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Voltage Dip Mitigation with DG Integration: A Comprehensive Review
O. Ipinnimo, Student Member, IEEE, S. Chowdhury, Member, IEEE and S.P. Chowdhury, Member, IEEE
indicates the following advantages of DG schemes as listed below [2]: a) b) c) d) e) Reduce electric energy and demand costs Combined heat and power Manage peak demand and achieve peak shaving Improve power quality and reliability Eliminate/reduce transmission and distribution losses due to close proximity to loads f) Reduce or avoid the necessity to build new transmission/distribution lines or upgrade existing ones. g) Diversify the range of energy sources in use and increase the reliability of the grid network. h) Can be configured to provide premium power, when coupled with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) i) Can be located close to the customer and can be installed in modular sizes to match the local load or energy requirement of the customer. Also literature show some key factors that influence the choice of DG technology and system design including DG placement and sizing [2]. These are as follows: a) Energy costs and fuel availability b) Electrical load size/factor/shape c) Load criticality d) Thermal load quality/size/shape e) Special load considerations f) Regulatory requirements One application of DG related to enhancement of power quality, which is highlighted in research literature, is the mitigation of voltage dips. Several voltage dip mitigation schemes with DG are discussed in this report. II. VOLTAGE DIP In a good quality power network the power generated must be equal to the load demand at any particular point of time. Any imbalance between reactive power generation and load disturbs the voltage at the load points and the voltage profile along the network. This imbalance or sudden change causes unexpected drop in the voltage in a power network and is known as voltage dip. Voltage dip can be defined as a sudden reduction of the supply voltage to a value between the ranges of 10% to 90% of nominal voltage and with a short duration from 10 ms up to one minute.

Abstract-- Voltage dip has been a serious problem in electricity networks. It accounts for the disruption of both the performance and operation of sensitive electrical and electronic equipments, which has reduced the efficiency and the productivity of power consumers across the globe. In order to secure quality power supply this problem needs attention for a sustainable solution. In the field of electrical power quality and stability various research endeavors are in line for arresting the issues of voltage dips in electricity networks. Recent developments of deploying DG with high degree of penetration are quite capable of delivering various benefits through ancillary services. Voltage supports by deployment of DG in electricity networks are quite useful in voltage dip mitigation. This paper reports on the extensive review in identifying various distributed generation schemes for the mitigation of voltage dips in electricity networks. Index Terms—Voltage dips, distributed generation

I. INTRODUCTION

D

istributed Generation (DG) is defined as any generation which is connected directly to the distribution network. It connection to the power network opposes the transmission network. DG makes use of small-scale low carbon renewable and non-conventional power generation technologies and the units are usually located close to the load being served. Currently, the impact of DG on the grid operation is no longer insignificant due to high degree of penetration. The amount of newly introduced DG has increased rapidly and growing further because of several reasons namely: (a) the need for reducing environmental pollution and global warming caused by emission of carbon particles and green house gases, (b) capturing higher energy efficiency and ability for CHP (combined heat and power) generation, (c) implementing enhanced power quality and reliability, (d) the need for generation augmentation, power restoration, (e) alleviating transmission congestion and (f) obtaining loss reduction etc. However, deployment and utilization of DG to maximum benefit require detailed evaluation of the technical impacts of DG penetration on system reliability, power flow, voltage profile and stability, protection coordination and quality of power supplied to the customers [1]. Research literature

O. Ipinnimo is with Electrical Engg. Dept., University of Cape Town, South Africa (e-mail: oluwafemi.ipinnimo@uct.c.za). S. Chowdhury is with Electrical Engg. Dept., University of Cape Town, South Africa (e-mail: sp.chowdhury@uct.c.za). S.P. Chowdhury is with Electrical Engg. Dept., University of Cape Town, South Africa (e-mail: sunetra.chowdhury@uct.c.za).

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Voltage dips can also be defined as short-duration reductions (between 10%–90%) in the nominal voltage magnitude, lasting from one-half cycle to several seconds [3]. In some literature it is regarded as complete loss or a short term reduction in the RMS voltage and is always express in terms of the retained voltage and duration. It also means that the necessary reactive power is not being transferred to the load. Voltage dips originate from large motor starting, generators, arc furnaces, transformer energizing and short circuits in the transmission system. These voltage variations can cause serious problems for sensitive loads such as adjustable speed drives, process control equipment, computers and particularly where a delicate industrial processes demand a high quality voltage supply. Figure 1 shows various forms of voltage dip signatures with voltage dip A occur as a result of three-phase fault, B as a result of single-phase, and E as a result of two -phase faults. Dip C may result from phase-to-phase fault measured at the fault location, or is well obtained from the propagation of dip D via a transformer. Dips D and F are obtained from the propagation of dips C and E respectively via transformers or are well provided from phase-to-phase measurements of dips B and E at the fault location. Dip G usually results from the propagation of dip F [4]. Voltage dips can be characterized by the depth, duration and frequency of occurrence. The depth of the dip is determined by the fault location, feeder impedance and fault level.

III. SCHEMES FOR VOLTAGE DIP MITIGATION WITH DG Methods of voltage dips mitigation are classified into active or passive measures. The active measures are used for reducing the number of voltage dips acting on the causes that generate the disturbances such as reducing the number of faults. On the contrary, the passive ones are protection measures and try to compensate for the voltage reduction during the disturbance [5]. To solve the problem of voltage dips and keep the voltage at its nominal value during the dip several methods or schemes have been proposed. A. S E R I E S COMPENSATION

K.J.P. Macken et al. [3] propose a solution to the problem of voltage dip in transmission networks by the introduction of either a shunt current or a series voltage into the system and during this process distributed generation system plays an important role. This solution involves extending the power electronic converter, used to grid connect a distributed generation system, with a series compensator. The series compensator is able to restore the voltage at the load side in case of a voltage dip. The introduction of a shunt current or a series voltage to the system makes the mitigation of voltage dips possible on the grid. This can also be done using a power electronic converter of a distributed generation system, which involves a high active current if the voltage has to be restored in both magnitude and phase angle to its pre-fault values. In series compensation, it is possible to inject a voltage in series with the supply voltage when a dip occurs and requires considerably less active power. If the magnitude of the positive sequence component of the voltage is monitor, the voltage dip can be promptly and clearly identified. When a voltage dip occurs, it leads to a reduction in the positive sequence component of the utility voltage [6]. The rating of the series compensation active power to compensate for the missing voltage is given in (1). The voltage can be calculated from power = current multiply by voltage. In other to compensate for a voltage dip of 0.3pu the series compensator requires 0.15pu active power if the power factor is 0.8 [3]. The active power Pinv required for the series-connected inverter to compensate for a three-phase balanced voltage dip Vdip can be expressed as

Pinv =

Pload

(1) is load angle, and Pload is

Where is phase-angle jump, total active power of the load.

Fig. 1 Voltage Dips Signatures (Courtesy: Ref [4])

Voltage dip magnitude and phase-angle jump can be calculated from

3

=

(2)

Where is a measure of the electrical distance, and α is the impedance angle. In order to effectively mitigate voltage dips, a controller with a fast dynamic response is required.

The power electronic converter of a distributed generation system can be extended with a series compensator as shown in Fig. 2. An additional voltage-source inverter is connected to the dc bus of the distributed generation system. A transformer is used to connect the output of the voltage-source inverter in series with the grid. In this way, it is possible to inject a voltage in series with the supply voltage when a dip occurs.

A DG system, which is connected through a power electronic converter to the grid, is shown in Fig. 3 and a three-phase static transfer switch, which is inserted between the utility supply side and the load side. When a voltage dip occurs, the static transfer switch is opened to disconnect the load side, where sensitive equipment is located, from the utility supply side. The static transfer switch comprises back-to-back thyristors. The distributed generation system at the load side regulates the voltage during the time that the loads are isolated from the utility supply. In this way the operation of sensitive equipment is not affected by the voltage dips, assuming that the transfer between grid-connected operation and microgrid operation is seamless. During microgrid operation the distributed generation system supplies all the power needed by the loads. As soon as the supply voltage recovers, the static transfer switch is closed and the distribution generation system is transferred from microgrid operation back to grid connected operation. [3]

Fig.2. A grid-interfaced distributed generation system extended with a series compensator. (Courtesy: Ref [3])

The advantage of this method is that series compensation is very effective for mitigating voltage dips and can also be used to control the voltage in the event of other disturbances. By using appropriate control algorithms and sufficiently fast switching, the series compensator may be able to mitigate voltage transients, excessive voltage harmonics, and voltage fluctuations leading to light flicker. However, it has gotten the following disadvantages: a) Series compensation cannot be used during interruptions. b) It is not an economic solution as the amount of power electronic components require is more.

Fig. 3. A grid-interfaced DG system which is isolated from the utility supply during dips by a static transfer switch (Courtesy: Ref [3])

B. TRANSFER TO MICROGRID OPERATION DURING DIPS To eliminate voltage dip, K.J.P. Macken et al. [3] also suggested transfer to microgrid operation. In this scheme, the DG system has to be designed for both grid-connected operation and microgrid operation. During grid-connected operation the converter controller of the DG system regulates the current (i.e. current-mode control), whereas in microgrid operation, the controller regulates the voltage (i.e. voltagemode control).

Microgrid is a small-scale power supply network that is designed to provide power for a small area. It enables local power generation for local loads, which can be through the use of renewable energy. These small power generating sources makes it highly flexible and efficient for power generation when compared to the centralized generation. Microgrid operation has several advantages such as it can be used during voltage dips and interruptions and is also a cheaper solution as the amount of power electronic components is clearly less. However, its operation during voltage dip is less reliable than the series compensator.

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= C. APPLICATION OF CONVERTER-BASED DG, SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS B. Renders et al. have shown in [7] that voltage dip can be controlled by three types of DG units viz., asynchronous generators, synchronous generators and converter-connected units. Here the machines inject reactive power into the grid as a result of voltage dip and this surely increases the retained voltage during the dip. The behavior of converter-based DG, synchronous generators, and asynchronous generators during voltage dips is verified and analyzed by [7]. In opposition to the reported effects of synchronous and asynchronous generators on voltage dips in high to medium voltage networks, their influence on voltage dips in low voltage networks is rather minimal. Converter-based DG is found to have a similar effect on voltage dips in low voltage networks, in opposition to high-voltage networks. [7], [8], [9]. The analysis is based on voltage dips caused by short circuits and the voltage at the equipment terminals of a radial system is determined by the voltage divider model of Fig 4. This model consists of the source impedance at the point of common coupling (PCC) and the impedance between PCC and the fault. In this model all loads are initially supposed to be of the constant impedance type. This allows including contribution of the loads into the source impedance. The voltage at the PCC is thus given by = (3)

+

(4)

In order to quantify the voltage at the equipment terminals based on Fig. 4, the DG units need to be modeled as a voltage source in series with impedance . This approach is similar to the one used to investigate the effects of induction motors on voltage dips in [9]. The effect of induction generators on balanced faults may be modeled as a voltage source in series with impedance. The back-emf is slightly lower than the voltage at the generator terminals in normal operation. When the voltage at the terminals drops upon fault initiation, the back-emf follows with a delay determined by the sub transient time constant of the induction machine [9],[10] . Induction generators have low impedance to unbalanced voltage and so will draw large current during asymmetrical voltage dips. Unbalanced currents increase the heating in the generator and impose a torque ripple on the drive train. Excessive unbalanced current may cause tripping of the induction generator [7]. Synchronous generators can be considered to have fault currents with a rapid decay of the dc offset and a nearly constant ac component [8].The decay of the dc component is determined by the armature time constant and thus also by the location of the fault.[7] In contrast to the reported effects of synchronous and asynchronous generators on voltage dips in high to medium voltage networks [7], their influence on voltage dips in low voltage networks is rather less. Converter-based DG was found to have a similar effect on voltage dips in low voltage networks, in contrast to high-voltage networks. The advantage of a converter-connected DG, on a low voltage distribution feeder which was simulated for seven different types of voltage dips with the three types of DG connected to the distribution feeder [7]. The voltage dips as experienced by the load connected to the equipment terminals were mitigated most by converter-connected DG. However, the improvements are small as compared to the effects of DG on voltage dips in high voltage networks.

Fig. 4.

Voltage divider model (Courtesy: Ref [7])

Equation (3) helps to calculate the dip magnitude and the phase angle jump for the PCC. This model is also extended to study the effect of DG units on voltage dip. If another branch is added to the PCC which is the impedance is the impedance between the PCC and the equipment terminals, this impedance can also include transformation to lower voltage levels. The voltage at the equipment terminals will be strongly dependent on the behavior of the connected DG units, represented in the scheme by a voltage source and impedance . The voltage at the equipment terminals is

D. USE OF VOLTAGE SOURCE CONVERTER AS FRONT END In the scheme reported by F. Magueed et al. [11] a threephase voltage source converter (VSC) is implemented as a front end of a DG unit. The D-STATCOM is a voltage source inverter (VSI) used to regulate and balance the voltage at the distribution bus using reactive power injection. The controller is composed of two cascaded controllers, an inner current controller and an outer voltage controller. The outer controller is implemented in both positive and negative sequence frames to be able to compensate for voltage imbalance. The VSC is

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connected to a weak grid through an LCL-filter, to eliminate the higher-order harmonics of the current on the grid side. The DC – link voltage is considered in two ways, viz as a constant or stiff DC voltage source, and as regulated or weak DC voltage with a constant current source. The control system for the DG unit is implemented in a rotating dq-frame that is synchronized with the voltage at the PCC using a Phase Locked Loop. The main controller consists of three cascaded controllers, to increase the stability margin and at the same time to damp the oscillations at the resonance frequency of the LCL-filter [11], [12], [13]. The advantage of VSC as a front end is that it enhances the system reliability in weak grids as seen by customers. However, the limited rating of the DG results in limiting the voltage regulation margin. E. DSTATCOM COMPENSATORS WITH DISTRIBUTED ENERGY RESOURCES I. Wasiak et al. [14] discusses DSTATCOM compensators with distributed energy resources (DERs). DSTATCOM compensator is a shunt connected device of the configuration of 6-pulse Semi-conductor Bridge like in conventional STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) systems applied in HV transmission networks. These two groups of devices differ in power, the type of semi-conductor switches applied and their control systems. DSTATCOM controllers are designed for distribution grids and are the members of Custom Power devices family which provides solutions to the problem of voltage dips. [14]. DSTATCOM compensator is built around a 3-phase 6-pulse voltage source inverter which is connected to the network through a reactor and supplied by a DC capacitor. The inverter consists of fully controllable switches (like IGBT) which are turned on and off through a gate drive circuit. Its task is to mitigate power quality disturbances introduce to the grid by the DERs, such as voltage variations, asymmetry, harmonics and compensate for the reactive power. The working principle is to inject a set of three unbalanced compensating currents to the network such that the network current becomes sinusoidal balanced and in phase with the voltage. The compensator performing such task operates in current control mode. DSTATCOM model has been developed using typical modules offered in the PSCAD standard library. As the compensator is expected to work in the 4-wire LV network under unbalance condition the basic configuration has been modified by adding the fourth leg. DSTATCOM diagram for this case o b tai ned i n PSCAD enviro nment i s presented in Fig. 5. The hysteresis control has been applied in which the inverter tracks the current reference [14].
Fig. 5. DSTACOM topology for application in unbalanced 4-wire grid in the form obtained in PSCAD environment (Courtesy: Ref [14])

Advantages of are as follows: a)

DSTATCOM

compensator

DSTATCOM system is an efficient means for mitigation of voltage dips disturbances introduced to the grid by DERs. DSTATCOM compensator is a flexible device which can operate in current control mode for compensating voltage variation, unbalance and reactive power and in voltage control mode as a voltage stabilizer.

b)

Disadvantages of DSTATCOM compensator include: a) The problems with integration are likely to emerge first of all in rural or local weak distribution grids which operate normally near power quality limits.

b) DG technology using energy of sun and wind seems to be the most probable to be applied. In some cases connection of single-phase DERs to the grid may deteriorate power quality considerably. c) Unbalance compensation in 4-wire network requires 4-leg device to be applied, whereas the remaining tasks may be effectively performed by 3-leg compensator.

F. USE OF SINGLE TRANSFORMER, AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR (AVR) AND POWER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SOFTWARE (PMS) N. Hiscock et al. [15] suggested that voltage dip can be controlled using a single transformer, the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and power management system (PMS) software. The automatic voltage regulator (AVR) measures the voltage and the current at the load side of the transformer.

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The measured voltage is compared with the reference voltage setting of the AVR if the differences exceed the tolerance setting of the AVR. A tap change is initiated to adjust the transformer voltage to a satisfactory level. [15] Some of the control aspects are discussed below. A. Voltage Control a) Circulating Current control This method involves that the loads at each transformer operating in parallel are added and sent to each AVR for comparison with the individual transformer load. Fig. 6 shows a site with two paralleled transformers feeding a load. Transformer T1 is on a higher tap position than T2. Each transformer has a connected AVR that measures the transformer voltage and current. Fig. 7 shows the corresponding vector diagram. The circulating current through each transformer Icirc is calculated as follows: Icirc = ICT1 [sin φ1 − cos φ1tanθ] Icirc = ICT2 [cos φ2 tan θ − sin φ2] (5) (6)

In this method the summed load current is assumed to operate at a power factor, pfsys, and, unlike the circulating current method, the value of summed transformer currents is not required. The circulating current, Icirc , can be calculated using (5) and (6), where cos θ is the assumed power factor pfsys, . The voltage measurement used by the AVR is calculated as in (7). Veff = VVT + K Icirc (7)

Where VVT voltage transformer (VT) voltage measurement; K constant; Icirc calculated circulating current. B. Generator Control a) Power Factor Control Here the generator is operating in parallel with a transformer, the transformer effectively controls the voltage. By having the generator in power factor control, there is no possible control conflict between the generator AVR and the transformer AVR. b) Voltage control A generator can precisely control the voltage of the bus-bar to which it is connected provided that it is the only generator on the bus-bar. In some other case according to [15], the generator will not be able to easily control the bus-bar voltage. In this case, the generator excitation must operate in voltage droop mode such that a decrease in the bus-bar voltage will result in an increase in the production of reactive power by the generator, and vice-versa. The management of the distribution of reactive power from generators to loads can be achieved through the use of a PMS. If there is a failure or loss of communication between the PMS and the voltage control equipment, the local voltage control systems will maintain the voltage conditions at an acceptable level [15]. The advantage of a single transformer, AVR and PMS method is that the generators and tap-changing transformers can be used to control the level of voltage throughout a network. At the same time. The transformers in the network also influence the direction and magnitude of the reactive component of power that flows to the loads.

Fig. 6. Two paralleled transformers. (Courtesy: Ref [15])

G. SHUNT ACTIVE FILTER WITH ENERGY STORAGE (SAFES)
Fig. 7. Vector diagram for calculation of circulating current. (Courtesy: Ref [15])

b) Reactive Current Control Reactive current control has a major advantage over circulating current control, especially it allows transformers to be operated in parallel across a network without large reactive currents flowing in-between.

F. Carastro et al. [16] proposed a control strategy based on the state space pole placement design for a Shunt Active Filter with energy storage installed in a micro-grid which guarantee voltage regulation and harmonic cancellation at the load site. To achieve this, SAFES is controlled to inject the appropriate current to the line. The reference fundamental current for the SAFES is calculated such that in the presence of voltage sags,

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it works in conjunction with local distributed generation, (which usually has slow dynamic response) to control the voltage at the point of common connection (PCC). The multivariable controller employs a full state observer to provide the SAFES reference voltage. The application of SAFES helps the voltage and power improvement within a microgrid in presence of distributed generation. Theoretical analysis has investigated shown how to control a power electronic energy source in coordination with an energy source, with a slow dynamic response. It is seen that this scheme is able to quickly recover the grid voltage after a considerable load step change. Simulation has shown that the method makes it possible to regulate the grid voltage at its nominal value and also control the power sharing between the active filter and the local supply.

a) Generate a set of initial population of required control variables randomly within the specified bounds. b) Evaluate the fitness function. c) Apply genetic algorithm operators to obtain next set of population in the succeeding generations [17]. The procedure is repeated until the termination condition is satisfied. This method improves voltage regulation, voltage stability index and reduction in total network power loss. It also helps in identifying the optimal locations of distributed power source by means of voltage stability index of the nodes in the RDS.

H. OPTIMAL SITING AND SIZING OF DG IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (RDS) K.V. Kumar et al. [17] propose a solution based on optimal management of real and reactive power in radial distribution systems (RDSs) with Distributed Generations (DG). The emphasis is on improvement of the voltage profile. Though the RDSs are less reliable because of their passive nature, but solutions have been suggested for complementing the passiveness of RDSs by embedding electrical sources of small capacity based on renewable energy technology to improve system reliability and voltage regulation. [17] A system experiences a state of voltage instability when there is a progressive or uncontrollable drop in voltage magnitude following a disturbance, increase in load demand or change in operating condition. It is usually identified by an index called steady state voltage stability index, evaluated using sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis is the computation of voltage stability index of all the nodes in RDS. The following steps involved in optimal sitting and sizing of distributed generations: Step 1) Determination of candidate locations for placing distributed generations a) Perform load flow analysis to calculate the bus voltage magnitudes and total network power loss in the RDS. b) Compute the voltage stability index (SI) SI (n2) = |V1 |4 − 4[P2R1 + Q2 X1] |V1| 2 − 4[P2 X1 −Q2R1]2 (8) Where SI (n2) = voltage stability index of node n2 c) Arrange the buses in ascending order of the voltage stability index and select one or two buses with low value of voltage stability index from different laterals as the candidate locations for placing distributed sources. Step 2) Determination of optimal size of distributed generations at the candidate locations using Genetic Algorithm (GA).

I. VOLTAGE REGULATION OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER (DVR) X. Liu et al. [18] presents the application of Dynamic Voltage Restorer as to correct the voltage dips. A DVR is a power-electronic-converter based device that has been designed to protect critical loads from many kinds of disturbances. It is connected in series with a distribution feeder and is capable of generating or absorbing real and reactive power at its AC terminals. The operation of a DVR is to inserting a voltage of required magnitude, the DVR can restore the sensitive loads voltage to the desired amplitude and waveform.

Common Loads Sensitive Load

Rectifier

Stored energy system

Fig.8. Allocation of DVR in distribution system (Courtesy: Ref [18])

The main function of DVR is to inject appropriate voltage components along the distribution feeder to balance the line currents. This is base on is based on the semi-period algorithm to extract fundamental component from fault signal then extract the fundamental positive sequence voltage by the decomposition instantaneous link, and then the quantity of voltage compensation can be solved by direct detection algorithm [19],[20]. Allocation of DVR in distribution system is shown in Fig.8. The configuration of the distribution system with DVR and DG is shown in Fig. 9. [18].

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rise to two operations, first is an increase in the current on the load side, and secondly is a decrease of the current on the inverter side, thus avoiding the working condition of limited current. The architecture of FDD is shown in Fig.11. The device is installed between the substation and the loads the seriesconnected inductors and the capacitors are designed in order to realize parallel resonance at the fundamental frequency. Until the control system detects a current value above a threshold, the static devices in parallel with the inductors are fired in order to shortcut them, while those in series with the capacitors are turned off. Thus, the FDD is transparent to the network and does not affect the operation of the load. When a short circuit occurs on a feeder supplied by the substation, the control system inserts the FDD by turning off the static devices on the faulted line and turning on those in series with the capacitors. Thus, the decoupling of the faulted line from the net is obtained. This leads to a reduction of the short-circuit current on the faulted line, the mitigation of the voltage dip at the point of common coupling (PCC), a decrease in the short-circuit current drawn from the DG connected to the distribution system and also an increase in the voltage at the PCC where the DG unit is connected, thus avoiding the activation of antiislanding protection. In the case of a high-power induction motor connected to the PCC, the FDD reduces, during motor startup, the amount of current required from the net, thus mitigating the voltage dip [22].

Fig.9. Configuration of distribution system with DVR and DG (Courtesy: Ref [18])

The detection process of the voltage compensation is shown in Fig.10. It is assumed that all the DGs are interconnected in this distribution system at a certain time and there is no voltage fluctuation in the sensitive loads. First, confirm the fault starting time based on the discontinuity points of the differential coefficient of the phase voltage. Then, decaying DC component of the distorted voltage is filtered by semiperiod algorithm. In that case, the fundamental component (including positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zerosequence) can be extracted. Then the positive-sequence voltage can be extracted by the instantaneous decomposition link. Finally through direct-detecting algorithm, voltage compensation is achieved [18].

Three-phase distorted voltage

Detecting algorithm of the decaying DC component

The instantaneous decomposition link

The directdetecting algorithm

The compensation

Fig.10 Principle diagram of voltage compensation detection method Courtesy: Ref [18])

Q. Sun et al. [1], discuss the impact of DG location and capacity on voltage profile in distribution networks. Two typical load distribution models uniform and isosceles load models are established to analyze the voltage profile on the feeder quantitatively. The simulation was done and it shows that the location and capacity of DG can influence the voltage profile.

J. USE OF FAULT DECOUPLING DEVICE (FDD) A novel method of voltage dip mitigation using a resonant device, called the fault decoupling device (FDD) and the current pumping device (CPD) is reported by A. Cataliotti et al. [22]. FDD can be used to decouple the net from the loads, even in the presence of DG units, thus mitigating voltage dips due to faults or large induction motor startup. The current pumping device (CPD) is installed between the inverter and the customer‟s load, when there is an over current; it produces an operation condition close to parallel resonance. This gives

Fig. 11. One-phase FDD circuit, with load (L), distributed generation (DG) unit, and induction motor (IM) (Courtesy: Ref [22])

FDD operation in passive networks and active LV networks Usually, faults and switching of large loads with high in-rush currents, such as induction motor (IM), are the causes of these disturbances. In the case of faults, the voltage reduction is

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proportional to the electric distance of the PCC from the source of the disturbance, while the duration depends on the fault clearing time of the protection devices. In the case of induction motor starting, the magnitude depends on the motor size and a voltage dip of some seconds may occur. In the case of a Short Circuit, The DG and IM are replaced with two passive loads. The fault is a three-phase short circuit in a feeder supplied by the substation. When the FDD is inserted, the parallel resonance condition is realized at the fundamental frequency i.e. Xind = X cap = XLC Where Xind and Xcap are the reactance of FDD inductors and capacitors, respectively. In active LV networks, one of the most important issues, due to the connection of DG units to the electrical distribution systems, is the change in the fault current levels. These changes depend on the type, the location, and the size of DG plants. The advantages of fault decoupling device method are as follows: a) It reduces the upstream fault current and increases the PCC voltage in the case of a short circuit in a passive network. In the presence of a large induction motor connected to the PCC, it is possible to use the FDD in order to reduce the voltage dip, during motor startup.

energy storage mechanism is required. The automatic voltage stabilizers rely on generating full voltage from the available energy supply at reduced voltage during the dip. To name a few, electro-mechanical, ferro-resonant or constant voltage transformer (CVT), electronic step regulators etc. [23] are the voltage stabilizers. Further research needs to be carried out on the classification and transient analysis of voltage dips using latest technology and tools. There is a need for development of control methodologies for fast acting mitigation of voltage dip for achieving the voltage regulation at the consumer premises within regulatory bandwidths. Most of the schemes presented in many of the research papers have reported mainly on the basis of computer simulations. The simulations results might be good enough for a guideline but these need validation through real time experiments at practical operation conditions. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are pleased to acknowledge the support provided by The University of Cape Town, South Africa and Eskom Holdings Limited, South Africa.

VI
[1]

REFERENCES

b)

The insertion of the FDD in the presence of DG units allows: i) Reduction of the fault current in each node of the network, thus avoiding the replacement of the different components of the system; ii) Increase in the PCC voltage of the substation to the rated value and, consequently, to mitigate the voltage dip caused by a fault; iii) Increase in the voltage at the DG unit node, thus avoiding undesired disconnections due to the undervoltage relay. IV. CONCLUSIONS This paper presents the review of different schemes used in mitigation of voltage dips through DG deployment. It also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme. Some of the schemes reviewed are series compensation, transfer to microgrid operation, converter-based DG units, synchronous and asynchronous generators, use of voltage source converter as front end, DSTATCOM compensators with distributed energy resources (DERS) and so on. Most of these schemes have been able to quickly recover the grid voltage after the voltage dips. Besides, consumers might use their own gadgets for solving the problem of voltage dips at their premises. At a very low voltage, voltage dip mitigation equipment such as voltage stabilizer can be used to deal with voltage dip. In this case, no

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VII

BIOGRAPHIES

O. Ipinnimo received his B.Eng and M.Sc degree in electrical and electronics engineering in 2000 and 2004 respectively. He is a member of Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE). He is presently lecturing at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Email: femiipinnimo@yahoo.com S. Chowdhury received her BEE and PhD in 1991 and 1998 respectively. She was connected to M/S M.N.Dastur & Co. Ltd as Electrical Engineer from 1991 to 1996. She served Women‟s Polytechnic, Kolkata, India as Senior Lecturer from 1998 to 2006. She is currently the Senior Research Officer in the Electrical Engineering Department of The University of Cape Town, South Africa. She became member of IEEE in 2003. She visited Brunel University, UK and The University of Manchester, UK several times on collaborative research programme. She has published two books and over 55 papers mainly in power systems. She is a Member of the IET (UK) and IE(I) and Member of IEEE(USA). Email: sunetra.chowdhury@uct.ac.za S. P. Chowdhury received his BEE, MEE and PhD in 1987, 1989 and 1992 respectively. In 1993, he joined E.E.Deptt. of Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India as Lecturer and served till 2008 in the capacity of Professor. He is currently Associate Professor in Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. He became IEEE member in 2003. He visited Brunel University, UK and The University of Manchester, UK several times on collaborative research programme. He has published two books and over 110 papers mainly in power systems and renewable energy. He is a fellow of the IET (UK) with C.Eng. IE (I) and the IETE (I) and Member of IEEE (USA). He is a member of Knowledge Management Board and Council of the IET (UK).Email: sp.chowdhury@uct.ac.za