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Philosophy of Education Contemporary western educational thought: Difference between Philosophies and Theories / Thought Philosophy Theory  General  Specific  Wide ranging/ Often Global  Focused on Education  Components related to metaphysics,  Components related to specifics of Education such as curriculum, Epistemology, Axiology and logic teaching and learning  Insights derived from general philosophies or from school context  Insights derived from general system

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Theories/ Thought is a prelude to action It provides data to realize the norms/Goals suggested by Philosophy A student should not enter this profession of education without a considerable knowledge of all the theories that apply to his field Perennialism: Basic Principles 1. Since human nature is constant, the nature of education remains constant too 2. Since man’s most distinctive characteristic is his ability to reason, education should concentrate on developing that rational faculty. 3. The only type of adjustment to which education should lead, is adjustment to the truth, which is universal and unchanging. 4. Education is not a replica of life but a preparation for life 5. Children should be taught some basic subjects that will acquaint them with the world’s permanencies. 6. These permanencies are best studied in “Great Books” addressing universal question and aspirations of mankind. Progressivism: Basic Principles 1. Education should be active and related to the interest of the child 2. The intelligence handles the novelty and perplexity of life most successfully when it breaks its experiences down into specific problems. Learning should take place through problem solving projects 3. Education, as intelligent reconstruction of experience, is life itself. 4. Since the child should learn in accordance with his own interest and mind, the teacher should act more as a guide or as an advisor than as a figure of authority. 5. More is achieved when individuals work with each other. The school should foster spirit of cooperation rather competition. 6. Education and democracy imply one another; hence schools should be run democratically. Only democracy permits for interplay of ideas and personality, which is a necessary condition for growth. Essentialism: Basic Principles 1. Learning involves hard work and unwilling application. 2. The initiative in education should lie with the teacher rather than the pupil. 3. The heart of educational process is absorption of prescribed subject matter. 4. The school should not abandon traditional method of mental disciplines. Reconstructionism: Basic Principles 1. The main purpose of education is to promote a clearly thought out Program of social reform.

2. Education must commit itself here and now to the creation of a new social order. 3. The new society must be a genuine democracy whose major institutions and resources are controlled by the people themselves 4. The people must be persuaded to reconstruct the society in which they live and the persuasion must begin at school. 5. The means and ends of education must be refashioned to meet the demands of the present cultural crisis 6. It stresses the extent to which the child, the school and education itself are shaped by social and cultural forces. A Comparative analysis of Educational Philosophies: Educational Philosophy Philosophical base Aims of Education Knowledge and Curriculum focus Realism To educate the Focus on past and Perenialism: permanent studiesrational person. classical subjects. Advocates: Adler, Bloom, Hutchins, Maritain To cultivate intellect. Mastery of facts and timeless knowledge Regressive road to culture Idealism and Realism To promote Essential skills and Essentialism: intellectual growth academic subjects and to educate the Advocates: Bagley, Bestor, competent person Mastering of Conants, Morrison concepts and principles underlying Conservative road to subjects Culture Pragmatism (Present- To promote Knowledge leads to Progressivism: Centered) democratic social growth. A living living. learning processAdvocates: Dewey, focus on active and Kilpatrick, Parker. relevant learning. Liberal road to culture Pragmatism (Future To improve and Skills and subjects Reconstructionism: Centered) reconstruct societyneeded to indentify Education for change and ameliorate Advocates: Brameld, and social reform. problems of societyActive learning Counts, Stanley concerned with contemporary and Radical Road to Culture future society. Emphasis on social and social research methods. International education. Equalization of Opportunity.