A. Frederick W. Taylor Motion and time study received added stimulus during World War II when Franklin D.

Roosevelt, through the U.S. Department of Labor, attempted to establish standards for increasing production. The stated policy advocated greater pay for greater output but without an increase in unit labor costs, incentive schemes to be collectively bargained between labor and management, and the use of time study for setting production standards.His framework for organization was: responsibility incentive schemes for workers task specialization Time Studies Taylor argued that even the most basic, mindless tasks could be planned in a way that dramatically would increase productivity, and that scientific management of the work was more effective than the "initiative and incentive" method of motivating workers. The initiative and incentive method offered an incentive to increase productivity but placed the responsibility on the worker to figure out how to do it. To scientifically determine the optimal way to perform a job, Taylor performed experiments that he called time studies, (also known as time and motion studies). These studies were characterized by the use of a stopwatch to time a worker's sequence of motions, with the goal of determining the one best way to perform a job. The following are examples of some of the time-and-motion studies that were performed by Taylor and others in the era of scientific management. The Science of Shoveling In another study of the "science of shoveling", Taylor ran time studies to determine that the optimal weight that a worker should lift in a shovel was 21 pounds. Since there is a wide range of densities of materials, the shovel should be sized so that it would hold 21 pounds of the substance being shoveled. The firm provided the workers with optimal shovels. The result was a three to four fold increase in productivity and workers were rewarded with pay increases. Prior to scientific management, workers used their own shovels and rarely had the optimal one for the job. Bricklaying Others performed experiments that focused on specific motions, such as Gilbreth's bricklaying experiments that resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of motions required to lay bricks. The husband and wife Gilbreth team used motion picture technology to study the motions of the workers in some of their experiments. B. Jean Rodolphe Perronet His contribution is the design and construction of Paris's grand sewer, embankment works and the maintenance of the banlieue's roads. C. Charles W. Babbage He was a mathematician who designed two distinct types of mechanical computing devices that were rediscovered in the late 1930s, a time when American and European engineers were building electronic computing machines. The notes he made while visiting machine shops and factories he wrote a book titled On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures (1832), which was probably his most influential work during his lifetime. It took the economic ideas of Adam Smith and updated them to the machinery age. The book showed not only how machines might be used in industry but how they might be used most economically. Most of Babbage’s economics ideas were based upon the division of labor. He recognized that the division of labor could be applied not only to physical tasks such as manufacturing but also to mental tasks such as the computation of a trigonometry table. Furthermore, he recognized that the division of labor allowed factory owners to reduce the cost of manufacturing by assigning each individual task to the least expensive laborer capable of handling that task. This insight became one of the foundations of industrial management. D. Louis Brandeis In March 1905, he became counsel to a New England policyholder's committee concerned that their scandal-ridden insurance company would file bankruptcy and the policyholders would lose their investments and insurance protection. He insisted on serving without pay in order to give him the freedom to address the wider issues involved. He then spent the next year studying the workings of the life insurance industry, often writing articles and giving speeches about his findings, at one point describing their practices as "legalized robbery."[6]:76-77 By 1906 he concluded that life insurance was "simply a bad bargain for the vast majority of policyholders" due mostly to the inefficiency of the industry. He also learned that the policies of "poorly paid breadwinners" were canceled when they missed a payment, due to little-understood clauses within the policy. As a result, he discovered that most policies lapsed, and only one out of eight original policyholders actually received benefits, leading to large insurance company profits. E. Frank and LilianGilbreth Frank Gilbreth's well-known work in improving brick-laying in the construction trade is a good example of his approach. From his start in the building industry, he observed that workers developed their own peculiar ways of working and that no two used the same method. In studying bricklayers, he noted that individuals did not always use the same motions in the course of their work. These observations led him to seek one best way to perform tasks. Frank and LilianGilbreth are considered as the founders of the modern motion study technique, which may be defined as the study of the body motions used in performing an operation, for the purpose of improving the operation by eliminating unnecessary motions, simplifying necessary motions, and then establishing the most favorable motion sequence for maximum efficiency. Frank Gilbreth originally implemented ideas into the bricklayer's trade in which he was employed. After introducing methods improvements through motion study, including an adjustable scaffold that he had invented, as well as operator training, he was able to increase the average number of bricks laid from 120 to 350 per worker per hour. More than anyone else, the Gilbreths were responsible for industry's recognition of the importance of a detailed study of body motions to arrive at the best method of performing an operation that would increase production, reduce operator fatigue. They developed the technique of filming motions for study, known as micromotion study. The Gilbreths also developed the cyclegraphic and chronocyclegraphic analysis techniques for studying the motion paths made by an operator. The cycle- graphic method involves fixing small electric light bulb to the finger or part of the body being studied and then photographing the motion while the operator is performing the operation. The resulting picture gives a permanent record of the motion pattern employed and can be analyzed for possible improvement. The chrono- cyclegraph is similar to the cyclegraph, but its electric circuit is interrupted regularly, causing the light to flash. Instead of showing solid lines of the motion patterns, the resulting photograph shows short dashes of light spaced in proportion to the speed of the body motion being photographed. Consequently, with the chronocyclegraph it is possible to determine direction and compute velocity, acceleration, and deceleration, in addition to study of body motions. F. Carl G. Barth Carl G. Barth, an associate of Frederick W. Taylor, developed a production slide rule for estimating the most efficient combinations of speeds and feeds for cutting metals of various hardnesses, considering the depth of cut, size of tool, and life of the tool. He is also known for his work on estimation of allowances by establishing the number of foot-pounds of work a worker could do in a day. He developed a relationship in which a certain push or pull on a worker's arms was equated with the amount or weight that worker could handle for a certain percentage of the day. G. Harrington Emerson Harrington Emerson applied scientific methods to work on the Santa Fe Railroad and wrote a book, Twelve Principles of Efficiency, in which he made an attempt to lay down procedures for efficient operation. He reorganized the company, integrated its shop procedures, installed standard costs and a bonus plan, and introduced Hollerith tabulating machines for the accounting work. This effort resulted in annual saving of $ 1.5 million and recognition of his approach, called efficiency engineering . Harrington Emerson’s Twelve Principles of Efficiency 1. Clearly defined ideals. 5. The fair deal 9. Standardized conditions 2. Common sense 6. Reliable, immediate and adequate records 10. Standardized operations 3. Competent counsel 7. Despatching 11. Written standard-practice instructions 4. Discipline 8. Standards and schedules 12. Efficiency-reward H. Henry Laurence Gantt In 1917, Henry Laurence Gantt developed simple graph that would present performance while visually showing projected schedules. This production control tool was adopted by the shipbuilding industry during World War I. For the first time, this tool demonstrated the possibility of comparing actual performance against the original plan, and to adjust daily schedules in accordance with capacity, back log, and customer requirements. Gantt is also known for his wage payment system that rewarded workers for above-standard performance, eliminated any penalty for failure, and offered the boss a bonus for every worker who per formed above .standard. Gantt advocated human relations and promoted scientific management in the back drop of an inhuman "speedup" of labor. I. Franklyn D. Roosevelt Motion and time study received added stimulus during World War II when Franklin D. Roosevelt, through the U.S. Department of Labor, attempted to establish standards for increasing production. The stated policy advocated greater pay for greater output but without an increase in unit labor costs, incentive schemes to be collectively bargained between labor and management, and the use of time study for setting production standards.

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clear delineation of authority

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separation of planning from operations

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management by exception

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