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The magazine of CoastNet
Special issue 2:
The Marine Bill
Coastal visions from 2020 Marine spatial planning – Irish Sea Pilot Marine spatial planning – an international perspective Water Framework Directive and the Marine Bill
3 4 Editorial News Featuring the launch of CoastWeb, the unique, intelligent coastal and marine portal.
CoastNet – breathing new life into coastal matters
Back to the future Chair of CoastNet, Alex Midlen, provides two alternative visions from 2020 of how the coast and marine environments might be shaped depending on the decisions being taken now
Special issue 2: The Marine Bill
The edge is a quarterly magazine, sent out to all CoastNet members. CoastNet is an international networking organisation that works with all coastal interests to promote the exchange of ideas, information and expertise to find long term solutions to coastal problems that benefit all. Our mission is to safeguard the world’s coast and those communities of people and wildlife that depend upon it for their future.
Editor: Lesley Smeardon Lesley.firstname.lastname@example.org Designed by: Cottier & Sidaway Printed by: Gildenburgh Ltd Front cover photograph: Yvonne Bax in Maes et al (2005), A Flood of Space pp145 Submissions To submit an article for publication, please email to the editor saving your submission as a word document. Alternatively, send to the address below. Letters can be sent to the editor but we are unable to acknowledge receipt. The editor reserves the right to edit submissions.
on the Marine Bill.
Irish Sea Pilot The Irish Sea Pilot was commissioned by Defra to support the thinking and decisions of the Marine Bill. Jim Claydon, Technical Director of Terence O’Rourke the company providing expertise in spatial planning, looks at the project’s main findings.
10 Groundworks Erin Pettifer talks to Natasha Barker about the newly-formed Coastal Partnership Working Group
CoastNet: The Gatehouse, Rowhedge Wharf, High St, Rowhedge, Essex, CO5 7ET. Tel/Fax: 01206 728644 Email: email@example.com Web: www.coastnet.org.uk
CoastNet is governed by an independent Board of Management and serviced by a Secretariat. Registered charity no 1055763 Registered as a company limited by guarantee, company no 3204452 The opinions expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of CoastNet. © CoastNet, 2006
12 Marine spatial planning – an international perspective Frank Maes from the Maritime Institute at Ghent University discusses the GAUFRE project, a spatial planning study for the Belgium part of the North Sea.
14 Water Framework Directive and the Marine Bill How might the Water Framework Directive interact with the Marine Bill and where are the overlaps or points of issue? Christa Upjohn takes a stab at joined-up thinking.
16 CoastNet events
2 The Edge Summer 2006 2 The edge Summer 2006
In last issue’s editorial I expressed my fear that the coast would be left virtually invisible in the development of both marine and terrestrial spatial policy. This notion has provoked some reaction and has led me to think more about what might happen in the future, given trends which we see evident today.
Futures thinking is a powerful basis for strategy and policy development. The development of different possible scenarios and the consideration of their practical implications can give a valuable depth of insight into the likely impacts of one policy option over another. CoastNet used futures thinking in its 2003 internal review, and identified two critical axes of uncertainty in relation to coastal sustainability: 1 the nature of governance, ranging from strong but topdown, through bottom-up and enabling, to market-led development with little government intervention 2 the public’s attitude to the coast, ranging from a strong interest in its sustainable future and consequent high level of engagement in governance, to a high degree of complacency and lack of engagement. These critical uncertainties still provide a valid analytical framework in relation to the Marine Bill and the possible futures that will result depending on its final form. I have explored them to some degree in two imaginary reviews of the success of the Marine Bill as seen from the year 2020 (see p6-7). They are challenging and controversial perspectives, and
Alex Midlen, Chair of CoastNet
are meant to be. The Marine Bill and ICZM strategy are the basis for a new comprehensive national policy. I fear that government will fail to embrace the complexity of the situation on the coast as the basis for a radical restructuring of policy and regulatory functions to achieve a single strategic perspective across the land/sea interface. The Water Framework Directive embodies this principle, but the prospect of a dual spatial policy system for the coast does not bode well for the future.
The edge Summer 2006
N ew s
CoastNet Futures Group inaugural meeting set for July
A group of coastal and marine experts representing specialist areas and themes will come together on 12 July for the inaugural meeting of the CoastNet Futures Group, a research-based think tank set up to think beyond the short term and examine radical alternatives to mainstream thinking. Its aim is to support the debate on coastal sustainability in the UK, Europe and beyond through: ● identifying emerging issues for coastal sustainability ● maintaining a rolling work programme in relation to research reports ● ensuring that research findings and outputs are communicated widely to coastal professionals and the wider public ● providing ‘thought leadership’ in the development of coastal policy ● engaging appropriate expertise in each research project. The July meeting will be used to set the agenda for the Group, its structure and composition and to develop ongoing themes and issues. Once established, meetings will be held once or twice a year. Further information regarding themes, agenda and the Group’s members will be available from the CoastNet website in due course. For interim information please contact Theresa Redding at firstname.lastname@example.org
Also in the news
q Offshore wind at critical crossroads – A new report from the British Wind Energy Association concludes that offshore wind could provide six per cent of the UK’s electricity supply by 2015 if given more policy backing from the state. Without it, the report claims only 25 per cent of this capacity will be delivered. Source: www.edie.net
q Japan buys votes to take control of whaling body – Japan has succeeded in buying the votes that will give it control of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in a major step towards bringing back commercial hunting of whales. Source: The Independent Online
Partnership Forum All Party gets to grips with Parliamentary ICZM Group (APPG) This year’s Forum was a well attended news and enjoyable day with lively
discussions throughout. Sessions centred around the consultation document for ICZM recently prepared by Defra with a specific focus on the role of Partnerships. There was also discussion and feedback on the proposed ICZM Options report by Halcrow for the Environment Agency and some ideas for an alternative Option emerged. Presentations and the report from this workshop will be placed on the CoastNet website and the online library at CoastWeb. The recently set up Coastal Partnerships Working Group was also discussed at this Forum and further details can be found in Groundworks on page 11. The next meeting of the APPG on coastal and marine issues is set for 11 October 2006. Among the attendees will be Ian Pearson, Minister of State for Climate Change and the Environment. Themes for the meeting are yet to be determined but it is very likely that the Marine Bill and other marine policy issues will be on the agenda. Check out the CoastNet website for further information when it becomes available.
q Polluting companies pay the price for fish deaths – Companies across England and Wales were fined and charged more than £100,000 by magistrate courts in April and May for pollution incidents which killed more than 5,000 fish. The prosecutions were brought by the Environment Agency. Source: www.fishupdate.com/news
q New species of hammerhead shark found in US waters – A new species of hammerhead shark has been discovered in the northwestern Atlantic off the coast of South Carolina. The shark, which resembles a common species called the scalloped hammerhead, has yet to be classified or named. Source: The Independent Online
If you wish to join the APPG or attend the October meeting, please contact Theresa Redding at email@example.com
The edge Summer 2006
N ew s
Expand your horizons with the launch of CoastWeb – the unique, intelligent coastal and marine portal – www.coastweb.info
June 29 saw the launch of a new and innovative coastal and marine portal, CoastWeb by CoastNet in conjunction with the EU project, Corepoint. For the first time, coastal and marine professionals will be given an online, dynamic resource that not only stores information but intelligently links this to other internal sources and to external sites. Aimed at everyone with an interest in coastal and marine issues, the site promises to cut information searches from hours to minutes with the use of its innovative web technology.
The uniqueness of the site comes from the way CoastWeb’s technology links information, making crossthematic connections without users specifying this in their initial search. In this way, users are able to broaden their knowledge base in what would otherwise be a complex and unconnected mass of coastal and marine information. The site is also interactive with users being able to add their own information through a free registration process, adding to the site’s ever-increasing knowledge base. CoastWeb is a multi-phased project. Currently the site hosts an online library of information and provides an automated news service but additional features such as a local search facility is planned for Phase II. Alex Midlen, Chair of CoastNet said of CoastWeb: “Like many sectors, the coastal and marine community suffers from information-overload
with no central place to access such information. CoastWeb is a userfriendly, accessible site that has such enormous potential to provide an allin-one, dynamic coastal and marine resource. Now it’s up to the coastal
and marine community to ensure the site fulfils this huge potential by adding their own documents and building a great resource for themselves and the rest of the community. ”
Check out the site and REGISTER NOW – IT’S FREE
Let CoastNet know how you find the site. Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org
The edge Summer 2006
Back to the future
How might the Marine Bill affect the coastal and marine future in England and Wales? Alex Midlen takes a trip to 2020 and reviews the Bill’s success through two imaginary alternate visions.
15 years in the future
he use of scenario development to offer insight into the future impacts of current trends or decisions is well established, and has been embraced by government in its foresight initiatives. In 2003 CoastNet identified two key axes of uncertainty in coastal futures: ● Nature of governance – from strong but top-down through to enabling and market-led development with little government intervention.
Public attitudes to the coast – from a strong interest in its sustainable future and engagement in governance to a high level of complacency and lack of engagement.
These uncertainties provide a valid framework in which to explore the Marine Bill and the possible futures that will result depending on its final form. Take a trip to 2020 and two possible articles from The edge summer edition….
15 years in the future
Marine spatial planning
The Irish Sea Pilot
Jim Claydon, Technical Director at Terence O’Rourke reviews the key findings from the Irish Sea Pilot
In December 2004 Defra commissioned a team led by ABPmer (Associated British Ports Marine Environment Research) to produce a pilot marine spatial plan, as a prelude to the production of the Marine Bill. The study included research into While there are good examples of marine planning in other parts of the world none appears to be as comprehensive in nature as that proposed in the UK and neither do they deal with such intensively-used waters as those around our coast (see Maps 1 and 2). The study envisaged a potential statutory system dealing both with conservation and development pressures. The purpose of producing a pilot marine spatial plan was to develop both the process of plan making and to provide an example of what a marine spatial plan would contain. The plan
he Marine Bill consultation document covers an array of policy and management issues, but central to the potential legislation is the proposal to introduce a system of marine spatial planning (MSP). No such system currently exists in the UK or a directly comparable system anywhere in the world. The ideas in the consultation document draw heavily on a piece of work piloted on the Irish Sea and reported on in this article. The need and importance of planning for the future of the marine environment is reflected in the fact that our seas produce a turnover of more than £100 billion/year but also contain unique habitats contributing to the biodiversity of Europe’s north west coast. At the same time the demands of the traditional industries of fishing, shipping, aggregate extraction and recreational use grow steadily while new exploitation for fuel exploration, energy generation, pipelines and laying cables are on the increase. It is surprising then that there is no overall planning of marine projects and limited consideration of the long term. Marine environments are, as a consequence, under threat and investors lack certainty. This presents a clear opportunity to introduce some rationalisation through spatial planning.
elsewhere in the world, a review of national and international marine policy and a review of the planning systems and policies of adjoining regions and devolved administrations in the UK. Terence O’Rourke’s (TOR) contribution was to provide the expertise in spatial planning.
Nowhere is the pressure on the marine environment more evident than in this usage map of the Irish Sea (Map 2). Map 1 clearly shows the geographical coverage of the study area. However, once the 15 industries that lay claim to the sea and coast are plotted out on the area, their collective demands subsume the open water demonstrating just how intensively-used are the waters around the UK and Irish Coast. Uses represented on the map are: landuse; tourism; oil and gas; mariculture; coastal defence; ports & navigation; military activities; culture; conservation; dredging & disposal; submarine cables; fishing; renewable energy; marine recreation and mineral extraction.
The edge Summer 2006
‘….our seas produce a turnover of more than £100 billion/year but also contain unique habitats contributing to the biodiversity of Europe’s north west coast.’
needed to confront some of the present difficulties facing decision making in marine environments. The aim was to devise a process that would deliver sustainable development, be both strategic and integrated, implement national and international policy and promote transparent governance; all the things that the current disparate approach doesn’t deliver. The Regulatory Impact Assessment undertaken by RSA (Risk and Policy Analysts) uncovered some stark examples of costs that are currently incurred as a result of a lack of
planning. For example an estimated £636m worth of marine aggregates are sterilised by cables laid in the Eastern English Channel, while elsewhere examples of wind farms and gas pipelines allowed without due consideration of other potential uses are identified. The Irish Sea Pilot Regional Plan is a document that integrates policy across sectors, responds to a hierarchy of policies set at national and international levels, and addresses changing needs in the future. The plan is the tool that sets the policy framework for undertaking
marine spatial planning that is assumed to be a process of on-going decision making. The contents of the Irish Sea Pilot Plan include: ● The policy context and objectives ● Data and mapped information ● A spatial framework and zoning plan ● Policy statements and targets ● Implementation, monitoring and review. The spatial allocation element is based on an assumption that existing uses will continue in current locations that reflect the rights presently assigned to particular uses. It is important to recognise that in marine environments multiple use is the norm and that extensive conflict management/ avoidance is already in place. To demonstrate how future allocations might be made, a limited number of future uses were zoned by sieve mapping to identify the best non-conflicting locations. It is important to emphasise that these zones do not necessarily represent exclusive use by one particular activity, but the preferred use where conflicts require determination. In arriving at its recommendations the consultants considered a variety of issues including the question of whether the plan should be statutory and binding or whether it should be for the purposes of
The edge Summer 2006
MSP Irish Sea Pilot Recommendations
● Marine spatial planning should be implemented as a statutory system with the purpose of achieving sustainable development of the marine environment ● MSP should be implemented at a regional scale ● The Marine Management Organisation should be the guardian of the planning and management process ● SEA and public participation should be integrated within the marine spatial planning and management process ● Plans should be for a period of 20 years ● A Marine Spatial Plan Framework and Scheme should be established to provide a mechanism for coordinating the production and content of other marinerelated plans ● Regional subsidiary plans should be developed in appropriate circumstances ● Marine Spatial Plans should be used to identify preferred locations for future development activity for specific sectors. However such allocations are unlikely to be appropriate for all sectors ● The SEA process for MSP should be used to collect additional data to reduce key uncertainties in plan policies
guidance only. Related to this was the question of whether areas should be zoned for specific exclusive use, and how practical this might be to enforce or whether the plan was more for management purposes. While the pilot study did not directly examine the proposal for a new marine management organisation the question of what body would carry out such functions was of key importance. The scale at which a marine plan should be drawn up was at the heart of the examination while the team also introduced the idea that there may be a need for subsidiary plans at a lower level to deal with detailed issues. Equally important was the time period for which the plan would be devised and the availability of sufficient data upon which to base policies. Finally it was thought to be important to demonstrate how the marine planning system would integrate with adjoining
terrestrial plans, particularly at the coastal interface. The project team concluded that Marine Spatial Planning could deliver an integrated approach to sustainable development which deals with future use allocations, delivers an ecosystem based approach, is adaptive over time and increases certainty for investment decisions by developers and governments. The recommendations of the project are listed in the lefthand box.
All documents produced as part of the project can be viewed on the website www.abpmer.co.uk The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author alone.
The edge Summer 2006
A regular look at the work of coastal partnerships
Coastal Partnerships Working Group
In existence since the early 1990s, coastal partnerships throughout the UK have been at the forefront of delivering Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). Despite their excellent work, they are now facing a funding crisis and we are seeing their rapid demise all over the country. Those partnerships responsible for the coastline from Suffolk to Kent for example, look likely to see a 60% reduction in staffing by October 2006. By April 2007, the original 17 staff may have diminished to just 3. Now, more than ever, coastal partnerships need to work together and support one another. Here, Erin Pettifer talks to Natasha Barker, Severn Estuary Officer, about the new Coastal Partnerships Working Group she has set up (with support from CoastNet) and which could provide just the support and coordination needed. the work of coastal partnerships.
What was covered at the first working group meeting and what are the next steps?
Core issues were discussed including the potential role and immediate activities of the working group. There was unanimous agreement that such a group is urgently needed and that it should be endorsed by coastal partnerships nationally as soon as possible. The Coastal Partnerships Forum run by CoastNet in June 2006 formally endorsed the group and agreed that the draft Terms of reference should be adopted. Forum delegates also elected the Chair and Secretary.
It is important that coastal partnerships officers get involved in the annual Coastal Partnerships Forum organised by CoastNet, as the working group will report to this every year and use it as a way to gain wider consensus on issues for subsequent years. Lastly, this working group is run by partnerships for partnerships. Its success relies upon the support of officers throughout the country. Instead of officers having to continue to work in isolation we now have a method to work together and support one another, which will deliver massive joint learning and practical benefits.
What does the working group mean for coastal partnerships?
The group will enable more regular liaison between coastal partnership officers, which will help develop consensus on issues and input into policy development. It will also provide an ongoing support mechanism for coastal partnership officers, who often work in isolation. Comparing approaches and sharing tools will work to strengthen the quality of service delivered by coastal partnerships.
Contacts for further information
For further details about anything discussed here please contact one of the group’s elected members, see below: Chair: Natasha Barker, email@example.com Vice-Chair TBC Secretary: Tracey Hewett firstname.lastname@example.org Organisations presently in the Working group: Severn Estuary Partnership; CoastNet; Durham Heritage Coast; Dorset Coastal Forum; Thames Estuary Partnership; Solent Forum; Dart Estuary Environmental Management; Sefton Council; Essex Estuaries Initiative; North West Coastal Forum.
How did the working group come about and what are its main objectives?
As an estuary partnership officer since 1998 I recognised the need for a working group as there was no current English network to share experiences and raise recognition of the work of coastal partnerships. After seeking the views and feedback of other partnership officers I set up the first meeting of the group in May this year. With the Marine Bill consultation and the consultation on Defra’s ICZM Strategy this is a critical time for policy development in the marine and coastal sector. It is essential that partnerships are in a position to formulate a collaborative response and that they have a stronger voice into Government. The opportunity presented by the Marine Bill must be used to ensure a statutory underpinning for ICZM and therefore
As a partnership officer, how can I get involved?
The group has set up a trial email discussion group. If this is successful it will be widened to include any coastal partnerships that are interested. The more people who use the discussion group, the greater will be the depth of experience and ideas to share with others. At the Forum I also invited people to contact me if they are particularly keen to sit on the working group.
CoastNet will help to support the working group, developing a comprehensive list of coastal partnership contacts for the group’s use and distributing information for them. CoastNet will also look to expand their ‘Good Practice in ICZM’ directory for the portal. There will also continue to be a regular page in The Edge devoted entirely to the work of coastal partnerships.
The edge Summer 2006
Marine spatial planning
An international perspective
Frank Maes from the Maritime Institute at Ghent University discusses GAUFRE – a spatial planning study for the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS)
here is much experience with spatial planning on land, but once land reaches the waterline this planning stops in many countries. For too long people have considered the sea as an endless space in which there is plenty of room for sea and land activities. Past activities were mainly planned on an ad-hoc basis, looking for areas that did not interfere with already existing activities at sea and ignoring the ecological important land-sea
In 2003 a study on spatial planning for the BPNS called GAUFRE or ‘Towards a Spatial Structure Plan for Sustainable Management of the Sea’ was funded by the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The process, procedure and methodology underlying the preparation of the marine spatial plan were set as one of the main objectives. Another objective was to produce several scenarios and proposals for a marine spatial plan, rather than one finished structure plan for the BPNS. The outcomes were intended to provide a starting point for discussion on forms of decisionmaking and public participation. Three main steps have been taken that can be broadly described as the analysis, the interaction and the integration phase before introducing visions and scenarios.
The analysis phase provided a description of geological, biological and ecological parameters linked to homogeneous zones that integrate a whole array of environmental factors. BPNS infrastructure was studied and described, as well as the environment and actual uses (historic, current and future). The relationships between infrastructure and uses were then analysed in terms of legislation, spatial delineation and intensity, and their interaction with the environment and other uses. Data was entered into a GIS system to create a database of layered marine environmental information. The resulting images of spatial delineation and, where possible, intensity, formed the basis for the subsequent phases.
interactions, the ecosystems and habitats and the needs of the coastal population. In the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS), with its coastline of 65 km and a total sea area of 3,600 km2, many activities are taking place and competition for space among users is fierce. It is becoming increasingly urgent to take a more integrated approach to planning and management of this part of the marine environment.
Origins of marine spatial planning
The trigger for marine spatial planning (MSP) at European level primarily came about as a result of the Natura 2000 networks and the Bergen Declaration of the 5th International Ministerial Conference on the Protection of the North Sea in 2002. The Natura 2000 networks have their roots in the EC Birds Directive (1979), providing a framework for the identification and classification of special protected areas for rare, vulnerable or regularly occurring migratory species, and in the EC Habitats Directive (1992) requiring member states to select, designate and protect sites that support certain natural habitats or species of plants or animals. In order to prevent and resolve potential ecological problems, Ministers of the North Sea states agreed in the Bergen Declaration to strengthen co-operation in respect of spatial issues in the marine environment of the North Sea. The 2002 EU recommendation concerning the implementation of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) identifies marine spatial planning as an important tool to achieve ICZM. The EU Marine Strategy (2005) stresses the need for more spatial planning.
The edge Summer 2006
Yvonne Bax in Maes et al (2005), A Flood of Space pp14
Sven De Bevere in Maes et al (2005), A Flood of Space pp145
The interaction phase studied the environment, infrastructure and uses in relation to each other. Specific aspects included: 1 understanding how users of the sea affect an environment before space is allocated to that use in a planning context 2 interaction between users and the environment – the impact that infrastructure and users have on the environment’s capacity to sustain additional or future uses 3 interaction among users or the weighting of uses with each other, based on impacts, constraints and opportunities.
scenarios to support a vision for marine spatial structure planning:
● the sailing sea ● the relaxed sea ● the playful sea GIS layers are very suitable to reflect ● the natural sea and study interactions between the ● the mobile sea environment, infrastructure and uses ● the rich sea. in a marine spatial planning context. GIS can be used to support integrated Some scenarios lead to extreme results outcomes and to visualise conflicting if chosen separately. The sailing sea for zones and users. example focuses on exploitation of marine resources in combination with immobile structures that have a social value. A sailing sea scenario can end up in an offshore deep sea port (promoting short sea shipping in a hub system) or an offshore airport. In contrast, a natural sea scenario envisages maintaining the North Sea as a natural reserve. It is clear that while this project stops with the development of spatial planning scenarios, this is only the first step in the development of an operative spatial structure plan as one
of the tools to achieve integrated coastal zone management. The next step will be making the project’s findings available to government, private and public sectors as part of a discussion document and to obtain feedback on support or opposition to any of the scenarios identified for spatial planning within the BPNS. Finally we hope GAUFRE will initiate a fruitful discussion on spatial planning for the entire North Sea region. The project results, a scientific report and a book A Flood of Space, can be downloaded at: http://server.host2mpact.be/ma ritieminstituut.be/main.cgi?s_i d=158 A few copies of the book and Cd are available for free from CoastNet. For a copy contact Pat Stitt at email@example.com Frank Maes is Research Director of the Maritime Institute at Ghent University The edge Summer 2006
Integration is what really matters, in a sense that the land use-planning framework is applied to the marine area, taking into account the specifics and the dynamics of this environment. This allowed GAUFRE to create a vision on which spatial structure planning in the BPNS can be based. Key elements are security, sustainability and the precautionary principle. Sustainability has an economic, social and ecological component. Crossover scenarios have also been developed, resulting in six
Water Framework Directive and the Marine Bill
How might the Water Framework Directive interact with the Marine Bill? Christa Upjohn, for the Environment Agency, takes a stab at joined-up thinking.
he Marine Bill consultation currently being considered by many interested parties throws
up a number of issues for the Environment Agency as competent authority for the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in England and Wales. Although the process of developing the Marine Bill is in the early stages, a number of potential overlaps and links with the WFD and issues for consideration can already be identified. The Water framework Directive covers all large bodies of water in Europe.
(WFD) is a vital piece of European legislation designed to integrate the way we manage water bodies across Europe. It came into force in December 2000 and was transposed into UK domestic law in December 2003. It covers all waters in Europe including groundwaters, rivers, estuaries and marine waters to one nautical mile.
basin district (see diagram) which set out ways to improve water quality and reduce the risk water poses. As the competent authority for the WFD, we are responsible for this process.
About the Marine Bill
The Marine Bill consultation document represents the first formal step in the process of creating a Marine Bill and provides a much needed framework balancing conservation, energy and resource needs. The document sets out the background for the proposed Marine Bill and describes a number of proposals. These cover specific elements of marine management that the Bill could potentially address. It does not set out preferred policy but seeks feedback on a number of options for the introduction of a marine spatial planning system, a revision of the marine licensing system, improved management of marine nature conservation and the development of a marine management organisation.
About the Water Framework Directive
The Directive contains a set of guidelines for managing large bodies of water and aims to improve water quality. It also aims to reduce any danger a water body poses, such as flooding. The deterioration of wetlands must stop and an overall improvement of aquatic habitats for wildlife must be achieved. An extremely important component of delivering the requirements of the WFD is the preparation of River Basin Management Plans for each river
The edge Summer 2006
Phil Cottier/Cottier & Sidaway
The Marine Bill has focussed much needed attention on the marine environment.
Links and issues
Both the Marine Bill and the WFD recognise that while protecting the environment is important, consideration of both social and economic principles must be included within the decision process. This is a change to existing legislation which generally seeks to consider one of these issues, usually in isolation. Additionally, both the WFD and the Marine Bill seek to rationalise and update existing legislation with the aim of providing co-ordinated approaches to water and marine resource management. This is based on the concept of spatial planning in both cases. A particular thread that runs through both Marine Bill proposals and the WFD, is the requirement for sustainable use of water and its resources. Both require significant involvement from the public and due to the wide coverage of issues, delivery by a number of organisations. These similarities in objectives are welcomed and essential to ensuring optimal environmental, social and economic benefit of the water environment. There are also overlaps geographically between the Marine Bill and WFD. The proposed boundaries for the
Marine Bill cover the area from mean high or low water out to the UK national boundary. As WFD applies to inland and marine waters out to one nautical mile, the management of river basin catchments and associated river basin management plans required under the WFD will provide an important link between the land and the marine environment. WFD will therefore play a significant role in delivering sustainable use of our seas.
and public participation.
information collated as part of the development of river basin management plans may also be useful in the development of marine spatial plans. Information exchange must happen, particularly in that the availability of data for the marine environment is highly variable. The opportunity must be taken now to address as many of these as possible and ensure mechanisms are in place. There are many areas where the Marine Bill and the WFD overlap and interact. We need to work hard to ensure that we are aware of the links, and that mechanisms are put in place to link the two pieces of legislation to get the most for the marine environment. One thing is for certain; the implementation of the WFD and the proposal for the Marine Bill have focused our much needed attention on the marine environment.
A mechanism for integrating the two types of plan including excellent communication between the bodies responsible for producing these plans must be established. Review periods must also be carefully defined. This will ensure that the overlap can be managed efficiently, without running the risk that issues are addressed twice or not at all. It is possible that the principles of integrated coastal zone management could be applied to help link these plans. Finally, it is hoped that the expertise gained by the Environment Agency in implementing WFD will be applied to assist in the implementation of the Marine Bill. Examples include the development of conservation objectives, monitoring, programmes of measures to address particular issues
For more information:
Email: Marine@environmentagency.gov.uk Websites: www.environmentAgency.gov.UK/marine www.environmentAgency.gov.UK/wfd
The edge Summer 2006
C o a s t N ET eve n t s
Involving actors and combining instruments – making the best use of policy tools for ICZM
Location: France Date: 8 December 2006 One of the fundamental principles of ICZM is to bring together local institutions, agencies and users to agree common management objectives and appropriate management measures. However, to ensure consistency in management between different regions it is important to have common strategic frameworks at higher levels. In this conference we bring together local issues, by examining local case studies with respect to the national response to the EU ICZM Recommendation. Speakers will consider the adequacy of management tools available at the local level in the context of the French national ICZM strategy and the challenges on implementing a new national policy. Further details will be available shortly.
Other upcoming CoastNet conferences and events:
Implications of new European Policies and directives including the Marine strategy
Location: Galway Date: 8 November 2006
s For information on any of the
conferences listed please contact CoastNet on 01206 728644 or by email firstname.lastname@example.org
s If you wish to join the APPG or
attend the October meeting, please contact Theresa Redding at email@example.com
Water framework directive and spatial planning on the coast
Location: Cardiff Date: January 2007
SEA Directive and coastal spatial strategies
Location: Newcastle Date: March 2007
All Party Parlimentary Group on Coastal and Marine issues (APPG)
Next meeting 11 October
New workshop and conference reports now on the CoastNet website:
Shifting sands and all at sea?
The report from the Shifting Sands workshop held by CoastNet in partnership with English Nature in November 2005 is now complete and can be viewed on our website under publications. Adaptive Management and Local Specificity in ICZM The report from this conference held by CoastNet in Edinburgh in September 2005 is also now available to view on our website.
CoastNet emails have changed:
Theresa Redding; firstname.lastname@example.org Pat Stitt; email@example.com Lesley Smeardon; firstname.lastname@example.org Erin Pettifer; email@example.com Events; firstname.lastname@example.org
This publication is partially funded through the Corepoint project under the Interrreg 3B Programme. Corepoint aims to establish North West Europe as an internationally recognised region of excellence in coastal management by encouraging full implementation of ICZM, highlighting best practice, providing education by influencing national spatial policies – for further details please see http://corepoint.ucc.ie
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