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Mini grids in Sri Lanka: Regulatory issues

Ranjit Perera
University of Moratuwa Sri Lanka June 2012
June 2012 Ranjit Perera, 1

Need for mini-grids
• Irrespective of fast progressing Rural Electrification in Sri Lanka nearly 3% of the population will have no access to the national grid –Remote villages far away from the grid –Northern islands

June 2012

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Renewable options
• Villages in the hill country –Small hydro • Islands / villages in the dry zone 800kW , 55m, –Hybrid

2.3 m3/s,

Ambalampitiya village

June 2012

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Regulatory issues: Technical standards
• Cheap and unsafe constructions are common in the distribution arrangements • Standards formulated for urban areas are too stringent and also expensive • Standards different from main grid but appropriate for the mini grid environment are needed
June 2012 Ranjit Perera, 4

Regulatory issues: Tariff
• Consumers usually pay a monthly fixed charge • In addition payments in kind and labour • No metering; There are limitations imposed on the appliances in order to keep the maximum demand under control –Introduction of cheap meters –Tariff regulation
Juner 2012 Ranjit Perera, 5

June 2012
Consumed (kVA) 12.000 15.000 18.000 21.000 24.000 27.000 30.000 33.000 36.000 39.000 0.000 3.000 6.000

9.000

Load Varation

Time (hrs.)

Regulatory issues: Resource Utilization

• In a small system it is difficult to match the supply and demand

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00.00 00.30 01.00 01.30 02.00 02.30 03.00 03.30 04.00 04.30 05.00 05.30 06.00 06.30 07.00 07.30 08.00 08.30 09.00 09.30 10.00 10.30 11.00 11.30 12.00 12.30 01.00 01.30 02.00 02.30 03.00 03.30 04.00 04.30 05.00 05.30 06.00 06.30 07.00 07.30 08.00 08.30 09.00 09.30 10.00 10.30

Regulatory issues: Resource Utilization
• This leads to poor resource utilization –Introduction of cottage industries –Provisions for grid connection at a later stage –Feed in tariff through a suitably designed SPPA

June 2012

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Dispute Resolution
• Though a mini-grid brings people together to reach a common goal various disputes also emerge
–Certain groups are excluded from the benefits –Passengers in the team work –Sabotage by some
June 2012 Ranjit Perera, 8

Environmental Protection
• In case of mini-hydro people collectively volunteer to protect the catchment area
–Guidance for environment friendly designs –Simple mechanism to give credit for the curtailment of GHG emissions
June 2012 Ranjit Perera, 9

Thank You
April 2011 Ranjit Perera, Mini-hydro development in Sri Lanka 10