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ASIAN SECTOR - India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal The love of all things spicy was introduced to Britain as long ago as the Crusades, long before Europeans even realised that India existed. Indeed, Britain had three made-up spice mixes that were the equivalent to modern curry powder as long ago as 1310 so that master cooks could choose between 'powder douce', 'powder fort', and 'blanch powder' to liven up their creations. By 1612 when the English merchants were enjoying their first meal in Surat, English cuisine was already redolent with cumin, caraway, ginger, pepper, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg with spices available to all but the poor, since breaking the Arab monopoly. The 'heat' of ancient Indian cuisine came from black pepper, cardamom and cumin and it was the Portuguese in 1501 who first introduced chilli which is the hallmark of ethnic cuisine today. From 16th century onwards, travellers to India often returned to Britain accompanied by their Indian servants and thus started the first trickle of immigration. Such was the importance of India to Britain throughout 17th and 18th centuries that it was inevitable that returning merchants and soldiers would wish to recreate the spicy foods they enjoyed on their travels and commercial curry powder was featured in many cookery books from the 1780's onwards. Immigration People from the Indian sub-continent have been present in Britain on a regular basis since 18th century as servents and as travelling wealthy princes but were recorded in Scotland in 'considerable numbers' as long before as 1540. The main boom came in the 1950s with higher wages in British industry and cheaper travel from India. The main surge of Pakistani immigration was destined for the textile mills of West Yorkshire and Lancashire and engineering in the Midlands, boosted by the Voucher Scheme of 1962. Bangladeshis originally came to Britain as Bengalis - lascars for the East Indian Company - and the startling fact is that the large majority come from the same region Sylhet - with 80% being Muslim. By 2001 there were 1,053,411 Indians ; 747,285 Pakistanis ; and 283,063 Bangladeshis in Britain with an estimated growth by 2050 of 41% for Indians, 89% Pakistanis and 125% Bangladeshis. The result of this for Britain is not only a very rich multi-

cultural society occupying many professions but also the growth of an unrivalled catering and restaurant industry. Seventy eight per cent of Black Africans and 61 per cent of Black Caribbeans live in London. More than half of the Bangladeshi group (54 per cent) also live in London. Other ethnic minority groups are more dispersed. Only 19 per cent of Pakistanis reside in London, while 21 per cent live in the West Midlands, 20 per cent in Yorkshire and the Humber, and 16 per cent in the North West. MARKET STATISTICS AND DATA Curry in its many forms has evolved into a dietary mainstay in England, and its versatility offers potential to U.S. food processors interested in expanding their flavor portfolio, according to researchers representing Mintel International. "The national dish in the U.K. is curry," said David Jago, Mintel’s director of custom solutions who is based in the research firm’s London office. "It’s our most popular dish; it’s even better than fish and chips. We eat curry all the time." Curry may feature a range of spices, including cumin, turmeric, cloves, ginger, nutmeg and cinnamon. Its multi-ethnic flavor profile, including Indian and Asian, gives curry a platform for worldwide growth, said Lynn Dornblaser, director of Mintel’s Chicago office. In the United Kingdom, product launches involving curry accounted for 7.5% of all product launches from 2001-2007. Meats and meal centers made up 53% of the UK launches.

Number of 'Indian' Restaurants in UK Year 1960 1970 1980 1990 1996 1997 2000 2001 2004 2007 2009 2011 No. of restaurants 500 1200 3000 5100 7300 7600 7940 8432 (24% takeaway) 8750 9350(est) 9500 9400

Some 65% of restaurants are actually owned and run by Bangladeshis, most restaurants being south of the Midlands. Other cities such as Bradford, Manchester and Glasgow are mainly Pakistani, Kashmiri or Punjabi giving variations in style. Numbers have improved again after a brief period of plateauing as quality has improved and family-style units have closed. It was estimated that 170 million meals were served in 1997/8. The annual turnover of the Indian restaurant industry including drink is approx £3bn p.a. giving a total Indian Food & Drink sector annual turnover of over £3.5bn Location of Restaurants Area No. No 2002 UK population 30.5% 8.3% 3.6% 16.2% 8.6% 11.0% 5.3% 5.0% 8.8% 2.7%

London/South East 45.6% 45.9% South West East Anglia Midlands Yorks North West North Wales Scotland N.Ireland 6.5% 2.5% 6.7% 8.4% 3.0% 3.4% 6.6% 0.7% 6.1% 2.4% 6.8% 9.7% 2.8% 3.3% 6.4% 0.61%

16.4% 15.9%

There has been a marked growth in the number of covers per restaurant in the past five years such that actual numbers have been only growing at around 2% p.a. but total available covers over 10% p.a. The year 2000-2001 onwards, however, saw renewed growth in numbers. The Indian restaurant sector has been the success story of the second half of the last century, growing from near nothing to one of the biggest industries in Britain employing over 60,000 people. BRITAIN’S FAVORITE CURRIES Balti

Balti is a distinctive blend of tomatoes, onion, cumin and chilli. Baltis literal translation means ‘bucket’ - the container which was traditionally used for serving food at Southern Indian wedding banquets. Balti orginates from the North West Frontier of India. Ingredients: Turmeric, Coriander, Cumin, Fenugreek, Fennel, Cardamom, Onion, Nutmeg, Cinnamon, Celery, Cayenne pepper, Paprika, Dill.

Tomato&Tamarind The main ingredients in a Bhuna are tomatoes and onions, which are combined with spices. ‘Bhunao’ means to sauté slowly on a low flame. Bhuna is a cooking style that is popular in Punjab and the Northern regions of India. Tomato,Garlic,Ginger&Tamarind A rich, creamy tomato sauce, incorporating butter as its name suggests, with a distinctive chargrilled flavour - replicating the taste of the Tandoor (Indian clay oven) used in North Indian cooking. Tomato&Onion Dopiaza is a medium spiced tomato sauce, sweetened with onions. ‘Piaz’ is the Hindi word for onions and ‘Do’ means twice, hence Dopiaza is traditionally made with onions cooked in two different ways. Tamarind&Ginger Tandoori is the generic name for any marinated meat or vegetables that have been flavoured with spices and cooked in the Indian clay oven known as a ‘Tandoor’ which originated in Persia thousands of years ago. Indian breads such as roti and naan are also cooked in a tandoor. Ingredients marinated in tandoori paste have a vivid pinky/red colour.

Ingredients: Coriander, Salt, Fenugreek, Cumin, Cinnamon, Chillies, Black Pepper, Ginger, Onion, Garlic, Mustard, Bay Leaves, Nutmeg, Permitted Colour E124 & E102, Cirtic Acid, Cloves, Mace, Cardamoms. SweetPeppers&Coconut Jalfrezi is the delicious sauce that blends together tomatoes, spices, coconut and red peppers - it is the peppers that bring the sweetness to this dish. ‘Jal’ means spicy in Bengali and ‘Frezi’ means mix of vegetables. It has North Eastern origins.

Coconut&Almond With North Indian origins, Korma is a classic creamy Indian dish made with yogurt which was traditionally served in Royal Moghul households. The word ‘Korma’ literally means to braise.

Almond&Coconut A rich and creamy dish introduced to India by the great Moghul Emperors - ‘Pasanda’ means delicious pieces. It is a rich and creamy dish traditionally made using flattened pieces of lamb. It has a thick texture and is usually garnished with almonds.

Tomato&Cardamom A spicy red sauce flavoured with aromatic cardamom. ‘Rogan’ refers to the scented red oil found within the dish that comes from the use of Kashmiri Red Chillies and ‘Josh‘ means the life of the dish with is the aromatic meat and fragrant spices. The hallmark of this dish as cooked in Kashmir is the liberal use of the Kashmiri chilli - which is used for its colour rather than its heat.

Coriander&Lemon Chicken Tikka Masala is a dish that was created in the UK - blending ‘Tikka’ - the marinated chicken pieces which were cooked in a traditional Indian clay oven (Tandoor), in a ‘masala’ which is a blend of spices that have been cooked. For this particular dish it has a base of tomato and onion. Tomato&Coriander Madras is a region in Southern India which is famous for its hot & spicy food. This dish has strong cumin and fenugreek notes. Madras is now called Chennai. Ingredients: Coriander,Turmeric, Chilli,Mustard,Cumin,Pepper,Fenugreek,Garlic,Salt,Fennel Vindaloo Ingredients: Coriander, Chilli, Turmeric, Paprika, Salt, Cumin, Ginger, Garlic, Sugar, Cinnamon, Cloves, Black Pepper, Fennel, Cardamom, Nutmeg, Star Anise, Bay Leaves, Sunflower Oil.

Most Popular Dishes Dish Chicken Tikka Masala Chicken Jalfrezi Chicken Korma % 14.2 7.2 7.0

Meat Madras Chicken Dhansak Rogan Josh Tandoori Chicken Chicken Tikka Lamb Pasanda Chicken Makhani

6.5 6.0 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0

In 2010 the eating out market in UK was ££33.04 pence per person per week (a a fall in real terms 2007-2010 of 5.20%) as compared with the total beer market of £6.19 pppw. Sales of rice pasta and noodles in 2009 rose 3.3% compared with 2007. The total market for ethnic foods in UK in 2009 was £1.64bn an increase of 10% on previous year. In 2006 the estimated value of the retail Indian food market stood at £493.8 million. (Mintel). UK Indian foods market will grow by an estimated 6% to reach a value of £524.6 million at current prices by 2011.(Mintel)