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What Is Electricity? Electricity is a form of energy that starts with atoms.

Atoms are too small to see, but they make up everything around us. An atom has three tiny parts: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The center of the atom has at least one proton and one neutron. At least one electron travels around the center of the atom at great speed. Electricity can be created by forcing electrons to flow from atom to atom. How Electricity Is Generated Most electricity used in the United States is produced at power plants. Various energy sources are used to turn turbines. The spinning turbine shafts turn electromagnets that are surrounded by heavy coils of copper wire inside generators. This creates a magnetic field, which causes the electrons in the copper wire to move from atom to atom. How Electricity Travels Electricity leaves the power plant and is sent over highpower transmission lines on tall towers. The very strong electric current from a power plant must travel long distances to get where it is needed. Electricity loses some of its strength (voltage) as it travels, so it must be helped along by transformers, which boost or ―step up‖ its power. When electricity gets closer to where it will be used, its voltage must be decreased. Different kinds of transformers at utility substations do this job, ―stepping down‖ electricity‘s power. Electricity then travels on overhead or underground distribution wires to neighborhoods. When the distribution wires reach a home or business, another transformer reduces the electricity down to just the right voltage to be used in appliances, lights, and other things that run on electricity.

A cable carries the electricity from the distribution wires to the house through a meter box. The meter measures how much electricity the people in the house use. From the meter box, wires run through the walls to outlets and lights. The electricity is always waiting in the wires to be used. Electricity travels in a circuit. When you switch on an appliance, you complete the circuit. Electricity flows along power lines to the outlet, through the power cord into the appliance, then back through the cord to the outlet and out to the power lines again. Electricity travels fast (186,000 miles per second). If you traveled that fast, you could travel around the world eight times in the time it takes to turn on a light! And if you had a lamp on the moon wired to a switch in your bedroom, it would take only 1.26 seconds after you flipped the switch for electricity to light the lamp 238,857 miles away! How Electricity Is Measured Volts, amps, and watts measure electricity. Volts measure the ―pressure‖ under which electricity flows. Amps measure the amount of electric current. Watts measure the amount of work done by a certain amount of current at a certain pressure or voltage. To understand how they are related, think of water in a hose. Turning on the faucet supplies the force, which is like the voltage. The amount of water moving through the hose is like the amperage. You would use lots of water that comes out really hard (like a lot of watts) to wash off a muddy car. You would use less water that comes out more slowly (like less watts) to fill a glass. 1 watt = 1 amp multiplied by 1 volt 1 amp = 1 watt divided by 1 volt

Most electricity in the United States is generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Some production is done with alternative fuels like geothermal energy, wind power, biomass, solar energy, or fuel cells. The electricity you buy may be generated using one or more of these methods. No matter what fuels produce the electricity you use, your lights shine, your radio plays, and your computer runs in the same way.

Hydropower Hydroelectric plants use the power of falling water to turn the turbines that help generate electricity. Water stored behind a dam is released and directed through special tubes to flow against the blades of turbines and make them turn. Hydropower provides about 10 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. The most famous hydroelectric facility in the country is Hoover Dam.

Fossil Fuels The majority of electricity used in the United States is generated from power plants that burn fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas) to heat water and make steam. The highly pressurized steam is directed at the blades of turbines to make them spin. Coal, oil, and natural gas are known as fossil fuels because they were formed from the fossilized remains of animals or plants that lived long ago. Even before the dinosaurs, these plants and animals died and settled to the bottom of lakes and oceans to be covered over by sand and mud. Over millions of years, the earth‘s pressure and heat converted their remains into coal, oil, and natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground at large mines. Coal is used to generate about half of the electricity used in the United States. Natural gas and oil are obtained through wells drilled deep in the earth. Natural gas is used to generate about 10 percent of the electricity used in the United States, and oil is used to generate about 2 percent of electricity used in the United States Nuclear Power Nuclear power plants use the heat from splitting atoms to convert water into the steam that turns turbines. These plants rely on uranium, a type of metal that must be mined from the ground and specially processed. Fuel rods containing uranium are placed next to each other in a machine called a nuclear reactor. The reactor causes the uranium atoms to split and in so doing, they release a tremendous amount of heat.

Geothermal Energy Steam (or hot water converted to steam) from under the ground is used to turn turbines. Wind Power The force of the wind is used to spin many small turbines. Most wind power is produced from wind farms — large groups of turbines located in consistently windy locations.

Biomass Biomass is organic matter, such as agricultural wastes and wood chips and bark left over when lumber is produced. Biomass can be burned in an incinerator to heat water to make steam, which turns a turbine to make electricity. It can also be converted into a gas, which can be burned to do the same thing. Solar Energy Solar energy is generated without a turbine or electromagnet. Special panels of photovoltaic cells capture light from the sun and convert it directly into electricity. The electricity is stored in a battery. Fuel Cells Fuel cells produce electricity through a chemical reaction.

high-voltage transmission lines High-voltage transmission lines are used to transmit electric power over relatively long distances, usually from a central generating station to main substations. They are also used for electric power transmission from one central station to another for load sharing. High voltage (HV) transmission lines are made of high voltage (between 138 and 765 kilovolts) overhead and underground conducting lines of either copper or aluminum. One of the key concerns in transmission of electricity is power loss in transmission lines (called line loss or transmission loss), dissipated as heat due to the resistance of the conductors. The smaller the surface area of the conductors, the smaller the loss to heat dissipation. High voltages require less surface area, resulting in reduced line loss. With high-voltage lines, the voltage can be stepped up at the generating station, transmitted through the transmission grid to a load center, and there stepped down to the lower transmission line, transmission system, distribution lineTransmission line can refer either to a single cable carrying electricity over a transmission system, or to the physical path travelled by electricity on its way from producer to consumer. Transmission line and distribution line are sometimes used interchangeably, but a distribution line is normally considered to be a line that carries less than 69,000 volts and is used to distribute power drawn from high-voltage transmission systems to end-use customers. Transmission lines may occasionally low voltage, notably lines used in networks that serve sparsely-populated areas. distribution Refers to the process of transporting energy from transmission systems to end-use customers. Transmission systems are somewhat like the interstate highway systems of the energy industry, conducting large amounts of energy along high-volume routes that intersect at strategic locations. Distribution systems are the off-ramps, feeder routes and sideroads. They carry electricity from highvoltage transmission networks to end-use customers. In some contexts, distribution is considered to be any transmission of energy on lines carrying less than 69,000 volts. Prior to deregulation, distribution was typically provided as part of a full package of services ranging from generation through to billing. Distribution is considered a separate service under deregulation, and distinct distribution companies, referred to as DISCOs, will eventually emerge as a competitive sector of this industry. Distribution companies will maintain everything from the feeders that tap high-voltage lines to substation transformers that convert this voltage to commercial or household voltage to the service drops that carry energy from power lines to residences and commercial sites. transmission voltage Refers to a high line voltage used on transmission systems. Transmission voltage varies depending on the system. While 69,000 volts is used as a standard figure, actual transmission voltages on a given system or subsystem can range upward of that figure to as high as 750,000 volts. network A cross-connected, multiple-access web of transmission and distribution lines, usually used in urban areas, which provides power to large numbers of customers and includes sufficient interconnection points to allow rapid rerouting of energy when demand or emergency conditions require it. Network is the term usually used to refer to regional or municipal distribution infrastructure; grid is more commonly applied to high-voltage transmission systems that feed these distribution systems.

mobile substation A portable structure or collection of substation equipment designed for use in situations when a permanent substation is out of service, for temporary installation at locations such as large construction sites, or for emergency backup. feeder An electrical line that feeds energy to the next level of distribution. A distribution feeder is an underground or overhead line connected to a transmission system which carries power into the distribution network where it is delivered to end-use customers.

1.1 Introduction to Electric Power Supply Systems
Electric power supply system in a country comprises of generating units that produce electricity; high voltage transmission lines that transport electricity over long distances; distributionlines that deliver the electricity to consumers; substations that connect the pieces to each other;and energy control centers to coordinate the operation of the components.The Figure 1.1 shows a simple electric supply system with transmission and distributionnetwork and linkages from electricity sources to end-user.
Figure 1.1

Figure 1.1 Typical Electric Power Supply Systems

Power Generation Plant The fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, nuclear energy, and falling water (hydel) are commonly used energy sources in the power generating plant. A wide and growing variety of unconventional generation technologies and fuels have also been developed, including cogeneration, solar energy, wind generators, and waste materials. About 70 % of power generating capacity in India is from coal based thermal power plants.The principle of coal-fired power generation plant is shown in Figure 1.2. Energy stored in thecoal is converted in to electricity in thermal power plant. Coal is pulverized to the consistencyof talcum powder. Then powdered coal is blown into the water wall boiler where it is burned at

temperature higher than 1300°C. The heat in the combustion gas is transferred into steam. This high-pressure steam is used to run the steam turbine to spin. Finally turbine rotates the generator to produce electricity.

Figure 1.2 Principle of Thermal Power Generation
In India, for the coal based power plants, the overall efficiency ranges from 28% to 35% depending upon the size, operational practices and capacity utilization. Where fuels are the source of generation, a common term used is the ―HEAT RATE‖ which reflects the efficiency of generation. ―HEAT RATE‖ is the heat input in kilo Calories or kilo Joules, for generating ‗one‘ kilo Watt-hour of electrical output. One kilo Watt hour of electrical energy being equivalentto 860 kilo Calories of thermal energy or 3600 kilo Joules of thermal energy. The ―HEATRATE‖ expresses in inverse the efficiency of power generation. Transmission and Distribution Lines The power plants typically produce 50 cycle/second(Hertz), alternating-current (AC) electricity with voltages between 11kV and 33kV. At the power plant site,the 3-phase voltage is stepped up to a higher voltage fortransmission on cables strung on cross-country towers.High voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV)transmission is the next stage from power plant totransport A.C. power over long distances at voltageslike; 220 kV & 400 kV. Where transmission is over 1000 kM, high voltage direct current transmission isalso favoured to minimize the losses. Sub-transmission network at 132 kV, 110 kV, 66 kVor 33 kV constitutes the next link towards the end user.Distribution at 11 kV / 6.6 kV / 3.3 kV constitutes thelast link to the consumer, who is connected directly orthrough transformers depending upon the drawl level of service. The transmission and distribution network include sub-stations, lines and distributiontransformers. High voltage transmission is used so that smaller, more economical wire sizes canbe employed to carry the lower current and to reduce losses. Sub-stations, containing step-downtransformers, reduce the voltage for distribution to industrial users. The voltage is furtherreduced for commercial facilities. Electricity must be generated, as and when it is needed sinceelectricity cannot be stored virtually in the system.There is no difference between a transmission line and a distribution line except for the voltagelevel and power handling capability. Transmission lines are usually capable of transmittinglarge quantities of electric energy over great distances.

They operate at high voltages.Distribution lines carry limited quantities of power over shorter distances.Voltage drops in line are in relation to the resistance and reactance of line, length and thecurrent drawn. For the same quantity of power handled, lower the voltage, higher the currentdrawn and higher the voltage drop. The current drawn is inversely proportional to the voltagelevel for the same quantity of power handled. The power loss in line is proportional to resistance and square of current. (i.e. PLOSS=I2R). Higher voltage transmission and distribution thus would help to minimize line voltage drop in the ratio of voltages, and the line power loss in the ratio of square of voltages. For instance, if distribution of power is raised from 11 kV to 33 kV, the voltage drop would be lower by a factor 1/3 and the line loss would be lower by a factor (1/3)2 i.e., 1/9. Lower voltage transmission and distribution also calls for bigger size conductor on account of current handling capacity needed.

Cascade Efficiency
The primary function of transmission and distribution equipment is to transfer power economicallyand reliably from one location to another. Conductors in the form of wires and cables strung on towers and poles carry the high-voltage, AC electric current. A large number of copper or aluminum conductors are used to form the transmission path. The resistance of the long-distance transmission conductors is to be minimized. Energy loss in transmission lines is wasted in the form of I2R losses. Capacitors are used to correct power factor by causing the current to lead the voltage. When the AC currents are kept in phase with the voltage, operating efficiency of the system is maintainedat a high level. Circuit-interrupting devices are switches, relays, circuit breakers, and fuses. Each of these devices is designed to carry and interrupt certain levels of current. Making and breaking the current

carrying conductors in the transmission path with a minimum of arcing is one of the most important characteristics of this device. Relays sense abnormal voltages, currents, and frequency and operate to protect the system. Transformers are placed at strategic locations throughout the system to minimize power losses in the T&D system. They are used to change the voltage level from low-to-high in stepup transformers and from high-to-low in step-down units. The power source to end user energy efficiency link is a key factor, which influences the energy input at the source of supply. If we consider the electricity flow from generation to the user in terms of cascade energy efficiency, typical cascade efficiency profile from generation to 11 – 33 kV user industry will be as below:

The cascade efficiency in the T&D system from output of the power plant to the end use is 87% (i.e. 0.995 x 0.99 x 0.975 x 0.96 x 0.995 x 0.95 = 87%)

Industrial End User
At the industrial end user premises, again the plant network elements like transformers at receiving sub-station, switchgear, lines and cables, load-break switches, capacitors cause losses, which affect the input-received energy. However the losses in such systems are meager and unavoidable. A typical plant single line diagram of electrical distribution system is shown in Figure .

ONE Unit saved = TWO Units Generated After power generation at the plant it is transmitted and distributed over a wide network. The standard technical losses are around 17 % in India (Efficiency = 83%). But the figures for many of the states show T & D losses ranging from 17 – 50 %. All these may not constitute technical losses, since un-metered and pilferage are also accounted in this loss. When the power reaches the industry, it meets the transformer. The energy efficiency of the transformer is generally very high. Next, it goes to the motor through internal plant distribution network. A typical distribution network efficiency including transformer is 95% and motor efficiency is about 90%. Another 30 % (Efficiency =70%)is lost in the mechanical system which includes coupling/ drive train, a driven equipment such as pump and flow control valves/throttling etc. Thus the overall energy efficiency becomes 50%. (0.83 x 0.95x 0.9 x 0.70 = 0.50, i.e. 50% efficiency) Hence one unit saved in the end user is equivalent to two units generated in the power plant. (1Unit / 0.5Eff = 2 Units)