Jefferson family were playing in the backyard. The four older boys (Adam, Bruce, Charlie, Dennis) were playing baseball while the youngest sister (Emma) was just watching. She was too young to play. Suddenly, someone hit a fly ball. The ball flew over and broke the window upstairs. Mom heard the noise and came outside to investigate. She found the broken window and the guilty parties in the backyard. She was obviously upset. “Who broke the window?” she asked. The children were scared. They all denied breaking the window. Adam said, “I didn’t do it.” Bruce said, “Charlie did it.” Charlie said, “Dennis did it.” Dennis said, “Charlie lied when he said that I did it.” Mom turned to Emma since she always tells the truth. She got intimidated when all four brothers were staring at her. She told her Mom “Only one of them is telling the truth.” The boys felt satisfied because Emma did not directly indict anybody. Little did they know that Mom was smart? She could find out who broke the window from just how little they had said. Do you know how Mom found it out? Who broke the window? - AK See answer on page 16

Geometry Puzzle
What is the ratio of the areas of the square EFGH and ABCD? - AK
E A J I B F

o

D H

C G

See answer on page 16

Editorial Corner
Thanks to Jared for his contribution of article. Jared is an outstanding scout who takes his responsibility seriously. He prepared the News Bits article and sent it to Mr. Howard and me. He then followed up with an email to make sure we have received the article. He took the extra step to make sure the job was completed successfully. We have an article on Contract Bridge. Bridge was a popular game before the computer games arrived in the eighty. Although, it faces competitions, it has not lost its mystique and nostalgia. If you do not know the game, I hope you would learn it from the article and enjoy it. Andrew Kwok, Newsletter Editor

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Fun With Contract Bridge
Introduction
Contract Bridge is one of the most interesting card games. It is a game played by four people. The people who sit at east and west form partners to play against the pair who sits at south and north. The game has two parts. First part, the partners work together on bidding a contract over the opposing pair. Depending on the strength of the hands, the bid sequences may start from 1C (Club), 1D (Diamond), 1H (Heart), 1S (Spade), 1N (No Trump), all the ways to the highest level 7C, 7D, 7H, 7S, and 7N. Since the partners are not allowed to talk privately or to signal each other, they must communicate to each other by bidding, listening, and analyzing each other’s bid. A contract is determined when all four players have accepted and said “pass” to the final bid. Second part, the pair who wins the bid must play the game and win at least the number of tricks required by the bid. 1C, 1D, 1H, 1S, and 1N require 7 of a total of 13 tricks. 2C to 2N require 8 tricks, 3C to 3N 9 tricks, 4C to 4N 10 tricks, 5C to 5N 11 tricks, 6C to 6N 12 tricks, and 7C to 7N win them all. The game requires good communications and co-operations between the partners. It also requires a lot of tactics, techniques, good memory, knowledge on probability, and finally the ability to figure out the worst-case scenario and to find a solution for the scenario. It is a game good for different levels of players. Beginner will enjoy the richness and different dimensions of the game. Advanced player will enjoy the challenge of a difficult game. In the following paragraphs, I am presenting the techniques and strategies for the game. I assume most of the readers are on the beginner or intermediate level. At times, I shall cover some of the topics on more fundamental level. Otherwise, I shall cover most topics on more intermediate or advance level. Finally, I shall show a game that is definitely on the advance level to raise your interest of the game.

How To Count Points
Points are used to evaluate the strength of your hand, and your partner’s hand. Jack counts for 1 point, Queen 2 points, King 3 points, and Ace 4 points. Good card distribution may also give you more points. For example, with adequate trump cards, a singleton on the other suites counts for 3 points, a doubleton 2 points, and a void suite 6 points. You can start a bid with 13 points. You need more points (17) to bid no trump. No trump is a contract that has no trump trick. You can raise your partner’s bid with at least 7 points. You can raise the bid twice with 10 to 12 points and some support on your partner’s bidding suite. A contract can reach higher to a Game or Slam level. You will get more points for making those levels. The Game level starts at 3N and includes 4H, 4S, 4N, 5C, 5D, 5H, 5S, and 5N. The Small Slam level starts at 6C and includes 6D, 6H, 6S, and 6N. The Grand Slam level starts at 7C and includes 7D, 7H, 7S, and 7N. You need to have more combined points 6

to bid at those levels. You need at least 26 to 28 points for Games, 33 points for Small Slams, and 36 points for Gland Slams. In additions, you also need a good match on the bidding suite.

How To Bid
The bidding always starts from the player who sits on the left side of the dealer. The bidding order rotates in a clockwise direction. The player who opens the bid should have at least 13 points. One should always bid on a suite with at least 5 cards with 2 out of the 5 top honors (Ace, King, Queue, Jack, and Ten), or 4 cards with 3 honors. In additions, one should always bid the Major suites (Spade or Heart) instead of the Minor suites (Diamond or Club) because they count more points and require fewer tricks for Game level. Any subsequent bid must be higher than the previous bid. You always need to determine and answer the following five questions during the bidding: 1) whether your pair want to win the contract and play the game? 2) What trump suite do you want? 3) What level do you want to reach? 4) Do you have enough points to bid at Game level? 5) Do you have enough points to bid at Slam level? Answer to question 3) would tell you where to stop your bid. If your pair does not have enough points, you should stop at one, two, or three level (1C, 1D, 1H, 1S, 1N, 2C, 2D, 2H, 2S, 2N, 3C, 3D, 3H, and 3S). There is no advantage to go higher on any non-Game contract. If you have more points, you should try to reach Game or Slam level to score more points.

The main goal of the bidding process is to communicate to your partner the strength of your hand and card distribution. Partners must always exchange information back and forth during the bidding process. Quite often you may be required to response based on the latest bid from the partner. Here is a general dialogue between the partners during the first two rounds of bidding. After two rounds, the dialogue would become more structure and has less variations: 1) Partner1 opens a level one bid (1C, 1D, 1H, or 1S) with 13 or more points and 4 to 5 card suite. If he has a stronger (17 points or more) and balanced hand (no 4 cards Major), he can open 1N. If he has even stronger hand (21 points and more), he can open level two bid (2C, 2D, 2H, 2S, or 2N). The last type of bid is called strong two bid. His partner must reply even with hand that has less than 7 points. 2) Partner2 determines the combined points they have, the trump suite, and the level that he wants to settle (everybody is only guessing at this point). He can response to his partner’s bid in the following ways: a) He can raise the bid only once with 7 points and 3 cards support on his partner suite. He can bid another suite that has strength (4 card suite with at least 1 to 2 top honors (Ace or King)) or raise partner suite by one level. b) He can raise the bid twice with 10 or more points but not enough for the Game level. He can bid another suite (4 cards with at least 1 to 2 top honors) or raise partner’s suite to one below Game level.

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c) He can jump-raise (skip 1 level) the bid to show the strength for Game or Slam level. d) He can “pass” to show a weak hand or to forfeit his bid. 3) Partner1 determines the combined points based on his partner’s reply. He can response in the following ways: a) If they do not have enough points for Game, try to stop the bid on lower level (one, two, or three level). b) If they probably have enough points for Game, partner1 can perform the following bids: i) Bid a new suite (4 cards with at least 1 top honor) to show different choice on the trump suite. This is also a force bid. His partner cannot pass a second bid on a new suite. ii) Raise his partner’s suite one level to show better fit for the trump suite. iii) Re-bid his first bid to show very strong suite. iv) Bid one below Game level to show invitation to Game. c) If they have enough points for Game but not enough for Slam, bid directly to the Game level. d) If they probably have enough points for Slam, partner1 can perform the following bids: i) Jump-raise the bid with a new suite, the partners only have to jump-raise once. ii) Jump-raise his first initial suite. iii) Jump-raise his partner’s suite. iv) Bid Blackwood or Stayman Convention. These two conventions are used for bidding Slam level. They tell you the distribution of Aces

and Kings in the partner’s hand. Normally, the partner with stronger hand starts the convention. 4) Partner2 re-evaluates the combined points based on his partner’s reply. He can response in the following ways: a) With a minimum hand (around 7 points and no support in partner’s suite), he can call “pass” on the second round. However, he should not pass if partner bid on a new suite (force bid). In this case, he could re-bid partner’s first suite. b) With combined hand reaching Game level but trump suite undecided, partner2 can perform the following bids to determine the trump suite: i) Raise partner initial suite if it is stronger. ii) Re-bid his initial suite if it is much stronger than partner’s. iii) Perform 4c if he agrees with the trump suite. c) With combined hand reaching Game level and trump suite determined, partner2 can perform the following bids: i) Bid directly to Game level. ii) Bid Blackwood or Stayman convention to explore Slam level.

How To Bid No Trump
No trump contract does not require trump suite. The absence of trump suite makes the game more difficult to play. One would only consider no trump if the combine hands are fairly balance in most of the suites. The combined hands do not have any 8 cards Major suite; otherwise, the partners should bid the

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Major suite first. In additions, since no trump is difficult to defend, you need at least one stop card in each of the suites. A stoppable suite has the following distributions: 2 cards suite with an Ace or King, 3 cards suite with a King or Queen, or any better distributions. So you should have a stopper on every suite before bidding no trump.

How To Bid Slam
Slam levels require 33 or 36 points. It must have a strong trump suite with at least 8 or 9 cards and 3 or 4 honors. The partners must first agree on the Game level and trump suite. Then the one with stronger hand starts Blackwood or Stayman Convention to find out the number of Aces and Kings in his partner’s hand. Blackwood Convention uses 4N to ask for Aces. The second partner will answer 5C for no Ace, 5D for 1, 5H for 2, and 5S for 3 Aces. The first partner then uses 5N to ask for Kings. The second partner will answer 6C for no Ace, 6D for 1, 6H for 2, and 6S for 3 Kings. Sometimes, the first partner may skip the 5N call to settle for a Small Slam. Stayman Convention has similar bid pattern except it starts with a lower level, 4C instead of 4N. The second partner will answer 4D for no Ace, 4H for 1, 4S for 2, and 4N for 3 Aces. The first partner then uses 5C to ask for Kings. The second partner will answer 5D for no King, 5H for 1, 5S for 2, and 5N for 3 Aces.

How To Bid Long Suite
If your hand has 13 points and contains a 7 or more cards suite, you may make a preemptive bid on that suite. A preemptive bid does not start with level one. It jumps directly to level three or beyond. The suite does not need to be strong (two to three out of five honors), but it has to be long (7 or more cards). The absence of honors on the trump suite might not mean problem because of two reasons: 1) Because of the long trump suite you had, your opponents would have fewer trump cards to protect their honors. They might lose their honors when you drew trump. 2) Or they might play their honors at the same time therefore would win only one trick instead of two tricks. The preemptive bid has a different meaning than the strong two bid. The strong two bid is a force bid that partner must reply even with less than 7 points. Preemptive bid is a weaker bid that partner can pass with a weak hand. If the partner has slightly less than 13 points but strong support on the other suites, he should raise the bid to Game level. Or he could raise the bid to one lower than the Game level to show invitation. Then the first partner might bid Game level if he has more than 13 points.

How To Play Your Hand
After your pair has bid the contract, your pair needs to play the game. Your team needs to win a number of tricks required by the contract level. Level one (1C, 1D, 1H, 1S and 1N) requires 7 tricks, level two 8 tricks, level three 9 tricks, level four 10 tricks, level five 11 tricks, level six 12 tricks, and level seven all tricks. If your first bid win the contract, you (also called declarer) need to play the game. Otherwise your partner will play the game. When you play the game, you will hide your hand from your opponents, but open your partner’s hand on the table (only after the left side 9

opponent has led a card). Play order rotates clockwise. Each player plays 1 card in each round. The round is determined and won by the highest card, or the highest trump. The winner then takes the trick and leads the first card for the next round. The sequence repeated until every player plays out his hand. The goal for the game is to meet at least the contract. Any extra trick after that is icing on the cake. The general method for the declarer playing his game is as follows: 1) Count the number of sure tricks you can win on both hands. Then count the number of potential tricks you may win. You want to develop your potential tricks so that they would become sure tricks. The goal is to win enough sure tricks to meet the contract requirement. 2) Find out how you would make the potential tricks to become sure tricks. Here are some of the techniques that you could use: a) Develop your long suite so that the lower cards of the suite would win tricks after you have drawn all the trump cards. b) Use the finesse technique to win trick with your Queen and Jack. Here is an example: If your table is holding a Queen, you are holding an Ace, Jack and a lower card, and your right side opponent is holding a King; you can play the Queen against your opponent’s King. If your opponent covers with his King, you can over cover with your Ace. Then his King would not win any trick. If your opponent withholds his King, you can let the Queen win a trick by playing the lower card.

c) You can let your left side opponent win a trick to set up an automatic finesse. Your opponent would lead and you would be the last person to play the card. Therefore you might be able to win trick with a lower. d) Use your trump cards to ruff the suite that you have voided. 3) Develop a game plan in your mind first. Plan out the sequence of your moves in your game plan. Play special attention to how you would play from your hand and lead to the table, or play from the table and lead back to your hand. How you would play to the table and finesse with your Queen? Or how you would play to the table and lead the suite that you can ruff? And vise versa. Or how to draw trump, then lead to the table and run your long suite, etc. 4) Execute your game plan and play out the actual moves. Remember the suites and honors that have been played. You need to remember the number of cards and honors played in each suite, and also the number of trump cards that have been played so far. Once you have better picture of the card distribution, you may readjust your execution in responding to the bad break on the cards. 5) Sometimes you might have to allow the opponents to win a trick to create the automatic finesse situation. Or simply let them take the lead so that you would feel the distribution of honor cards between your opponents, or you would play the defense so that your opponents would not win more tricks than they would.

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Probability and Card Distribution
Bridge, like other card games, also involves luck. But you can use the knowledge of card distribution and probability in your game plan to minimize the impact caused by bad break in cards. There are two questions related to the card distribution. The first question is how are the missing trump cards split between the two opponents. This determines how you would draw you trump cards. The second is which opponent is holding the missing honor. This determines how you would capture the honor card.

Table 1 below shows the probabilities of different splits for 3 cards, 4 cards, and 5 cards. R and L represent hands held respectively by the right side and the left side opponent of the declarer. Item 3 means the (trump) cards are split into 2 cards on the right opponent’s hand and 1 card on the left hand. This distribution has a probability of 39% among all possible hands with opponents holding 3 (trump) cards. This means if you would draw the trump cards when your opponents were holding three trump cards, you had 78% chance to draw all three trump cards in two rounds, and 22% chance in three rounds. You can run down the rest of the table and find the distributions and their probabilities for 4 (trump) cards and 5 (trump) cards.

Table 1 Probability Of Different Card Distributions
Item Total (trump) cards Card distribution held by opponents (R (m (R) n (L)) and L of declarer) 3 cards 3 cards 3 cards 3 cards 4 cards 4 cards 4 cards 4 cards 4 cards 5 cards 5 cards 5 cards 5 cards 5 cards 5 cards 3 (R) 0 (L) 0 (R) 3 (L) 2 (R) 1 (L) 1 (R) 2 (L) 4 (R) 0 (L) 0 (R) 4 (L) 3 (R) 1 (L) 1 (R) 3 (L) 2 (R) 2 (L) 5 (R) 0 (L) 0 (R) 5 (L) 4 (R) 1 (L) 1 (R) 4 (L) 3 (R) 2 (L) 2 (R) 3 (L) Probability

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

11% 11% 39% 39% 5% 5% 25% 25% 40% 2% 2% 14% 14% 34% 34%

Table 2 below shows the probabilities for the same distributions with a missing

King. Item 1 and 2 show the probability of a singleton King on the right hand 11

opponent is 13%, on the left opponent is another 13%. If you would capture the missing King when your opponents were holding 3 cards. You had two alternatives: 1) Leaded your Ace and hoped it would drop the King. 2) Played your Queen or Jack and finessed again your opponent’s King. Assuming that you did not know where the King was,

you would have 26% chance in dropping the singleton King with alternative 1, but 50% chance in finessing the King with alternative 2. So you would play alternative 2 because of its better chance of success. However, if you already knew the missing King was behind your Ace and could not be finessed, you would have to play alterative 1 instead.

Table 2 Probabilities Of Different Distributions With Missing Honors
Item Total cards held by opponents 3 cards with K 3 cards with K 3 cards with K 3 cards with K 3 cards with K 3 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 4 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K 5 cards with K Card distribution Probability

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Singleton K on R Singleton K on L Doubleton K on R Doubleton K on L K - - on R K - - on L Singleton K on R Singleton K on L Doubleton K on R Doubleton K on L K - - on R K - - on L K - - - on R K - - - on L Singleton K on R Singleton K on L Doubleton K on R Doubleton K on L K - - on R K - - on L K - - - on R K - - - on L K - - - - on R K - - - - on L

13% 13% 26% 26% 11% 11% 6.25% 6.25% 20% 20% 18.75% 18.75% 5% 5% 2.8% 2.8% 13.6% 13.6% 20.4% 20.4% 11.2% 11.2% 2% 2%

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Similarly, you can determine the way of playing your hand under different card distributions and scenarios. Once you know the probability, you can find out which way of playing your hand is better under different distributions and scenarios. Furthermore, you can derive similar tables like Table 2 for missing Queen, or missing Queen and Jack.

planning for the worst-case scenario. Of course, one would only plan for the worst-case scenario that could be defeated. The approach to designing your game plan for the worst-case scenario begins with a good and feasible game plan. You can only plan for worst-case scenario if you can make the Slam game. Then you look at the critical areas where you have assumed favorable card distributions. In reality, some of the favorable distributions may not happen. You need to tweak those distributions to more bad breaks based on your experience and your knowledge on probabilities and distributions. Then you modify your game plan accordingly to win under those bad scenarios. Your goal is to push the envelope so that your game plan will win even the worst-case scenario. This requires lots of experiences and practices until you can finally execute your game plan in perfection.

Worst-case Scenario
If you read the master bridge games from the newspaper or the bridge book, you always admire how would the master player figure out the bad break in cards and come up with a game plan that made the contract. This is almost an essential skill level for the master bridge players. They need to be able to contemplate the worst-case scenario for the slam game and derive a game plan that would defeat that scenario and win the contract. Slam game is quite rare in bridge. So every effort must be made to fulfill the contract. This includes the

Table 3 Card Distribution Of The Example Game (Showing North And South Only)
North S– H – AT D – A2 C – AKQ85432 West Show later East Show later

South S – AKQT864 H– D – T63 C – T97

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An Example
Here is an example of a game played in the 2nd Indonesian National Open Bridge Championships held 7/4/2003 published in the July 2003 issue of the Monthly

Publication of Singapore Contract Bridge Association. The card distribution between North and South seats is shown in Table 3 above. The bid sequence of the whole game is shown in Table 4 below.

Table 4 Bid Sequence Of The Example Game
Bid numbers 1-4 5-8 9 - 12 13 - 16 17 - 20 21 - 24 East pass 2S 5H pass pass all pass South 1S 3C pass pass 7S West pass 3H pass 7H pass North 2C 4N 7C double 7N

Here are the comments to the bids: Bid 2: South opened the bid with 15 points including void on the Heart suite. Bid 4: North answered with 2C since he had not found a match on trump suite yet. Bid 5: East opened bid with 2S. This was a convention showing long suites on Heart and a minor. Bid 6: South replied a match on Club. That implied he had at least 3 cards on Club and 10 points or more. Bid 7: West was making a defense bid. Bid 8: North saw a possibility for Slam. North South combine together has enough points for Slam. In additions, he counted only three lose tricks (HT, D4, and D2) on his hand. South said he had support on Club and some honors on the other suites. That would reduce the lose tricks to around one trick. So he bid 4N to start the Blackwood convention. Bid 9: East’s 5H bid was totally a defense bid. It reduced the room North South had in negotiating the Slam. Bid 10: South’s pass bid was a DEPO convention.

Bid 12: North’s 7C bid was a gutsy move. North South should have at least a Small Slam on hand. Bid 15: It was a sacrifice bid. East West would lose the game down by at least three tricks. Down three would cost them –500 points (without vulnerable). On the other hand, if North South made their 7C game, they would gain 640 points. So East West would still gain by losing less point. This strategy is particularly useful when play Duplicated Bridge. It is another competition Bridge. Each team has four players. The players are divided into two pairs. When two teams are playing against each other, the North South pair will play with the East West pair of the opposing team, and vise versa. The East West pair of the opposing team will play the same hands played by the East West pair again. Similarly the opposing North South pair will play the same hands played by the North South pairs. This arrangement allow the teams who play better defense win points against their opponent who do not. Bid 18: 7S might not be a good bid because North did not have any Spade. 14

Bid 20: 7N was a better bid than 7S. North had stopper on both Heart and Diamond suites. He could run the Club and Space suites without any problem. North was the declarer. East opened the lead with H4. South lay down his hand on the table. There were only two Clubs held by East and West. North would win 8 Club tricks, 1 Heart and 1 Diamond. North would need only three Spade tricks from the table to make the contract. The game plan for North South would be as follows: North would win the first trick with his Ace. He would draw two

rounds of Clubs, then lead a small Club to table’s 10. He would run at least three rounds of Spade from the table. North would lead a small Diamond to his hand’s Ace, then lead the rest of the Clubs (5) from hand, and win the game. Since the game plan was not dependent on any favorable distribution. This plan should work even for the worse case distribution. As you can see, because of the more favorable distribution on Spade (4 cards on West and 2 cards with Jack on East), North could run all seven Spades from the table instead of more conservatively three Spades suggested by the game plan. Here is the final distribution of the complete hands

Table 5 Card Distribution Of The Example Game (Showing All Seats)
North S– H – AT D – A42 C – AKQ85432 West S – 7532 H – K9752 D – Q8 C – J6 South S – AKQT864 H– D – T63 C – T97 East S – J9 H – QJ8643 D – KJ975 C-

Conclusion
Contract Bridge is an interesting and challenging card game. The game has two parts, bidding and playing. This article has covered the basic information, as well as the strategies and techniques for bidding and playing the game. There are still areas that are not covered

by the article. They include the bidding conventions, advance playing techniques, and defense plays. Readers are encouraged to explore further into those three areas. In additions, readers are also encouraged to sharpen their skills by reading up the daily Bridge column on the newspaper. I hope you enjoy this game.

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Who Broke The Window Answer:
This story can be examined by looking at all the possible scenarios shown in table 1. All the scenarios except Scenario 1) Bruce told the truth 2) Charlie told the truth 3) Adam told the truth and Bruce broke the window 4) Adam told the truth and Charlie broke the window 5) Adam told the truth and Dennis broke the window 6) Dennis told the truth and Adam broke the window 7) Dennis told the truth and Bruce broke the window 8) Dennis told the truth and Charlie broke the window

scenario 6 have more than one boy telling “the truth”. Therefore scenario 6 is the only one that is true as claimed by Emma. Adam was the one who broke the window.

Implies Conclusion Adam also told the truth Scenario fails because both Bruce and Adam told the truth Adam also told the truth Scenario fails because both Charlie and Adam told the truth Dennis also told the Scenario fails because both truth Adam and Dennis told the truth Dennis also told the Scenario fails because both truth Adam and Dennis told the truth Charlie also told the Scenario fails because both truth Adam and Charlie told the truth Adam, Bruce, and Scenario succeeds because only Charlie all lied Dennis told the truth Adam also told the truth Scenario fails because both Adam and Dennis told the truth Adam also told the truth Scenario fails because both Adam and Dennis told the truth c) Triangle AJO is also an isosceles triangle -> AJ = OJ d) OA ** 2 = 2 * AJ ** 2 e) Since OA = OI and IO = EI then EI ** 2 = 2 * AJ ** 2 f) Area EFGH = ( 2 * EI ) ** 2 = 4 * EI ** 2 = 4 * 2 * AJ ** 2 = 2 * ( 2 * AJ ) ** 2 = 2 * AB ** 2 = 2 * area ABCD

Geometry Puzzle Answer:
There are at least two methods to find out the ratio of the two squares: 1) Overlay the diagram on top a graph paper. Count the number of small squares in the squares ABCD and EFGH. Calculate the ratio using the square counts. 2) See the proof below. Because of the absence of the fonts for mathematic notations, I use the computer notations instead. Here are the notations that I use: * means multiply, ** 2 means power of 2. a) Triangle EIO is an isosceles triangle -> EI = OI b) Angle AJO is 90 degree -> OA ** 2 = OJ ** 2 + AJ ** 2

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