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From: Newsgroups: comp.sys.m68k,comp.answers,news.answers Subject: comp.sys.

m68k Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Date: 26 Dec 1994 09:28:01 GMT Organization: University of Toronto - Faculty of Information Studies Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Expires: 8 Feb 1995 09:20:08 GMT Message-ID: <motorola/> Reply-To: Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) about Motorola 32 Bit microprocesors. The processors covered are MC680x0, MC63x0 and their peripheral parts. There is some information on the VMEbus, HC11, HC16 and PowerPC parts. This list contains resources provided by Motorola to its customers. X-Last-Updated: 1994/12/26 Originator: faqserv@bloom-picayune.MIT.EDU Xref: comp.sys.m68k:4472 comp.answers:9136 news.answers:33816 Archive-name: motorola/68k-chips-faq Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: 1994/12/25 Version: 11.0 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) comp.sys.m68k This list is maintained by: Robert Boys Ontario, CANADA Email: or or December 25, 1994 this is the 11th list ========================================================================== ========================================================================== = Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year = = = = Wherever you are in the world, near or far, I wish you, = = your family and your friends a most happy holiday season. = = = = I hope that where you live is peacful and prosperous. = = = = Robert Boys, Canada = = = ========================================================================== ========================================================================== The information contained in this FAQ is believed to be correct and up to date. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy. The maintainer cannot be responsible for errors and omissions. Check with a Motorola sales office to make sure a device is available before designing any products. This article is copyright (c) 1994 and all rights are reserved. This article may be reprinted provided it is intact, proper credit is given and no cost is

levied. Contact the author for permissions. This FAQ is archived on and on (or m68kfaq.gz) If trouble is experienced with the Alberta site, try Some files mentioned in this FAQ may have a suffix of .zip, .arc or .gz depending on the preferences of the archive site administrator. It is posted to comp.sys.m68k, news.answers and comp.answers. It is archived on and its mirrors. It is also on the WWW (World Wide Web). The URLs are: ]Some WWW sites store this FAQ under the heading of "Motorola" as well as under "comp.sys.m68k". It is also stored on GEnie in the PowerPC Pro archives. (account needed) It is available as a WordPerfect 5.1 file from the author. Please note that the archive site is back in service. What's New! -----------New sections and corrections are identified with a "]" in the left margin. Not much new information this time around. Exams and projects and stuff. CONTENTS: 1) Motorola 16/32 Bit Product Line A) MC680x0 B) MC68EC0x0 and MC68LC0x0 C) MC68300 series D) Peripheral Chips E) 8 and 16 bit Processors F) Speed Comparisons G) PowerPC - MPC601, MPC603, MPC604 series. H) PowerPC Embedded Controllers I) Other Manufacturers J) Interesting places M68K devices are used. 2) Software Sources A) Free Software Available B) Commercial Software Available C) Motorola BBS and AESOP D) ftp Sites 3) Hardware (board level) Sources A) Integrated Development Platform (IDP), MEVB, BCC, et al B) VMEbus modules C) Indiana University 68030 single board project D) Consumer computers and Workstations E) Integrated Circuit Prices 4) Construction Information

5) General Specifications A) Integrated Circuit Package Information B) Pin-outs C) S-Records D) CPU Clocks and Double-Clocking 6) Literature A) "Specs in Secs" B) "UPDATE" C) "The 68K Connection" D) Master Selection Guide E) Motorola Addresses F) Literature Distribution Centres G) Training and Instructional Books H) University Support I) Trade Journals and Magazines //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 1) Motorola 16/32 Bit Product Line: ===================================== Motorola introduced its first microprocessor in 1974: the 8 bit MC6800 with an extensive line of support peripherals soon available. The MC68000 was introduced in 1979 and was soon followed by a host of 16 bit peripheral chips. The 6800 and 68000 families soon became very popular due to their straightforward architecture and simple and easy to use bus connections. The original 6800 evolved into the 6502 (MOS Technology ie Apple ][), 6802, 6805, 6809, HC11 and the HC16 series. The first member of the 68K family - the MC68000, is not software compatible with the 8 bit 6800 series which includes the 68HC11 series. The 68K family itself is upwards software compatible. There are no multiplexed pins on the 68000 series. The two Motorola divisions of interest here are the High Performance MPU and the Advanced Micro-Controller Unit (AMCU). The High Performance Group deals with the MC680x0 series, 68306, 68307, 68322, 68340, 68341 and 68349. The rest (including 680x, 68HC11, 68HC16) are from the AMCU division except the 68360, 68302 and 68356 which are from the Communications Division. This FAQ divides the 68K family into three sections - MC680x0, MC68EC0x0 and the MC68300 series. A short section on 8/16 bit processors follows. The Motorola integrated circuit product line (almost all of it) has the prefix of "MC" as in MC68030. 68030 and '030 are short forms of this. A prefix of "XC" indicates a part not yet fully qualified. A prefix of "SC" designates a part specially made for a customer. The terms M68K or 68K represent the 68000 processor line in general as in comp.sys.m68k. ( K = 10^3 or ,000 in scientific circles) A "*" as in DTACK* signifies the signal is active or true in the low state if level sensitive or on the presence of a negative edge if edge triggered. A byte is 8 bits, a word 16 bits and a long word is 32 bits. The prefix "$" as in $7F or $128 signifies a hexadecimal number. Motorola was originally the Galvin Mfg. Co in the early thirties. The name "Motorola" came from the fact that Motorola was once a major player in automobile radios hence the "motor". Autos were called "motor cars" ("motors" by those who were "hip") in the 1930s. The "ola" is the "derived 2nd element of pianola" according to the Oxford dictionary. Pianola was a turn-of-the-century machine that played pianos. The "ola" is a suffix used

to form commercial nouns such as used in the music industry ie "Victrola"; just as "tronics" is a suffix commonly used today by electronics firms. There is no truth to the rumour that in 1908 a hard-working Iowa corn farmer named John Ellsworth Motorola started the company shortly after he received a Chinese abacus as an unexpected Christmas present. A) MC680x0 -----------The original MC68000 has the following general features: * CISC - Complex Instruction Set Computer architecture. * eight 32 bit general purpose data registers (D0-D7). * eight 32 bit general purpose address registers (A0-A7). (A7 is the stack pointer - user or supervisor) * 32 bit Program Counter - linear 4 gigabyte - no paging or segments. * 16 bit external data bus - needs 16 bit ROM and RAM for system. Can access 8 or 16 bit memory and peripheral devices. * 16 Mbyte linear addressing range (23 bit plus Upper* and Lower* data strobes for an effective 24 bit range), 32 bit with 68020. * 56 Instruction types - over 1000 useful permutations are possible. * memory mapped I/O. (peripheral registers addressed as memory). * 14 addressing modes on a contiguous address space (no segments). * 5 main data types. (bit, byte, BCD, word and long word). * Supervisor and User states. Stack Pointer A7 is set to User (USP) or Supervisor SP (SSP) by a bit in the status register. * Exception processing and 7 levels of interrupts. * Tracing function - each instruction ends in a TRAP to user program. * Asynchronous bus structure. Uses DTACK* from the peripheral chip. * non-multiplexed address and data buses - interfaces with LS-TTL. * Bus Arbitration and an internal TRACE facility for debugging. * 5 volt NMOS dynamic construction. (68HC000 is a CMOS MC68000) Exception processing results from interrupts, TRAP instructions, a bus or address error or a reset. This feature simplifies software development by detecting bugs and errors and helps prevent "run-away" conditions. The Exception Vector table is normally made of 255 32 bit vectors using 1024 k of memory starting at location 0. The CPU loads the appropriate vector, containing the 32 bit address of the routine to service the exception, from this table at the occurrence of an exception such as reset, bus or address error, word access to odd memory location, TRAP and others. This table is usually constructed in RAM by the operating system during the initialization period. There are 192 user interrupt vectors reserved. The initial SSP (Supervisor Stack Pointer) and initial PC (for RESET) occupy memory location $0 and $4 which usually maps out to ROM. The CPU can only switch from USER mode to the SUPERVISOR mode via exception processing. The majority of programs are meant to execute in the User Mode. The Supervisor Mode is used for the operating system and software accessing system resources. The processor is in the Supervisor Mode at RESET. A system can operate continuously in the Supervisor Mode. MC68008: The 68008 is a MC68000 with a 8 bit data bus in a 48 pin DIP or a 52 pin PLCC. The RAM, ROM and peripheral chips must have 8 bit data paths. The DIP package address bus is 20 bits (1 mbyte) and the PLCC device has 22 bits (4 mbytes). A0 is present on both these parts. The 68008 is listed as "not recommended for new designs". Other devices such as the MC68HC001, 68EC000 and the 68302 have a switchable (at reset) 8 or 16 bit data bus.

MC68010: The 68010 is a 68000 with the addition of virtual machine and virtual memory capabilities and a "loop mode" which acts like a 3 word instruction cache. This processor is listed as "not for new designs". A 68010 will plug into a 68000 socket and work in most systems. Three new registers are added. The Vector Base Register (VBR) determines where in memory the vector table is located which allows for multiple tables to implement the virtual machine and memory functions. The Alternate Function Code Registers (SFC and DFC) allow the Supervisor mode to access user data space or emulate CPU space cycles. The instruction set is essentially the same for the 68000/08/10. The 68010 supports modular programming. The CPU32 processor used in the 68300 series is a 68010 with some 68020 instructions added. MC68020: The MC68020 incorporates 32 bit address and data paths and Dynamic Bus Sizing to "size" peripherals and memory on a cycle-by-cycle basis to 8, 16 or 32 bit lengths using signals supplied by external hardware to the SIZ0-1 pins. The 68020 is software compatible to all earlier 68K members. A co-processor interface is provided in the instruction set. All virtual features of the 68010 are preserved. The multiply and divide instructions use 32 bit operands and branch displacements can be 32 bits. A new data type, the "quad word" is 64 bits and used in the multiply and divide instructions. Over 20 new instructions have been added. A 256 byte instruction cache has been added along with two cache registers (CACR and CAAR). A Master Stack Pointer (MSP) (32 bits) has been added to facilitate Multi-Tasking Operating Systems. MC68030: The MC68030 is essentially an improved 68020. The MC68030 incorporates a paged memory management unit (MMU) and 256 byte instruction and data caches (modified Harvard Architecture). The internal MMU implements most of the functions of the MC68851 MMU. Two 64 bit, three 32 bit and one 16 bit registers have been added for MMU control functions. The improved bus interface supports "burst mode", asynchronous and synchronous memory accesses as well as dynamic bus sizing support. The Burst Mode fills the data and instruction caches with bytes from external memory independently with four accesses in a row. Many functions of the 68030 operate in parallel increasing throughput. The 68030 can switch between synchronous and asynchronous modes "on the fly". The '030 is a device useful for new designs and is available in PGA and surface mount packages up to 50 Mhz. (Thanks Alexandre!) MC68040: The MC68040 adds a Floating Point Unit (FPU), separate memory managers for data and instruction memory and 4 Kbyte data and instruction caches. The '040 has 32 bit data and address busses with synchronous bus cycles and uses a full Harvard architecture. The 68040 (as well as the 68060) does not support dynamic bus sizing as in the '020 and '030. The MC68150 will add this feature to the '040 and '060. A new instruction, "Move16", has been added which performs 16 byte block transfers using burst read and writes for high speed. The built-in FPU utilizes most of the instructions of the MC68882 FPU. For a no-cost software package that simulates the unimplemented instructions,

see 040_fpsp under A) Free Software Available. The MC68040 is used in current high power computer systems. There is a special companion mode on the MC68360 QUICC to replace the CPU32+ with a MC68EC040 to increase performance of the QUICC. The 360/EC040 pair reportedly performs at 22 MIPS @ 25 Mhz. MC68050: There is no known 68050 part. The rumour on the Net is that since people were pairing Intel and Motorola processors by part number - ie 6800/8080, 68000/8086, 68010/80186, 68020/80286, 68030/80386 and so on - Motorola decided to break the pattern and jump from the '040 directly to the '060. I have never seen any information from Motorola to suggest this story is true - it is just rumour. It does make appropriate marketing sense. Signetics once made a Scc68070 that is similar to the MC68000. The official word from Motorola is that odd numbered parts represent minor changes from the previous chip. Even numbers are for major part changes. Another rumour is that the '050 existed at least on paper but when it was shown to major customers, this prototype did not fit into their strategic plans since it was only an improved '040. In view of this, Motorola decided to skip the '050 and go straight to the '060 which also existed on paper then and better fit into the strategies of major customers. MC68060: This is the latest and most powerful member of the 68K family. The '060 is designed as an upgrade from a '040 with 2.5 to 3.5 times the performance of the 25 mhz '040. It uses Superscalar pipelined architecture which means it can perform more than one instruction at a time. The 68060 allows simultaneous execution of two integer instructions (or 1 integer and 1 float instruction) and one branch during each clock cycle. A branch cache allows most branches to execute in zero cycles. This CPU has some RISC processor features. The chip is all hardwired - there is no microcode in it. It incorporates a JTAG interface to help simplify the debugging process. The on-board caches have been increased to 8 Kbytes each and the '060 has 2.5 million transistors on the single die. The '060 uses various dynamic power management techniques to reduce power consumption. The '060 has a clock speed of 50 Mhz currently with a future model at 66 Mhz and since the '060 is a static device, the clock has no lower limit and can even be stopped. This part operates at a Vcc of 3.3 volts and interfaces to both 3 and 5 volt peripherals. The input pins can swing between 0 and 5 volts and the output pins between 0 and 3.3 volts. It has been available as a sample part for some time now and may now be entering quantity production. This may be the last member of the 68K family. The '060 does not support dynamic bus sizing except with the addition of the MC68150 chip. The '060 offers 100 MIPS @ 66mhz and 250 million operations per second @ 50 mhz. SPECint = 50 @ 50Mhz. There is a M68060 software package (M68060SP) that supplies software emulation for unimplemented integer instructions, FPU software and other library subroutines. This package is available on the Motorola BBS system and now, AESOP. Apple Computer has announced it will not use the MC68060 in the Macintosh. It has switched to the PowerPC RISC chips. The Motorola 68000 series no longer appears to have a future in the desktop market. The '060 will likely find application in advanced high power embedded controllers. It has a list price of $US 308 probably at quantity. (unverified) Motorola claims it will add peripheral devices to the '060 in the future as it has with its 8 bit

parts. This is possible because the '060 is of a modular design. The '060 is available in a 223 PGA package and will fit into a 179 pin 68040 supersocket. The extra '060 pins are in towards the center of the socket. DEVICE MC68000 MC68008 MC68010 MC68020/EC20 MC68030 MC68EC030 MC68040 MC68EC040 MC68LC040 MC68060 PPC601 PPC603 Pentium IntelDX4 TRANSISTORS 68,000 70,000 84,000 190,000 273,000 251,000 1,170,000 962,000 813,500 2,500,000 2,800,000 1,600,000 3,299,994.3398 1,600,000 DEVICE MC68302 MC68330 MC68340 MC68440 MC68661 MC68681 MC68881 MC68882 MC68901 MC68230 MC68322 TRANSISTORS 320,000 235,000 350,000 26,000 6,000 9,743 155,000 176,000 9,100 16,700 422,000

Alpha AXP 21164 9.3 million MIPS R8000 3,400.000 P6 > 6 million

--------------------------------------------------------------------------| Feature | 68000 | 'EC000 | 68010 | 68020 | 68030 | 68040 | 68060 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------| Data bus | 16 8/16 16 8/16/32 8/16/32 32 32 | | Addr bus | 23 23 23 32 32 32 32 | | Virtual memory | Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes | | Instruct Cache | 3 256 256 4096 8192 | | Data Cache | 256 4096 8192 | | Memory manager | <+ (68451 or 68851) +> 68851 Yes Yes Yes | | FPU interface | 68881 or 68882 Internal FPU | | built-in FPU | Yes Yes | | Burst Memory | Yes Yes Yes | | Bus Cycle type | <++++++++ asynchronous +++++++> both synchronous | | Data Bus Sizing| Yes Yes use 68150 | | Power (watts) | 1.2 .13-.26 .13 1.75 2.6 4 - 6 3.9-4.9| | at frequency of| 8.0 8-16 8 ? ? 25-40 50-66 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES: a) 68010, 68008, 68451 are apparently no longer available from Motorola. b) FPU (floating point arithmetic unit) has eight 80 bit registers. c) MC68008 is a MC68000 with a 8 bit external data path and A0 pin. d) MC68882 is an enhanced version of the MC68881. Check the appropriate data sheets for more information and interchangeability. e) The MC68000/10 external address bus consists of pins A1 to A23. A0 is an internal signal. Using this scheme, the processor accesses memory in steps of 16 bits for a maximum total of 8 mwords or 16 mbytes of memory. The external outputs UPPER* and LOWER* data strobes can be used to effect byte transfers. See the 68000 data sheet for more detail. Other 68k series members have a A0 pin. All internal address registers are 32 bit. f) MC68060 has a 256 byte entry branch cache. It is also a 3.3 volt part. g) MC68040V and MC68EC040V are 3.3 volt parts, the rest are 5 volts. h) MC68HC000 is low power version of the 68000 using HCMOS technology. i) MC68HC001 is a HC68000 with either a (at reset) 8 or 16 bit data bus. j) The MC68040V, 68LC040, 68EC040 or 68EC040V do not have a FPU. k) The MC68HC000 is a CMOS (low power) version of the MC68000. l) The MC68EC020 is a low cost '020. It has a 24 bit address bus.


HCMOS= CMOS combined with HMOS (high density NMOS)

B) MC68EC0x0 and MC68LC0x0 ---------------------------This family is essentially a subset of the MC680x0 product line. It is designed for low cost embedded controller applications. The major differences between the two are listed below. Check the appropriate data sheet for more detailed information. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) MC68EC000 MC68EC020 MC68EC030 MC68LC040 MC68EC040 MC68LC060 MC68EC060 is is is is is is is a a a a a a a MC68000 MC68020 MC68030 MC68040 MC68040 MC68060 MC68060 with selectable 8 or 16 bit data bus and A0. with a 24 bit address bus rather than 32 bits. without a paged memory manager (PMMU). without a built-in math coprocessor (FPU). without a memory manager or built-in FPU. without a built-in math coprocessor (FPU) without a memory manager or built-in FPU.

External FPUs (MC68881/2) are not easily attached to EC or LC processors since the co-processor instructions are not present on these CPUs. C) MC68300 series ------------------This series incorporates various peripherals into various 68K core processors. They may be called "integrated processors". The core processors are the 68EC000 and CPU32. The CPU32 is derived from the 68020 processor. The CPU32 has a 16 bit data bus and the extended version (CPU32+) incorporates a full 32 bit data bus. The CPU32 and CPU32+ have a built-in background debugging mode (BDM) in the internal microcode. corrections and additions in the next three charts: EC000 CPU CORES: --------------------------------------------------------------------| Feature | 68302 | 68306 | 68307 | 68322 | 68356 | ? | --------------------------------------------------------------------| Core CPU | EC000 EC000 EC000 EC000 EC000 - | | TPU (timer) | - | | DUART (68681) | Yes 1/2 see - | | DRAM controller| Yes Yes below Yes - | | Static Ram | 576 x 2 for 1152 - | | Flash EEPROM | more - | | A/D Converter | info - | | Serial Ports | 3 Duplex 3+2 - | | DMA | Yes ? Yes - | | Timer | 3 2 3 - | | Parallel Ports | 2 2 bit 45+8 bits - | | Chip Selects X | 4 8 4 4 - | | PGA package ? | Yes ? - | | Clock speed Mhz| 16/20 16 8/16 16/20 25 - | | 3.3v available?| Yes @20 Mhz - | | Power (Watts) | .37-.93 | | at frequency of| 8-20 | --------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES: a) MC68307 has a 8051 8 bit data bus, 8 external interrupts and IIC port b) MC68302 has a DRAM controller ability using the Communications Processor main (RISC) controller. MC68322 (BANDIT): - Uses a EC000 core with a RISC graphics processor (RGP), a print engine video controller (PVC) and other features. This part is designed for non-impact printers such as 600 dpi lasers, inkjets and the

fax/modem/printer market. ]MC68356: Signal Processing Communication Engine (SPCE): a 68302 and a 56002 (24 bit Digital Signal Processor - (DSP)) in one package. The DSP section has 5.25K program RAM and 5.5K data RAM (all @ 24 bits). Licensed to use "TRUESPEECH" speech compression from DSP Group and other DSP56002 code. Target market includes small modems, wireless communications, cellular and automobile navigation. Available 4th quarter 1994 @$64.95 (qty > 10,000). Uses BGA (OMPAC) package. Other features include PCMCIA support and emulates a 16550 serial port. CPU32 CPU CORES: --------------------------------------------------------------------------| Feature | 68330 | 68331 | 68332 | 68F333 | 68334 | 68340 | 68341 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------| Core CPU | CPU32 CPU32 CPU32 CPU32 | CPU32 CPU32 CPU32 | | TPU (timer) | Yes Yes | Yes - | | DUART (68681) | - | Yes - | | DRAM controller| - | - | | Static Ram | 2K 4K | 1K - | | Flash EEPROM | 64K | - | | A/D Converter | - 8/10 bits| 8 ch - | | Serial Ports | 2 2 2 | - 2 ch UART 2 | | DMA | No | 2 CH 2 CH | | Timer | 2 GPT 1 | 2 Yes | | Parallel Ports | 2 18 bits| ? 2 2 | | Chip Selects X | 4 12 12 9 | ? 4 8 | | PGA package ? | - | No Yes - | | Clock speed Mhz| 8/16/25 16/20 20 16 | 16 8/16/25 - | | 3.3v available?| Yes - | Yes Yes | | Power (watts) | .63 .6 | .95 | | at frequency of| 16.78 ? | 16.78 | --------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES: a) The MC68330 is the lowest cost member of the 68300 family. (maybe) b) MC68341 has a RTC. (real time clock) The 68341 was developed for CD-I (Compact Disk Technology) products. c) The MC68F333 may not be available due to production problems. d) The 68340V and 68330V are 3.3 volt parts. CPU32+ CPU CORE: (32 bit address bus) and 68HC16 (for reference). --------------------------------------------------------------------| Feature | 68349 | 68360 | | | HC16Y1| HC16Z1| HC16Z2 | --------------------------------------------------------------------| Core CPU | CPU030 CPU32+ | CPU16 CPU16 CPU16 | | TPU (timer) | No | Yes | | DUART (68681) | similar 2 UART | | | DRAM controller| Yes | | | Static Ram | 4K 2.5K | 2k 1k 2k | | Flash EEPROM | | 48k rom - 8k rom | | A/D converter | No | all 8 channel - 10 bits | | Serial Ports | 4 | 2 2 1 | | DMA | 2 ch 2 ch | | | Timer | 2 4+16 | GPT GPT GPT | | Parallel Ports | 2 3 | Yes Yes Yes | | Chip Selects X | 4 8 | 9 12 12 | | PGA package ? | Yes | QFP QSP QFP | | Clock speed Mhz| 16/25 25 | 16 16 | | 3.3v available?| Yes | | | Power (Watts) | .3 | |

| at frequency of| 25 | | --------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES: a) The MC68360 has an optional -dual- Ethernet capability. (MC68EN360) b) The 68349 has a 1 kbyte instruction cache or a 2k static ram. This memory has four partitions, each can be configured as cache or ram. c) The 68349 is known as "Dragon I" and is the most powerful 683xx. d) The serial channels in the MC68360 have a totally transparent mode which is useful since it can act as a ISDN controller. General Notes on the MC683xx Series: a) b) c) Availability of features is not necessarily mutually exclusive. CPU32 has a 16 bit external data bus. CPU32+ has a 32 bit data bus. The CPU32+(with cache) (as in the 68349) is referred to as a CPU030. A CPU030 is a CPU32+, a configurable instruction cache and a quad memory module. A CPU030 has performance comparable to a MC68030. Memory management is not supported in the MC68349. Chip Selects X - programmable CS pins to select external peripherals. ? - I do not have the data sheet for this device. PGA avail - Pin Grid Array. Easier to use as surface mount devices are difficult to solder. (but not impossible) These devices are very complicated. It is impossible to outline all the possible features. Refer to the appropriate data sheet. Some devices have built-in background debuggers. See data sheets. GPT = General Purpose Timer. See the appropriate data sheets. The 68HC16 series is not software compatible with the 68k series. The file from contains a list of documents available for products such as 68302, 68360 and others. Technical Briefs for the MC68349(V), MC68322 and MC68356 are available in PCX format (zipped) via ftp from in the directory /pub/motorola/datasheets as files, and

d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)

D) Peripheral Chips --------------------There is a large offering of peripheral chips available from various manufacturers. The MC68230 PIT (Parallel Interface/Timer) and the MC68901 MFP (Multi-Function Peripheral) are common and very useful. 68K peripheral devices have a DTACK* output that signals acknowledgement of the bus cycle to the CPU - this is how the asynchronous bus functions in the 68k family. Devices from other families can be used with some ingenuity in the interface. The multiplexed bus on other competitive products and the lack of the DTACK* acknowledgement signal are two issues. Generation of the DTACK* signal in these situations is simple. 68K DEVICE 68150 68160 68184 68185 68194 68195 68230 68338 68339 68440 DESCRIPTION note: prefix MC on all these numbers

Dynamic Bus Sizer (for 040, LC040, EC040 and 68060) EEST (Ethernet driver) - glueless logic to MC68360. Broadband Interface Controller (BIC) IEEE 802.4 Twisted Pair Modem -use with 68824 for low cost LAN Carrierband Modem - IEEE 802.4 Physical Layer 1 Local Talk Adapter - MC68332 and 68302 to LocalTalk networks Parallel Interface/Timer - two 8 bit ports, 24 bit timer Mac-Media Access Controller - FDDI, see BR1104/D for family FSI-FDDI System Interface (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) Dual Channel DMA - 32 bit addressing R & FN packages

68450 68451 68605 68606 68681 68824 68836 68837 68851 68881/68882 68901 10H640 88915/88916

DMA Controller (DMAC) - 4 channel Memory Management Unit (MMU) (obsolete) X.25 Protocol Controller - two 22 byte FIFOs, DMA, HDLC X.25 Multi-Link LAPD Protocol Controller - in ISDN Dual Universal Asynchronous Receiver/transmitter (DUART) Token Bus Controller (TBC) - GM MAP Level 2 FCG-FDDI Clock Generator - lower part of PHY of FDDI ELM Elasticity Buffer and Link - rest of PHY of FDDI 32 bit Paged Memory Management Unit (PMMU) (obsolete) Floating Point Coprocessor (FPU) Multi Function Peripheral - USART, 8 par I/O lines, 4 timers MC68030/040 ECL/TTL Clock Driver (also MC100H640 @5v) MC68030 and MC68040 clock drivers

Motorola MC6800 family peripherals are very common in M68K systems. Some popular (and useful) ones are: 6821 6845 6850 68B52 68B54 68488 146818 PIA - Parallel Interface Adapter. (better to use 68230) CRT controller. (as in IBM PC Monochrome and CGA screens) ACIA - simple yet flexible serial port. Cheap too. Synchronous Serial Data Adapter (SSDA) Advanced data Link Controller (ADLC) IEEE 488 Interface Adapter RTC with Ram - Real Time Clock. (as in IBM AT Pcs)

Other manufacturer's parts are often used with 68K products. AMD7992 Ethernet part (also AM79C970) MB86961A Fujitsu Ethernet part ($9 US) 843x National DRAM controller (low cost model) 844x National DRAM controller with Burst Mode support E) 8 and 16 bit Processors ---------------------------Motorola manufactures a wide range of 8 and 16 bit processors and controllers. The families are the 6800, 6801, 6805, 68HC05, 6809, 68HC11 and 68HC16 (16 bit) series. Many of these devices have built-in functions such as EPROM, analogue to digital convertors, PLLs and special drivers for stepper motors and LCD displays. Refer to the "Master Selection Guide" or SG166/D for more information. Information and free software is available on the Motorola BBS and most ftp sites. Dunfield Development Systems, Nepean Ontario, (613) 256-5820 or provides low cost compilers and emulators for these products. ============== hc11/hc16 mailing list =============== send message to subscribe mc68hc11 your full name unsub mc68hc11 your full name ===================================================== For a listserver about a interest group designing and building a FORTH based O/S called FIRE using a MC68360: send Email to with a subject line of SUBSCRIBE. See the MSA BBS under the Motorola BBS. Much of the information in this FAQ pertaining to Motorola resources, ftp sites and general information is also applicable to these processors. BR261/D outlines these product lines. The 68HC11 Microcontroller FAQ by Russ Hersch ( contains

a listing of resource information about these processors. It is posted once a month to comp.robotics and other similar groups. The PowerPc FAQ from the newsgroup comp.sys.powerpc is worth getting. It is written by Derek Noonburg of the USA. F) Speed Comparisons ----------------------These figures are taken from various Motorola promotional literature. __________________________________________________________________________ CPU Dhrystones type 8 Mhz 16 Mhz 20 Mhz 25 Mhz 33 Mhz 40 Mhz 50 M| --------------------------------------------------------------------------68000 2100 4376 68EC000 2100 4376 68020 7559 9069 11336 15100 68EC020 7559 11336 68030 7830 9394 11743 15641 18788 23485 68EC030 11743 18788 68040 45460 60553 72736 68LC040 36368 45460 60553 68EC040 36368 45460 60553 68060 (50 and 66 Mhz) - claim is about 3.5 times faster than 68040 68300 SERIES CPU CORES EC000 2100 4376 5250 CPU32 6742 8036 10045 CPU32+ 7416 11049 14717 --------------------------------------------------------------------------My Intel 80386 clone (with 80387) 40 Mhz is 11049 Dhrystones. My original IBM XT 4.77 Mhz computer shows 300 Dhrystones, a Cray EL92 @ 14,286 and a Sparcstation IPC @ 23613. Motorola claims a Macintosh Quadra (68040) runs 15-20% faster than a 50Mhz 80486. Spec numbers are most useful to measure computer systems and are inappropriate for CPUs so are not shown here. The Cray EL90 is a 1 gigaflop machine; a J916 peaks at 3.2 gigs @64 bits. The new IBM PowerPC Embedded Processor PPC403GA may achieve 72k dhrystones. __________________________________________________________________________ CPU MIPS (VAX MIPS) type 8 Mhz 16 Mhz 20 Mhz 25 Mhz 33 Mhz 40 Mhz 50 M| --------------------------------------------------------------------------68000 68EC000 1.2 2.5 68020 4.3 5.2 6.5 8.7 68EC020 4.3 6.5 68030 4.5 5.4 6.7 9.0 10.8 13.5 68EC030 6.7 10.8 68040 26.1 34.8 41.8 68LC040/EC040 20.9 26.1 34.8 68060 100 @ 66 MHz 68300 SERIES CPU CORES (VAX MIPS) EC000 1.2 2.5 3.0 CPU32 3.9 4.6 5.8 CPU32+ 4.3 6.3 8.4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------Floating Point Coprocessor Speeds: (KFLOPS) 16 Mhz 20 Mhz 25 Mhz 33 Mhz 40 Mhz 50 M

MC68881 160 192 240 MC68882 264 352 422 528 MC68040 3,500 4,662 5,600 --------------------------------------------------------------------------G) PowerPc - MPC601, MPC603, MPC604 series. -------------------------------------------The PowerPC series are Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC). They were developed by Motorola, IBM and Apple Computer. These processors are featured in Macintosh, VMEbus and IBM computers. Neither the 601, 603 or the 604 seem to have a Program Counter or Stack Pointers in the MC680x0 sense. Motorola has never manufactured the 601. The sole world source is an IBM facility in Canada. Motorola is/will be making the 603, 604 and 620. MPC601 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Features: (the first PowerPC chip, used in current Apple desktops) Thirty-two 32 bit General Purpose Registers (GPR). (user level) Thirty-Two 64 bit Floating Point Registers (FPR). (user level) Six 32 bit Special Purpose Registers (SPR). (user level) Twenty-seven 32 bit Special Purpose Registers (SPR). (supervisor) Sixteen 32 bit Segment Registers (SR) (supervisor). (for MMU) Exception processing - uses vector offset table. 32 bit address bus - linear, not multiplexed or segmented. 64 bit data bus - not multiplexed (address bus not multiplexed). single-beat (1-8 bytes) and burst (32 bytes) data transfers. Two levels of privilege - Supervisor and User modes. Floating Point Unit (FPU) - supports all IEEE 754 data types. Memory Management Unit (MMU) - 52 bit virtual memory address. 32 Kbyte unified data and instruction cache - with bus snooping. 3.3 volt CMOS part - interfaces with TTL devices, 5.6 to 8.0 watts. 50, 66, 80 Mhz versions - 304 pin quad flat pack ceramic package. uses instruction set from the IBM RS6000 Workstation. the IBM RS/6000 Model 41 uses a 601 CPU @ 80 Mhz. RS6000 binaries will run on the 601 at full speed.

The 601 data types are: integer (8/16/32 bits), floating point (32/64 bits) Instructions are grouped into these six categories: (MPC601) * Integer - compare, rotate, shift, computational and logical. * Floating Point - arithmetic, rounding, conversion, compare, *, +. * Load/store - integer and floating load, store and move. * Flow control - branching, trap, condition register logical. * Processor control - move to/from SPRs, MSR, sync memory accesses. * Memory control - control of caches, segment registers, lookaside. The MPC603 is a low power version for use in battery operated portables and is used in Apple Powerbooks. It is made by Motorola in Austin, Texas and by IBM in Burlington, Vermont. The MPC604 will be available in early 1995. It is similar to the 601 with separate 16 Kbyte data and instruction caches (Harvard Architecture), separate data and instruction MMUs, 3 Integer Units and a Load/Store Unit. The SPECint and fp 92 values are 160 and 165 @100 mhz. A 100 Mhz 604 will have twice the performance of a 80 mhz 601 and 50% more at floating point. The MPC620 (64 bit) will be used in the next generation Apple desktops. It has an embedded L2 cache and reportedly can perform six (6) instructions per clock cycle. It is aimed at high end desktops, Workgroup servers and similar machines. It has a SPECint rating of 200 @ 150 mhz. SPEC ratings are most valuable for systems and not processors so be careful with these.

________________________________________________________________________ |Model | Speed | SPECint | SPECfp | PriceUS$ | Power (W) | Avail | |-------|--------|----------|--------|------------|------------|--------| |PPC601 | 50,66 | 62 | 72 | 165 | 8 * | now | |PPC601 | 80 | 85 | 105 | 249 | 8 | now | |PPC601 | 100 | 105 | 125 | 399 | 4 | Nov 94 | |PPC603 | 66 | 60 | 70 | 165 | | Nov 94 | |PPC603 | 80 | 75 | 85 | 195 | 2.5 ** | Nov 94 | |PPC604 | 100 | 160 | 165 | 549 | 10 ** | Dec 94 | |PPC620 | 133 |200@150 * | | | 30 ** | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------Notes: 1) these figures from IBM Austin Texas October 1994. Prices are QTY 1000 2) * = from other unverified sources. 3) ** = power dissipation less than this with low power modes activated. 4) P54C-75, a 75 Mhz Intel RISC CPU with SPEC of 75&60 @ $495 or $535 5) The PPC601 100 Mhz is made with a different process that reults in less power dissipation. MPC930/950/972 are clock drivers for PowerPC and Pentium parts. MPC601UM/AD - PowerPC 601 RISC Microprocessor User's Manual MPC601/D - Technical Summary - PowerPC 601 Microprocessor MPC601EC/D - Hardware Specs - PowerPC 601 Microprocessor MPC603/D - Technical Summary - PowerPC 603 Microprocessor MPC604/D - Technical Summary - PowerPC 604 Microprocessor Motorola's first RISC processors are the MC88100 (CPU and FPU) and the MC88200 (cache and MMU). They have separate address and data busses for instruction and data memory space. The PowerPC is not an upgrade of these parts. The 88100 family are presumably still available, but no longer appear to have a high profile in Motorola's present product matrix. H) PowerPC Embedded Controllers -------------------------------The IBM PPC403GA is a 32 bit processor rumoured to deliver 72k Dhrystones per second @ 33 Mhz. It has a DMA, DRAM and I/O controllers, two-way associative instruction and data caches, serial port and multiple timer facilities. It runs at 3.3 volts and interfaces with both 3.3 and 5 volt peripheral parts. It comes in a 160 pin PQFP package and is priced at $49 @ 25 Mhz for 1000 pieces. It is being sampled now with volume production expected by the end of 1994 and 33 Mhz version is expected in early 1995. The Motorola MPC505 has a floating point unit, 4 kbytes static ram, 4 Kbytes instruction cache, 32 bit RISC processor, 32 x 32 bits general purpose register file and 32 x 64 bits FP register file. There are chip selects, a watchdog timer and various I/O ports. It comes in a 160 pin QFP package @25 Mhz and with a clock speed of 25 Mhz and uses a 3.3 volt power supply. It will be sampled in November 1994 and is initially priced at $75 for small quantities. A 144 pin package will be offered later. Volume pricing is expected to be $55 by 1995 and down to $25 by 1997. I) Other Manufacturers -----------------------Philips, Toshiba and Signetics make (made) M68K family processors. Motorola has not second sourced any of the higher number processors such as the '020 and up. This is certainly an incomplete list: Philips SCC68070 ( availability uncertain ). CMOS 68k core, similar to 68010 but no VBR or SFC/DFC. Includes 2 DMA channels,

UART, IIC bus controller, 2 - 16 bit counter, a basic MMU and on-chip oscillator. Signetics Toshiba SCC68692 - CMOS 68681 DUART - with power-down mode & receiver time-outs SC68C94 - also SC26C94. Dual CMOS 68681 (4 UARTS) with 8 byte FIFOs on Tx and Rx. Extended baud rate set. 90C100 family, 93C100 (Signetics is owned by Philips) TMP68301 - 68HC000 + UART, parallel I/O, timer, interrupt controller, chip selects. 12 or 16 Mhz clock. TMP68303 - 68HC000 + UART, parallel I/O, timer, chip selects, DMA, interrupt and DRAM controllers. 12 and 16 Mhz. Stepper motor controller. PQFP100 package (TMP68301 also). Sonnet Technologies Inc., Irvine, California (714) 261-2800 manufacture "booster" chip assemblies for Macintosh MC68020/030/040 computers. This system works by interfacing a higher speed Motorola processor to the lower speed system bus. The computer speed is "boosted" by utilizing the internal data and/or instruction caches of the higher speed processor. A "mathless" 68LC040 computer can be upgraded using a 68040 which includes the math processor. There is a possibility these parts could be used in other systems since they operate "invisibly". Sonnet also sells MC68882 math chips. See under E) Integrated Circuit Prices for prices. J) Interesting places M68K devices are used --------------------------------------------The 68349 is known as "Dragon I" and is the most powerful 683xx. The new SONY Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) will use this device. A Canadian firm, Crossbow Electronics in Richmond Hill Ontario make some interesting custom boards utilizing MC68K processors. Things like radar processing and satellite terminals. 2) Software Sources ==================== A) Free Software Available --------------------------Assemblers, compilers and debuggers exist to run on Ms-Dos, Mac, Unix, 680x0 and Amiga platforms. This is an incomplete list of filenames to search for on the Internet using Archie: - 68000/08/10 assembler and simulator, MS-Dos, with docs and source code, uses S-records, widely available via ftp. Easy to use, docs are clear and well organized. Simple function. tutor.arc - source code for MEX68KECB (68000/08/10) monitor with one-line assembler/disassembler, S-records & terminal, no docs - as above, improved version(?), binaries and source code in 68K assembler, no docs. For modified Alberta ECB computer. as68k.arc - source code in C of a 68000 assembler for the Amiga. Docs included. Look also for amigacc68k.lha and SOZOBON.* - 68020/68881/68851 assembler, with docs and source code, uses s-records, MS-Dos. A little more advanced than fbug68k.arc - A monitor program for m68000/08/10/20/30/40 processors in C source code. MC68881/882 (fpu) support and good docs. - MS-dos FORTH code to native 68k machine language. No docs

other than the source code. It is available via ftp from (Portugal) 68343ffp.arc - A collection of 68000/10 assembly language floating point routines. Docs are in the ascii listings. Need assembler. cc68k.arc - optimizing C cross compiler for MS-dos. Generates MC68000 code. Minimal docs, source code included. 040_fpsp - Floating Point software for the MC68040 unimplemented 68881/882 instructions. Located on the Motorola Free BBS and AESOP (as m68040FPSP). See below for phone numbers. x68000.arc - 68000 assembler (DDJ PP) for MS-Dos, no docs, source code. On the Motorola BBS, and tbi68k.lbr - Tiny Basic for 68000 ECB board, with source, Found on the Motorola BBS, and ] - GCC cross-assembler for MC68k to run on a MS-dos host. (about 1.8 mbyte) Not listed here are assemblers, cross-assemblers, C compilers, debuggers etc. for 68HC11 series, 68701, 68HC16, MC68332, MC68302, MC68360 and Digital Signal Processors (DSP). There is Macintosh software also. These files are all available on the Motorola BBS and most ftp sites. (see below) Two syntaxes exist for M68k assembler source code - the Motorola and the MIT versions. As an example, the Motorola syntax is move.l xxx and the MIT syntax is movel xxx. These types of differences must be resolved before the source code can be compiled. This problem seems to be found in GCC code and appears to result from the inability of MIT's computer system to handle a ".". Rolf Spalink's file mit2mot.tar.gz converts from one syntax to the other. FTP from ( or For sample source code on IDE drive, VGA, SIMM memory and ISA bus interfaces, try the Indiana University 68030 project listed below. For drivers in source code for communications such as HDLC, Lapd, Bisync, LocalTalk and others, from, get the file motorola_bbs_listing. This file is a listing of the Motorola BBS in Texas. Some files are mirrored on the ftp sites. See D) ftp sites below. DJGPP is a port of GCC to MS-DOS (386 or higher) which can be found via ftp on: /pub/msdos/djgpp /pub/msdos/djgpp or any SIMTEL mirror site. Both sources and binaries are available. Linux68K - Linux, a UNIX clone for 80386 and higher processors is now being ported to the Amiga, Atari and Macintosh machines. For information about Linux and the 68K port contact the www server in Germany: The source code and some compiled code is available via ftp from: A cross-gcc mailing list is being run by Gerd Truschinski ( that focuses on environments for 68K processors. It is specifically suitable for those who want to build a crossgcc compiler with GNU tools. To subscribe: send "subscribe crossgcc" (w/o "") to RTEMS (Real-Time Executive for Military Systems) is a real-time O/S with C and ADA implementations. It and documentation is available via ftp from and the WWW page is The contact person is Joel Sherrill ( in Alabama. B) Commercial Software Available --------------------------------There are many third party vendors of software for Motorola processors. A Motorola BBS - Aesop which is described below, contains a large listing of these vendors. The Motorola 68000 Developer program exists to provide marketing support for 68k developers. Interested developers can join by calling (800) 367-8363. Developers are listed in "68k Source" (BR729/D). For European sources get europe.gz at The firms listed below are representative examples: Introl Corporation Milwaukee, Wisconsin (414) 327-7171, FAX (414) 327-7734 email: Provides a range of cross development tools for 6801,3,4,5,9, 68HC11, 68HC16 and the 68000 family. Hosts include the IBM PC, Macintosh, RS/6000, VAX/VMS, Sun-4, Apollo, DecStation and HP 9000 series. Nohau Corporation Campbell, California (408) 866-1820, FAX (408) 378-7869 Provides in-circuit emulators for the 68300 and 68HC16 families. Microware Systems Corporation Des Moines, Iowa (515) 224-1929, FAX (515) 224-1352 Email: Provides the real-time operating system OS-9 to run on MC680x0 systems. Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Ltd. Ottawa, Ontario (613) 726-2111, FAX (613) 820 0377 John Mitchell ( Sell and rent emulators, debuggers, ROM Monitors and other development tools for various platforms (UNIX and PC). Mailing list available for developers for new products and seminars. H-P make surface mount to PGA adapters. C) Motorola BBS ---------------Motorola operates a free Bulletin Board System that contains documents and free software. There is a Fax-Back service. The file faxndx.txt contains the documents available for faxback. The numbers are: ================================================================== MOTOROLA FREE BBS SYSTEM There is NO cost for this. Austin, Texas (512) 891-3733

The V.32 9600 Baud modems are now on-line using MNP-5! Please connect at 8 Data bits, No Parity, 1 Stop Bit. ALSO:

Munich, Germany. Stuttgart, Germany San Diego, California Toronto, Ontario, Canada

49-89-92103-111. (14400 baud) 49-7031-275496 (19200 baud) (619) 279-3907 (416) 497-8989 (1200 baud)

The MSA BBS (Microcontroller Software Applications) is now running on the Austin BBS. It supports MASM which is a cross assembler for the 68HC05 and HC08/11/16 products. A demo version is available for free downloading. ========================================================================== "Design-NET" is a new Motorola electronic link to customers. A database, Email, OEM pricing, NEWS database, and more is available. Request BR1307 from the Literature Distribution Centre or a Motorola sales office. The Specs in Secs disk contains a Membership Request Form in the main menu. "Design-NET" also has a fax-back service for many Motorola documents at (602) 244-6609. A touch-tone phone (DTMF) is needed. This is an International service. An instruction fax is available from here. Documents to be faxed can now be ordered via Internet Email. Contact for a copy of the instructions or see the 68HC11 FAQ. ======================================================================== DSP BBS: (Digital Signal Processing) (included here for reference) Austin, Texas (512) 891-3773 ======================================================================== AESOP - (Applications Engineering Support through On-line Productivity) 1-800-843-3451 (USA and Canada) (512)-891-3650 (elsewhere) This BBS has lists of third party support that supply M68k cross-compilers, C and other language compilers, emulators and analyzers. These lists are extensive. Chip and document errata are found here as well as ordering information for user's manuals and general information. No 8 bit parts. AESOP has a series of FAQs on the 680x0, 68EC0x0, 683xx and the MC68681. These files are available via ftp as one file (aesopfaq) from or The User's Manuals for the MC68040 and MC68322 for Windows and the Macintosh are available for downloading from AESOP only. Please note the zmodem protocol does not operate correctly at this time. D) ftp Sites ------------Numerous sites exist around the world that contain software and information for Motorola products. This includes 8, 16 and 32 bit processors. See the section "Free Software Available" in this faq. Much of the information contained on the Motorola BBS in Texas is mirrored on the Internet. Here are three good sites: (Sweden) /pub/misc/motorola } for M68K items /pub/motorola } look under /m68k / }

If trouble is experienced with the Alberta site upon connection, try replacing "bode" with "ftp" or "wattson". A current listing of the files on the Austin BBS is available via ftp from the Alberta site as /pub/motorola/motorola_bbs_listing.

A descriptive listing of files on the ftp sites can be obtained from: as the file INDEX. From or get freeware.dir. These files, along with the "Specs in Secs" data disk, should be considered as companion documents to this FAQ. Motorola apparently plans to offer an Internet ftp site soon.(RSN)?? ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ 3) Hardware (board level) Sources =================================== A) Integrated Development Platform (IDP), MEVB, BCC, et al -----------------------------------------------------------A series of products by Motorola that consists of a motherboard and various plug-in modules for different CPUs and I/O modules. The motherboard connects to a terminal or host computer through a RS-232 serial port. This system provides a low cost evaluation platform for developing software and hardware for M68K family members. The Product Brief part is M68KIDP/D. M68EC000IDP M68EC020IDP M68EC030IDP M68EC040IDP $510 $595 $650 $750 M68EC000CPU M68EC020CPU M68EC030CPU M68EC040CPU $160 $245 $300 $400 (IDP numbers are mother and daughter boards, CPU are daughter boards only) (US dollars)

Sierra 68306 Development Board (with compiler and debugger) is US $249. Contact (512) 891-2592. for IDP and Sierra. The AMCU (Advanced MicroController Unit) supplies a board similar to the IDP that supports the MC68330 series parts. It is called the MEVB (Motorola Evaluation Board). It is a small (3" by 3") platform board with a processor on it. It supports all the parts that use the Inter-Module Bus (IMB) such as 68HC05, 68HC11, 68HC16 and 68331-334. Try BR711/D for info. Motorola also supplies the "Business Card Computer" (BCC). This is a standalone single board MC68340 computer. It is equipped with a monitor - 340bug which is also available on the Motorola BBS or the ftp sites. It is designed to interface between a RS-232 terminal and other boards such as the M68340 Platform Board. The Product Brief part number is BR753/D. ------------------------------------------------------------------------The Motorola Datacomm Unit manufacture a series of Application Development Systems: US$ M68302ADS M68360QUADS - MC68302 + DRAM, DUART, Eprom - $1995 - Master/Slave 68360 + DRAM, Eprom, Flash memory, Ethernet interface and LocalTalk interface. - $1995 m68360quads-040 - ('040/Slave 68360 + DRAM, Eprom, Flash memory, Ethernet interface and LocalTalk interface - $2995 These boards are available from any Motorola representative. -------------------------------------------------------------------------Motorola also made the ECB single board computer (MEX68KECB) that runs a MC68000 CPU with a wirewrap area for educational and development purposes. It uses the TUTOR monitor program which is a simple assembler and disassembler. They are no longer available but used units may exist. The TUTOR software is available (source code) from the Motorola BBS and ftp

sites and can be used on home brew computers with some modification. Arnewsh Inc, Colorado, (303) 223-1616 / FAX: (303) 223-9573 makes a board similar to the ECB with a 5.25" floppy disk interface. It sells for US$375 with a 25% discount to universities and students. Arnewsh also make single board computers using the 68302 ($495), 68306 ($375) and the 68EN360 ($975, $1475 with the optional MC68EC040). Applix in Australia never answered my letter - so deletion. Too bad. B) VMEbus modules ------------------VMEbus modules are state-of-the-art and are used to construct powerful computer systems. VMEbus boards have data bus sizes of 16, 32 or 64 bits. The VMEbus is an open system. VMEbus boards now contain processors such as DEC Alpha, MIPS, i960, various DSP chips, AM29000 (RISC chip), PowerPC and 80486 in addition to the Motorola 680x0 line. Many peripheral boards exist including VGA, telecom, analyzers, data acquisition, video processors and memory (1 gigabyte!). The VXIbus is an instrumentation bus roughly compatible with the VMEbus. VMEbus Systems Magazine 25875 Jefferson, St. Clair Shores, Michigan, 48081, (313) 774-8180 is free to qualified VMEbus systems users and specifiers and contains industry news, informative articles and useful advertisements. The VXIjournal (VXIbus and GPIB) is also available from this same source. A new magazine, Real Time Engineering, is also published by this organization. To get a subscription request form for any of these magazines, send Email to John Black, Editor ( ]John Black has edited a hard cover text that covers the VMEbus and VXIbus thoroughly. This is an easy to read book that covers the VMEbus and VXIbus specifications, graphics, disk interfaces, Ethernet, image processing and interfacing to external devices such as stepping motors...and much more. It is available from the publisher for US$150 (800-321-5068). Recommended. VITA, (VMEbus International Trade Association) 10229 North Scottsdale Rd, Suite B, Scottsdale, Arizona, 85253, (602) 951-8866 publishes the "VMEbus Handbook" $53 and the "VMEbus Specification" $32. The Handbook provides information for programmers, system integrators, engineers while the VMEbus Specification provides more "hardware level" information such as that needed for board design. These two books provide the information needed to understand the VMEbus system and are worth the moderate cost. VITA also publishes a Buyer's Guide for $55 (or $110 a year). A VXIbus Buyer's Guide $33 is available from Micrology pbt, Inc., 2618 S. Shannon Drive, Tempe, Arizona, 85282. (602) 966-5936. Back issues of VMEbus Systems Magazine are available from Micrology for $4 each. There are many manufacturers of VMEbus computer modules worldwide. Refer to comp.arch.bus.vmebus for more information. Many VMEbus CPU boards have a built-in monitor program similar to the TUTOR monitor and have a RS-232 port that can be hooked up to a terminal or a host computer. Programs can be entered with the simple assembler/disassembler and executed. Peripheral devices can be attached easily to these boards. These boards are often available used and the older ones with 68000/10 CPUs have a low cost(<$50). Newbridge Microsystems sell the VME64 (SCV64) controller chip which provides a 64 bit VMEbus interface from the local bus. This chip has a built-in DMA controller, VMEbus address decoder and local bus burst modes. It is a 299 pin PGA ($308CDN) or a 304 pin PQFP ($256CDN) package. Newbridge also make

PCI to VMEbus interface ("UNIVERSE")($US160 @ 1K) and Futurebus+ interface chips ("LIFE"). A new part, "TROOPER" is a low cost ($40 1995 @ 1K) slaveonly VMEbus interface chip. Available June 1995. The SCV64 and "TROOPER" are fabricated by Motorola. (800) 267-7231 (North America), (613) 592-0714 in Canada or (408) 258-3600 in California. Email addresses: for general inquiries or for technical support. A PMC (PCI Mezzanine Interface) is a proposed IEEE specification for a low profile mezzanine expansion bus for VMEbus, Multibus II and Futurebus+ systems. It has a 32 or 64 bit bus and has the same electrical specifications as the PCI bus (peripheral Interconnect Bus). A neat setup is a VMEbus board with an internal monitor program connected to an IBM PC with a RS-232 port using a common communication program and an assembler such as 68asmsim or as68k. (Telix works good - treat the VMEbus as a modem) A power supply from an IBM PC will power a VMEbus board.(+5,+-12 volt) A VMEbus FAQ is now under construction for comp.arch.bus.vmebus. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Here is information on the new Motorola PowerPC VMEbus cards. This is information extracted from the preliminary specifications sheet. Board Model MVME1600/PM603 MVME1600/PM604 ------------------------------------- CPU MPC603 @66 mhz MPC604 @100 mhz - SPECint92 (est) 55 140 - SPECfp92 (est) 65 145 - Power dissipation watts 14 24 (for MPU module only) ========================================================================== - 8,16,32, 64 or 128 mbyte shared memory with user expandable module cards - single 32 bit PMC Expansion slot (PCI Mezzanine Card) - local bus is 32 bit PCI - 8K x 8 NVRAM with clock (battery backup - removeable battery) - 4 serial ports - 2 async, 2 sync - four 16 bit timers and watchdog timer 16 bit SCSI-2 bus interface with 32 bit PCI Local Bus Burst DMA Ethernet Transceiver Interface - 10base-2 and 10base-T interfaces Super VGA 2 mb graphics port plus mouse and keyboard connections 8 bit bi-directional parallel port - Centronics compatible two 32 pin PLCC/CLCC sockets for flash or Eprom memory A32/D64VMEbus Master/Slave Interface with System Controller on-board Debugger and Diagnostic Firmware

The system consists of a MVME1600 Base Board (15 watts), a PM60x MPU/DRAM module, PCI Expansion card (7.5 W), add-on DRAM module (5 W) and the Transition Module (7.4 W). The Transition module has the serial, parallel and Ethernet ports on it and connects to the P2 connector on the Base Board with a 64 pin 50-mil cable. I don't know prices or availability dates, but it is guaranteed for 5 years. Sounds like quite a machine. Wish I had one. CETIA (414) 325-6170 makes a 50 or 66 mhz 601 VMEbus board. SPECint92 = 62 and SPECfp92 = 72 (@ 66 mhz)

8 to 256 MB DRAM, 3 async ports, 1 Centronics, Ethernet, SCSI-2 ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// C) Indiana University 68030 single board project -------------------------------------------------------The schematics (in Postscript), GERBER artwork for the PCBs, sources and images for the monitor and PAL programming and some documentation are available via ftp from /pub/goo/mc68030/. This board uses a floppy disk, IDE hard drive, VGA monitor, a ISA bus and SIMM memory chips. It uses the MINIX operating system (copyrighted), NetBSD and bootp code to run either a wd8003 or 3c501 Ethernet card. The contact person is Ingo Cyliax ( The Computer Science department is considering offering this board as a full or partial kit to the public because of interest generated on the Net. For more information or opinions regarding options, (ie board, board + proms, + all parts, assembled vs unassembled etc) please Email Ingo Cyliax. Ingo is also interested in opinions of the cost most people would expect to pay for such a project to help determine the features that can be included. Ingo is also working on some 68302 designs. He has a minimum mode (8 bit) 68302 design that can load S-records from a PC parallel port. The schematic is available in: He has added info about the '030 and 68302 board to his hyplan, the URL is: and will add data as he works on it. He also is working on uC3, which is a 16 bit mode 68302 with PC/104 interface and takes up to 8Mb of DRAM. D) Consumer computers and Workstations ---------------------------------------Computers that use the 68K series of processors are Atari, Amiga, Apple MacIntosh and some older Radio Shack models. Opportunities for experimentation may reside in some of these machines. Cross compilers, such as amigacc68k.lha, are available via ftp for the Amiga. There are older workstations that use M68K processors that may be available for low prices. The Sun 3/60 is very popular in the education field and the HP 9000 310 uses a 68010 and the 320 uses a 68020 CPU. The NeXT cube has a 68030 and the SGI Iris 3000 uses a 68020. The AT&T 3b1 computer uses a 68010, has a newsgroup on USENET and is a cheap way to get a SYS V UNIX. E) Integrated Circuits Prices ------------------------------Prices given are from Canadian sources in small quantities in Canadian dollars. Multiply CDN$ by approximately 0.75 to obtain US$ figures. All prices are for reference only and may (will) vary widely due to quantity ordered, marketing price setting, package and speed. MC68000P10 MC68EC000??8 MC68EC000FU10 MC68EC000??16 MC68HC000P10 14.52 12.67 19.69 24.13 21.14 MC68302FC16 MC68302RC16C MC68331CF16 MC68332CF16 118.09 242.03 60.32 71.88

MC68008P8 MC68010P10 MC68020FC16 MC68020FC33E MC68EC020FG16 MC68EC030FE25B XC68F333CFT16 MC68EN360 MC68360 MC68160 MC68705R3 MC68705U35 MC68B21 MC68B09 MC68B40 MC68B44 MC68185FN MC68195FN MC68230P8 MC68230P10 -BoardsHC11EVBU 68EBLP11KIT

8.48 57.00 72.37 152.55 51.71 109.05 242.92

MC68340FE16 MC68882RC33A MC68882FN33A MC68824FN12H

74.74 1135.29 <??> 146.55 139.02

60.00 (QFP)(10K) these prices Apr. 1994 50.00 (QFP)(10K) 10.00 5.95 21.95 3.75 7.75 5.50 10.00 19.85 12.49 9.68 13.56 MC68701S MC68701U4S1 MC146818P MC68488P 33.96 60.19 9.52 38.76

MC68440P8 MC68450R8 MC68605RC10 MC68606FN12B MC68681 MC68332BCC MC68701EVM

16.30 82.04 137.61 207.50 11.00 71.73 1028.41

140.00 285.00

-SonnetUS$ dollars - QTY and terms unknown 68040RC25 299.00 MC68882FN16 39.00 68040RC33 349.00 MC68882FN20 44.00 MC68881RC16A 99.00 MC68882FN25 46.00 MC68882RC25 49.00 MC68882FN33 49.00 MC68882RC33 59.00 MC68882FN40 99.00 MC68882RC40 75.00 MC68882RC50 95.00 +Boosters+ note these are genuine Motorola processors mounted on a circuit board that plugs into the CPU socket of a slower motherboard. MC68020 25 or 30 mhz runs in a slower bus 99.00 or 129.00 MC68030 33 mhz booster assembly 189.00 MC68EC030 33 mhz booster assembly 199.00 MC68LC040 40 mhz runs in a 20 mhz bus system 249.00 MC68040 40 mhz runs in a 20 mhz bus system 399.00 MC68040 50 mhz runs in a 20 mhz bus system 599.00 4) Construction Information ============================= I guess this is next, well, I am off to grad school year. 5) General Specifications =========================== A) Integrated Circuit Package Information ------------------------------------------DIP PGA PPGA Dual-in-line-Package Pin Grid Array (ceramic) Pin Grid Array (plastic) only 68000/08/10/12/68HC000 easy for hand construction "" ""


Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier Quad Flat Package (plastic) Ceramic Quad Flat Package Ball Grid Array

not generally soldered difficult to hand solder "" "" impossible to hand solder {??}

The DIP is the familiar package with the flexible pins at 0.10 inch spacing. This is the oldest package type used with the 68K family. The PGA (and PPGA) is a square package with rigid pins coming out the bottom. Usually socketed and the pins have a 0.10 inch spacing. The PLCC are meant to be in sockets soldered to a circuit board. They have a pin spacing of 0.050 inch. The package is square. The QFP and the CQFP are surface mount devices and are the latest package type used with the 68K family. The package is square with a pin spacing of a mere 0.025 inches making hand soldering difficult but not impossible. Generally, specialized soldering equipment is needed but many people solder with a sharp tipped iron. The pins are flexible but due to their short length cannot be bent very much. AMP (a plug and socket manufacturer) apparently manufacture sockets for these packages. 3M may be another source. The sockets have a 0.10 inch spacing for easier construction. The pins on a BGA package are solder-balls that are melted with special equipment to create the connection to the circuit board. The MC68356 which is a combination 68302 and DSP56002 uses this package. Advantages are very low profile and high pin count capacity. The BGA is also known as the OMPAC - Overmoulded Padded Array Carrier. Extremely nasty to hand solder. B) Pin-outs ------------"What is the pin for ...." is a frequently-asked-question. The question is often asked for older processors such as 6800 and 68000. This information is becoming available on the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and elsewhere. One place to try is ( Click on the Motorola symbol under "hardware". This site is in German, English and others. This web is still under construction. Oxford University has some CPU pinouts and instruction set information available. The list is not up to date. To contribute contact The information is available from: or by ftp from: This FAQ is available on the World Wide Web at Looks nice. C) S-Records -------------S-Records are Ascii characters in a protocol developed by Motorola and is used to transfer data and program code to and from host computers or to store such information. Details of this protocol have been archived as at and also at as s_record.gz. D) CPU Clocks and Double-Clocking ----------------------------------CPU clock speeds are used by consumers to compare the performance of different microprocessors. This is the classic case of comparing apples and oranges in almost all cases. Clock speeds can only be used for comparison with the same processor and then with care.

For example, a 1 Mhz MC6800 processor runs at the same bus speed as a 4 Mhz MC6802: the 6802 has a divide-by-4 circuit so less expensive 4 Mhz crystals can be used. This is also a cheap way to make a CPU seem more powerful but runs the risk of marketing "numbers games". It is better to compare CPUs with test programs that return comparison values such as "millions of instructions per second (MIPS) or Dhrystones. Even then, one must be very careful using such comparisons - see Cray under "F) Speed Comparisons". Motorola clock frequencies should not be directly compared with other manufacturer's frequencies. The effective speed of a processor depends not only on clock speeds but also on computer bus speed (ie memory speed), CPU registers, internal features (such as caches), FPU units, external features such as external caches and data bus width and the software used. An instruction and/or data cache usually dramatically improves system speed. A 25 Mhz part is not necessarily twice the speed of a 12.5 Mhz part since system speed also depends on the external resources the CPU is connected to. The issue of "clock-doubling" with Apple products and the 68040 is a question often asked on the net. Apple (and others) advertises some of its notebook computers with "33/66 or 25/50" Mhz speed designations. This has been referred to as "clock doubling". The '040 has two clock inputs - PCLK and BCLK. PCLK runs at twice the frequency of BCLK. BCLK (1/2 PCLK) runs at the frequency of the part and is used to derive all bus signal timing. PCLK (2x BCLK) is used for internal logic timing. PCLK is not present on the 3.3 volt parts (MC68040V and 68EC040V). The 68020/030/060 do not have this feature but the 68360 does. Use BCLK as the part's true speed. This is not the same as Intel's "clock doubling" on the 486 Overdrive chip. "Overclocking" refers to increasing a CPU's clock frequency beyond the part's specification for higher performance (also called clock-chipping). Sonnet's "clock doubling" or "booster" chips (for Macs) interface a slower system bus to a higher speed processor that has internal fast caches. 6) Literature =============== Motorola publishes a plethora of literature ranging from product brochures and data sheets to detailed technical application notes (AN). The "Specs in Secs" data disk has a listing with descriptions of various documents. Application Notes are examples of applications of all Motorola products. An example is "AN1310 - Using the MC68332 Microcontroller for AC Induction Motor Control". Schematics, drawings and short program code are often included in these informative and usually easy to read notes. Article Reprints are reprints of articles from various publications that are of interest to users of Motorola products. An example is "AR217 - The Motorola MC68020. Articles are on the technical side yet easy to read. Brochures are usually short yet comprehensive outlines of Motorola products. An example is "BR176/D - M68000 Family Brochure." Selection Guides give information needed to choose among family members. The "Master Selection Guide (SG73/D) lists all Motorola products. M680x0 series and the MC68300 series are in SG167/D and SG166/D respectively. Engineering Bulletins are similar to application notes. An example is "EB111 - The Application of a Duplexer". Design Concepts are similar and are also listed in the "Specs in Secs" disk.

Data sheets are available in various stages of completion as the products mature. They are Product Briefs, Technical Summary, Advanced Information and regular. The Advanced Information is how most data sheets are made available. Data sheets part numbers contain the device part number followed (usually) by a /D. Examples are MC68360/D and MC68331TS/D. (TS means "technical summary"). Data sheet books have a suffix of DL and often have application notes in addition to specific data sheets for a family of parts. A listing is in the "Specs in Secs" data disk. User's Manuals contain just about everything you need to know about a device (except price and availability and instruction set details). The part number is the device number with a suffix of UM/AD. Examples are MC68606UM/AD, MC68030UM/AD and MC68360UM/AD. The 68360UM is 3.5 cm thick. Programmer's Manuals contain instruction set details such as mnemonics and data and addressing details. Most User's Manuals contain an overview of the instructions. Examples are M68000PM/AD (get this book) and CPU32RM/AD. Many third party textbooks contain information about this material too. Some more useful documents in addition to those listed above are: BR135/D - "Applications & Products Literature Selector Guide etc" - A list of available application notes (AN), BR, AR, EB etc documents referenced by chip part number and product category for all Motorola products. In Europe order as SG410/D. BR101/D - "Technical Literature and Information Guide" This lists (with short descriptions and prices) data books (DL), Selector Guides and Applications Literature, User's Manuals and textbooks. European edition - BR464/D. FR68K/D - "M68000 Family Reference", a book that contains data sheets for most of the current 68K family. May be M68000FR/AD. MPC601UM/AD - PowerPc 601 RISC Processor User's Manual. BR1133/D - High-Performance Product Portfolio Overview (HIPPO) - a quarterly overview of 16 and 32 bit microprocessors. Too large to fax (61 pages). SG421/D in Europe. DL409/D - collection of Application Notes, Article Reprints etc. ($14.85) DL408/D - as DL409/D but for 8-bit MCU parts. ($14.85) The file "" available from: contains a list of most Motorola data literature. This file is getting old though...the $100 subscription mentioned in the embedded file UPDATE_S is no longer available. A) "Specs in Secs" -------------------The Motorola "Specs in Secs" data disc contains the addresses for Motorola sales offices and distributors around the world besides product selection. A listing of various Application Notes and other publications is included. This disc is available from the Motorola BBS, and The file name for the latest version (6) is spec6.arc or This file is about 340k and is worth downloading. B) "UPDATE" ------------For general technical information (voice) try 1-800-521-6274 (USA and Canada). For information concerning literature or ordering "UPDATE" (BR128) which is a brochure outlining recent product releases and new publications and data sheets, call 1-800-441-2447 (USA) or (602)-994-6561. C) "The 68K Connection"

------------------------The newsletter "The 68KC Connection" is available by mailing or faxing your name, address and company name to: The 68K Connection Motorola, MD OE310 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735-2943 FAX = (512) 891-2943

This newsletter contains general news and information concerning 68K family members and their implementation in various products. D) Master Selection Guide --------------------------A free book that lists all products manufactured by Motorola. Distributors should be able to provide a copy. Published periodically. Part # SG73/D. E) Motorola Addresses ----------------------For lists of Motorola Field Offices and Literature centres around the world, consult the "Specs in Secs" file or under the /marketing directory in the ftp sites mentioned above. F) Literature Distribution Centres -----------------------------------USA: Motorola Literature Distribution P.O. Box 20912 Phoenix, Arizona 85036 Europe: Motorola Ltd. European Literature Center 88 Tanners Drive Blakelands, Milton Keynes MK14 5BP, England

(800) 441-2447

+44 908 614614

Asia-Pacific: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd. Silicon Harbour Center No. 2 Dai King Street Tai Po Industrial Estate Tai Po, N.T. Hong Kong Japan: Nippon Motorola Ltd. 4-32-1 Nishi-Gotanda Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 141, Japan

G) Training and Instructional Books ------------------------------------Motorola runs technical seminars on various processor families. BR348AD/D (if available) outlines these programs. (602) 897-3665 (Phoenix, Arizona) There are many books available about Motorola processors. Check public libraries and universities (especially ones with Computer Science or Engineering faculties) for suitable texts in the QA76 area. Larger book stores often have some titles - look also under Macintosh computers. See the file described above under 6) Literature. (dated material) The Motorola Literature Distribution Center has the following text books

listed in BR135 with prices presumably correct, in US $ and plus shipping. TB303/D TB320/D Using Microprocessors and Microcomputers: The Mot. Family.$49.80 The M68000 Family, Vol 1. Architecture, Addressing Modes and Instruction Set. $36.25 TB322/D Vol 2. Applications and the M68K devices. $37.15 TB323/D The 68000 Book (Southern, 1990) $19.50 TB325/D The MC68332 Microcontroller. $46.75 TPURM/AD MC68300 Family Time Processor Unit (TPU) Reference Manual. $1.90 H) University Support: -----------------------Motorola has two centres that provide support for university programs that feature Motorola products. These centres are geared towards providing assistance to professors but will help students. The Phoenix center focuses on discrete and logic devices while the Austin location handles microprocessors and D.S.P. products. Both locations are able to assist in each other's product areas. These centres can help provide literature, devices, training and equipment at low or no cost on a discretionary basis to qualified individuals or institutions. Motorola University Support 505 Barton Springs Road Suite 100 Austin, Texas 78704 phone (512) 505-8836 fax (512) 505-8883 I) Trade Journals and Magazines --------------------------------Electronic News This publication has a newspaper format and is published weekly. It contains marketing information about the microprocessor chip industry. Timely announcements from manufacturers. Very good quality. USA - $69/year, Canada $159/year. Motorola Semiconductor Products Division University Support Mail Drop 56-106 P.O. Box 52073 Phoenix, Arizona 85072 phone (602) 952-3857 fax (602) 952-3621

International Publications Corp 302 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10001 Computer Select A CD-ROM that has numerous trade magazines in full text. This CD-ROM is easily searched by topic.

See VMEbus Systems magazine above under B) VMEbus for magazines about the VMEbus, VXIbus and Real-Time Systems Engineering. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ comments and corrections to Thanks to all those who have helped me with this document. Greg Hawley Jeff Loeliger Mike Coughlin John Hauser Frank Sautter Wisconsin Scotland Massachusets California Deutschland Ingo Cyliax Ben Stuyts Graham Wood Frans Meulenbroeks John Rummel Indiana The Netherlands Great Britain The Netherlands Canada

Heiko Krupp Paul Nelson Joel Sumner Gerry Belanger

Deutschland Texas Texas Connecticut

Toni Zollikofer Robert Federle Randy Sutherland John Vickers

Deutschland Deutschland Ontario, Canada England

Thanks to Kees den Hartigh (Alberta) and Olof Johansson (Sweden) for sparing a few K on their hard drives for me. .....and all the posters on comp.sys.m68k and comp.arch.bus.vmebus .....and all those who I forgot to mention. <apologies> .....and the very busy volunteers at This FAQ would be a mess w/o all their i/p. Special thanks to George Bucek for letting me rummage through his library. Of course, thanks to all those at Motorola who have always helped me with procuring information and for being so friendly on the phone. Robert Boys Guelph, Ontario CANADA