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**miles MULTIPLY BY LENGTH in ft yd mi in2 ft
**

2 2

APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI / METRIC UNITS TO STANDARD / US CUSTOMARY UNITS TO FIND SYMBOL millimeters mm meters m meters m kilometers km WHEN YOU KNOW SYMBOL mm millimeters mmeters mmeters km kilometers mm2 millimeters square meters m square meters m ha hectares square kilometers km2

2 2

Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman, 13.5 pt, Font color: Custom Color(RGB(102,0,153))

MULTIPLY BY LENGTH 0.039 3.28 1.09 0.621 AREA

TO FIND inches feet yards miles

SYMBOL in ft yd mi in2 ft2 yd2 ac mi2

25.4 0.305 0.914 1.61 AREA

square inches square feet square yard acres square miles

645.2 0.093 0.836 0.405 2.59 VOLUME

square millimeters mm2 squarem meters squarem meters hectares ha square kilometers km2 milliliters mL liters L cubic m3 meters cubic m3 meters grams g kilograms kg megagrams (or Mg (or "metric ton") "t")

o 2 2

0.0016 10.764 1.195 2.47 0.386 VOLUME

square inches square feet square yards acres square miles

yd

ac mi2

fl oz gal ft3 yd3 oz lb T

fluid ounces gallons cubic feet cubic yards ounces pounds short tons (2000 lb)

29.57 3.785 0.028 0.765 MASS 28.35 0.454 0.907 TEMPERATURE

mL milliliters L liters cubic meters m3 cubic meters m3 g grams kg kilograms Mg megagrams (or "t") (or "metric ton")

0.034 0.264 35.314 1.307 MASS 0.035 2.202 1.103 TEMPERATURE

fluid ounces gallons cubic feet cubic yards ounces pounds short tons (2000 lb)

fl oz gal ft3 yd3 oz lb T

o

F

Fahrenheit

(F-32) x 5 / 9 or (F-32) / 1.8 ILLUMINATION 10.76 3.426

**C Celsius lx cd/m2 lux candela/m N newtons kPa kilopascals
**

2

Celsius o C lux

1.8C + 32 ILLUMINATION 0.0929

Fahrenheit foot-candles

o

F

fc fl lbf lbf/in2

fc fl

foot-candles foot-Lamberts

**FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS lbf lbf/in
**

2

candela/m2 0.2919 foot-Lamberts lx FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS 2 cd/m newtons 0.225 poundforce kilopascals N kPa 0.145 poundforce per square inch

poundforce poundforce per square inch

4.45 6.89

Physics Branches Here is a list of main physics branches, along with a summary of what is studied in that particular branch. Every branch of physics is further divided into smaller sub-branches. As explained before, every one of these branches except mathematical physics, has an experimental and theoretical subdivision. The classification of these branches is artificial and they overlap onto each other, to create further specialized fields. Classical Mechanics This is the oldest branch of physics which analytically describes motion of all objects on the

macroscopic scales. It describes everything from, why large objects like balls bounce, why pendulum swings to why planets revolve around the Sun! It describes 'mechanics' of all kinds on the large scale and its classical, because it cannot explain motion at atomic level. Fluid mechanics is one specialized sub-branch of classical mechanics, which describes the physics of all types of fluids. Mathematical Physics This is the branch of physics, which gives theoretical physics its tools of analysis. Mathematics is the language of nature and therefore if one wants to understand nature, one must understand mathematics. Mathematics brings precision to physics. It is the branch which is an overlap of pure mathematics and physics. Mathematical physics techniques form the toolbox of a physicist. Just like a workman must use the right kind of tools to get his job done, so must a physicist use the right mathematical tools to solve a problem! The more and more deeply we explore nature, every new law discovered can only be expressed in a new form of mathematics. Classical Electrodynamics This field is the most broadly applied of all the physics branches. Classical electrodynamics is based on Maxwell's laws of electromagnetism, which describes all kinds of electromagnetic phenomena from atomic to global scales. It is the theoretical basis of optics, telecommunication and many other subfields. Its domain extends over all of nature, as the 'Electromagnetic Force' is all pervading and we live in an electromagnetic world. Quantum Mechanics This branch describes a new kind of mechanics, which can explain phenomena at the sub-atomic level, which classical mechanics fails to describe. It provides the clearest picture of nature at the sub-atomic scales. Quantum physics, is based on the principle of uncertainty, and predicts all phenomena in terms of probabilities. It describes a weird sub-atomic world, which is totally different from the world at macroscopic scales. Studying quantum physics requires quite a bit of mathematical expertise and it is the theoretical basis of all branches, that describe phenomena at atomic or sub-atomic scales. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Thermodynamics and statistical physics is one of the core physics branches, which gives a theoretical mechanism to describe the motion of and phenomena in multi-particle systems. Even though a single particle motion can be analyzed by quantum mechanics, it cannot describe multi-particle systems analytically, as the variables of calculation there are too many. So, a statistical approach is needed that describes motion of matter in bulk. Thermodynamics is a predecessor of statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanics combined with quantum mechanics, forms quantum statistical mechanics. Condensed Matter Physics Condensed Matter Physics is a sub-branch of quantum physics and statistical mechanics, which describes all phenomena that occur in matter, which is in condensed form. This includes everything from liquids, solid and gases. The physics of semiconductor devices, which make today's age of information technology possible, is a result of research developments in condensed matter physics. It describes all phenomena in bulk matter like ferromagnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. Nuclear Physics Nuclear physics describes all the phenomena that occur at the level of the atomic nucleus. It deals with and explains phenomena like radioactivity, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Developments in nuclear physics led to the production of nuclear weapons like the atom bomb, the Hydrogen bomb and made nuclear energy source available to mankind. Quantum Field theory

This is the physics which describes the physics of particles, which are very small and very fast. It is also known as particle physics. It is based on the three theoretical foundations of quantum mechanics, special theory of relativity and the concept of fields. It is based on the unification of all these three foundations and it describes the physics of fundamental particles of matter. It is one of the most difficult physics branches, which describe the ultimate building blocks of nature. Non-Linear Dynamics This is a sub-field of classical mechanics, which solves the problems on macroscopic scales, which cannot be solved by classical mechanics. It is an advanced branch of mathematics, which attempts to solve non-linear differential equations of motion, which are not amenable to a solution by conventional techniques. A greater part of it is also known as 'Chaos Theory', which delves in to the organized chaos that exists in the macroscopic world. It is the most happening branch of physics currently. Astronomy and Astrophysics Astronomy is the observational study of the universe in all its manifestations and astrophysics (a confluence of all other branches), is the theoretical basis, which can explain all those phenomena. It is the most all encompassing of all the physics branches, which has a singular goal of explaining every phenomenon that occurs in the universe. General Theory of Relativity and Cosmology The general theory of relativity is the correct theory, which describes gravitation at all scales. It interprets gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of space-time. Space around massive objects actually gets warped and bent. Gravity is the result of this warping of space time. Special relativity unifies space and time in to 'Spacetime' and general relativity makes 'Spacetime' interact with matter. How much space warps, depends on the content of matter and energy in it. In simple words, general relativity is described by, 'Matter tells space how to bend, space tells matter how to move!'

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